WorldWideScience

Sample records for age children group

  1. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent;

    2013-01-01

    participating centres in the PCNL Global Study, as categorised in different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2009, and included 96 centres and >5800 patients. •  All children aged ≤14 years...... in the PCNL Global Study database were the focus of the study. RESULTS: •  In all, 107 children aged ≤14 years were included in the analysis. •  The PCNL procedure was conducted in 13 patients (12.1%) in the supine position; tubeless PCNL was performed in 15 patients (14%); and balloon dilatation was......Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Without age being a limiting risk factor, recent reports have shown that almost any version of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) can be safely applied in children. As there has been no...

  2. Quality Care through Multi-Age Grouping of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Leo

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that multi-age grouping in early childhood settings can and does work. Addresses four main hurdles to successful implementation: (1) laws and regulations that act as barriers; (2) health concerns; (3) overcoming educational values that conflict with those of the age-grouped classroom; and (4) staff misunderstanding of multi-age grouping…

  3. Visual acuity and refraction by age for children of three different ethnic groups in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Janine Carter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.

  4. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  5. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus. PMID:9780752

  6. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection in different age groups of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Singh Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hepatitis A is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the pediatric age group and the most common cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF among children in India. Hepatitis A is a waterborne disease. High endemicity obviates the need for vaccine in the community. Aims: We studied 116 children in the outpatient department (OPD to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV, total antibodies, and the effect of various demographic and water sanitation variables on it. Settings and Design: Children attending the pediatric OPD with minor problems in a medical college hospital were chosen for this study. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and seroepidemiologic investigative study. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of randomly selected children were collected and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test was done for the detection of total anti-HAV antibodies, [both immunoglobulin M (IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG], using a commercially available ELISA kit. "Dia.Pro" (Diagnostic Bioprobes srl via Columella n° 31 20128 Millano, Italy. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-square test using Epi Info software 3.5.4 version (2012 [Center for disease control and prevention (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia (USA]. Results: Seroprevalence in children from the upper social class was 54.5% versus 87.2% in the lower social class (P = 0.00075. 90.9% of the children with rural background were seropositive compared to 77.1% of children with urban background. The mother′s education above and below secondary level had a seropositivity for HAV in children up to 69.23% and 87.1%, respectively. The method of water treatment using boiled water, mechanical filtration, filtration plus ultraviolet (UV light treatment, and no treatment had a seropositivity of 50.0%, 83.33%, 37.5%, and 84%, respectively, (P = 0.0036. Seropositivity was the highest when the water source was municipal bore well pipeline (88

  7. Importance of Introducing Simple Drama Games to Kindergarten Children of the First Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šinko Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of introducing simple drama games to kindergarten children of the first age group. Based on the knowledge and experience of experts from countries where such games are played and used in kindergartens on a daily basis, we can clearly talk about a positive impact they have on child's cognitive, emotional, social, and motor development. As examples of good practice, we showcase the findings of theses by students of Preschool Education at the Faculty of Education in Maribor.

  8. A POPULATION BASED STUDY OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN CHILDREN AMONG AGE GROUP OF 7-15 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanya; Pandu; Sujatha; Pallavi; Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Refractive error is the most common cause of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Very early detection and treatment of visual impairment in children results in a reduction in the number of school children with poor sight being uncorrected. AIM To study the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children of 7-15 years of age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 958 children of a...

  9. Pulmonary valve balloon valvuloplasty compared across three age groups of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Shamsi Ghaffari,1 Mohammed Reza Ghaffari,2 Ali Reza Ghaffari,3 Somaie Sagafy11Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, 2Department of Tuberculosis and Lung Research, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of treating pulmonary stenosis with percutaneous valvuloplasty, and to compare them among three childhood age groups. All children under 15 years of age who had undergone pulmonary valve balloon valvuloplasty in Madani Heart Center from 2005–2009 were enrolled in this study. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL. Mean (± standard deviation age of patients was 55.5 ± 47.4 months. Two-thirds of the subjects had moderate pulmonary valve stenosis. Balloon valvuloplasty failed in nearly one-fifth of the treated patients. There were 17 failures and two cases of mortality, descriptively less frequent among children >5 years; however, the observed difference was not statistically significant. Mild pulmonary valve insufficiency was a common finding.Keywords: childhood cardiology, pulmonary stenosis, percutaneous valvuloplasty

  10. Injury Rates in Shotokan Karate in Children and Adolescent Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Lashgari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to determine the injury rate in Iranian Shotokan karate championships in children and adolescent age groups. All of the injuries were recorded in national competition in 2004. Details of ages, weight, year of karate experience and kind and location of injuries were obtained. Thirty injuries were recorded in this competition. The overall rate of injury was 0.25 per bout and 0.29 per competitor. Fourteen (43.7% injuries were to the limbs, 31.3% to the head and neck and 25% to the trunk. Only four competitors were unable to continue fighting as a result of their injuries, one of them due to fracture.

  11. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonacha K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  12. Pulmonary Functions in Normal School Children in the Age Group of 6-15 Years in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhooria, Gurdeep S.; Puneet A. Pooni; Daljit Singh; Sandeep Budhiraja

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Lung function tests have become an integral part of assessment of pulmonary disease. As few studies on pulmonary function tests have been carried out in young children in India, the study was carried out in normal urban and rural school children in Ludhiana district of North India to determine pulmonary functions in the age group 6-15 years and to find its correlation with regards to age, sex, height and weight. Methods:The study group included 600 normal children between 6-15 years...

  13. Dental Age Assessment: Validity of the Nolla Method in a Group of Western Turkish Children

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUNSOY, Mustafa; Nur, Bilge Gulsum; AKKEMİK, Ozlem; Ok, Evren; EVCİL, Mehmet Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Nollamethod for dental age estimation in western Turkish children. Thisstudy consisted of 688 orthopantomograms of patients of westernTurkish children aged between 7 and 17 years. Dental maturity wasevaluated according to the stages proposed by Nolla. A pairedt-test was used for statistical analysis. The mean difference betweenthe chronological and dental ages ranged from -1 to 0.13 years formales and from -1.15 to 0.25 years for femal...

  14. Cobalamin and folate deficiencies among children in the age group of 12-59 months in India

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh Kapil; GS Toteja; Ajeet Singh Bhadoria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a major public health problem among children under 5 years of age in India. Cobalamin and folate deficiencies play an important role in the etiology of anemia. This study was done to assess the prevalence of cobalamin and folate deficiencies among children in the age group of 12-59 months. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 470 children were included. Non-fasting venous blood samples were collected from each child for the estima...

  15. A POPULATION BASED STUDY OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN CHILDREN AMONG AGE GROUP OF 7-15 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Refractive error is the most common cause of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Very early detection and treatment of visual impairment in children results in a reduction in the number of school children with poor sight being uncorrected. AIM To study the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children of 7-15 years of age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 958 children of age group 7-15 years were examined during a time period of 1 year from June 2014 to May 2015. The examination included visual acuity, slit lamp examination, auto refractometer, keratometry, A-Scan Biometry and fundoscopic examination. Patients were then taken to assess the refractive error under the cycloplegic effect of 1% homatropine by streak retinoscopy. Hyperopia was defined as spherical power of >+2.00 D, Myopia as -0.50 D. RESULTS Visual impairment (VA of 6/12 or worse in better eye was present in 8.14% of the children examined. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism was 4.70%, 1.24%, 2.2% respectively, Myopia was commonly seen in older age group children. CONCLUSION Refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment in children between 7-15 years. Myopia was the most common refractive error particularly in older children. Uncorrected refractive errors among children have a considerable impact on learning and their academic achievement. Diagnosis and correction of refractive error is the most effective form of eye care. As it is an easily treatable cause of visual impairment, effective strategies should be developed to eliminate refractive error in children.

  16. Pulmonary Functions in Normal School Children in the Age Group of 6-15 Years in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep S. Dhooria

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Lung function tests have become an integral part of assessment of pulmonary disease. As few studies on pulmonary function tests have been carried out in young children in India, the study was carried out in normal urban and rural school children in Ludhiana district of North India to determine pulmonary functions in the age group 6-15 years and to find its correlation with regards to age, sex, height and weight. Methods:The study group included 600 normal children between 6-15 years age from different urban and rural schools in the region. A preformed questionnaire was interviewed and detailed general physical and systemic examination was done. Pulmonary function tests were measured by using Micromedical Gold standard fully computerized portable auto spirometer (Superspiro Cat No. SU 6000. Findings:The present study shows, all the three independent variables (age, weight and height have linear positive correlation with lung function parameters, both for boys and girls. Lung function values in boys were significantly higher as compared to that of girls. Urban children had higher lung function parameters than rural children except IRV, FEF25%. Among all anthropometric parameters, height was the most independent variable with maximum coefficient of correlation. Conclusion:Equations derived from the present study for estimation of the expected values of lung function will help to interpret the observed lung function values in children of North India.

  17. Pulmonary Functions in Normal School Children in the Age Group of 6-15 Years in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Budhiraja

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Lung function tests have become an integral part of assessment of pulmonary disease. As few studies on pulmonary function tests have been carried out in young children in India, the study was carried out in normal urban and rural school children in Ludhiana district of North India to determine pulmonary functions in the age group 6-15 years and to find its correlation with regards to age, sex, height and weight.Methods:The study group included 600 normal children between 6-15 years age from different urban and rural schools in the region. A preformed questionnaire was interviewed and detailed general physical and systemic examination was done. Pulmonary function tests were measured by using Micromedical Gold standard fully computerized portable auto spirometer (Superspiro Cat No. SU 6000.Findings:The present study shows, all the three independent variables (age, weight and height have linear positive correlation with lung function parameters, both for boys and girls. Lung function values in boys were significantly higher as compared to that of girls. Urban children had higher lung function parameters than rural children except IRV, FEF25%. Among all anthropometric parameters, height was the most independent variable with maximum coefficient of correlation.Conclusion:Equations derived from the present study for estimation of the expected values of lung function will help to interpret the observed lung function values in children of North India.

  18. Impact of Hearing Loss on Daily Life Style and Schooling among Children between 5 and 15 Years Age-Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiteshree C Patel, Mohua Moitra, Anjali Modi, Jaymin Contractor, S L Kantharia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Hearing”- one of the five special senses with which a human is gifted. At times, due to variety of reasons, this sense is impaired. Hearing impairment of any degree has a profound effect on children. It delays development of speech, slows educational progress and leads to being stigmatized. Objectives: To document the impact of hearing loss in daily life style and schooling of children between 5 and 15 years age-group. Materials & methods: This was cross- sectional study done in Children between 5 and 15 years age-group with hearing loss, coming to an ENT OPD, New Civil Hospital, Surat during the period of 1st August 2011 to 31 July 2012. Results: A total of 246 children were studied. Mean age of the study population was 9±3.46 years. Most common impactin life of children with hearing loss was that “they were not admitted to school by their parents” (31.3%. Among them, 84.4% had congenital deafness and 15.6% had acquired deafness. This difference was statistically significant. (p= 0.002, x2= 8.63. As per parents’ perception, academic performance of the children was significantly associated with type of school (normal Vs deaf & mute school” (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Most common impact was that “children being not admitted to school” and “children were lagging behind in studies”. Among the congenitally deaf children, the quality of life was significantly better in those who attended these special schools (p<0.001.

  19. Determining the prevalence of obesity in the 6-11 age group active and sedentary children

    OpenAIRE

    Yücesir, İlker; Bektaş, İlknur

    2015-01-01

    AbstractOperating one of the four primary schools in the state, including three special, 6-11 girls between the ages of moving or still being carried out to determine the effect of high-frequency weightedand obese. Mean age =8.29±1.50, which research was con­ducted on 596 girls. Children’s height and weight were measured in this study, body mass index was calculated by comparing the values inage-appropriateper centile values, low, normal, high weighted and obese children were determined. Pare...

  20. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  1. Acute Respiratory Infections among Under-Five Age Group Children at Urban Slums of Gulbarga City: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattankar, Jayashree; Puttahonnappa, Suresh Kuralayanapalya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. Aim To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode. Respiratory rate >60/minute (50(2-11 months) and >40(1-5 years) in a child with cough, cold or fever singly or in combination was considered the criteria for recognition of pneumonia. Results Out of the 400 surveyed, ARI was detected among 109 children giving an incidence of 27.25%. Among these, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) was found among 19.25% and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) among 8%. ARI was observed among 38.04% of infants, 37.84% of 2-3-year-old children, 36.87% of boys, 40.43% of children born to illiterate father’s, 35.77% of SES class IV & 40.79% of SES class V, and 41.89% of children with family history of respiratory illness. All these data were found to be statistically significant. High rates of ARI were also observed among 41.36% of children living in households with firewood fuel usage, 35.04% of children with pets in the household, 34.82% of children with delayed milestones, 53.85% of children with grade IV and 66.67% of children with grade V malnutrition. More episodes occurred during winter months of the year (Oct – Jan). During the follow-up phase of study done on a cohort of 112 children for a period of one year, an attack rate of 3.27 episodes/child/year was observed. Conclusion Community education programs should focus on addressing specific issues viz. identification of respiratory illness, simple case management

  2. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDREN IN THE AGE GROUP 6 MONTHS TO 60 MONTHS WITH LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Infections of the respiratory tract are perhaps the most common human ailments. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI has quite a high morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries 1 ARI is responsible for about 30 - 50 percent of visits to health facilities and for about 20 - 40 percent of hospital admissions. Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in children worldwide. Because mortality due to pneumonia in developing countries is attributable mainly to bacterial etiology , IM NCI strategy recommends the use of antibiotics when a child presented with tachypnea as defined previously . AIMS : To re - define or refine tachypnea as a specific indicator of bacterial pneumonia. To identify other clinical predictors for identifying bacteri al pneumonia. DESIGNS : The study was designed to be done in two phases . In the first phase it is to be carried out as a descriptive study of children presenting with fever and respiratory distress in the OPD to identify the specific markers for bacterial p neumonia. In the second phase presenting clinical features in children with radiological pneumonia will be analysed to validate the findings from Phase I. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This was a hospital based study and was conducted in Sri Manakula V inayagar Me dical College and Hospital , Puducherry . The study included 100 Children in the age group 6 months to 5 years presenting in the out patients department with fever and respiratory distress Children attending the out - patient department on a fixed day of the w eek (Monday and who come under this study population during the study period were admitted and recruited in the study and informed verbal consent for participation was taken from the parents. Their clinical profiles were recorded as in phase I. All childr en coming under this study population were given antibiotics and supportive treatment. The cases were monitored for any worsening or improvement every 6 th hourly on day 1 and

  3. Consumption of fruits and vegetables in a group of valencian children of school age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Tamarit,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last 25 years there has beena great change in the food habits in Spain.Objectives: To calculate and assess the consumption of fruits and vegetables in school children. To identify the type of desserts eaten and analyze the influence children have on the purchase of fruit andvegetables made by parents.Materials and methods: A survey was carried out on parents of primary school children. A total of 155 questionnaires were handed into the school, obtaining a sample of 116 completed questionnaires. Results: Only 5.17% eat 3 or more portions of fruit per day. Regarding vegetables, 30.17% consume 1 or 2 portions. 18.97% have fruit as a dessert. 25% of the parents purchase fruit most days as a result of the children request and 12.93% purchase vegetables.Discussion: Children do not consume enough fruit and vegetables. Children have an influence on fruit and vegetable purchases. Conclusions: The majority of the studied children do not follow the dietary recommendations regarding consumption of fruit and vegetables. Consumption of fruit for dessert is low. Children have a bigger influence on fruit purchases than in vegetables purchases.

  4. Peculiarities psychological and educational work on the adaptation of children the senior preschool age with serious speech defects to the conditions groups the compensating preschool of combined type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchilova Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the features of adaptation senior preschool age children severe speech impairment to the conditions of the compensation groups preschool of combined type. The directions, methods, form of psychological and pedagogical work on its optimization

  5. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  6. Pattern of injury mortality by age-group in children aged 0–14 years in Scotland, 2002–2006, and its implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone David H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of injuries in children is essential for the planning, implementation and evaluation of preventive measures but recent epidemiological information on injuries in children both in general and by age-group in Scotland is scarce. This study examines the recent pattern of childhood mortality from injury by age-group in Scotland and considers its implications for prevention. Methods Routine mortality data for the period 2002–2006 were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland and were analysed in terms of number of deaths, mean annual mortality rates per 100,000 population, leading causes of death, and causes of injury death. Mid-year population estimates were used as the denominator. Chi-square tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results 186 children aged 0–14 died from an injury in Scotland during 2002–06 (MR 4.3 per 100,000. Injuries were the leading cause of death in 1–14, 5–9 and 10–14 year-olds (causing 25%, 29% and 32% of all deaths respectively. The leading individual causes of injury death (0–14 years were pedestrian and non-pedestrian road-traffic injuries and assault/homicide but there was variation by age-group. Assault/homicide, fire and suffocation caused most injury deaths in young children; road-traffic injuries in older ones. Collectively, intentional injuries were a bigger threat to the lives of under-15s than any single cause of unintentional injury. The mortality rate from assault/homicide was highest in infants ( Conclusion Injuries continue to be a leading cause of death in childhood in Scotland. Variation in causes of injury death by age-group is important when targeting preventive efforts. In particular, the threats of assault/homicide in infants, fire in 1–4 year-olds, pedestrian injury in 5–14 year-olds, and suicide in 10–14 year-olds need urgent consideration for preventive action.

  7. AGE ASSESSMENT USING NOLLA’S METHOD IN A GROUP OF MANGALORE POPULATION: A STUDY ON 25 CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Deepthy

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The age estimation method introduced by Nolla in 1960 comes under age determination during the first two decades of life. Present study is conducted to assess age of children by using Nolla's method and also to estimate the efficacy of Nolla's method of age assessment in Mangalorean Population.Materials and method: The present study was conducted on 25 selected subjects (15 males and 10 females) ranging from 3-16 years from Mangalore. Dental age assessment was done using Panoramic radiog...

  8. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Muppa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient′s feelings toward noise in the dental clinic and its possible link to dental anxiety. Two-hundred and fifty children and adolescents of age group 6-15 years participated in the study. Results of the study showed that 50% of females, 29% males avoided a visit to the dentist because of anxiety and fear, 38% subjects of age group 6-11 years reported that sound of the drill makes them uncomfortable, followed by having to wait in the reception area. Gender gap was also observed with more females feeling annoyed than males on the 1-10 annoyance level scale. More than 60% felt "annoyed" to "extremely annoyed" by noise in the dental clinic. 45% of subjects preferred watching television to cope with such noise. This study concludes that the noise produced in dental clinic is anxiety provoking and significantly contributes to avoidance of dental treatment and the best way opted by the majority of subjects to overcome this anxiety was audiovisual distraction method.

  9. DETERMINATION OF LIFE QUALITY OF HEALTHY CHILDREN AT THE AGE GROUP OF 4-7 YEARS ACCORDING TO THEIR PARENTS’ VIEWS

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Bekir; Hande Şahin; Remzi Aydın

    2013-01-01

    Thus this study aims to investigate life quality of healthy children at the age group of 4-7 years who received/still receive pre-school education according to their parents’ views by means of general life quality criteria. This is a descriptive research. The study group included parents of 78 healthy children between the ages of 4-7 years who received or still receive pre-school education. “KINDL”4-7 Age Family Form was used to collect data as parents would assess life quality of their child...

  10. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  11. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index Among Different Age Groups of School Children: A Case–Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, BV; Reginald, BA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with dental caries, while correlating it to different age groups. Aim: The study aimed to quantify oral Candida in school children and correlate candidal carriage to the caries index and furthe...

  12. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided...

  13. DETERMINATION OF LIFE QUALITY OF HEALTHY CHILDREN AT THE AGE GROUP OF 4-7 YEARS ACCORDING TO THEIR PARENTS’ VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Beker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thus this study aims to investigate life quality of healthy children at the age group of 4-7 years who received/still receive pre-school education according to their parents’ views by means of general life quality criteria. This is a descriptive research. The study group included parents of 78 healthy children between the ages of 4-7 years who received or still receive pre-school education. “KINDL”4-7 Age Family Form was used to collect data as parents would assess life quality of their children indirectly. SPSS 15.0 package program was used to analyze the data. Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis H Test were used to determine whether there is a difference between scale scores related to socio-demographic features. According to parents’ views, the factors on which children have highest life quality are “family” (  =83.21, “kindergarten” (  =82.82, “emotional well-being” (  =81.99, “social relationships” (  =81.67, respectively. The lowest factors are “self-esteem” (  =75.00 and “physical well-being” (  =69.94, respectively. Total score average of KINDL is (  = 79.10. Parents’ views about life quality of their children (general scale scores do not statistically significantly differ by gender and age of children and children number in family (p>0.05. Results which obtained from the research is important in the sense tahat to show what is the level of healty children wcich taken pre-scholl education and continue to take. And what they are affected. And then in the sense that to the effect of reducing in the problems of life quality which will be lived at next time.

  14. How Do Children Share Information in Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; Leman, Patrick J.; Hollins, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    Group decision making should be particularly beneficial when group members share unique information, because then a group can make a better decision than each group member alone. This study examined how elementary-school children share unique information during group decision making. Seventy-nine groups of 3 same-sex and same-age 7- and 9-year-old…

  15. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index Among Different Age Groups of School Children: A Case–Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, BV; Reginald, BA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with dental caries, while correlating it to different age groups. Aim: The study aimed to quantify oral Candida in school children and correlate candidal carriage to the caries index and further analyze an age association. Subjects and Methods: Decayed-Filled teeth/Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (dft/DMFT) index scores of 150 subjects were evaluated, and concentrated oral rinse samples were collected from each participant for mycologic investigation. Based on the age and caries activity, the participants were categorized into three groups consisting of 50 each such as Group-I (caries active participants of 6–12 years age), Group-II (caries active participants in 13–18 years age), and Group-III (caries-free participants in 6–18 years age); CHROMagar™ was used as a primary culture medium for candidal growth. The data was statistically analyzed using Unpaired t-test, Chi-square test and Spearman's rank order. Results: The results demonstrated that as age increases, the dft/DMFT scores as well as the candidal growth decreased. In addition, the oral candidal carriage levels were found to be low in caries-free group (Group-III) when compared to the study groups. Conclusion: The presence of Candida was directly related to the caries status and inversely proportional to the age. PMID:27213089

  16. Children in an ageing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D M

    1999-11-20

    This paper explores the implications of demographic aging for children and pediatric practice in the Western society. It focuses on the social class differences in childbearing patterns, specific issues related to disability, and distribution of resources between age groups. Women in the Western world are now having children at an older age than at any time in the past 50 years. Voluntary childlessness or deliberate delay in childbearing is common among highly educated women. This changing pattern in childbearing may increase and polarize health and wealth inequalities. With advancements in neonatal and pediatric care which prolong life expectancy and survival of disabled children, it is projected that there will be an increasing number of very old parents caring for severely disabled offspring. Meanwhile, there are also many children who are carrying considerable burdens of caring for their disabled parents. The community burden of disability will continue to rise. The needs of the elderly population may drain resources from child health services. Despite this demographic pattern, care for the children is still important. Health care authorities must not become contented with the existing pediatric care services just because demographic changes require that the nation should invest more in care of the older population. PMID:10567149

  17. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim; Sk Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed u...

  18. A STUDY OF DERMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN RELATION TO PERSONAL HYGIENE AND NUTRITIONAL INDICATORS AMONG GOVT. HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 11 - 16 YRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Mai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Skin disorders affect 20 - 30% of the general population at any one time. Personal hygiene, nutrition and Socio demographic factors play pivotal roles in determining the pattern of skin disease. Very few studies provide information on the prevalence and det erminants of skin disease among children of school going age group in India There are hardly any studies focusing on children of Hyderabad. Hence, the following study was carried out to determine the prevalence of dermatological disorders among school chil dren of age group 11 - 16 yrs . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the prevalence of dermatological disorders among Govt. high school children in relation with personal hygiene, nutritional status and socio demographic indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross - sectional study was conducted and the study subjects included students of Govt. high school located at Musheerabad, belonging to class VI to IX. A total of 100 students have been studied and the study period was from 19 th Nov to 25 th Nov 2011.the sample size was calculated from prevalence shown in various studies (50% skin disorders, with an allowable error of 20% of P. Data collection included personal hygiene questionnaire, clinical examination, magnifying lens, measuring tape and a weighing machine. Prevalence of common skin diseases was calculated and statistical analysis was done. RESULTS : The proportion of skin disorders is seen to be 77% of the total study. The proportion of skin disorders is higher in females (p<0.05, mid ado lescent age (p<0.05, fathers being heavy workers and working mothers, hostel residence (p<0.05 and infrequent head bath. The proportion of skin disorders is not seen to be influenced by BMI - for - age and bathing frequency. Common dermatological disorders e licited were Pytiriasis simplex capillitii (27%, Acne vulgaris (22%, Pediculosis capitis (18%, Pytiriasis alba (14% and Scabies (11%. CONCLUSION : Skin disease constitutes a public

  19. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  20. Group Counseling for Navy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchum, Nancy Taylor

    1991-01-01

    Conducted six-session group counseling program for Navy children (n=22) enrolled in public schools whose fathers were on deployment. Pretest and posttest scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory suggest that participation in the group counseling unit positively affected self-esteem of Navy children whose fathers were on deployment. Found…

  1. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 6 MONTHS TO 5 YEARS WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA ADMITTED IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Kumari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Iron deficiency is the commonest micronutrient deficiency worldwide. It is preventable and treatable. Iron deficiency in a child can affect the physical growth as well as the cognitive functions since Iron is essential for growing brain. So early detection and correction of Iron deficiency is very essential. This descriptive study was conducted in 155 anemic children of age 6months to 5 years admitted in a tertiary care centre. Objective was to study the clinical and laboratory profile. This study showed high prevalence of anemia in male children compared to females. Higher grades of anaemiawas found in those taking diet deficient in Iron rich food and those not having periodic deworming. Mild anemia was noted in 34.2%, Moderate in 52.9% severe in 12.9%.47.5 % were in the age group 3-5 years. Significant association was found between Iron deficiency and Febrile seizures.18.7% of study participants had under nutrition and 11% had first degree stunting.

  2. Study of family factors in association with behavior problems amongst children of 6-18 years age group

    OpenAIRE

    Sandip S Jogdand; Naik, JD

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ‘behaviour problems’ are having major impact on child's bodily and social development. The family provides emotional support to an individual as well as plays a major role in the formation of one's personality. The quality and nature of the parental nurturance that the child receives will profoundly influence his future development. The knowledge of these family factors associated with behaviour problems may be helpful to identify at risk children. Aims and Objective: To study...

  3. A comparative study of two mouthrinses on plaque and gingivitis in school children in the age group of 13-16 years in Bangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Research and clinical evidence indicate that most forms of plaque associated periodontal disease start as inflammatory lesions of the gingiva which if left untreated, may progress and eventually involve and compromise the entire periodontal attachment apparatus of the affected teeth. A study was conducted to assess the effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride on plaque accumulation and gingivitis in comparison with a chlorhexidine mouthrinse alone in a group of school children aged 13-16 years in Bangalore city. This combination alongwith the well established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries presents an important contribution to dental public health. The results suggest that the chlorhexidine-sodium fluoride mouthrinse potentially possesses a significant effect on inhibition of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries, presents an important contribution to dental public health.

  4. Frequency of Enuresis, Constipation and Enuresis Association with Constipation in a Group of School Children Aged 5-9 Years in Malatya, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uğuralp, Sema; Karaoğlu, Leyla; Karaman, Abdurrahman

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of enuresis, constipation and enuresis associated with constipation in school children aged 5-9 years living in Malatya Municipality, Turkey. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. All elementary schools in Malatya Municipality with kindergarten and preparatory classes took part in the study. All parents of the children aged 5-9 years enrolled in these schools were given a questionnaire. Completion of the questionnaire was voluntary...

  5. Correlation of plaque nitric oxide levels with plaque Streptococcus mutans, plaque pH and decayed, missing and filled teeth index of children of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawinderjit Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental plaque is considered one of the most important etiological factors for dental caries. Nitrate and Nitrite levels in saliva are considered protective against oral and gastrointestinal disease. Plaque nitric oxide (NO levels and its role in dental caries has not be explored in the literature. Aim: Determine the correlation of the plaque nitric oxide (NO with dental caries in vivo. Materials and Method: 75 healthy children between ages of 3-15 years were selected. The age, state of dentition and the level of caries in all individuals were determined by the same examiner, using DMFT/deft index. The plaque samples collected were subjected to nitric oxide estimation, streptococcus mutans count and pH for correlation. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS computer based software was used for descriptive data analysis. ANOVA one way analysis and Karl pearson′s correlation was carried out. Results and Conclusion: Statistically significant relationship was observed between plaque nitric oxide and dental caries in all age groups. Similarly, significant correlation of nitric oxide was found in relation to plaque streptococcus mutans and plaque pH. Thus concluded, plaque nitric oxide can be considered as a risk assessment tool for prediction of dental caries.

  6. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work, free play, and structured activities. School-age children should participate in family chores such as setting the table and cleaning up. Limit screen time (television and other media) to 2 hours a day.

  7. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Muppa; Prameela Bhupatiraju; Mahesh Duddu; Narendra Varma Penumatsa; Arthi Dandempally; Priyanka Panthula

    2013-01-01

    Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient′s feelings toward noise in the den...

  8. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVING CHILDREN AMONG MARRIED WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA IN MUMBAI.

    OpenAIRE

    KG Makade; SB Padhyegurjar; RN Kulkarni; MS Padhyegurjar

    2013-01-01

    Background:Marriages and having children is a universal phenomenon in India and in slum areas of cities there is a tendency to have more number of children in married women due to many interrelated causes. In the current study we have tried to explore some of the reasons for having more number of children in urban slum area. Objective: To study the effect of education,age at marriage of women and socioeconomic status of the family onnumber of children among married women of reproductive ag...

  9. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  10. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  11. The comparison a 16-year follow-up results of balloon angioplasty for aortic coarctation in children of different age groups: a single-center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Ergül; Kemal Nişli; Aygün Dindar; Rukiye Eker Ömeroğlu; Ümrah Aydoğan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric patients with different age groups who underwent balloon angioplasty for aortic coarctation were evaluated for recoarctation, aneurysm, peripheral arterial injuries and concomitant diseases. Methods: From January 1994 to 2010, 80 patients with aortic coarctation (native/recoarctation) were evaluated, retrospectively. According to age at angioplasty, patients were divided into three groups: Group A (0-3 months, n=29, 25 male/4 female, average weight 4±1.2 kg), Group B (3-1...

  12. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  13. Correlation of plaque nitric oxide levels with plaque Streptococcus mutans, plaque pH and decayed, missing and filled teeth index of children of different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sawinderjit Saini; Hina Noorani; P K Shivaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Context: Dental plaque is considered one of the most important etiological factors for dental caries. Nitrate and Nitrite levels in saliva are considered protective against oral and gastrointestinal disease. Plaque nitric oxide (NO) levels and its role in dental caries has not be explored in the literature. Aim: Determine the correlation of the plaque nitric oxide (NO) with dental caries in vivo. Materials and Method: 75 healthy children between ages of 3-15 years were selected. The age, stat...

  14. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  15. Acute lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in a group of Egyptian children under 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-kholy Amany A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the most important causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI in infants and young children. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of ALRTI associated with RSV among children ≤ 5 years old in Egypt. Patients and Methods We enrolled 427 children ≤ 5 years old diagnosed with ALRTI attending the outpatient clinic or Emergency Department (ED of Children Hospital, Cairo University during a one- year period. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from the patients, kept on ice and processed within 2 hours of collection. Immunoflourescent assay (IFA for RSV was performed. Results 91 cases (21.3% had viral etiology with RSV antigens detected in 70 cases (16.4%. The RSV positive cases were significantly younger than other non-RSV cases (mean age 8.2 months versus 14.2 months, p Conclusion RSV is the most common viral etiology of ALRTI in children below 5 years of age, especially in young infants below 6 months of age. It is more prevalent in winter and tends to cause severe infection.

  16. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  17. Study the Age of Hearing Loss Diagnosis and the Related Factors in a Group of School-Age Children in Baghch-e-Ban School of Hard of Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ahmadi

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of the age of hearing loss diagnosis in every society is recommended to be compared with standard criteria to establish common dirth in management and rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to determine the age of hearing loss diagnosis with respect to common criteria in Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing children in Tehran.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 445 children in stages 2, 6 and 10 of Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing participated. the research was performed by means of the three-stages questionaires that children filled with help of their parents.Results: The mean age of detection of hearing loss in both acquired and congenital hearing loss in children was 3.5 year-old. while the age in which hearing loss was doubted was 1.8 year-old. In another word the mean age of hearing loss detection decreased as the hearing loss increases(in moderate- profound hearing loss(P<0.01. Conclusion: among the refrence sources for refering children with hearing loss the least refering was related to physicians. Adversly the mean age of doubting and detection of hearing loss increased in children with family history of hearing loss.(P<0.01. Meanwhile no relationship was detected between the age of diagnosis of hearing loss and the number of deaf members in the family(P<0.02.

  18. Assessment of selenium and mercury in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups (3-7) and (8-12) years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam Shazadi; Ali, Jamshed

    2015-03-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence biological sample composition. This study was designed to compare the levels of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged (3-7) and (8-12) years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment for the determination of Se and Hg in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The Se and Hg in biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave acid digestion, respectively. The concentration of Se was decreased in scalp hair and blood samples of male and female night blindness children while Hg was higher in all biological samples as compared to referent subjects. The Se concentration was inversely associated with the risk of night blindness in both genders. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that Se is a protecting element for night blindness. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiency of essential micronutrients in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of night blindness children. PMID:25655123

  19. Dental anxiety and behavioral problems: A study of prevalence and related factors among a group of Iranian children aged 6-12

    OpenAIRE

    M Paryab; M Hosseinbor

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and also some related demographic and dental factors of dental anxiety and behavioral problems in school-aged children. Subjects and Methods: A total of 150 children of 6-12 years old were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Prior to the dental visit, the mothers were asked to answer a questionnaire of dental and demographic background and a Corah dental anxiety scale (CDAS). At the same time, a faces version of the modif...

  20. Estimating age in black South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, A; Fabris-Rotelli, I; Bernitz, H

    2014-03-01

    Forensic dentists are frequently required to determine the age at death of unidentified skeletons, or to age live individuals who have no record/documentation of their chronological age. In order to be of the greatest value, the method used should have the lowest possible standard deviation and be validated for the individual's specific population group. The method most frequently used in Forensic Dentistry for the estimation of age in children, was described by Demirjian et al. The maturity standards determined were based on samples of French Canadian origin and it has been recommended by several authors that correction factors be incorporated when applying this method to different population groups. The current research was carried out on a sample of 838 black South African children. A new model for age estimation in the said population was developed, to accurately determine the chronological age from dental development. A sample of 604 black South African children was used to test the validity of the method described by Demirjian. PMID:24974518

  1. Children's Social Behavior in Relationship to Participation in Mixed-Age or Same-Age Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Diane E.; Kinsey, Susan

    Research on the social and cognitive effects of grouping children in mixed-age versus same-age classrooms is gaining interest among practitioners and researchers. This investigation used a teacher rating scale to assess children's prosocial, aggressive, and friendship behaviors in mixed- and same-age classrooms. Confounding variables such as the…

  2. Characteristics of antrochoanal polyps in the pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mazrou Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate and compare the clinical and the pathological characteristics of antrochoanal polyps (ACPS in adults and children. Materials and methods: Medical records of 35 patients (19 children, 16 adults operated upon for ACPS between 1995 and 2005 at an academic tertiary center were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, surgical management, histological findings and recurrence rate were compared. Results: Of the 35 patients, 19 (54% were children (mean age, 12.6 years and 16 (46% were adults (mean age, 31.4 years. Nasal obstruction was the most common presenting symptom in both groups. The incidence of snoring and/or obstructive sleep apnea was statistically significant, more common among the pediatric age group as compared to the adult group ( P =.001. Epistaxis was also found to be more common among the pediatric age group ( P =.027, while sinusitis was noted to be significantly more common among the adult group ( P =.019.Transnasal endoscopic removal of ACPS was performed in 12 (63.1% children and 11 (68.7% adults. A combined open/endoscopic approach was required in 36.9% of children and 31.3% of adults. On histologic examination, allergic ACPS (the mucosal surface is respiratory epithelium, no mucus glands, abundant eosinophils was more common than inflammatory ACPS (the mucosal surface is respiratory epithelium, no mucus glands, abundant neutrophils in children (2.8:1 as compared to adults (0.8:1 ( P =.045. All of our patients were followed with endoscopic examination for a period ranging from 9 to 42 months (mean, 24 months. Recurrence of ACPS was identified in 2 children and 1 adult. Conclusion: Antrochoanal polyps are a rare clinical entity. Children have unique clinical and pathological features as compared to adults. Endoscopic excision is safe and effective in the pediatric age group and has the capability to ensure complete removal and lower recurrence rate.

  3. [High risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Preliminary report after introducing a new version of New York (1997) protocol adjusted to the age of the patients. Report of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczen, S; Klus, K; Armata, J; Kowalczyk, J; Wisniewska-Slusarz, H; Kolecki, P; Derwich, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Pawelec, K; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Juszczak, K; Pisarek, J; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Tomaszewska, R; Łuszczynska, A; Wysocki, M; Styczyński, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group in the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children using a new version of the New York (1997-1999). Protocol with treatment intensity adjusted according to the age of the patients. From April 1997 to December 1999 a group of 49 children with leukocytosis ranging from 50 900/mm3 to 580 000/mm3 (median 122 000/mm3) and 6 children with leukocytosis below 50 000/mm3 and poor response to steroids were treated with this protocol. Children below 10 years (43 patients) were treated according to the previous protocol, children above 10 years (12 patients) were treated with intensified protocol (high doses of ARA-C in consolidation and intermediate doses of Mtx in maintenance). Induction was identical for all patients. Complete remission was achieved in 92.6% patients. There were 2 relapses. Six children died - 3 without remission, 2 due to a relapse, 1 due to treatment complications. The current opinions concerning classification of HRG-ALL and treatment possibilities in this group of children are discussed. PMID:12021459

  4. Eating late in the evening is associated with childhood obesity in some age groups but not in all children: the relationship between time of consumption and body weight status in U.S. children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranz Sibylle

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies in adults indicate a positive correlation between eating later in the day and overall energy intake as well as body weight status. Thus, the time of food intake may be a risk factor in childhood obesity. This study was designed to describe the proportion of energy consumed in the time from 4 pm to midnight measured in two-hour increments and to determine a potential association between the time of proportion of energy consumed and body weight status. Methods Dietary, anthropometric, and socio-demographic data of 2–18 year olds (N = 11,072 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004 was examined to describe the proportion of total energy consumed within two-hour time periods between 4 pm and midnight. To examine the potential association between eating later in the day and body weight status, generalized estimating equations (GEE models were used to quantify the effect of time trends (proportion of total energy consumed in each 2-hour time period from 4 pm to 11.59 pm on body weight status. Analysis was conducted in the total sample and in subgroups stratified by sex, ethnic group (Non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, Other Hispanic, and Other Race including multi-racial and age group (2–5, 6–11, and 12–18 year olds. Complex sample survey analysis were used to assess differences at a significance level of p-value Results Proportion of energy consumed varied by sex, ethnic group, and age groups between 4 pm and 11.59 pm. Compared to healthy weight children, overweight school-age children consumed significantly higher while overweight adolescents consumed significantly lower proportions of total daily energy with each advancing two-hour time increment. Conclusion The association between the circadian rhythm of eating and body weight status needs to be investigated further to examine the effect of time of consumption on the risk of childhood obesity

  5. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  6. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school…

  7. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh; Mohammad Hassan Entezari; Zamzam Paknahad; Akbar Hassanzadeh; Saeid Doaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother′s life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child′s diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother′s weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary ...

  8. Do eating behaviors in the general population account for country variance in glycemic control among adolescents with diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group and the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study.

    OpenAIRE

    Due, Pernille; De Beaufort, Carine; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbol; Rasmussen, Mette; Ahluwalia, Naman; Skinner, Timothy; Swift, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Hvidoere Study Group (HSG) has demonstrated major differences in glycemic control between pediatric diabetes centers which remain largely unexplained. This study investigates whether these differences are partly attributable to healthy eating norms in the background population. METHODS: The study involved adolescents from 18 countries from (i) the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study (HBSC) and (ii) the HSG. There were 94 387 participants from representative HBSC sam...

  9. Group Play Interventions for Children: Strategies for Teaching Prosocial Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Group play interventions are used to meet a broad range of developmental needs in children from various backgrounds. This book is for mental health practitioners working with children aged 5 through 12 to help them learn important social skills and self-control strategies such as making friends, asking for and offering help, controlling hands and…

  10. AN ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS FOR CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES IN CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 0 - 10 YEARS : A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart diseases (CHDs affect approx 6 – 8 infants per1000 live births have multifactorial origin. Various studies attribute number of maternal (e.g. family history of congenital heart diseases , consanguinity , febrile illness , co - morbidities like diabetes or hypertension and fetal factors (prematurity , LBW , chromosomal abnormality for development of CHDs. There is paucity of data in India; hence this study was conducted to evaluate risk factors in causation of CHDs in children. METHOD: It was a case control study conducted from Mar to Aug 2012 among children up to 10 ye ars of age attending tertiary care hospital in Maharashtra , India. A total of 75 cases of CHDs and equal number of matched controls were included in the study. RESULTS: The mean age of cases was 19 months and that of controls 18 months. Male to female rati o was 1.5:1 among cases and 1.7:1 among controls. VSD was the commonest cardiac anomaly found in 37(49.33% cases. In neonatal characteristics , cases had significantly increased number of prematurity and low birth weight as , compared to control(p=0.006 , O R - 3.25(95% CI 1.35 - 8.25 and(p<0.001 , OR - 3.86 (95% CI 1.85 - 8.11 respectively. Twenty six (35% children among cases were born of consanguineous marriage while 8(11% in controls and association was found statistically significant [p<0.01 , OR - 4.44 (95% C.I =1.75 - 12.24]. Similar associations were seen with family history of congenital heart diseases [OR 4.10(95% C.I=1.34 - 14.97 , co - morbidities [p=0.02 , OR - 2.7 (95% CI 1.1 - 6.93]. CONCLUSION: Our study showed maternal factors like consanguinity , family histor y of congenital heart diseases , co - morbidities like gestational diabetes , hypertension and drug intake during pregnancy were significant underlying risk factors for development of CHDs in children.

  11. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills

    OpenAIRE

    E Glenn Schellenberg; Corrigall, Kathleen A.; Sebastian P Dys; Tina Malti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect w...

  12. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    OpenAIRE

    Zbyněk Janečka; Kateřina Chrobáková; Michal Mayer

    2011-01-01

    Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the...

  13. WEATHER SENSITIVITY OF KINDERGARTEN AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAZSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are sensitive to the changes of weather. Our study is carried out on effects of weather changes on children’s behaviour in 29 kindergarten groups in Eger. The kindergarten nurces were asked to characterise the behaviour of the children group every day during three month, from March 2011 to May 2011. Marks from 1 to 5 were defined, giving 3 to average behaviour, 2 and 4 to worse and to better than average one. Marks 1 and 5 were retained for extremely good or bad behaviour of the group on the given day. The components evaluated separately were as follows: i- Playing, array or disarray: How do they play? Do they keep the array, or make chaos? ii- Sleeping: Normally, children of this age sleep for a few hours after lunch, but sometimes they do not want to do so. We looked after how it depends on the actual weather. iii- Aggression: Sometimes, some children are more aggressive than the others, but on other days these children do not show aggressive attitude. Was this the case on the given day? iv- Activity: How were children motivated for activities on the given day? In order to compare these marks, provided by the kindergarten groups, with weather and its changes, front analysis was performed every day, based on temperature data at the 925 hPa and 850 hPa levels. Besides that, surface observations of temperature, sunshine, humidity were also incorporated into the search for weather relatedness of the children’s behaviour.

  14. Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…

  15. The Level of dental hygiene in school-age children, the influence of the condition of the dentition on general health and the preparation of an educational program in the field of dental care for this age group.\\\\

    OpenAIRE

    Málek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis mainly deals with monitoring the level of dental hygiene in school-age children. The importance of dental hygiene is unquestionably significant for everyone. It is really important in preventing the most common disease of the oral cavity such as dental caries. Dental caries is the most widespread disease, which affects people of all continents. The most effective prevention of this disease is patient?s awareness. Therefore, the theoretical part of this bachelor thesis foc...

  16. Group A rotavirus and bacterial agents associated with diarrhoea-induced hospitalisations in children below 5 years of age in Jammu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gazal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of 210 faecal samples collected from children below 5 years attending different hospitals in Jammu and exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhoea, 41.9% samples were found positive for group A rotavirus by RNA-PAGE. Escherichia coli isolated in the study belonged to nine serogroups, out of which O69 was most frequent, being present in 12.38% samples. E. coli serogroups well recognised as enteropathogens viz. O69, O20 and O153 were present in 27.6% samples. Other bacterial pathogens associated with diarrhoea were present in 8.09% samples, out of which Shigella spp. was found in 4.76% samples followed by Salmonella spp. (2.38% and Pseudomonas spp. (0.95%.

  17. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A; Dys, Sebastian P; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills. PMID:26506414

  18. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Glenn Schellenberg

    Full Text Available We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills.

  19. Acute lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in a group of Egyptian children under 5 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    El-kholy Amany A; El-anany Mervat G; Mansi Yasmeen A; Fattouh Aya M; El-karaksy Hanaa M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in infants and young children. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of ALRTI associated with RSV among children ≤ 5 years old in Egypt. Patients and Methods We enrolled 427 children ≤ 5 years old diagnosed with ALRTI attending the outpatient clinic or Emergency Department (ED) of Children Hospital, Cairo University during a one-...

  20. [Alcoholism in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinsky, M

    1975-11-01

    Curiosity motivated consumption of illegal drugs by young people decreased during the last 5 years. At the same time the problem of school-children abusing alcohol increased. This has to be seen against the background of more general epidemiological data of alcohol consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany: --between 1961 and 1974 the expenditure for alcoholic beverages more than doubled; --according to serious estimations there are between 700,000 and 1 million of alcoholics in this country (from these about 8-10% being minors); --the average age of inmates of clinics for alcoholics dropped considerably during the last decade. Main findings of a follow-up survey conducted (size of sample: about 10,000 school-children in Hamburg, age 13-20, representative of a total of 110,000) are: --more than 25% of the above mentioned 110,000 school-children showed a rather excessive drinking behaviour (i.e. having been drunk 1-5 or more than 5 times during a period of 2 months prior to the interviews); --positive correlations were found to exist between excessive drinking habits and certain psycho-social variables (i.e. broken home, suicide-attempts, excessive consumption of alcohol by the parents, etc.); --the subgroup of those school-children who were users of illegal drugs: about 60% of them belong also to the category of "excessive alcohol user". Reasons for the general increase of alcohol consumption in Western Germany are for instance: --a change of drinking habits (more frequently, drinking at home and alone); --a shift of preferances (from relatively low percentage-beverages like beer and wine to so-called hard liquors); --an increase of alcohol consumption among those societal groups--the young and women--who formerly were almost abstinent. Some reasons and causes for the increase of alcohol consumption among school-children are: --being exposed to negative model-behaviour of adults and especially of parents; --peer-group pressure; --the discovery of school-children

  1. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction. PMID:26915737

  2. Distribution of ABO blood group in children with acute leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Sakić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study is the fi rst study about the distribution ABO blood types at children with acute leukemia in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The aim of the study is to point out distribution of blood type groups at children with acute leukemia (ALMethods: The number of children in this study was the following: 145 children with acute leukemia and 27 of children with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML. All of the children were treated at Hemato- Oncology Unitof Pediatric Clinic in Sarajevo, in the period January 2000 until December 2010. Age of children was between 1 month and 15 years.Results: The results showed that different blood types were registered in 93. 1% of children who got ill and treated from acute leukemia for the mentioned period. At 6. 9 % of children, none of the blood types wereregistered. It was noticed that 40.9 % children who have registered blood type O, 37% blood type A,16% blood type B and 6.5% blood type AB had AL, too. It has been observed that children with following bloodtypes had AML: O, 47.8%, A, 47.7% and AB, 30.4%.Conclusion: Signifi cance ABO types distribution was confi rmed for children with ALL, p<0, 05. The analysis of the distribution of ABO types based on gender showed that signifi cance was confi rmed at females with both ALL and AML (p<0.05.

  3. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  4. A Group Experience with Physically Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Norma

    1980-01-01

    Describes a group experience program developed as an alternative to the long-term hospitalization of physically handicapped children. The program emphasizes emotional growth through participation in meetings designed to counteract dependency. (CM)

  5. Group crisis intervention for children during ongoing war conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Abdel Aziz; Vostanis, Panos; Karim, Khalid

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term impact of a group crisis intervention for children aged 9-15 years from five refugee camps in the Gaza Strip during ongoing war conflict. Children were selected if they reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress reactions, and were allocated to group intervention (N=47) encouraging expression of experiences and emotions through storytelling, drawing, free play and role-play; education about symptoms (N=22); or no intervention (N=42). Children completed the CPTSD-RI and the CDI pre- and post-intervention. No significant impact of the group intervention was established on children's posttraumatic or depressive symptoms. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including the continuing exposure to trauma and the non-active nature of the intervention. PMID:15981138

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli in different age groups in a community.

    OpenAIRE

    Leistevuo, T; Leistevuo, J; Osterblad, M; Arvola, T. (Timo); Toivonen, P; Klaukka, T; Lehtonen, A; Huovinen, P.

    1996-01-01

    We measured the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli by age in community subjects. For none of the eight antimicrobial agents studied were there any statistically significant differences in the carriage rates of resistance in different age groups. Bacterial resistance was common in all age groups, including the children, and occurred for all antimicrobial agents tested.

  7. Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J. Brian; Wyche, Karen Fraser; Van Horn, Richard L.; Reyes, Gilbert; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; North, Carol S.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 23 children and adolescents, aged 9 to 17 years, who relocated from Louisiana to Texas following Hurricane Katrina to explore their disaster, evacuation, and resettlement experiences. The resilience described by some was remarkable and, despite evidence of cultural disparity and stigma, many identified positive…

  8. AUDIOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN GERIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh

    2015-05-01

    : PTA and SRT values are similar in both the groups. Early old age groups presented with mild to severe types of deafness and loss in lower frequencies. Late old aged people showed profound hearing l oss and increased thresholds in higher frequencies. SRT estimation seemed more sensitive than calculating PTA in the persons above 85 years. Females showed 5 to 10 dB lower PTA values than males in all ages.

  9. Emergent Leadership in Children's Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Anderson, Richard C.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Dong, Ting; Archodidou, Anthi; Kim, Il-Hee; Kuo, Li-Jen; Clark, Ann-Marie; Wu, Xiaoying; Jadallah, May; Miller, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Emergent leadership was examined in 12 discussion groups in 4 fourth-grade classrooms. Children's leadership moves were coded from transcripts of 10 free-flowing, open-format discussions of each of the 12 groups. The transcripts encompassed 26,000 turns for speaking, including 22,000 child turns of which 1,700 were judged to serve one of five…

  10. Anthropometric assessment of a Middle Eastern group of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa A Meguid; Wafaa A Kandeel; Khaled E Wakeel; Aly A El-Nofely

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth abnormalities are uniquely associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, the extent to which growth abnormalities are present has hardly been investigated. The current study aims to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters in a group of autistic Egyptian children and the healthy normal population. Methods: We recruited 100 children with ASD from the Outpatient Clinic for "Autistic Children" at the Medical Research Hospital of Excellence, National Research Centre in Cairo, Egypt. They were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Of these children at age of 3-10 years, 71 were males and 29 females. Eight anthropometric parameters were assessed in view of data of the healthy Egyptians of pertinent sex and age. Results: Weight and body mass index increased because of a signifi cant increase in subcutaneous fat thickness. This tendency with a probable decrease in muscle mass was more evident in male or in older children, likely resulting from sedentary life style and food selectivity. Conclusions: The Z head circumference score and its variance signifi cantly increased especially in males or older children, suggesting the relative overgrowth of the brain in a substantial percentage of Egyptian children with autism. We concluded that increased fat composition in Egyptian autistic children with decreased muscle mass necessitates tailoring a specially designed food supplementation program to ameliorate the severity of autism symptoms.

  11. Group in social work with the aged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowy, L.

    1962-01-01

    Aspects of human behavior, including drives, needs, developmental tasks, aspirations, and wants, which are relevant for social work practice and for which the group is an indispensable instrumentality are discussed. Specific areas treated include common human needs, role and ego functioning, the roles of the social worker, and the differential impact of setting. Several ways in which groups can be used with the aged are outlined, including alleviation of isolation and aloneness and help in coping with the problem of loss of social identity, physical and mental loss, and the problem of lack of future. Groups can also be used to develop new social roles within the limits of present-day social instrumentalities, to develop a linkage of past, present, and future in relation to associational groups (e.g., family, peers) and to help create a new self-image of older adults which can be transmitted to society. It is pointed out that since most older persons who could benefit from group associations do not venture out on their own to join groups, social agencies have a responsibility to move out from their intramural confinement to the places where the elderly live.

  12. AN INTEGRATIVE GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN. THE WIZARDING SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Maria Popescu; Silvia Georgiana Gane

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important tendencies in child psychotherapy is the integration of various psychotherapeutic approaches and technical interventions belonging to different orientations. Based on the Harry Potter stories, the „Wizarding School” structured group therapy program is a 12-step integratively oriented program applicable in personal development, individual and group therapy for children aged 6 to 13 (at present being adapted for adult psychotherapy). The program takes place within a fa...

  13. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  14. Diarrhea Caused by Rotavirus in Children Less than 5 Years of Age in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trung Vu; Le Van, Phung; Le Huy, Chinh; Weintraub, Andrej

    2004-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of diarrhea in young children worldwide. From March 2001 to April 2002, 836 children less than 5 years of age were investigated in Hanoi, Vietnam. This included 587 children with diarrhea and 249 age-matched controls. Group A rotavirus was identified in 46.7% of the children with diarrhea and 3.6% of the controls, which was a significant difference. Within the diarrhea group, the highest prevalence was seen in children from 13 to 24 months of age, and t...

  15. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  16. STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND LABORATORY PROFILE IN UNDER 15 YEARS AGE GROUP CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RHEUMATIC FEVER AND RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : BACKGROUND : Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease is the most common acquired child hood heart disease diagnosis made in India and is consistently associated with poverty and overcrowding. There is no single symptom , sign or laboratory test that is diagnostic of Acute Rheumatic fever and carditis . Revised , edited and updated Jones criteria are guidelines to assist practitioners and are not a substitute for clinical judgment . The main concern in liberalizing these criteria in developed countries may be over diagnosis of Acute Rheumatic fever. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To study the risk factors and laboratory profile in children with Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart d isease. MATERIALS & METHODS: The Study was conducted for 2 years period in a tertiary care hospital on less than 15 years children diagnosed as Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease. RESULTS: In our study all the cases (100% , 36 cases belongs to Lower socio economic status. Overcrowding is noted in all 36 cases (100% and we noticed rural predilection in 91.7% (33 cases cases. CONCLUSION: Basing on the results of our study we conclude that lower socio economic status , overcrowding (100% cases a nd rural predilection (91.7% are frequent associate risk factors of Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease. Further we found Anemia (88.89% , positive C.R.P (86.11% , and A.S.O titer more than 400 I.U/ml in (69.44% as common laboratory abnormali ties.

  17. Outcomes after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot in children: a comparison between different age groups%不同年龄组儿童法洛四联症根治术治疗效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纲; 陈张根; 贾兵; 李炘; 叶明

    2008-01-01

    目的 比较不同年龄组儿童法洛四联症手术根治效果,为探讨法洛四联症最佳手术时间提供依据.方法 1990年1月至2006年12月545例儿童法洛四联症接受根治手术,按手术年龄分为1岁以下婴儿组(114例)、1~5岁幼儿组(326例)和5岁以上儿童组(105例).3组进行围术期情况、术后近期病死率、并发症发生率比较.对包括107例1岁以下婴儿在内的479例法洛四联症术后病儿进行了1个月~16年随访,对3组残余心脏畸形发生率、活动能力及心律失常发生率进行比较.结果 3组围术期情况无统计学差异.术后早期病死率和并发症发生率分别为4/114例、14/326例、4/105例(P>0.05)和17/110例、58/312例、20/101例(P>0.05).术后室性心律失常发生率分别为20.9%、30.7%和39.0%(P<0.05).长期随访各组生存率差异无统计学意义,最大活动能力婴儿期接受手术法洛四联症病儿约为正常同龄儿童(82.2±5.5)%.结论 不同年龄组儿童法洛四联症根治术生存率和并发症发生率相似,术后随访心功能均良好.婴儿期手术能更早建立正常肺血流、改善缺氧情况和降低远期室性心律失常的发生.因此法洛四联症病儿最佳根治年龄应在1岁以内.%Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in children of different ages and define the optimal age for total repair. Methods 545 cases with TOF undergoing complete repair between January 1990 and December 2006 in our center were reviewed.According to the age,the 545 cases were divided into 3 groups:group A infants (n=114),group B children less than 5 years old (n=326) and group C children more than 5 years old (n=105).The operative characteristics,mortality,morbidity were compared among the 3 groups. 479 children were followed up for 1 month to 16 years.The residual lesion>0.05,exercise capacity and arrhythmia were also compared between the

  18. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  19. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  20. The relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar; Karthik Venkataraghavan; Ramesh Krishnan; Kavitha Patil; Karishma Munoli; Sandhya Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The knowledge of bone age and dental age is of great importance for pediatrician and pediatric dentist. It is essential for a pediatric dentist to formulate treatment plan and it is a source of complementary information for pediatrician. There are few studies, which showed the relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Therefore, objective of this study was to determine and compare dental age, bone age and chronological a...

  1. Evaluating Motoric Performance of 10 - 12 Age Group Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KUMARTAŞLI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate motoric perfromance of 10 - 12 age group football players. Akdeniz University tiny football team joined as experiment group and 80. Yıl Cumhuriyet Grammar School football team joined to the study as control group. An exercise programme with educational game format considering physical capacities and develeopment features was applied to the student as 8 weeks, 3 days a week. Standing long jump, flexibilty, 20 m. speed, handgrip strength, arm pull, vert ical jump, 10x5 shuttle run and leg strength tests were applied to the students. Handled data were compared at SPSS 10 statistic programme by using Independent Sample t Test. Students’ lenght and weight measurements were calculated. As a result of measurem ents, there were not found diffrences between experimental and control group’s standing long jump, flexibilty, 20 m. speed, handgrip strength, a vertical jump, 10x5 shuttle run and leg strength tests (p>0,05; but in arm pull test, statistically difference was found (p<0,01. While evaluating the physical performance in cihldren and adolescents, growth process is had to be considered. The results of football players that exercise regularly from small ages at physical and physiologic measurements have an importance according to their age. Performance observed in children is sudden and temporary. There are a few studies in the literature about negative psycological effects of starting trainings in early ages.

  2. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  3. Empathy, Group Norms and Children's Ethnic Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Griffith, Judith; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Two minimal group studies (Ns=150, 123) examined the impact of emotional empathy on the ethnic attitudes of 5 to 12-year old white Anglo-Australian children. Study 1 evaluated the relationship between empathy and attitudes towards a same (Anglo-Australian) versus different ethnicity (Pacific Islander) outgroup. A significant empathy x outgroup…

  4. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak Agata; Gnitecka Jolanta; Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL), as well as the Coordinatio...

  5. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  6. Age-dependency of posture parameters in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Oliver; Mazet, Carola; Mazet, Dirk; Hammes, Annette; Schmitt, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Poor posture in children and adolescents is a well-known problem. Therefore, early detection of incorrect posture is important. Photometric posture analysis is a cost-efficient and easy method, but needs reliable reference values. As children’s posture changes as they grow, the assessment needs to be age-specific. This study aimed to investigate the development of both one-dimensional posture parameter (body inclination angle) and complex parameter (posture index) in different age groups (childhood to adolescence). [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 372 symptom-free children and adolescents (140 girls and 232 boys aged 6–17). Images of their habitual posture were obtained in the sagittal plane. High-contrast marker points and marker spheres were placed on anatomical landmarks. Based on the marker points, the body inclination angle (INC) and posture index (PI) were calculated using the Corpus concepts software. [Results] The INC angle significantly increased with age. The PI did not change significantly among the age groups. No significant differences between the corresponding age groups were found for PI and INC for both sexes. [Conclusion] When evaluating posture using the body inclination angle, the age of the subject needs to be considered. Posture assessment with an age-independent parameter may be more suitable.

  7. Relationship between age and white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Erika; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K; White, Desiree A

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown poorer microstructural white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria (PKU), specifically decreases in mean diffusivity (MD), in comparison with healthy children. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between age and white matter integrity in this population. The present study examined group differences in the relationship between age and MD across a range of brain regions in 31 children with early- and continuously-treated PKU and 51 healthy control children. Relationships among MD, age, and group were explored using hierarchical linear regression and Pearson correlation. Results indicated a stronger age-related decrease in MD for children with PKU in comparison with healthy children in 4 of the 10 brain regions examined, suggesting that the trajectory of white matter development is abnormal in children with PKU. Further research using longitudinal methodology is needed to fully elucidate our understanding of white matter development in children with PKU. PMID:27114916

  8. Pain management in pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Namrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of pain in palliative care of children is somewhat different from that in adults.The use of opioids in pediatric palliative care presents some unique challenges. Confident and rational use of opioids, illustrated by WHO Guidelines is essential for adequate management of pain in children with life limiting conditions.

  9. Ageing without children: rural Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, G C

    2001-03-01

    This paper aims to identify the pathways and adaptations to childlessness. It is based on data for 65 childless men and women who took part in the Bangor Longitudinal Study of Ageing (1979-1999) and survived to at least 1987. Interviews were conducted mainly in the homes of the respondents at 4 yearly intervals and both qualitative and quantitative data were recorded. The paper distinguishes between men and women and between those who married and those who never-married. The findings demonstrate contrasting life styles between childless men and childless women. Never-married childless men tend to have been employed in solitary occupations or those based on an all male workforce and to rely on dependency relationships with female kin, while men who marry rely heavily on their wives. Never-married women in contrast tend to be more independent and outgoing and to have worked in jobs which brought them into frequent contact with people. Most childless women who married had not worked after marriage; they had close relationships with husbands and on widowhood adopted an independent, self-sufficient lifestyle. The findings demonstrate more positive adaptations to childlessness among women than men. PMID:14617994

  10. Positive Peer Relationships and Risk of Victimization in Chinese and South Korean Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-ezzeddine, Tania; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Lee-Shin, Yoolim; Farver, JoAnn; Xu, Yiyuan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of positive peer relationships in the relation between behavioral or academic risk factors and victimization in Asian children's peer groups. We recruited 296 children (161 boys, 135 girls) from Tianjin, China (mean age of 11.5 years) and 122 children (66 boys, 56 girls) from Seoul, South Korea (approximate…

  11. Evaluation of Hair and Scalp Diseases in Pediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Doğruk Kaçar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The hair and scalp diseases in children are studied in a wide range. Various diseases were considered in the differential diagnosis according to the age of onset and clinical patterns. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the frequency and main clinical features of hair and scalp diseases in patients admitted pediatric dermatology (PD outpatient clinic. Methods: 159 patients with hair and scalp diseases which were distinguished among the records of 2641 patients under 18 years of age, who were admitted to PD outpatient clinic of Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital. The demographic and clinical data were recorded from the files and appropriate analyses were performed. Results: The mean age of patients (90 females and 69 males were 9.92±5.28 years (2 months-17 years. Seborrheic dermatitis, alopecia areata, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium and psoriasis were the most common diseases (26.4%, 19.5%, 13.2%, 11.9% and 11.9% respectively Hair loss was present in 47.8% of cases. Hair pull test and trichoscopy were the most common diagnostic methods in the analysis of hair loss whereas biopsy was the least common (72.3%, 40.9% and 5.0. Conclusion: Hair loss is important at all ages due to cosmetic concerns. Non-scarring acquired alopecias were the most common in pediatric age group.

  12. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children. PMID:26656554

  13. Danish Focus group protocol for children & adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, Michelle Nadia; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sansolios, Sanne

    2010-01-01

    child (Heary & Hennessy, 2002). As in this particularly research it is decided to use the FG method to collect the dietary empiric, it must also be recognised that this method is not common to use with children at the age of 5, and therefore finding literature with best suitable ways to conduct the......As one aim of the research was to gain knowledge about children’s perception on food and meals as well as physical activity, it was decided that a qualitative method would be most appropriate. In addition the use of FG as research method was chosen, as this method gives the researcher the...... opportunity to explore the children’s knowledge and perception of a given subject. Thus recognizes the participants as experts of their world. FG’s have the additional advantages of minimize the possibility of the children responding to please the interviewer, and also remove the pressure from the individual...

  14. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  15. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  16. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  17. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  18. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  19. "Make Sure You Keep Our House Safe!" Thematic Analysis of a Children's Psychotherapy Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Akasha; Fenn, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic thematic analysis of one particular latency-aged children's group and includes a discussion about potentially helpful outcomes measures. The impetus for our small, practice-based qualitative research project came from the two papers by Reid (1999) and Canham (2002) about children's psychotherapy groups,…

  20. ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF ACTIVITIES IN THE GROUP OF CHILDREN WITH MODERATE MENTAL UNDERDEVELOPMENT FROM 3 TO 6 YEARS OF AGE AND IN THE EARLY DIAGNOSIS CONSULTING-ROOM OF THE DAMAGED CHILDREN’S DAY NURSERY OF PAZARDJIK-BUGARIJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijana MALINOVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The damaged children’s day nursery of Pazardjik-Bugarija is the result of an initiative taken on, in order to be ensured the necessary conditions for care of damaged children from the region’s area, from 3 to 18 years of age. In the nursery, a consulting room was established for early diagnosis children under risk , from o to 3 years of age.The children at the nursery are divided in four comparatively independent groups, according to their age and degree of damage. Without having the ambition to replace the families, the groups form a kind of “home” with permanent order : a dinning room, a comfortable bathroom, a small kitchen, a living room and a resting room.The adults which are working in teams with the groups, have set themselves the task of education, re-education, or training-according to the abilities of every child-with maximum safety.The organization of assuming responsibility for the children from 3 to 7 years of age begins with making individual plans for every child, which plans are being updated monthly by the whole team that is working with the child concerned ( psychologist, defectologist, supervisor, speech therapist and rehabilitation therapist.The individual plans conforms with the general plan of the group.The education, therapy and training are given to the children trough:A. Education· general education;· specific education;· socialization;· physical activities and leisure time; B. Re-education and Therapy· on psychotherapeutic level;· psychomotor re-education;· re-education of speech;· kinesitherapy;· medical supervision;C. Specialized pedagogical activities used at the nursery, in the group of children with moderate mental underdevelopment, from 3 to 7 years of age

  1. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  2. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evalua...

  3. Vocal overimitation in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys; Winters, Katherine; Krumpak, Kathryn; Core, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Overimitation--copying incorrect, idiosyncratic, or causally irrelevant actions--has been linked to our species' long history with artifacts whose functions are often opaque. It is an open question, however, whether children overimitate outside the artifact domain. We explored this question by presenting preschool-age children (3- to 5-year-olds, N=120) with an elicited imitation task that included high- and low-frequency disyllabic nouns (e.g., 'pizza) and nonwords (e.g., 'chizza), all of which had a stressed first syllable. However, during testing, half of the stimuli were incorrectly pronounced by stressing the second syllable (e.g., pi'zza). More than half of the children copied the model's incorrect pronunciation of high-frequency familiar words, consistent with overimitation. This pattern of response persisted even after children had themselves correctly named the familiar words prior to the start of testing, confirming that children purposefully altered the pronunciation of known words to match the incorrect pronunciations used by a model. These results demonstrate that overimitation is not restricted to the artifact domain and might extend to many different tasks and domains. PMID:26407825

  4. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  5. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  6. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  7. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  8. AUDIOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN GERIATRIC AGE GROUP

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh; Sunil Kumar; Muneeruddin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Age Related Hearing Loss (ARHL) is defined as loss of hearing in elderly persons not influe nced by the extraneous factors like noise trauma etc or intrinsic like CVS related diseases or endocrinal disorders like Diabetes. Also termed as Presbycusis it is defined as the loss of hearing due to age related changes taking place in the auditory syste m starting from the pinna to the cortical centers in the brain. It does not include any other factor contributing...

  9. The effect of exercise on cardiovascular risk markers in Mexican school-aged children: comparison between two structured group routines Efecto del ejercicio sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares mexicanos: comparación entre dos rutinas grupales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Balas-Nakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effects of two groups of exercise routines on cardiovascular disease risk markers. Material and Methods. An intervention study was conducted with 319 Mexican school-aged children in which routines were implemented Monday through Friday for 12 weeks. Routine A was the reference group, with 20 min of less intense activity and routine B was the new group with 40 min of aerobic exercises. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fat mass percentage (FM%, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured before and after the intervention. Results. Routine A had an effect on diastolic pressure, while routine B had an effect on BMI, FM%, blood pressure and triglycerides. Routine B had a greater effect on blood pressure than routine A. The prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both groups. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise is an effective health promotion strategy to reduce some cardiovascular disease risk markers.Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dos rutinas grupales de ejercicio sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos. Intervención en 319 escolares mexicanos. Las rutinas fueron implementadas por 12 semanas (rutina A (referencia: 20 min con ejercicios menos intensos vs rutina B (nueva: 40 min con ejercicios aeróbicos. Se midieron al inicio y al final el índice de masa corporal (IMC, masa grasa (%MG, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, lípidos, lipoproteínas, glucosa e insulina. Resultados. La rutina A tuvo efecto sobre la presión diastólica; la B tuvo efecto sobre el IMC, %MG, presión arterial y triglicéridos. La rutina B tuvo mayores efectos en la presión arterial que la rutina A. Las prevalencias de obesidad, hipertensión arterial e hipertrigliceridemia disminuyeron en ambos grupos. Conclusiones. El ejercicio aeróbico es una estrategia de promoción exitosa para reducir algunos marcadores de riesgo

  10. Obesity risk factors in a representative group of Polish prepubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Januszek-Trzciąkowska, Aleksandra; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa; Klimek, Katarzyna; Matusik, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The study aim was to evaluate risk factors of obesity in Polish children aged 7 to 9 years. Material and methods A representative group of 2571 children (1268 girls and 1303 boys) was randomly selected according to the European Childhood Obesity Group protocol. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A questionnaire was completed by the children's parents with respect to behavioural and family-related risk factors of obesity. International Obesit...

  11. Peanut sensitization in a group of allergic Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossny Elham

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published data on peanut sensitization in Egypt and the problem of peanut allergy seems underestimated. We sought to screen for peanut sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to their phenotypic manifestations. Methods We consecutively enrolled 100 allergic children; 2-10 years old (mean 6.5 yr. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for site of allergy, possible precipitating factors, consumption of peanuts (starting age and last consumption, duration of breast feeding, current treatment, and family history of allergy as well as skin prick testing with a commercial peanut extract, and serum peanut specific and total IgE estimation. Children who were found sensitized to peanuts were subjected to an open oral peanut challenge test taking all necessary precautions. Results Seven subjects (7% were sensitized and three out of six of them had positive oral challenge denoting allergy to peanuts. The sensitization rates did not vary significantly with gender, age, family history of allergy, breast feeding duration, clinical form of allergy, serum total IgE, or absolute eosinophil count. All peanut sensitive subjects had skin with or without respiratory allergy. Conclusions Peanut allergy does not seem to be rare in atopic children in Egypt. Skin prick and specific IgE testing are effective screening tools to determine candidates for peanut oral challenging. Wider scale multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of peanut allergy and its clinical correlates in our country.

  12. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  13. LIFESTYLE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN EARLY SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: the aim of the study was determining relation between selected health behaviour aspects and level of physical fitness in 1 st - 3 rd grade pupils at primary school in Malbork (Pomorskie province. Materials and Methods: the research was conducted in 2009 among 153 children aged 7-10 years. The research group consisted of 80 girls and 73 boys. The diagnostic survey method with use of a questionnaire technique and a set of indirect motor trials was applied. Results: the research has shown that the health behaviours of young Polish children do not differ from their peers in other countries. The largest percentage of early school-age children in Malbork achieved the average level of physical fitness (57.0%, while the percentage of students with low (22.0% and high (21.0% level was similar. Conclusions: the connection between pro-health attitudes of early school-age children (i.e., leisure activities, own health condition, nutrition and the use of drugs and the level of their physical fitness was not ascertained.

  14. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3-11 years

    OpenAIRE

    Das U; Singhal P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth brushing management and ability of children in relation to age and gender. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 children, who attended Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at V.S Dental College and Hospital Bangalore. Children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I: 3-5 years, Group II: 6-8 years, and Group III: 9-11 years. Each child selected his/her favorite toothbrush and...

  15. Once failed, twice shy: How group-based competition influences risk preference in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Wang, Jiajie; Lv, Xiaofeng; Li, Yansong

    2016-04-01

    Recent developmental research demonstrates that young children tend to be risk-seeking. However, very little is known about the extent to which such a capacity varies with children's group-based experience. Given that between-group competition is a central feature of human social life, this study aimed at examining the influence of group-based competition over risk preference in young children. In total, 234 children from 3 age groups (2-4-year-olds, 5-6-year-olds, and 8-9-year-olds) engaged in an intergroup competition manipulation, which was followed by a prosocial game assessing children's ingroup egalitarianism and a gambling task measuring children's risk preference. We found that children in the intergroup competition condition tended to be risk-averse compared with those who were in the nonintergroup competition condition. Furthermore, we found that an aversion to risk in the intergroup competition condition was driven by such an aversion observed in children from the losing group. In addition, we found a positive relationship between ingroup egalitarianism and risk preference in children from the winning group rather than those from the losing group. Together, our results contribute to the understanding of the effects of group-based experience on children's risk preference and may have important implications for understanding individuals' risky decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974207

  16. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  17. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  18. Ultrasound Monitoring and Age Sonographic Characteristics of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Т.I. Dianova; D.V. Safonov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study ultrasound semiotics of community-acquired pneumonias in children of different age, and its dynamics in the course of treatment. Materials and Methods. Pneumonia semiotics study and dynamic monitoring of the disease have been carried out on the basis of chest ultrasound of 154 children divided into 4 age groups: 14 infants (9.1%) from birth to 3 months; 60 children (39.0%) from 3 months to 3 years of age; 49 children (31.8%) from 4 to 7 years of a...

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  20. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  1. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Forugh Rafii; Fatemeh Oskouie; Mahnaz Shoghi

    2013-01-01

    Background. A good night’s sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG) and those who have not experienc...

  2. Differences by Age Groups in Health Care Spending

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Charles R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Med...

  3. Goal-Orientated Group Intervention for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This study measures the effectiveness of a goal-orientated group intervention using concentrated practice schedules for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The study design is repeated measures. The sample comprises eight children with DCD, aged 7-11 years. Outcome measures are the Movement Assessment Battery for Children…

  4. Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

  5. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  6. Pattern of skin diseases in paediatric age group and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 300 patients from first day of life to 17 years of age were analysed for pattern of skin disorders. School going children formed majority (41.3% of cases followed by preschool children (32%. Infections formed the commonest disorder (31 % followed by eczemas (24%, papulosquamous disorders (12%, infestation (8.6% and urticaria (5.3% while vitiligo, acne vulgaris, alopecia areata and genodermatoses were seen in 2.7% cases each.

  7. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  8. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  9. Effects of Age and Ritalin Dosage on the Mother-Child Interactions of Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Observed the mother-child interactions of three age groups of hyperactive children (N=54) during free play and task settings using two dose levels of Ritalin. Results indicated that the interactions of hyperactive boys with their mothers improve with age, and that Ritalin produces further improvements regardless of age examined. (LLL)

  10. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed. PMID:25358177

  11. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  12. EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Filiz; Ayse Sevim UNAL; Hamide GULER; Kadriye KARDAS

    2006-01-01

    Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6–12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken...

  13. AGING COEFFICIENT IN DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Farhud

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging Coefficient (AC, or aged–child ratio, is the number of individuals aged 65 years and over, divided by the number of individuals aged 0-14, multiplied by 100. In this point–descriptive study, the aging coefficient has been calculated for the followers of four different religions, for the past four respective decades, according to sex and locality. Overall age composition in different religious groups, in a decreasing order is: Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians showed a slight decrease in the 80’s and a higher increase afterward. Moslems show a more consistent mode, but with a slight increase in the last decade; but in all cases AC has been lower than 15, presenting a higher proportion of a young population or lower aged group. The increase of AC in each group can be caused by the old age survival, i.e. increasing life expectancy, or decreasing birth rate

  14. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  15. Young children's experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernebo, Karin; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-01-01

    The risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) between caregivers is increased during early childhood. The adverse effects on the health and development of the youngest children may be severe. Effective and promising interventions for children who have experienced IPV have been developed and evaluated. However, there is a lack in knowledge about how the children themselves experience the interventions. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of group treatment designed to improve the psychological health of young children in the aftermath of family violence by elucidating the children's experiences of participating. Nine children, aged 4 to 6 years, were interviewed after participating in group programmes specifically designed for children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence. A semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions was used. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, to ensure a focus on the children's own views and experiences. Five master themes embracing the children's experiences were identified: joy - positive emotional experience of participation; security - feeling safe; relatedness - relationships within the group; to talk - externalised focus on the violence; and competence - new knowledge and skills. Theoretical and clinical implications and the benefit of including very young children's views and experiences in research are discussed. PMID:25410886

  16. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  17. Conflict Competence of Preschool Children and its Relationship with the Sociometric Status of the Child in the Peer Group

    OpenAIRE

    Denisenkova N.S.,; Vyrotskova V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls) aged 5-7 years, attending prep...

  18. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  19. Children's Media Comprehension: The Relationship between Media Platform, Executive Functioning Abilities, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Children's media comprehension was compared for material presented on television, computer, or touchscreen tablet. One hundred and thirty-two children were equally distributed across 12 groups defined by age (4- or 6-years-olds), gender, and the three media platforms. Executive functioning as measured by attentional control, cognitive…

  20. An Analysis of Personal Event Narratives Produced by School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Kristina M.; Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.

    This study compared and analyzed the language capabilities of 10 school-age children raised in either single parent homes resulting from divorce or in two parent families. More specifically, it compared the context and complexity of oral personal event narratives produced by both groups of children. The study also investigated the usefulness and…

  1. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  2. Identification of Aggressive Behaviour Tendencies in Junior Age Children: First Stage in a Study of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a study of children aged eight to nine years who were presenting aggressive behavior, with the aim of facilitating intervention at an early stage. Results of questionnaires given to teachers, the children themselves, their peer group, and parents are examined. Difficulties that arose in undertaking this study are explored. (Author/CT)

  3. Language Outcomes of School-Aged Internationally Adopted Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that, as a group, many internationally adopted children catch up to their peers in terms of their language development by the time they reach their school-age years. Although this appears to be particularly true for children adopted during the first few years of life, it is not true for all internationally adopted…

  4. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Diez Castilho; Luciana Bertoldi Nucci; Lucca Ortolan Hansen; Samanta Ramos Assuino

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by a...

  5. Group acceptance and emotional competence of preadolescent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jelica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines contribution of emotional competence on socially competent behavior of preadolescents. The following emotional competencies were registered in 397 children: emotion recognition, emotional regulation, empathy and style of coping with aversive emotions. Discriminant analysis was conducted in order to identify emotional competencies that differentiate among the groups of participants with different levels of social preference. The data showed that groups of popular children, rejected children, and children of average sociometric status significantly differ with respect to their emotional competence. Children rejected by their peers displayed the lowest level of emotional competence. .

  6. Evaluation of dental age in protein energy malnutrition children

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vinod; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of dental age is very essential for a dental practitioner in planning treatment and it is a supplementary source of information for Pediatrician, Orthopedician and Endocrinologist. There are few studies in the literature about the comparison of dental with chronological age in protein energy malnutrition children (PEM). Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dental age and chronological age in PEM children. Aims and Objective: To determine and com...

  7. The Effects of a School-Based Atopy Care Program for School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Lee, Youngjin

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based atopy care program (SACP) for children with atopic dermatitis (AD). The program is administered by health teachers who are also school nurses. The study compared groups using a pre- and post-test design. Participants were children with AD and their parents (98 dyads; 32 in the test group and 66 in the control group) sampled from four elementary schools in Seoul. After completing the SACP, parents in the test group had significantly increased knowledge of AD (p = .04) and a greater sense of parental efficacy (p = .02) when compared with the control group. This study derived guidelines that elementary health teachers can use in practice for school-aged children with AD. We concluded that there is sufficient evidence of effectiveness for the SACP to be used as a model for chronic disease management in school-aged children. PMID:24942774

  8. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    area. The obtained results have shown that practically sound school children in Zarafshan valley the contents of cobalt and manganese in hair formed: 0.11±0.017 and 2.75±0.76 and mkg/g respectively and somehow differ from similar indices in adults. So, the contents of cobalt in hairs of children were 2-5 times lower, manganese 2-3 times higher compared with adults. The contents of cobalt in hairs were approximately uniform in boys and girls, and as for manganese in girls it was a little bit higher than in boys. In practically healthy children concentration of cobalt in blood serum makes 0.07 mg/l. in formed elements of blood - 0.019±0.002 mg/l. which is insignificantly lower than in adults [3]. In blood serum of 22 examined practically sound children the contents of cobalt made 0.08±0.03 mg/l, in their saliva - 2.7±1.2 mg/l. These data considered to be the average value of cobalt and manganese concentration which we received during examination of schoolchildren in different age groups. Thus, the results of our investigation indicate that in estimation of microelement index - cobalt and manganese in biosubstrate of practically sound children of school age, it is necessary to take into account the age and sex, as well as biogeochemical peculiarities of the place of residence of the children. The limits of normal values (M±m) indices of the named microelements in children of school age which we have established should be recommended for implementation in making diagnosis of the deficiency of these microelements. It affords to make early reveal of deficiency of Fe, Cu, Zn and other microelements in girls of puberty age out of high risk groups. Its prevention in due time can help the girls to be ready for their pregnancy and successful outcome and in further to decrease anemia and other microelementosis among pregnant and children of early age. (author)

  9. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  10. School maturity of pre-school age visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The sample or research is 310 pre-school age visually impaired children. The average age of the surveyed is 6.3 years, the sharpness of vision is V 0.3–1. The research employed the methods for assessment of children’s maturity for school worked out by G. Gintilienė, D. Butkienė, S. Girdzijauskienė et al. (2005). During the investigation, essential problems of pre-school age visually impaired children have been estimated: a number of hyperactive children increases; also, a number of children w...

  11. Listening to Voices of Children with a Visual Impairment: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Jyoti; Ryan, Barbara; Margrain, Tom H.; Woodhouse, J. Margaret; Davies, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the educational, social and leisure activities and issues that matter to school children and young people with a visual impairment and to compare their lifestyle with fully sighted counterparts. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and the groups were stratified by age, gender, visual status and school…

  12. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  13. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  14. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  15. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  16. Children's Choice Strategies: The Effects of Age and Task Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Assor, Avi; Katz, Idit

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of age and cognitive demands on children's choice strategies. Children aged 8-9 and 12-13 years were asked to choose among either two or four products that differed in several attributes of varying importance to them. Choice tasks were designed to differentiate between the lexicographic and the equal-weighting…

  17. Enamel defect of deciduous teeth in small gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyanti S Syarif

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel defect could be caused by genetic and environmental factors in prenatal period. Meanwhile, prenatal malnutrition could also cause small gestational age (SGA. Small Gestational Age is the term used for a neonatal baby with birthweight below the -2SD normal value or 10th percentile on the intrauterine Lubchenco curve. This condition is due to intra-uterine growth restriction, and eventually ends up with several developmental defects of organs, including teeth. In fact, deciduous tooth development has a critical phase within this development period. Purpose: The aim of this study is not only to find out the incidence of enamel defect in SGA children, but also to know the percentage of SGA risk factor to develop enamel defect. Method: This was a epidemiology research with consecutive admission technique. It consisted of 153 SGA children aged 9–48 months. Next, the Ponderal index was used to assign SGA types, symmetrical or asymmetrical one-in this study 59 and 94 respectively. On the other hand, three hundred and ninety Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA children aged 4–48 months were also included in the study as a control group. Enamel defect then was determined by intraoral examination, classified into hypoplasia and hypocalcifications. Chi-square test was finally used to determine the relative risk ratio between the SGA and the control AGA children. Result: The result of this research showed that incidence of enamel defect in SGA children was 86.92%, meanwhile, that in AGA children was 23.08%, 66.00% of which were commonly suffered from hypocalcification. With p<0.05 it is also known that SGA children has the risk of enamel defect with hypocalcification, about 79% higher than AGA children. Conclusion: It could be concluded that 79% of SGA children had the risk of deciduous tooth enamel defect with hypocalcification as the most.Latar belakang: Defek email dapat terjadi karena faktor genetik dan lingkungan sistemik yang

  18. The formation of in-group favoritism and out-group prejudice in young children: are they distinct attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Frances E

    2003-01-01

    Although standardized measures of prejudice reveal high levels of ethnocentric bias in the preschool years, it may reflect in-group favoritism or out-group prejudice. A measure that partially decouples the two attitudes was given to White children between 4 and 7 years of age to examine the reciprocal relation between and the acquisition and correlates of in-group and out-group attitudes. The two attitudes were reciprocally correlated in 1 sample from a racially homogeneous school but not in a 2nd sample from a mixed-race school. In-group favoritism did not appear until 5 years of age but then reached significant levels; it was strongly related to developing social cognitions. Out-group prejudice was weaker, but its targets suffer from comparison with the high favoritism accorded in-group members. PMID:12518808

  19. Rituals among children aged from two to three years

    OpenAIRE

    Terčelj, Mateja

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis, titled 'Rituals Among Children Aged From Two to Three Years', I have tried to describe the concept of dance, its beginnings and evolution, while the thesis mostly revolves around dance education of pre-school children. I have presented the characteristics of dance education, motive and dancing growth of a pre-school child, the relaxing function of movement, consideration of educational principles, methods of dance education, basic dance education for children up to age...

  20. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling Zhu; Feng Li; Junli Wang; Lixiao Shen; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-...

  1. Children with differing developmental trajectories of prelinguistic communication skills: Language and working memory at age 5

    OpenAIRE

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following our work outlining six groups of children with different trajectories of Early Communication Development (ECD, Määttä et al., 2012), we examined their later development by psychometric assessment. Ninety-one children first assessed at age 12 to 21 months completed a battery of language and working memory tests ...

  2. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Margarida F. Cardoso; Mendonça, Denisa

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child’s adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal, multi-informant study was conducted. The sample consisted of 519 school-aged children from the Portuguese general population. Parental rearing styles w...

  3. The Castor Moving Group The age of Fomalhaut and Vega

    CERN Document Server

    Barrado y Navascués, D

    1998-01-01

    We have recomputed the kinematic properties of several of dozens nearby stars, to try to verify if Castor has a cohort of stars sharing the same space motion and age. We used kinematics, the location of the stars in CM diagrams, their lithium abundances, and their activity, to establish that the moving group seems to be real and to reject several stars which were believed to be part of this group. Of the initial 26 stars, we show that probably only 16 stars are physically associated. The moving group contains several A spectral type stars. Among them, Vega and Fomalhaut, two of the prototypes of the beta Pic type stars. Since this association includes several late spectral type stars, we used their properties to estimate their age and, therefore, the age of the group and that of Vega and Fomalhaut. Our estimate for that age is 200$\\pm$100 Myr.

  4. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.

  5. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  6. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Halil ÖZCAN; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency ...

  7. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children......Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...

  8. EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ARSLAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6–12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken education from first step of the Ankara-Cigiltepe Primary Education School. Mean age of school age children who were involved in study was 9.1±1.5. It was detemined that 43% of children (n=43 were watching TV more than 3 hours a day, 54% of them were watching TV to relieve their boredom and 48% of them were watching TV because they like watching. When the spare time activities of children were examined it was determined that they were spending their time by playing and making sportive activities with the highest rate (n=95, 26.1%, and television viewing was in the third order (n=61, 17.3%. In this study, it was determined that most of the children were watching TV under the offered time, children whose mother were not working were watching TV for longer time, and TV watching time of the children were increasing with increasing age. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 391-401

  9. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew;

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental determinants...... of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time points in 1018 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples....... Age acceleration (AA) was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal...

  10. Children's learning of number words in an indigenous farming-foraging group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Gibson, Edward

    2014-07-01

    We show that children in the Tsimane', a farming-foraging group in the Bolivian rain-forest, learn number words along a similar developmental trajectory to children from industrialized countries. Tsimane' children successively acquire the first three or four number words before fully learning how counting works. However, their learning is substantially delayed relative to children from the United States, Russia, and Japan. The presence of a similar developmental trajectory likely indicates that the incremental stages of numerical knowledge - but not their timing - reflect a fundamental property of number concept acquisition which is relatively independent of language, culture, age, and early education. PMID:24766463

  11. Comparative evaluation of dental age, bone age, and chronological age in the human immunodeficiency virus positive children

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar; Kavitha Patil; Munoli, Karishma B

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: The knowledge of bone age and dental age is of great importance for pediatrician and pediatric dentist. It is essential for pediatric dentist to formulate treatment plan and it is a source of complementary information for pediatrician. There are few studies in literature, which showed the relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in HIV-positive children. Therefore, objective of this study was to determine and compare dental age, bone age and ch...

  12. Cebollati group, Nico Perez terrane: Definition and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cebollati Group (Nico Perez Terrane) is formally erected in this work to include a meta sedimentary succession informally known as Las Teta s Complex. It is shown that the stratigraphy of the unit can be reconstructed at a number of sections between Minas and Zapicìn, using sedimentary structures and stromatolites as geo petal indicators. The basement of the group is represented by metamorphic rocks and granitoids of the La China Complex, for which a new U-Pb zircon age of 3.029 ± 54 Ma is presented. The Cebollatií Group comprises, from base to top, three formations: the Arroyo Ma lo Formation (sandstones and petites), Cerro de Valuable Formation (dolostones, partly stromatolitic, and p elites) and the Cerro del Diamant e Formation (p elites, BIF, quartz-pebble conglomerates and sandstones). The mean thickness of the Cebollatií Group is ca. 2 km, being greatest in the south and diminishing to the north. Available ages for the unit suggested a Neoarchean depositional age of 2.75 Ga. However, in this work 12 Nd model ages are presented for sedimentary rocks of the Cebollatí Group, which are mostly younger than 2.75 Ga, the youngest being 1.64 Ga. These ages call into question the Neoarchean age accepted for the unit, suggesting a Meso proterozoic depositional age. The evidence supporting both views is discussed in view of the new data. The minimum age of the Cebollatí Group is 1.3 Ga on the basis of carbon isotope ratios of dolostones and deformational ages consistently around 1.25 Ga

  13. Age and Gender-Related Changes in Biogenic Amine Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Krystyna; Rokicki, Dariusz; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Mierzewska, Hanna; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Pronicka, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of cerebrospinal biogenic amines (dopamine and serotonin)are an important tool in clinical research and diagnosis of children with neurotransmitter disorders. In this article we focused on finding relationships between the concentration of biogenic amine metabolites, age, and gender. We analyzed 148 samples from children with drug resistant seizures of unknown etiology and children with mild stable encephalopathy aged 0-18 years. A normal profile of biogenic amineswas found in 107 children and those children were enrolled to the study group. The CSF samples were analyzed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. The concentrations of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, were high at birth, gradually decreasing afterward until the 18 years of age. Nevertheless, the HVA/5-HIAA ratio did not vary with age, except in the children below 1 year of age. In the youngest group we observed a strong relationship between the HVA/5-HIAA ratio and age (r = 0.69, p biogenic amine metabolites is age and sex dependent. PMID:26453071

  14. Evaluation of Hair and Scalp Diseases in Pediatric Age Group

    OpenAIRE

    Seval Doğruk Kaçar; Pınar Özuğuz; Şemsettin Karaca

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The hair and scalp diseases in children are studied in a wide range. Various diseases were considered in the differential diagnosis according to the age of onset and clinical patterns. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the frequency and main clinical features of hair and scalp diseases in patients admitted pediatric dermatology (PD) outpatient clinic. Methods: 159 patients with hair and scalp diseases which were distinguished among the records of 2641 patients under 18 years ...

  15. INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAILWAYS OPERATORS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaeva V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of some individual psychological characteristics of the drivers of rail transport in the age groups 25–34 and 35–45 years. We have identified a number of differences between the two age groups associated with both features individually-psychological sphere, and in the psycho-physiological features. Features of age-related psychological differences can be explained by the age characteristics of the representatives of each group; psycho-physiological features of age differences may reflect developed in the course of a long professional activity features. We have also developed adaptive strategies, consciously or unconsciously selected during the long-running monotonous activities and in small social groups (teams of drivers allow, on the one hand, higher quality performance of their professional duties, on the other — to avoid the harmful effects of stressful situations at work. It can be assumed that the composition of drivers age group 35– 45 years is the result of natural selection, when those who did not cope with this type of activity is simply dismissed or transferred to other kinds of professions

  16. Equestrian trauma: injury patterns vary among age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilaniuk, Jaroslaw W; Adams, John M; DiFazio, Louis T; Siegel, Brian K; Allegra, John R; Luján, Juan J; Durling-Grover, Renay; Pawar, Joanne; Rolandelli, Rolando H; Németh, Zoltán H

    2014-04-01

    Patients with equestrian injuries were identified in the trauma registry from 2004 to 2007. We a priori divided patients into three groups: 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years old or older. There were 284 patients identified with equestrian-related trauma. Injury Severity Score for the three major age categories 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years or older, were 3.47, 5.09, and 6.27, respectively. The most common body region injured among all patients was the head (26.1%). The most common injuries by age group were: 0 to 18 years, upper extremity fractures; 19 to 49 year olds, concussions; and 50 years or older, rib fractures. Significant differences were observed among the three age groups in terms of percent of patients with rib fractures: percent of patients with rib fractures was 2, 8, and 22 per cent in age groups 0 to 18, 19 to 49, and 50 years or older, respectively. We found different patterns of injuries associated with equestrian accidents by age. Head injuries were commonly seen among participants in equestrian activities and helmet use should be promoted to minimize the severity of closed head injuries. Injury patterns also seem to vary among the various age groups that ride horses. This information could be used to better target injury prevention efforts among these patients. PMID:24887673

  17. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children less than two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Yoon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Methods : A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. Results : In total, 120 children were in the normal group (mean age, body weight and heights 12.5±7.0, 9.3±0.9 kg and 76.8±1.1 cm, and 51 children in the vitamin D insufficiency group (9.9±5.4 months, 9.0±0.9 kg and 75.1±0.9 cm. Vitamin D insufficiency was most commonly diagnosed in the spring (44%. The proportion of complete breast-feeding was higher in the insufficiency (92%, and 25.5% of the children in the deficient group also experienced IDA compared that 12% of normal group. Ten children in the insufficiency group experienced bony changes. Six children received calcitriol medication in the normal group, in whom the mean vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level increased from 39.6±14.6 ng/mL (pre-medication to 41.8±17.2 ng/mL (post-medication, and 13 in the insufficiency group, in whom the mean vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased from 20.7±7.0 ng/ mL to a mean post-treatment level of 43.7±23.8 ng/mL. Conclusion : This study demonstrated that approximately 30% of children aged ?#178; years experienced vitamin D insufficiency associated with subclinical rickets. Many children also experienced concurrent IDA. Guidelines for vitamin D supplement in such children must therefore be established.

  18. Early group bias in the Faroe Islands: Cultural variation in children's group-based reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mariah G; Shusterman, Anna; Barth, Hilary; Patalano, Andrea L

    2016-09-01

    Recent developmental research demonstrates that group bias emerges early in childhood. However, little is known about the extent to which bias in minimal (i.e., arbitrarily assigned) groups varies with children's environment and experience, and whether such bias is universal across cultures. In this study, the development of group bias was investigated using a minimal groups paradigm with 46 four- to six-year-olds from the Faroe Islands. Children observed in-group and out-group members exhibiting varying degrees of prosocial behaviour (egalitarian or stingy sharing). Children did not prefer their in-group in the pretest, but a pro-in-group and anti-out-group sentiment emerged in both conditions in the posttest. Faroese children's response patterns differ from those of American children [Schug, M. G., Shusterman, A., Barth, H., & Patalano, A. L. (2013). Minimal-group membership influences children's responses to novel experience with group members. Developmental Science, 16(1), 47-55], suggesting that intergroup bias shows cultural variation even in a minimal groups context. PMID:26444259

  19. Peer Group Status of Gender Dysphoric Children: A Sociometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wallien, Madeleine S. C.; Veenstra, Rene; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2010-01-01

    In this sociometric study, we aimed to investigate the social position of gender-referred children in a naturalistic environment. We used a peer nomination technique to examine their social position in the class and we specifically examined bullying and victimization of gender dysphoric children. A total of 28 children (14 boys and 14 girls), referred to a gender identity clinic, and their classmates (n = 495) were included (M age, 10.5 years). Results showed that the gender-referred children...

  20. Effects of the Use of Visual Strategies in Play Groups for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Flores, Margaret M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of visual strategies with preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their peers during play group sessions. A changing-criterion design was implemented with three preschool-aged children with ASD while they participated in play groups with four typically-developing peers.…

  1. Helping the In-Group Feels Better: Children's Judgments and Emotion Attributions in Response to Prosocial Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Drika; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Five- to 13-year-old European American children ("N" = 76) predicted characters' decisions, emotions, and obligations in prosocial moral dilemmas. Across age, children judged that characters would feel more positive emotions helping an unfamiliar child from the racial in-group versus out-group (African American), happier ignoring the needs of a…

  2. Serum Zinc Level in Children with Febrile Convulsion and its Comparison with that of Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Vahid Harandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element (such as zinc changes in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. The aim of the present prospective analytical case-control study was to determine whether there was any changes in serum zinc level in children with febrile convulsion during seizure.Methods: Ninety-two children aged 6 months to 5 years were divided into three groups: group A, 34 children with febrile convulsion, group B, 40 children having fever without convulsion, and group C, and 18 children with non-febrile convulsion. Serum zinc levels for the three groups were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Data were analyzed to compare zinc level among the three groups using appropriate statistical tools employing SPSS 13.Findings: Serum zinc levels of groups A, B, and C had a mean value of 76.82±24.36mg/1, 90.12±14.63 mg/1 and 94.53±17.39 mg/l, respectively. Serum zinc level of group A was lower than those of the other two groups (P<0.006. It was also lower in group B than in group C (P<0.006.Conclusion: These findings revealed that serum zinc level decreases during infection; this decrease was more significant in patients with febrile convulsion.

  3. Current trends and age-based differences of unintentional injury in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Natsuki; Honda, Chikako; Nagata, Satoko

    2016-05-23

    Unintentional injury in children is a worldwide public health problem, as it increases the health burden and is a leading cause of death among children. It is important to understand the differences between different age groups of children in regard to unintentional injury, in order to effectively implement child safety education. The present study aimed to determine the current trends of unintentional injury in children, and to identify the differences between different age groups of children with regard to unintentional injury. We identified 1,521 children who attended an 18-month health checkup (18-month group), and 1,368 children who attended a 36-month health checkup (36-month group), between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The rate of hospital visits associated with unintentional injury was 10.6% (161/1,521) in the 18-month group, and 13.1% (180/1,368) in the 36-month group. In both groups, present/past illness was associated with hospital visits, and in the 36-month group, hospital visits were more common in boys than in girls. The number of unintentional injuries that occurred outdoors was higher in the 36-month group than in the 18-month group. Unintentional injuries resulting from accidental ingestion and falls were more common in the 18-month group, while unintentional injuries resulting from turning over were more common in the 36-month group. In conclusion, the number of hospital visits for unintentional injury might be higher, and the number of preventive actions taken by mothers might be lower, among children attending the 36-month health checkup than among those attending the 18-month health checkup. PMID:27020119

  4. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Batan Alith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years. Methods: From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. Results: The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012; "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001; "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008. In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups, whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups. Conclusions: In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  5. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  6. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  7. User involvement: children's participation in a parent-baby group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maconochie, Heloise; McNeill, Fiona

    2010-08-01

    According to the National Service Framework, children have a right to participate in the development of healthcare services and yet research suggests that young children are at risk of exclusion from user involvement initiatives. This paper outlines the findings of a participatory action research project conducted with families attending a health visitors' parent-baby group. A combination of participatory research methods were used to ascertain the infants' perspectives of the service and this led to a number of changes in terms of professional attitudes, service provision and working practices. Changes in professional attitudes included acknowledging the importance of social interaction to the children, recognising young children's views as embodied and produced within social interactions, and respecting children as active contributors and not simply as passive recipients of healthcare services. Changes in service provision resulted in redistributing resources, structures and spaces to take account of children's perspectives. Finally, reciprocity and responsiveness were seen as key components in enhancing young children's participation. PMID:20722326

  8. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  9. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slater

    Full Text Available Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  10. Discordance Rates Between AMH and FSH in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Selcuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the discordance rates between anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH levels according to different age groups in a cohort of Turkish women. Material and Method: This retrospective study was conducted at infertility clinics of Zeynep Kamil Training and Research Hospital. Patients were divided into 4 groups as %u2264 30 years, 31-35 years, 36-39 years, and %u2265 40 years to evaluate the discordance between AMH and FSH in terms of age. Discordance rates, and median level of AMH and of FSH were determined for each age group. Results: 467 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. 35.1% (n=164, 28.3% (n=132, 22.7%(n=106, and 13.9% (n=65 of patients were %u2264 30 years, 31-35 years, 36-39 years, and %u2265 40 years, respectively. The discordance rates in terms of normal AMH but abnormal FSH level were 4.2%, 6.7%, 11.0%, 17.9% in the %u2264 30, 31-35, 36-39, %u226540 years age groups, respectively, whereas the discordance rates in terms of normal FSH but abnormal AMH levels were 6.2%, 8.5%, 16.7%, 17.9% in the same age groups, respectively. Discussion: Discordance rates steadily increased with advancing age both for concerning AMH-reassuring FSH and concerning FSH-reassuring AMH. Data from our study and the literature lead us to conclude that age-based AMH and FSH levels and also that discordance between these parameters may vary among different ethnic groups.

  11. Subclinical Vitamin D Insufficiency in Korean School-aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sang Woo; Kang, Ha Ra; Kim, Han Gyum; Kim, Joo Hyun; Uhm, Ji Hyun; Seo, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Recently, vitamin D insufficiency has increased and has been correlated to growth and puberty in children. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of subclinical vitamin D insufficiency and its influence on school-aged children in Korea. Methods The subjects of this study were 397 children aged 7 to 15 years who had been tested for 25-OH vitamin D3 among the outpatients of the Department of Pediatrics in Eulji General Hospital from March 2007 to February 2011. Data for age, se...

  12. Resistance of group A beta Haemolytic streptococcus isolated from children with tonsillopharyngitis against commonly used antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Cüneyt Tayman; Alparslan Tonbul; Gül Güner Soylu; Halise Akça; Ferhat Çatal

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility (penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, amoxicillin and azithromycin), of A group beta haemolytic streptococci (AGBHS) isolated from children with tonsillopharyngitis.Materials and methods: AGBHS were isolated from throat swaps cultures according to CLSI criteria from children aged 5 to 15 years who applied to the Pediatric outpatient policlinics with complaints of high fever, sore throat and difficulty in swallowing. Antimicrobial...

  13. A PROFILE OF BLOOD PRESSURE PATTERN IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN AGED 6 TO 12 YEARS IN SUBURBAN CHENNAI

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh; Antony; Ambujavalli; Thirunavukarasu, MR

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study Blood Pressure (B.P.) Pattern in normal school children in the age group of 6–12 years. OBJECTIVES: To determine Blood pressure pattern in school going children so that the prevalence of Hypertension in young adults can be predicted and mortality due to the disease can be prevented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a Prospective cross sectional study with Sample Size 1,400 children (Minimum 100 in each group). Children of both sexes between the age group of 6 – 12 ...

  14. Young children's motor interference is influenced by novel group membership

    OpenAIRE

    Schaik, J.E. van; Endedijk, H.M.; Stapel, J.C.; Hunnius, S.

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood onward, individuals use behavior copying to communicate liking and belonging. This non-verbal signal of affiliation is especially relevant in the context of social groups and indeed both children and adults copy in-group more than out-group members. Given the societal importance of inter-group interactions, it is imperative to understand the mechanistic level at which group modulations of copying occur early in development. The current study was designed to investigate th...

  15. Fluency Remediation in Dyslexic Children: Does Age Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Brenbati, Federica; Donini, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether older dyslexic children may obtain fewer gains on fluency and accuracy with respect to their younger peers after specific remediation. Changes in accuracy and fluency of a group of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia attending third and fourth grades were compared with those obtained by a group of…

  16. Ethnic group and survival from childhood cancer: report from the UK Children's Cancer Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, C A; Bunch, K. J.; Lewis, I. J.

    2000-01-01

    Survival following cancer was analysed in relation to ethnic group among children diagnosed in Britain during 1981–1996 and treated at paediatric oncology centres by members of the UK Children's Cancer Study Group. Survival was analysed for 11 diagnostic groups: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, astrocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumour, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyos...

  17. Human group A rotavirus infections in children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, S; Böttiger, B; Jensen, T G;

    2014-01-01

    One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children...

  18. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  19. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To......Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that more than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight and ten per cent of the world’s school aged children are estimated to carry excess body fat. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of immediate...... Intervention had beneficial, but non significant effect on mean BMI or mean Total Body Fat percentage (TBF%), but a significant beneficial effect on overweight and obesity prevalence, as children at intervention schools had a significant reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese after 2 school years...

  20. Group acceptance and emotional competence of preadolescent children

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Jelica; Zotović Marija

    2007-01-01

    This study examines contribution of emotional competence on socially competent behavior of preadolescents. The following emotional competencies were registered in 397 children: emotion recognition, emotional regulation, empathy and style of coping with aversive emotions. Discriminant analysis was conducted in order to identify emotional competencies that differentiate among the groups of participants with different levels of social preference. The data showed that groups of popular children, ...

  1. MRI manifestations of thymus in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients in various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study MRI findings of the thymus in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) in different age groups and to analyze the relationship between the morphological changes of thymus and the MG. Methods: In total 90 patients with MG (male: female=43:47) received MR scan and were divided into four groups (group A, B, C and D) by age. Fourteen patients out of 90 received additional enhanced scan. Group A included 33 patients aged under 10 years (m:f=18:15); 27 patients aged 11-25 years were in group B (m:f=12:15); group C had 17 patients aged 26-50 years (m:f=6:11); and in group D there were 13 patients whose ages were over 51 years (m:f=7:6). And 30 Non-MG patients aged 8-75 years were selected as control group, in which the thickness, the fat collection, and glandulous atrophy of thymus was studied on CT. Results: 1) The thymus was unremarkable in 44 cases out of 90 (48.88%). 2) Enlarged thymus was shown in 42 cases out of 90 (46.66%), in which non-nodular enlargement was revealed in 34 cases and nodular enlargement in 8 cases. There were 27 cases with abnormality of thymus out of 33 (81.81%) in group A, 12 cases out of 27 (44.44%) in group B and 3 cases in group C, but no abnormality was found in group D. 3) Only 4/90 patients (4.44%) had thymic mass that respectively seen in one case of group B, two of group C and one of group D. No evidence of the involvement of the adjacent structure was found on MRI in the cases of thymic mass. No thymus enlargement was revealed in control group. Fat collection in thymus was seen in both study groups and control group. Conclusion: Intimate relationship between the abnormality of the thymus gland and MG exists in children and teenagers. While in the middle-aged patients or the seniors, further studies should be made to find out whether there is a correlation

  2. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention. PMID:26537543

  3. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  4. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined.

  5. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on ... Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler Health Maternal and Infant Health Newborn Screening Nutrition, ...

  6. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Diez Castilho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group.METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity.RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity was higher in private schools (37.3% than in public ones (32.9% and among males (37.5%, compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05. The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0 and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0. The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4 and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group.

  7. EL DESEMPEÑO SENSORIAL DE UN GRUPO DE PRE-ESCOLARES Y ESCOLARES CON DIFICULTADES EN LAS ACTIVIDADES COTIDIANAS Evaluation of sensory modulation in a children group of preschool and school age with deficits in daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio G María Helena

    2010-12-01

    , in correctly appreciating their abilities, and in taking responsibilities for their actions. Traditionally, assessment and intervention with these children has focused on the disability management. The ICF recognizes the individuality and the barriers and facilitators stemming from environmental and personal factors. Objectives. Compare the evaluation of children group with sensory integration deficit from the point of view of disability and CIF evaluation on daily activities deficits. Materials and Methods. The study was exploratory and descriptive, six pre-school and twenty-two students who attended SERH between September 2008 and March 2009. We compared and coded the score for each element of the sensory profile Based upon these; we evaluated bodily functioning and participation in daily activities. Results. The results demonstrate compatibility between the functions and participation activities and sections of sensory processing, but not, in relation to the factors for the specificity of the test. Characterization of sensory processing conditions is feasible with the combined use of references. Conclusion. This study shows that sensory stimulation can have a positive impact in development and performance of daily activities in disabled children. There is increasing need to provide appropriate treatment alternatives through proper professional and family education.

  8. Invertebrates in field margins:taxonomic group diversity and functional group abundance in relation to age

    OpenAIRE

    Noordijk, J.; Snoo, De, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Sown, temporary field margins are a common agri-environment scheme (AES) in the Netherlands. Despite their wide application, though, there has been scarcely any long-term monitoring of the succession of invertebrates. In the field margins of 40 farms, invertebrate diversity and the abundance of three functional groups were assessed in relation to age. The diversity in terms of number of species groups was found to increase with the age of the margins. The abundance of herbivores and detritivo...

  9. Invertebrates in field margins: taxonomic group diversity and functional group abundance in relation to age

    OpenAIRE

    Noordijk, J.; Musters, C. J. M.; van Dijk, J.; de Snoo, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Sown, temporary field margins are a common agri-environment scheme (AES) in the Netherlands. Despite their wide application, though, there has been scarcely any long-term monitoring of the succession of invertebrates. In the field margins of 40 farms, invertebrate diversity and the abundance of three functional groups were assessed in relation to age. The diversity in terms of number of species groups was found to increase with the age of the margins. The abundance of herbivores and detritivo...

  10. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  11. DENTAL CARIES AND MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN BELOW AGE OF FIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Prospective and cross sectional study was conducted in city, Fazilka, Punjab. It covered a sample of 440 children under age of five years. Sample selected by random multi stage sampling method. Selection done from schools, anganwadi and slum areas. It was found that dental caries affected 11.6% ( 51/440) of children. Dental caries were significantly, ( p

  12. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...

  13. Aging Parents and Adult Children: Research Themes in Intergenerational Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Jay A.; Blieszner, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following dominant themes in the relationships of older parents and their adult children within the context of societal age structure changes: roles and responsibilities, parent-child interaction, individual well-being, relationship quality, and caregiving by adult children. Concludes with speculations on the future of research on…

  14. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  15. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  16. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Boeke, Caroline E; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Elsie M. Taveras; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods: In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficie...

  17. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Boeke, Caroline E; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Elsie M. Taveras; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficient...

  18. INVESTIGATION OF URINARY CONTINANCE AGES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ENURETIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin BILBAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine the age of urinary continance of primary school students who had no enuresis problem and had secondary enuresis. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on four primary schools of Meram district which were selected by using simple random sample method. Totally, 1399 students who had no enuresis and had secondary enuresis were included to the study. The age of urinary continance of the students and presence of diurnal, nocturnal and continual enuresis in the secondary enuresis group were investigated. Results: The mean urinary continance age of the students was 22.0 ± 7.1 months. Urinary continance age of the male students was 1.2 months bigger than the female students. The prevalance of secondary enuresis was found as 5.6 %. The frequency of secondary enuresis in male students was 2.1 fold higher than in female ones. Of the 87 students with secondary enuresis, 18.4% was diurnal, 60.9 % was nocturnal and 20.7 % was continual enuresis. Conclusion: Toilet education should be given to children by their parents starting before 22 months of age, which was obtained as urinary continance age of primary school students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 41-49

  19. The prevalence of lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance in Chinese children of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine lactose metabolism and lactase activity in Chinese children of different ages, prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD), and lactose intolerance (LI). Methods All 1168 healthy subjects between 3 and 13 years were recruited from schools in four large cities in China. They were screened by a 25 g lactose tolerance test.Some subjecls were challenged with .50 g milk powder on different days. Both indicators,the expiratory H2 concentration and intolerance symptoms, were analyzed. Results LD occurred in 38.5% of children in the 3-5 year age group, and 87% of the 7-8 year and 11-13 year old groups. The age of occurrence for LD may be at 7-8 years among Chinese children. The prevalence of LI among Chinese children was 12.2% alage 3-5 years, 33.1% at age 7-8 years, and 30.5% al age 11-13 years, respectively. Conclusion The results demonstrate that LD is very common in Chinese children from these four cities. LD and LI have a dose dependent response: lactose absorption and symptorms are based on lactase activity. The relationship between breast feeding history (or the history of cow milk intake) and lactase activity among Chinese children has not been established.

  20. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF OVARIAN TUMORS IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ovarian tumors are r are in children and constitute 1% of all childhood malignancies and 8% of abdominal tumors. Large cysts and those complicated by torsion make their presence clear by their symptomatology. However, ovarian pathology is still mostly discovered at laparotomy for presumptive appendicitis. Accurate diagnosis of these tumors at such a young age is a great challenge to surgeons and pathologists. This article reviews the clinical presentation, radiological imaging, gross and histopathological findings at the Pathol ogy Department of a Paediatric Referral centre in Hyderabad

  1. Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires

    OpenAIRE

    Rostad, Kristin; Penny M Pexman

    2015-01-01

    We examined the ability of preschool-aged children to identify conflicting, or ambivalent, desire states (e.g., “I want to go to the birthday party because there will be cake, but I also don’t want to go because I’m having fun playing at home”). Participants were 4- and 5-year-old children, and a group of undergraduate students (n = 20 in each age group). They were presented with 14 scenarios involving both “single desire” and “dual desire” states, including both approach (i.e., “want”) and a...

  2. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children less than two years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Park, Cheong Soo; Seo, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Sun; AHN, YOUNG MIN

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. Results In total, 120 children were in the normal group (mean age, body weight and heights 12.5±7.0, 9.3±0.9 kg and...

  3. An own-age bias in age estimation of faces in children and adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Moyse, Evelyne; Brédart, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the occurence of an own-age bias on age estimation performance (better performance for faces from the same age range as that of the beholder) by using an experimental design inspired from research on the own-race effect. The age of participants (10 to 14 year old children and 20 to 30 year old adults) was an independent factor that was crossed with the age of the stimuli (faces of 10 to 14 year old children and faces of 20 to 30 year old adults), the...

  4. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  5. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  6. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  7. On a System Modelling a Population with Two Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of first order ordinary differential equations describing a population divided into juvenile and adult age groups is studied. The system is not cooperative but its linear part is, and this makes it possible to establish the existence and nonexistence results of positive solutions for the system in terms of the principal eigenvalue of the corresponding linearized system.

  8. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth brushing management and ability of children in relation to age and gender. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 children, who attended Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at V.S Dental College and Hospital Bangalore. Children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I: 3-5 years, Group II: 6-8 years, and Group III: 9-11 years. Each child selected his/her favorite toothbrush and brushed his/her teeth under supervision of one instructor. The grip type during tooth brushing was recorded on a videotape and duration of tooth brushing also was noted. The data were analyzed in relation to the age and gender using the chi-square test. ANOVA was used to find if there is any significant difference between the mean brushing times in the different groups. Results: The results of statistical analysis showed that in all cases P> 0.05 for grip preferences and P < 0.001 between age groups 3-5 years and 9-11 years with respect to the mean brushing time. Conclusion: The required manual dexterity for tooth brushing was present in younger age groups.

  9. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  10. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  11. Food selectivity in children with and without an autism spectrum disorder: investigation of diagnosis and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, Jennifer S; Matson, Johnny L; Rieske, Robert D; Adams, Hilary L

    2013-10-01

    Feeding problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), with food selectivity being the most frequently reported. Selectivity based on type and/or texture of food is of concern in those with ASD. Variations in symptom presentation of food selectivity in children with different autism spectrum diagnoses across childhood have not often been investigated. Parent-report of food selectivity was examined in 525 children age 2-18 years diagnosed with autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger's disorder, atypical development, and typical development using information garnered from the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbidity for Children (ASD-CC), a tool to assess emotional issues and comorbid psychopathology. Individuals with an ASD were reported to have significantly more food selectivity than both the atypically developing group and the typically developing group. In addition, the ASD groups, when looked at together, showed a decrease in food selectivity across childhood with significant decrease in the Asperger's disorder group. PMID:23948127

  12. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF MALNUTRITION AMONG SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN IN AN URBAN SLUM IN INDIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ranu; Santosh; Anil Bindhu

    2015-01-01

    Children in the age group of 5 - 14 years are regarded as of school age. 1 A recent estimate (1996 - 2005), in developing world, states that approximately 146 million children are underweight, 39% of whom live in India. 2 Malnutrition comprises of both under nutrition as well as over nutrition. While under nutrition in children has a lways been of high magnitude in developing countries ,over weight and obesity is also increasing in prev...

  13. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings

  14. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, H.; Mortensson, W.; Eriksson, M.; Finkel, Y.; Forsgren, M.; Leinonen, M. [Astrid Lindgren' s Children' s Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Depts. of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatrics

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings.

  15. Age determinations of the Zoetlief Group: a Ventersdorp Supergroup correlative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb and single zircon dating of the Kareefontein Quartz Phorphyry, northeastern Cape Province, South Africa, confirm the correlation proposed by SACS (1980) between the Zoetlief Group and the Ventersdorp Supergroup. Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb whole-rock ages of ca. 2 350 to 1 900 Ma for the Kareefontein permit no definitive interpretation but are nevertheless similar to the age patterns for the Ventersdorp and support the correlation. The clearest evidence is the almost perfect match between the Kareefontein single zircon Pb evaporation date of 2 714 ± 3 Ma and zircon SHRIMP dates for the Makwassie Quartz Porphyry and Klipriviersberg Formation of the Ventersdorp. Nd model ages of 3.05 to 3.22 Ga are interpreted as the minimum age of formation of the crustal protolith parental to the Kareefontein Quartz Porphyry melt. 5 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  17. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  18. Group Rhythmic Synchrony and Attention in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K Khalil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchrony, or the coordinated processing of time, is an often-overlooked yet critical context for human interaction. This study tests the relationship between the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting with the ability to attend in 102 elementary schoolchildren. Impairments in temporal processing have frequently been shown to exist in clinical populations with learning disorders, particularly those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting—an instance of the type of temporal processing necessary for successful interaction and learning—would be correlated with the ability to attend across the continuum of the population. A music class is an ideal setting for the study of interpersonal timing. In order to measure synchrony in this context, we constructed instruments that allowed the recording and measurement of individual rhythmic performance. The SWAN teacher questionnaire was used as a measurement of attentional behavior. We find that the ability to synchronize with others in a group music class can predict a child’s attentional behavior.

  19. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children’s Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP) and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were rated for 414 children with ASD (Autistic Disorder, 69%; PDD-NOS, 24%; Asperger’s Disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without ASD, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7). Partici...

  20. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  1. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. T...

  2. The Group Project for Holocaust Survivors and Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Yael

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program, both rehabilitative and preventive, which provides individual, family, group, and community work for Holocaust survivors and their children. Six group experiences are offered: awareness, self-help, long-term therapy, mixed, multiple-family, and intergenerational. (Author/DB)

  3. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  4. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Peugh, James L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Carroll W.

    2012-01-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n = 54) or to a waitlist control group (n = 51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation ap...

  5. Patterns of anxiety symptoms in toddlers and preschool-age children: Evidence of early differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Godoy, Leandra; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Alice S. Carter

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which young children’s anxiety symptoms differentiate according to diagnostic groupings is under-studied, especially in children below the age of 4 years. Theoretical (confirmatory factor analysis, CFA) and statistical (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) analytical methods were employed to test the hypothesis that anxiety symptoms among 2–3-year-old children from a non-clinical, representative sample would differentiate in a manner consistent with current diagnostic nosology. Anx...

  6. The Effect of Performing Preoperative Preparation Program on School Age Children's Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Nazanin Vaezzadeh; Zahra Esmaeeli Douki; Abbas Hadipour; Soheil Osia; Soheila Shahmohammadi; Roghieh Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of performing preoperative preparation program on children's anxiety.Methods: This study was performed in Amirkola Pediatrics Hospital, Mazandaran. A randomized controlled trail was performed on 122 children (7-12 years of age) admitted for elective surgery during 15 months. The researcher randomly assigned eligible participants in to the experimental and control groups, after pre-test baseline measurement had been taken. Analyzing w...

  7. The Effect of Performing Preoperative Preparation Program on School Age Childrens Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Osia; Abbas Hadipour; Zahra Esmaeeli Douki; Nazanin Vaezzadeh; Soheila Shahmohammadi; Roghieh Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of performing preoperative preparation program on childrens anxiety.Methods: This study was performed in Amirkola Pediatrics Hospital, Mazandaran. A randomized controlled trail was performed on 122 children (7-12 years of age) admitted for elective surgery during 15 months. The researcher randomly assigned eligible participants in to the experimental and control groups, after pre-test baseline measurement had been taken. Analyzing wa...

  8. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  9. Children Bicyclists: Should a Minimum Age be Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Barbara City Dept. of Public Works, CA. Div. of Transportation.

    This paper reports on a Santa Barbara, California study to determine the need for establishing a minimum age for bicyclists using the public roadways, examining the proposition that children below a certain age are developmentally unable to perform safely in traffic. Data on the disproportionate incidence of accident involvement among young…

  10. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Aissaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia. Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years. Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age.

  11. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  12. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  13. Evaluation of Thyroid Diseases by Hormonal Analysis in Pediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana A Shah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among endocrine disorders commonly encountered in pediatric age group, thyroid diseases are more frequent. Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the major problems in this age with worldwide incidence of 1:3000-4000 live birth and in India it is 1:2500-2800. Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of thyroid diseases in newborn and children by hormonal evaluation. Methodology: We have studied 50 children suspected of having signs and symptoms of thyroid diseases. Hormonal evaluation was done by the estimation of serum TSH, T3 and T4. Results: Out of total 50 children, 16 were detected with abnormal hormone level and diagnosed having thyroid diseases. Out of 16 affected children, 4 had congenital hypothyroidism (25%, 6 had subclinical or acquired hypothyroidism (37.5%, 3 had autoimmune thyroiditis (18.75% and 3 had goiter with graves disease (18.75%. Conclusion: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the major preventable thyroid disease if diagnosed early. Other thyroid diseases commonly seen in pediatric age are subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, goiter and rarely hyperthyroidism. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 367-370

  14. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  15. Roentgen study of bone age in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study included 100 children (50 boys and 50 girls) aged from 1 to 18 years with different degree of obesity, classified according to the scheme of Knyazev et al. The bone age was determined by a X-ray method including conventional X-ray study of the left hand at standard conditions. The H. Thiemann - I. Nittz Atlass (1986) was used as a test. It was established that the children with overweight had a change in the bone age which in most cases outstriped the calendar one. It was stated that the determination of the index 'bone age' remained to be a reliable method for studing the obesity effect on the growth and developing of the children' organism. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  16. Observation on curative effect of preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy by occupational therapy in groups%采用小组形式开展作业疗法治疗学龄前脑瘫儿童的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玮玮; 陈国治; 张明武; 罗寀宾; 谭海萍; 蒋锦生

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察以小组形式开展作业疗法治疗学龄前脑瘫儿童的临床效果。方法20例痉挛型双瘫的脑瘫患儿按随机数字表法分为对照组( n=10)和观察组( n=10)。对照组的作业治疗采用一对一的训练方法,观察组采用2名脑瘫儿童为一小组形式开展作业治疗,1次/d,30 min/次,每周5 d,治疗3个月。结果两组治疗后,精细运动功能及日常生活活动能力显著提高(P<0.01),观察组与对照组效果差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论以小组形式与传统一对一形式开展作业治疗均能明显提高脑瘫患儿的精细运动功能及日常生活活动能力,治疗效果差异无统计学意义。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of treating preschool-aged children with cerebral pal-sy by occupational therapy in groups.Methods Twenty children with spastic diplegia were randomly divided into control group(n=10) and observation group(n=10).Occupational therapy of the control group was conducted in a one-to-one training way while the observation group was conducted in groups of 2 children once a day, each time last-ing for 30 minutes, 5 days each week for 3 months.Results After the therapy, the Fine Motor Function( FMF) and Activities of Daily Living(ADL) in both groups significantly improved(P0.05).Conclusion Both occupational therapy in the ways of groups and traditional one-to-one can substantially improve the FMF and ADL of children with cerebral palsy, and there is no significant difference in the treatment effect.

  17. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  18. Indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children. Can age younger than 2 years be a risk factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children are often discussed, including risks of radiation-induced malignancy. Our aim is to identify whether children younger than 2 years have greater risk of traumatic brain injury compared to older children. We enrolled and analysed 1,830 patients younger than 7 years who underwent CT scans after head trauma in our institute. Patients without any symptoms (n=916) were defined as Group A (age<2: n=391, age 2-6: n=525). Patients with extracranial traumatic findings such as scalp hematoma or laceration, and without any neurological symptoms (n=600) were defined as Group B (age<2: n=163, age 2-6: n=437). In order to analyze whether children younger than 2 years have risks of abnormal CT findings due to head trauma, we used the chi-square test in both Group A and Group B. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In Group A, there was no significant difference in the frequency of abnormal CT findings between the younger and older groups (p=0.526). In Group B, however, there was a significant difference between those groups (p=0.0186). We suggest that, based on our findings, children younger than 2 years without any symptoms don't have a greater risk of brain injury compared to older children after minor head trauma. This study might contribute to save those children from receiving unnecessary radiation. (author)

  19. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  20. Dental Treatment Needs in Vancouver Inner-City Elementary School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Samim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the dental treatment needs of inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children and relate them to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods. A census sampling comprising 562 children from six out of eight eligible schools was chosen (response rate was 65.4%. Dental treatment needs were assessed based on criteria from the World Health Organization. Results. Every third child examined needed at least one restorative treatment. A higher proportion of children born outside Canada were in need of more extensive dental treatments such as pulp care and extractions compared to the children born in Canada. There were no statistically significant differences in dental treatment needs between age, gender, or income groups or between children with or without dental insurance (Chi Squared P>0.05. The best significant predictors (Linear Multiple Regression, P>0.05 of higher dental treatment needs were being born outside Canada, gender, time of last dental visit, and family income. Having dental insurance did not associate with needing less treatment. Conclusion. A high level of unmet dental treatment needs (32% was found in inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children. Children born outside Canada, particularly the ones who recently arrived to Canada, needed more extensive dental treatments than children born in Canada.

  1. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-01-01

    The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single ex...

  2. NUTRITIONAL ANAEMIA AMONG CURRENTLY MARRIED FEMALES IN THE REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN RURAL JAMMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vridhee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: More than one - third of world’s women are a naemic with majority residing in developing countries and that too in rural areas. The most highly affected population in the decreasing order is pregnant women, school age children, non - pregnant women and preschool children. Nutritional anaemia has recent ly been ranked as the third leading problem among the women of reproductive age group. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on pregnant ladies only so it was decided to take all the females in the reproductive age group as the study subjects. AIMS: To find out the prevalence of nutritional anaemia among married females of reproductive age group i.e., 15 - 49 years of age in a rural area of Jammu District. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Across - sectional study was undertaken in rural settings. METHODS AND M ATERIAL: House to house visits were made and288married females in the reproductive age group were interviewed and their blood samples were taken for necessary haematological investigations which were done at GMC Jammu. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Percentages an d chi - square test . RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : More than 90% of the females were suffering from anaemia. Majority of them were having microcytic hypochromic blood picture. More than 50% of the subjects were having moderate anaemia as per WHO classification. Nu tritional anaemia was seen in 70.47% of the study subjects while the remaining females were having either no anaemia or anaemia due to other medical reasons. The prevalence of nutritional anaemia was even more among pregnant and lactating females and this finding was found to be statistically significant.

  3. The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

  4. AGE-DEPENDENT FEATURES OF EVOLVING HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Age dynamics of humoral immunity was studied in healthy children, i.e., 11 newborns, 33 infants of 4 to 8 months, 32 children of 1 to 2 years old,, 17 children of 4 to 5 years old, 25 children of 6 to 8 years old, 15 children of 9 to 11 years old, and 28 adolescents of 14 to 16 years old. Evaluation of membrane receptors on B cells was performed by means of three-colour fluorescent label and allowed of characterizing B1 subpopulations (CD19+CD5+CD27-, naпve B2 cells (CD19+CD5-CD27-, and B2 memory cells (CD19+CD5-CD27+. B1 cells have been shown to dominate in blood of newborns and younger children (up to 5 years old. By the contrary, B2 memory cells were nearly undetectable in newborns, and exceeded 20% in adolescents (by 15 years old. Meanwhile, it has been revealed that the amounts of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses did progressively increase with age, whereas IgG2 remained decreased to 50% of adult values for a long time, and reached them by 11 years and later. We suggest that the age dynamics of IgG subclasses is connected with age-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations.

  5. Variability in the Inter-Group Attitudes of White Children: What We Can Learn from Their Ethnic Identity Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Spatzier, Agnieszka; Tobin, Mollie

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the ethnic identity of White (N = 120), Latino (N = 87), and African-American (N = 65) children and early adolescents (aged = 9-14 years), with an emphasis on whether the specific ethnic label White children used to describe themselves might reflect differences in their inter-group attitudes and whether those differences…

  6. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  7. "Friends in Need": Designing and Implementing a Psychoeducational Group for School Children from Drug-Involved Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Martha M.; Nelson-Zlupko, Lani; Kaufman, Eda

    1999-01-01

    Discusses design and use of a model curriculum for latency-aged children in schools located in communities where drug use is pervasive. Results show that children affected by family drug use have workable strategies and skills for coping with aversive environments. Responsiveness of group participants to structure, predictability, and affirmation…

  8. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001) and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001). In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs

  9. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, António, E-mail: pires1961@gmail.com; Martins, Paula [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, Ana Margarida [Laboratório de Fisiologia - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Patricia Vaz; Marinho, Joana [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Marques, Margarida [Laboratório de Estatística da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem, Coimbra (Portugal); Castela, Eduardo [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel [Laboratório de Fisiologia - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-04-15

    Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001) and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001). In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs.

  10. A Clinico - Aetiological Study Of Dermatoses In Paediatric Age Group

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Sadhan K; Saha Dilip K; Roy Alok K

    1995-01-01

    Five hundred patients of the age group 0-12 years were studied for different types of dermatoses. Pyoderma (35.6%), scabies (22.4%) and eczema (17.6%) were the most common dermatological conditions, followed by molluscum contagiosum (4.6%), popular urticaria with insect bite (4%), vitiligo (3.4%), miliaria (2.8%), nevus (1.6%). Other dermatoses (8%) were pityriasis rosea, wart, chicken pox, herpes zoster, acne vulgaris, leprosy, a...

  11. Age group and gender recognition from human facial images

    OpenAIRE

    Shewaye, Tizita Nesibu

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an automatic human gender and age group recognition system based on human facial images. It makes an extensive experiment with row pixel intensity valued features and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficient features with Principal Component Analysis and k-Nearest Neighbor classification to identify the best recognition approach. The final results show approaches using DCT coefficient outperform their counter parts resulting in a 99% correct gender recognition rate and 6...

  12. Use of Medication Prescribed for Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties among Children Aged 6-17 Years in the United ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Children Aged 6–17 Years in the United States, 2011–2012 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and age group, and race and Hispanic origin United States, 2011–2012 1 Females aged 6–17 ...

  13. Anxiety and fear in young school age children from perspective of parents and the children themselves.

    OpenAIRE

    HODKOVÁ, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with children of younger school age and their feelings of anxiety and fear. The aim of this thesis is to conduct a survey of children?s emotions of anxiety and fear and to compare perception of those emotions from the perspective of parents and children. The theoretical part describes the terms anxiety and fear, origin of those emotions and how they are shown. The following chapter deals with the younger school age, describes its characteristics and focuses on cognit...

  14. On the age of the $\\beta$ Pictoris moving group

    CERN Document Server

    Mamajek, Eric E

    2014-01-01

    Jeffries & Binks (2014) and Malo et al. (2014) have recently reported Li depletion boundary (LDB) ages for the {\\beta} Pictoris moving group (BPMG) which are twice as old as the oft-cited kinematic age of $\\sim$12 Myr. In this study we present (1) a new evaluation of the internal kinematics of the BPMG using the revised Hipparcos astrometry and best available published radial velocities, and assess whether a useful kinematic age can be derived, and (2) derive an isochronal age based on the placement of the A-, F- and G-type stars in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). We explore the kinematics of the BPMG looking at velocity trends along Galactic axes, and conducting traceback analyses assuming linear trajectories, epicyclic orbit approximation, and orbit integration using a realistic gravitational potential. None of the methodologies yield a kinematic age with small uncertainties using modern velocity data. Expansion in the Galactic X and Y directions is significant only at the 1.7{\\sigma} and 2.7{\\sigma...

  15. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  16. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  17. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  18. ASSESSING THE ANTHROPOMETRIC, SOMATOTYPE AND SOME PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 8 &10

    OpenAIRE

    AYAN, Vedat

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between the anthropometric, somatotype and some performance characteristics of female children aged between 8–10. In this study 1777 volunteer secondary school female students, at the age of 9±1, from Ankara, participated in the subject group.In our study 11 anthropometric measurements including skinfold thickness, circumference and width measurements etc. were taken. Of performance characteristics, vertical jump test and 20 m short distance ...

  19. Effects of Age, Walking Speed, and Body Composition on Pedometer Accuracy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K.; Hinckson, Erica A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age group, walking speed, and body composition on the accuracy of pedometer-determined step counts in children. Eighty-five participants (43 boys, 42 girls), ages 5-7 and 9-11 years, walked on a treadmill for two-minute bouts at speeds of 42, 66, and 90 m[middle dot]min[superscript -1]…

  20. Structure of physical, psycho-physiological development and physical preparedness of children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Козина, Жаннета Леонидовна; Лахно, Елена Геннадиевна; Москалец, Татьяна Валентинована

    2011-01-01

    The results of determination of structure of physical development are resulted, psycho-physiological possibilities and physical preparedness of children of age-dependent groups, 1-2, 3-4 and 4-5 years. It is set that development of children from 1 to 5 years takes place getertimely. There is a considerable role of indexes in the initial probed age-dependent period (1-2 years) there is a considerable role of indexes of physical development in development of physical qualities and psycho-physio...

  1. Structure of physical, psycho-physiological development and physical preparedness of children of preschool age.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozina Zh.L.; Lakhno E.G.; Moskalets T.V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of determination of structure of physical development are resulted, psycho-physiological possibilities and physical preparedness of children of age-dependent groups, 1-2, 3-4 and 4-5 years. It is set that development of children from 1 to 5 years takes place getertimely. There is a considerable role of indexes in the initial probed age-dependent period (1-2 years) there is a considerable role of indexes of physical development in development of physical qualities and psycho-physio...

  2. Relação de escolaridade, faixa etária e profissão de mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos Relationship of schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Alves Silvério

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a relação do grau de escolaridade, faixa etária e a profissão das mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo 190 mães de crianças entre 0 e 10 anos de idade, com idades de 20 a 45 anos que responderam a um questionário com questões fechadas a respeito de profissão, nível de escolaridade e uso de chupeta e mamadeira de seus filhos RESULTADOS: não foi observada diferença significante entre o grau de escolaridade quanto ao uso de chupeta (p= 0,915. O uso de mamadeira foi significantemente maior nos filhos de mães com ensino superior (p= 0,0124. Não houve diferença significante quanto à faixa etária das mães e a presença desses hábitos nos filhos (chupeta: p=0,427; mamadeira: p=0,427; e, entre mães que trabalham em casa e que trabalham fora de casa (chupeta: p=0,061; mamadeira: p=0,798. Não houve diferença entre mães que trabalham na área da saúde e em outras áreas (chupeta: p=0,339; mamadeira: p=0,455 CONCLUSÃO: as mães com nível superior de escolaridade oferecem significantemente mais mamadeira aos seus filhos, o que não ocorreu quanto ao uso de chupeta. Não foi observada diferença significante quanto ao uso de chupeta e mamadeira em relação à faixa etária e profissão de mães.PURPOSE: to evaluate the relationships among schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children. METHOD: 190 mothers with ages varying from 20 to 45 having children from 0 to 10 took part in this study. Mothers answered a questionnaire with questions regarding profession, schooling level and use of nipples and baby's bottles by their children. RESULTS: no significant differences were found between mothers having primary or secondary education and mothers with higher education regarding the use of nipples (p= 0.915. On the other hand, baby's bottle use was significantly higher among children of mothers with higher

  3. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  4. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghdadi, Ziad D. [Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  5. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  6. Anxiety and Attentional Bias in Preschool-Aged Children: An Eyetracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Helen F; Hudson, Jennifer L; Williams, Tracey; Morris, Talia; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2015-08-01

    Extensive research has examined attentional bias for threat in anxious adults and school-aged children but it is unclear when this anxiety-related bias is first established. This study uses eyetracking technology to assess attentional bias in a sample of 83 children aged 3 or 4 years. Of these, 37 (19 female) met criteria for an anxiety disorder and 46 (30 female) did not. Gaze was recorded during a free-viewing task with angry-neutral face pairs presented for 1250 ms. There was no indication of between-group differences in threat bias, with both anxious and non-anxious groups showing vigilance for angry faces as well as longer dwell times to angry over neutral faces. Importantly, however, the anxious participants spent significantly less time looking at the faces overall, when compared to the non-anxious group. The results suggest that both anxious and non-anxious preschool-aged children preferentially attend to threat but that anxious children may be more avoidant of faces than non-anxious children. PMID:25434325

  7. Iron Deposition in Duodenal Mucosa; A Review and Report of Three Cases in Pediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Moatamed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Ferrous sulfate drops are routinely used in Iran in infants older than 6 months of age. Effect of ferrous sulfate drops in preventive or therapeutic doses on gastrointestinal mucosa of infants is not studied as yet. Upper gastrointestinal complications due to acute iron poisoning are well known in this age group. In this article, we reviewed published articles on iron deposition in upper gastro-intestinal tract and also introduce clinical, endoscopic and histological findings in three cases with iron deposition in duodenal mucosa. Cases Presentation:We encountered three cases of iron deposition in duodenal mucosa among about 8000 biopsies during a 10 year period which is a very low incidence despite routine use of iron supplement in children above 6 months of age in this country. One of our cases suffered from steatorrhea and another from failure to thrive, which raises concern about effects of iron deposition in small intestine. Conclusion:The clinical significance and effects of iron deposition in pediatric age group is yet to be elucidated. Iron deposition as a solitary finding is not reported in duodenal biopsies of infants as yet. Since iron supplement is widely used in this age group, it is justified to consider its deposition and possible effects on absorption.

  8. Behavioral problems and related factors in children of different aged patients with schizophrenia A cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the age growing, changes of behavioral problems in children whose parents had schizophrenia, differences of related factors and ways for particular intervention should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To survey the behavioral problems in children of different aged patients with chizophrenia and investigate the correlation between behavioral problems and related factors in different aged groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Shandong Mental Health Center.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 364 patients with schizophrenia were selected from eleven psychiatric hospitals from June 1999 to June 2000. There were 179 males and 185 females, and their ages ranged from 28 to 45 years. All patients met modified diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia (the second edition),China Classification of Mental Diseases and Diagnostic Criteria. Meanwhile, children of the 364 patients were grouped based on their ages, including 6 - 11 years old group [n =217; 114 males and 103 females;mean age of(9±2) years] and 12 - 16 years old group [n =147; 99 males and 48 females; mean age of(14±1) years]. The Chinese norms of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were regarded as the normal control group.METHODS: Children who received self-made mental health related factors inventory and Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were involved in this study. All children and their parents provided the confirmed consent. Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List was used for parents to mainly evaluate children, and the results manifested various behavioral problems based on different sexes and different ages. Self-made mental health related factors inventory contained questionnaires for parents and children, respectively. In this study,home situation of parents as well as personality characteristics and educational styles of children were mainly evaluated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Scores of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List in different aged children; ② Scores of self-made mental health

  9. Validation of an age-modified caries risk assessment program (Cariogram) in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Twetman, Svante; Stecksèn-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (i) To validate caries risk profiles assessed with a computer program against actual caries development in preschool children, (ii) to study the possible impact of a preventive program on the risk profiles, and (iii) to compare the individual risk profiles longitudinally. MATERIAL AND...... variables associated with caries were collected through clinical examinations and questionnaires, and scored and computed with a risk assessment program (Cariogram). RESULTS: Children assessed as having a "low chance (0-20%) of avoiding caries" had significantly higher caries at 7 years of age compared to...... METHODS: Caries risk was assessed in 125 two-year-old children invited to participate in a 2-year caries-preventive trial with xylitol tablets. At 7 years of age, 103 were available for follow-up, 48 from the former intervention group and 55 from the control group. At baseline and after 5 years, 7...

  10. Small Group Intervention for Children with Attention Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Gail; King, Mary Catherine; Tomlinson, Bill; Vrabel, Ann; Wecks, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Two practice improvement projects that provided small group experiences for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior addressed: communication, friendship, self-control, and social problem solving. One provided activities for elementary students with ADHD (treated with medication only). Another provided…

  11. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25814475

  12. SCREENING MAMMOGRAPHY IN 35-60 YEARS AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Screening mammography among 35-60 years of age group of patients has been clearly shown to reduce mortality from breast cancer. METHODS: Patients were selected from OPDs of various departments. Patients of 35-60 years of ages were included as part of the study. Detail family and menstrual history were taken and then mammography of both breasts was performed. RESULTS: Out of 60 cases coming for screening mammography, 42 were found to be some type of lesions in mammography; however 18 patients were with no findings. Commonest breast density found to be scattered areas of fibro glandular density followed by heterogeneously dense breasts. Most of the patients with heterogeneously dense breast density were found to be in their luteal phase of menstrual cycle. Lesions were classified according to BIRADS category. CONCLUSION: Screening mammography can detect various breast lesions both in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals and thereby helping patient managements.

  13. A Comparative Study of Deep Neck Abscess with Regards to Anatomical Location and Age Groups Using CT and Clinical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Ho; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Young Tong; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Jou, Sung Shick [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate differences anatomical location and age groups on CT and clinical data in deep neck abscess. This study included 200 patients who underwent CT and were diagnosed with a deep neck abscess, from December 2005 to July 2010. Patients were divided into four groups by age (children, adolescent, adult, elderly). Next, the anatomic location, location multiplicity and clinical data regarding the deep neck abscesses were analyzed retrospectively. The deep neck abscesses observed were defined as superficial or deep and partitioned into sub-groups, with further analysis of their clinical data. The incidence of the parapharyngeal abscess was more frequent in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05). The masticator abscess was only observed among patients in the elderly group (p < 0.05). Multiple locations were observed with increased frequency in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05). Swelling in the neck was more frequently observed in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05), cervical lymphadenitis was frequently seen in children and adolescent groups (p < 0.05), and the incidence of symptoms including sore throat were significantly increased in adolescent and adult groups (p < 0.05). Location multiplicity was significantly higher in parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal, submandibular, danger, visceral and masticator spaces than other spaces (p < 0.05). With regards to anatomic location, neck swelling was more frequent in superficial group and sore throat was more frequent in deep group (p < 0.05). Deep neck abscess would show significant differences with regards to the abscess location, location multiplicity, and clinical symptoms according to age. The clinical symptoms observed are dependent on the anatomic location as defined by a superficial or deep abscess.

  14. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged 1-18 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Fecal calprotectin (FC is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age.Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children's stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors.The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g, 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g, 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g, 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p4 years.

  15. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10

  16. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H.Y. Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range age 8.9 (6–15 years, 51% male participated. Median (interquartile range preventer adherence was 30% (17–48% of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence, Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence, living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household, and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis (all p<0.02. In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations.

  17. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (arrhenoblastoma) in adolescent age group

    OpenAIRE

    Swarnalata Samal; Amogh Chimote; Rohit Juneja; Madhuprita Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Arrhenoblastoma, also known as Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors or androblastomas, are very rare neoplasm of the ovaries, resulting in the overproduction of the male hormone testosterone. This is a rare tumour which accounts for less than 0.5% of all ovarian tumours. These tumours are found in women of all age groups, but are most common in young women. Presence of an ovarian tumour plus hormonal disturbances suggests a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour. Patients present with a recent history of progressi...

  18. A Clinico - Aetiological Study Of Dermatoses In Paediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sadhan K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred patients of the age group 0-12 years were studied for different types of dermatoses. Pyoderma (35.6%, scabies (22.4% and eczema (17.6% were the most common dermatological conditions, followed by molluscum contagiosum (4.6%, popular urticaria with insect bite (4%, vitiligo (3.4%, miliaria (2.8%, nevus (1.6%. Other dermatoses (8% were pityriasis rosea, wart, chicken pox, herpes zoster, acne vulgaris, leprosy, angular stomatitis, pruritus vulvae, psoriasis, candidiasis, condylomatalata, fixed drug relation, tinea capitis and corporis, phrynoderma, alopecia areata, phimosis, geographic tongue, trichotillomania, canitis, pediculosis, hypertrophic scar and pityriasis versicolor.

  19. School adaptation of Greek children after remigration : age differences in multiple domains

    OpenAIRE

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Hopf, Diether

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the patterns of adjustment of Greek remigrant children (coming from the former Federal Republic of Germany) as compared to their peers in the Greek public schools. Teacher, peer, and self-ratings were used and achievement data were obtained. The sample consisted of two age groups, elementary and secondary school students of public schools in Greece. The remigrant students were divided into two groups ("early return" and "late return") based on the year of re...

  20. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  1. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jee Suk [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  2. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  3. Perceived Stress, Perceived Social Support, and Wellbeing among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skok, Anita; Harvey, David; Reddihough, Dinah

    2006-01-01

    Background: The study considers how severity of disability, perceived stress, and perceived social support impact on the well-being of a group of mothers caring for school-aged children with cerebral palsy. Method: Forty-three mothers attending clinics at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia were interviewed and completed the…

  4. Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

  5. Could Visual Impairment in the Pediatric Age Group Be Reduced?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Ceyhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric age is the most important period for preventive eye care services and research. Vision loss in this period could cause a long life without sight and also significant financial and moral losses, in terms of people and society. Rational screening programs may reduce vision loss in childhood and this issue increases the value of the subject. Retinopathy of prematurity, congenital/infantile cataracts and glaucoma, optic nerve and retinal pathologies, refractive errors, amblyopia, and strabismus are the major clinical pictures causing visual loss in childhood. Using the epidemiological data, it could be estimated that every year approximately two to three thousand children suffer an ophthalmologic disease that causes significant visual loss. Regarding the refractive errors and amblyopia, it could be estimated that hundreds of thousands of children need ophthalmological follow-up in the country. For the timely treatment of these pathologies, a couple of short eye examination programs seem more realistic. Childhood vision loss in the country could be reduced, by informing pediatricians and family physicians and by proper guiding of the public opinion. Effective eye screening could be achieved with the implementation of simple methods like red reflex/Brückner test with ophthalmoscopy, or simultaneous (binocular retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy of both eyes. Screening programs could be spread throughout the country by appropriate training of the physicians in the health institutions of the country. Screening programs will contribute to reduce the rate of visual disability by disseminating ophthalmologic practices throughout the country. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 195-201

  6. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  7. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Magdy M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral syndrome of childhood characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There were many etiological theories showed dysfunction of some brain areas that are implicated in inhibition of responses and functions of the brain. Minerals like zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper may play a role in the pathogenesis and therefore the treatment of this disorder. Objective This study aimed to measure levels of zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparing them to normal. Methods This study included 58 children aged 5-15 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attending Minia University Hospital from June 2008 to January 2010. They were classified into three sub-groups: sub-group I included 32 children with in-attentive type, sub-group II included 10 children with hyperactive type and sub-group III included 16 children with combined type according to the DSM-IV criteria of American Psychiatric Association, 2000. The control group included 25 apparently normal healthy children. Results Zinc, ferritin and magnesium levels were significantly lower in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than controls (p value 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 respectively, while copper levels were not significantly different (p value 0.9. Children with inattentive type had significant lower levels of zinc and ferritin than controls (p value 0.001 and 0.01 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards magnesium and copper levels (p value 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. Children with hyperactive type had significant lower levels of zinc, ferritin and magnesium than controls (p value 0.01, 0.02 and 0.02 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards copper levels (p value 0.9. Children with combined type had significant lower levels of zinc and magnesium than controls (p value 0

  8. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Miglioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs.METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels. Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels, age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables.RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73 and height/age (-0.99 of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82, prenatal appointments (-0.43, geographical area of the residence (-0.41, and household incomeper capita (-0.42. Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44 showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48 was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72 and retinol serum levels (-0.40 of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43.CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  9. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  10. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2010 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Firgens, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality for low-income families. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about infants and toddlers…

  11. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  12. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  13. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  14. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  15. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning. PMID:2170913

  16. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. AIMS: To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from...... preschool to school. METHODS: A sample of 1585 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC2000 aged 5-7 years was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) with diagnostic classification by experienced clinicians. Perinatal, sociodemographic and socio-economic data was obtained...... of opportunity" for prevention. In the earliest postnatal years, prevention should target families at socio-economic risk; and in the years before schooling, intervention should focus on children with symptoms of PDD, HD, and behavioural disorders....

  17. The relative age effect on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances in Turkish children aged between 8 and 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of relative age on anthropometric properties and motor performance in Turkish children (girls n=423, boys n=601. Anthropometric measurement sites and techniques have been set out by the ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. A group of tests involved in Eurofit Test Battery and other standard tests were used. For each age, the data of those who were born within the first three months and the last three months of the year were compared. The MedCalc Statistics Program was used for the differentiation and variation percentages between two periods were studied (p≤ 0.001, p= 0.05. Consequently effect of relative age was observed on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances of Turkish girls and boys between 8 and 12 years old. Researchers, trainers, families, sports managers and organizers are advised to consider Effect of Relative Age.

  18. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    OpenAIRE

    MiiaTurpeinen; TimoKorjamo; AriTolonen; Veli-PekkaRanta; HannuKokki

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1 and 10 µM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 hours, and 1 µ...

  19. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  20. Social Interactions of School-Aged Children With CFA: Mothers' Perspectives and Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tovah P; Pope, Alice; Abbott, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Objective : To learn about (1) mothers' perspectives on their children's social experiences and (2) how mothers interpret social situations and provide guidance to their children in challenging situations. Design : This was a qualitative study analyzing narratives. Mothers participated in a semistructured interview; mothers and their children participated in a social coaching task involving responses to hypothetical situations. Transcripts of audio recordings were used to create thematic coding categories, and transcripts were reviewed and coded. Setting : Children were patients at a reconstructive plastic surgery center in an urban hospital and medical school; families were recruited from a regional support group associated with the hospital. Participants : Mothers of nine children with congenital craniofacial anomalies, aged 9 to 14 years. Main Outcome Measures : Thematic narrative coding categories, focusing on mothers' perspectives on children's actual social experiences (from the interview) and mothers' advice and interpretations regarding challenging hypothetical social tasks (from the coaching task). Results : In the interviews, mothers reported positive and negative social experiences for their children. Multiple approaches were used by mothers to interpret social interactions experienced by children (interview) and hypothetical social situations (coaching task). These included consideration of situational factors, motivations of others, and factors within own child. Mothers' hypothetical advice was often prosocial, including concrete strategies to resolve conflict, to plan ways to avoid problems, to foster self-reliance, and to avoid hurtful situations. Conclusions : Mothers showed active interest and concern in their children's peer relationships and were thoughtful in devising strategies to successfully manage potential social challenges. PMID:24003837

  1. Adherence to Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among children 2 to 13 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Carson, Valerie; Vinturache, Angela; Tough, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Active living is relevant for healthy child development and disease prevention. In 2011-2012 new Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines were developed for children under four and 5-17 years of age. This cross-sectional study assessed children's adherence to the national guidelines, using a large sample of Alberta children ages 2-4 and 5-13 years in 2013. The proportions of children achieving the average daily duration of physical activity and screen time recommended were determined, and child and parental predictors of non-achievement were identified. Participants were 631 parent and child dyads. Data were collected by parental reports of physical activity and screen time during weekdays, and analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques (p children's non-achievement of physical activity and screen time recommendations while adjusting for covariates. Sixty-two percent of children aged 2-4 and 26% of children aged 5-13 did not meet physical activity time recommendations, and 64% of children aged 2-4 and 23% of children aged 5-13 exceeded the maximum screen time recommendation. Several associations between parental age and education with non-achievement were observed but associations were not consistent across age groups or behaviours. Among preschoolers, those with middle-age parents were more likely to not achieve physical activity recommendations. Evidence of high non-achievement of the recommendations among children 2-4 years highlights the need for increased programming targeting preschool children. Further research is required to identify modifiable risk factors that may inform future health promotion efforts. PMID:26844180

  2. A realização imaginária do desejo inconsciente num grupo terapêutico de crianças em idade pré-escolar Imaginary achievement of unconscious desire in a therapy group of pre-school-aged-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Silva Krug

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alguns teóricos têm observado que os grupos, assim como os sonhos, podem fornecer um espaço privilegiado para a realização imaginária de desejos inconscientes de seus membros. Por meio de relatos de sessões de um grupo terapêutico formado por crianças em idade pré-escolar, objetivou-se conhecer as formas de organização e de expressão do grupo que possibilitaram a realização imaginária de desejos inconscientes de seus membros. Mediante Análise Textual Qualitativa, constatou-se que a realização dos desejos foi possível pela articulação dinâmica entre desejos manifestos, formas de expressão e modos pelos quais o grupo organiza seus processos, influenciados pelas características do desenvolvimento psicossexual das crianças.A few theoreticians have observed that groups, as well as dreams, may provide a privileged space for the imaginary achievement of their members' unconscious desires. Through reports of sessions of a therapy group comprising children at pre-school age, this study aimed at learning the organization and expression forms of the group that rendered possible the imaginary achievement of their members' unconscious desires. Qualitative Textual Analysis led to find out that the achievement of desires was possible through the dynamic articulation among the expressed desires, forms of expressions and ways in which the group organizes its processes, influenced by the characteristics of the children's psychosexual development.

  3. The Seroepidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) in Different Age Groups in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Zohreh; Emadi Ghanjin, Sekyneh

    2005-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of chicken pox and shingles, can cause severe systemic infections of the CNS and the respiratory tract in immunocompetent individuals as well as in immunocompromized patients.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of antibody Varicella zoster virus in different age groups.The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to assess the presence of anti -VZV antibody.A total of 635 serum samples were collected. Age specific prevalence of IgG antibody to VZV showed a progressive increase with age in both males and females. The overall seroprevalence rate was 83.6%. Prevalence of antibodies was 59.7% in the age group of less than 10 years, 60.4 % in 10-14 years, 87.5 % in 15-19 years, 88 % in 20-24 years, 89.4 % in 25-29 years and 87.9 % in 30-39 years.The data show that children should be considered as a target group for prevention programs against VZV infection. PMID:17301429

  4. The status of immune and vegetative nerve system in children at the early age with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulfuza Rabbimova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study explores features of the immune status and justifies the role of the autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of sepsis in infants. We observed 172 children in early age; the study group included 135 children with sepsis (septicemic and septicopyemic types. Compared group comprised 37 patients with local types of infection (uncomplicated pneumonias, pyelonephritis, pseudofurunculosis, and others; and control group included 20 healthy children. Significant violations of adaptive-compensatory features with deep disturbances in the regulatory system were revealed in septic patients. Changes in the indexes of cardiointervalography such as decreasing of the mode (MO, increasing of the mode amplitude (AMO and significant increasing of the tension index (TI testified on increasing of sympathetic-adrenergic effects.

  5. Vulnerability of children: More than a question of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vulnerability of children in disasters is well-established. Children are at greater risk of the impacts of disasters because of both their age and level of physiological, anatomical, cognitive and emotional development. Frequently overlooked, however, is the influence of other social and health determinants. This article highlights the importance of family and household income in determining the ability of children to withstand the shocks of catastrophic events. Children raised in lower income families are made disadvantaged in multiple ways; by poor living and neighbourhood conditions, less stable home environments, as well as lower levels of education and health care. During disasters, lower income families and children suffer disproportionately, both because they are frequently the hardest hit but also because they have fewer resources with which to cope. The article emphasises not only the importance of understanding the vulnerability of children within a broader family context, but a continuing requirement for public health and emergency planners to integrate more fully the diverse needs of children and families into emergency preparedness policies and plans. (authors)

  6. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forugh Rafii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A good night’s sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG and those who have not experienced any kind of injuries are placed in the noninjury group (NIG. Data was collected through parent-reported sleep patterns and problems using Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ. Findings. The findings showed that global sleep problems were more in the IG than in the NIG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the daytime sleepiness and sleep duration are the two major reasons for accidental injury. In addition, significant difference was seen between the sleep patterns of the two groups. Sleep duration was also shorter in the IG, and this group had a greater percentage (63% versus 41.1% of “short sleepers” (<9 h. Conclusion. There is a significant relationship between injury occurrence and sleep problems and sleep duration in Iranian school-aged children.

  7. Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Healthy Children Aged 1-18 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Ma, Jingqiu; Geng, Shanshan; Wang, Junli; Liu, Jinrong; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal calprotectin (FC) is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age. Methods Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children’s stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g) or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g) for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g), 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g), 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g), 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g) and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g), respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p4 years. PMID:25742018

  8. SELF-HELP GROUPS FOR PARENTS WITH MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaska STANCHEVA-POPKOSTADINOVA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This presentation concerns a group for parents of mentally retarded children.A group of these parents receives professional help and environmental support. The parents are encouraged to assume responsibility in the everyday life educational process of their children.As Baker / 1980 / states: “ If parents cope better on daily basis with the child who has mental retardation, not only the child but also the parents would benefit”.Taking part in the group gave the parents:· the opportunity to meet other parents with the same children;· to talk to other parents and feel less isolated;· to share information and experiences, skills and ideas;· the opportunity to listen to the needs and problems of other parents;· to change the ways of working to meet the child’s needs;· share information about the possibilities of education and services;· parents are encouraged to meet together to support one another;· parents need a special approach to many problems existing in their families.· the education in the group puts the beginning of the work with the parents.The idea is to gather the efforts of specialists from different fields and to establish multi-disciplinary group aiming to work with the parents and create a good collaboration and partnership between them in order to improve the living conditions and services to the retarded persons.This paper reports on the development, evaluation and dissemination of the program for education of parents with mentally retarded children. At the Symposium we will be able to present the results of the effectiveness of the education.

  9. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part II. Counseling recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    School-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, it is important to counsel these patients about healthy lifestyle practices during well-child examinations. Children and families should be advised to eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats, while limiting sugar, fast food, and highly processed foods. Children should engage in at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games) should be limited to no more than one to two hours of quality programming daily. Most school-aged children require 11 hours of sleep per night. Decreased sleep is associated with behavioral issues, decreased concentration at school, and obesity. Children should brush their teeth twice per day with a toothpaste containing fluoride. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in this age group in the United States, and families should be counseled on traffic, water, sports, and firearm safety. Because high-risk behaviors may start in early adolescence, many experts recommend screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use beginning at 11 years of age. Sexually active adolescents should be counseled on protecting against sexually transmitted infections, and should be screened for these infections if indicated. PMID:21404979

  10. CLINICO – EPIDEMIOLOGY OF U TI IN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a common , potentially serious , and often occult bacterial infections of childhood . UTI is more frequent in females than males at all ages with the exception of the neonatal period . Urinary tract infections imply invasion of urinary tract by pathogens which may involve the upper or lower urinary tract depending on the infection in kidney , bladder and urethra . OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of UTI in febrile children be low 5years of age and to know the aetiological profile of UTI among the same group of children with fever . METHODS: This cross sectional observational study included all febrile children from one month to 5years of age , admitted in Pediatric ward in MGM Me dical College , Kishanganj , Bihar . RESULTS: Overall incidence rate of UTI in the present study was 6% with maximum incidence in children <2years of age . Among culture positive cases majority (50% grew E . coli . DMSA revealed renal cortical scarring in 42 . 8 5% cases following UTI . CONCLUSION: From the present study it can be concluded that UTI is a common bacterial infection in infant and children . Rapid evaluation and treatment of UTI is important to prevent renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring or ren al failure .

  11. Children's judgements about pain at age 8-10 years: do extremely low birthweight (< or = 1000 g) children differ from full birthweight peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, R E; Whitfield, M F; Petrie, J

    1998-05-01

    Children's judgements about pain at age 8-10 years were examined comparing two groups of children who had experienced different exposure to nociceptive procedures in the neonatal period: extremely low birthweight (ELBW) or = 2500 g (N = 37). The 24 pictures that comprise the Pediatric Pain Inventory, depicting events in four settings: medical, recreational, daily living, and psychosocial, were used as the pain stimuli. The subjects rated pain intensity using the Color Analog Scale and pain affect using the Facial Affective Scale. Child IQ and maternal education were statistically adjusted in group comparisons. Pain intensity and pain affect related to activities of daily living and recreation were significantly higher than psychosocial and medically related pain on both scales in both groups of children. Although the two groups of children did not differ overall in their perceptions of pain intensity or affect, the ELBW children rated medical pain intensity significantly higher than psychosocial pain, unlike the FBW group. Also, duration of neonatal intensive care unit stay for the ELBW children was related to increased pain affect ratings in recreational and daily living settings. Despite altered response to pain in the early years reported by parents, on the whole at 8-10 years of age ELBW children judged pain in pictures similarly to their term peers. However, differences were evident, which suggests that studies are needed of biobehavioural reactivity to pain beyond infancy, as well as research into beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions about pain during the course of childhood in formerly ELBW children. PMID:9599786

  12. Peanut allergy in Mexican children: what is the effect of age at first consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedolla Barajas, Martín; Alcala-Padilla, Guadalupe; Morales Romero, Jaime; Camacho Fregoso, Jupiter; Rivera Mejía, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    Studies suggest that children who start solid foods early are at risk for developing food allergies. Herein, we evaluated the effects of the introduction of peanuts to the diets of children on emerging peanut allergies. Children with allergic rhinitis and asthma were enrolled in the present study and evaluated in four stages. In the first stage, a clinical history was completed for all participants. In the second stage, skin tests were conducted to detect the sensitization to peanuts. In the third stage, the parents were interviewed about the peanut-eating habits of their children. In the fourth stage, children with a convincing history of allergy or a positive peanut skin test result were subjected to an open oral food challenge (OOFC). Three hundred children in four groups were included, 58.2% of the subjects were male, and the mean age was 7.3±3.9 years. The median age of first exposure to peanuts in patients with peanut allergies was greater than that in children without peanut allergies (2 years versus 1 year; p=0.009). The multivariate analysis, including only those children subjected to the OOFC, revealed that the consumption of peanuts after the age of ≥2 years is a risk factor for developing a peanut allergy (odds ratio=8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3-50.0, p=0.026). The results of the present study showed that the late introduction of peanuts to children increases the risk of developing a peanut allergy. PMID:26996112

  13. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H;

    1997-01-01

    determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  14. Assessment of skeletal age using MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs and its correlation with dental and chronological ages in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess skeletal age using MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs and to find the correlation amongst the skeletal, dental and chronological ages. One hundred and sixty North-Indian healthy children in the age group 8-14 years, comprising equal number of males and females were included in the study. The children were radiographed for middle phalanx of third finger (MP 3 and hand-wrist of the right hand and intra oral periapical X-ray for right permanent maxillary canine. Skeletal age was assessed from MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs according to the standards of Greulich and Pyle. The dental age was assessed from IOPA radiographs of right permanent maxillary canine based on Nolla′s calcification stages. Skeletal age from MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs shows high correlation in all the age groups for both sexes. Females were advanced in skeletal maturation than males. Skeletal age showed high correlation with dental age in 12-14 years age group. Chronological age showed inconsistent correlation with dental and skeletal ages.

  15. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool. PMID:20433337

  16. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (arrhenoblastoma in adolescent age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalata Samal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Arrhenoblastoma, also known as Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors or androblastomas, are very rare neoplasm of the ovaries, resulting in the overproduction of the male hormone testosterone. This is a rare tumour which accounts for less than 0.5% of all ovarian tumours. These tumours are found in women of all age groups, but are most common in young women. Presence of an ovarian tumour plus hormonal disturbances suggests a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour. Patients present with a recent history of progressive masculinisation. Masculinisation is preceded by anovulation, oligomenorrhoea, amenorrhoea and defeminisation. Arrhenoblastomas are generally unilateral benign tumour; do not normally spread beyond the ovary, occurring in reproductive age. This work summarizes the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of this tumour in a 15-year old girl with clinical signs of virilisation. A 14 year old female admitted with abdominal distension, change in voice, male pattern balding and clitoromegaly in the dept. of Ob/Gy A.V.B.R.H. (Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital Sawangi, Wardha. Investigations included Sonography C.T scan, ascetic tap, Serum testosterone was done. She was managed by exploratory Laparotomy and follow up was advised. On follow up her serum testosterone levels and sonography was done. Here we are representing the case. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 722-725

  17. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Soepardi Soedibyo; Tinuk Meilany

    2006-01-01

    School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was co...

  18. Assessment of skeletal age using MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs and its correlation with dental and chronological ages in children

    OpenAIRE

    Bala M; Pathak A; Jain R

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess skeletal age using MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs and to find the correlation amongst the skeletal, dental and chronological ages. One hundred and sixty North-Indian healthy children in the age group 8-14 years, comprising equal number of males and females were included in the study. The children were radiographed for middle phalanx of third finger (MP 3 ) and hand-wrist of the right hand and intra oral periapical X-ray for right permanent maxillary can...

  19. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  20. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. PMID:27090341

  1. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G Wagner

    Full Text Available A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32% when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  2. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  3. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed. PMID:12220049

  4. Assessment of Iron Overload in Homozygous and Heterozygous Beta Thalassemic Children below 5 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj J. Trivedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disease having 3-7% carrier rate in Indians. It is transfusion dependent anemia having high risk of iron overloading. A clinical symptom of iron overload becomes detectable in second decade causing progressive liver, heart and endocrine glands damage. There is a need to assess iron overload in thalassemics below 5 years of age to protect them from complications at later age of life. Aims and objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate serum iron status and evaluate serum transferrin saturation in both homozygous & heterozygous form of thalassemia as an index of iron overload among children of one to five years of age. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed thirty cases of β thalassemia major & thirty cases of β thalassemia minor having severe anemia, hepatospleenomegaly and between 1 year to 5 years of age were included in study group and same age matched healthy controls were included in the study. RBC indices and HbA, HbA2 and HbF were estimated along with serum iron & serum Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and serum transferrin levels. Results: Significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between control and both beta thalassemia groups. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH values were reduced. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed the elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 in both beta thalassemia groups. Among serum iron parameters, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation were elevated whereas serum transferrin levels were low in thalassemia major in children below 5 years of age. Conclusion: Although clinical symptoms of iron overload have been absent in thalassemic children below five years of age, biochemical iron overloading has started at much lower age which is of great concern.

  5. A Comparison of Differential Treatment Approaches for Impulsive Responding of Hyperactive Children at Two Age Levels. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald T.

    The study examined the effectiveness of two psychoeducational treatment approaches and drug therapy on the impulsivity of 120 hyperactive emotionally disturbed children in two age groups (mean ages 13 and 8 years old). The psychoeducational approaches tested were modeling of reflective behavior and a specific instructional procedure to increase…

  6. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  7. Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaklajić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.

  8. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  9. Advancing Age, Advantaged Youth: Parental Age and the Transmission of Resources to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…

  10. The Effect of Performing Preoperative Preparation Program on School Age Children's Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Vaezzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of performing preoperative preparation program on children's anxiety.Methods: This study was performed in Amirkola Pediatrics Hospital, Mazandaran. A randomized controlled trail was performed on 122 children (7-12 years of age admitted for elective surgery during 15 months. The researcher randomly assigned eligible participants in to the experimental and control groups, after pre-test baseline measurement had been taken. Analyzing was performed through independent t-test and χ2 test. p < 0.005 was considered statistically significant. The experimental group received therapeutic play and the control group received routine preoperative information preparation.Findings: The mean and standard deviation of the state anxiety scores of children in experimental and control groups before intervention were 35.52±6.99 and 34.98±6.78, after intervention 31.44±5.87 and 38.31±7.44 respectively. The state anxiety score was lower significantly in the experimental group prior to preoperative surgery than in the control group (P=0.000.Conclusion: Performing preoperative program with using therapeutic play intervention is effective for preparing children before surgery and decreases their anxiety

  11. The Effect of Performing Preoperative Preparation Program on School Age Childrens Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Osia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of performing preoperative preparation program on childrens anxiety.Methods: This study was performed in Amirkola Pediatrics Hospital, Mazandaran. A randomized controlled trail was performed on 122 children (7-12 years of age admitted for elective surgery during 15 months. The researcher randomly assigned eligible participants in to the experimental and control groups, after pre-test baseline measurement had been taken. Analyzing was performed through independent t-test and χ2 test. P<0.005 was considered statistically significant. The experimental group received therapeutic play and the control group received routine preoperative information preparation.Findings: The mean and standard deviation of the state anxiety scores of children in experimental and control groups before intervention were 35.52±6.99 and 34.98±6.78, after intervention 31.44±5.87 and 38.31±7.44 respectively. The state anxiety score was lower significantly in the experimental group prior to preoperative surgery than in the control group (P=0.000.Conclusion: Performing preoperative program with using therapeutic play intervention is effective for preparing children before surgery and decreases their anxiety.

  12. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi;

    2011-01-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy...... and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14...... of walking streets, access to playgrounds/parks, etc.) can play an important role, in addition to cultural and social family characteristics, to the development of overweight....

  13. Articulation of speech sounds of Serbian language in children aged six to eight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Phonetic and phonological system of the healthy members of one linguistic community is fully formed around 8 years of age. The auditory and articulatory habits are established with age and tend to be more difficult to be upgraded and completed later. Material and Methods. The research was done as a cross-sectional study, conducted at the preschool institution “Radosno detinjstvo” and primary school “Branko Radičević” in Novi Sad. It included 66 children of both genders, aged 6 to 8. The quality of articulation was determined according to the Global Articulation Test by working with each child individually. Results. In each individual vowel, plosive, nasal, lateral and fricative, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders compared to the preschool children (p<0.01. In each affricate, except for the sound /ć/, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01. The quality of articulation of all speech sounds was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01. Discussion and Conclusion. The most common disorder of articulation is distortion, while only substitution and substitution associated with distortion are less common. Omission does not occur in children from 6 to 8 years of age. Girls have slightly better quality of articulation. The articulatory disorders are more common in preschool children than in children who are in the first grade of primary school. The most commonly mispronounced sounds belong to the group of affricates and fricatives.

  14. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hamřík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  15. Tissue expression levels of miR-29b and miR-422a in children, adolescents, and young adults' age groups and their association with prediction of poor prognosis in human osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahador, Reza; Taheriazam, Afshin; Mirghasemi, Alireza; Torkaman, Ali; Shakeri, Mohammadreza; Yahaghi, Emad; Goudarzi, Peyman Karimi

    2016-03-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer in children and adolescents. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the development, differentiation, and function of different cell types and in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. miRNAs are differentially expressed in normal and cancer cells. The investigation of miRNA expression between healthy subjects and patients with osteosarcoma is crucial for future clinical trials. In this study, the expression levels of miRNAs were detected by qRT-PCR. Correlation between expression levels of tow miRNAs and different clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed using the χ (2) test. Survival rate was detected using the log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier method. qRT-PCR was shown that expression levels of miR-29b and miR-422a were strongly decreased in osteosarcoma bone tissue compared with noncancerous bone tissues. Our result indicated that the low expression levels of miR-29b and miR-422a showed strong correlation with large tumor size (P = 0.20; 0.029), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.001; 0.012), distant metastasis (P = 0.008; 0.019), and grade of tumor (P = 0.009; 0.016). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the low expressions of miR-29b/miR-422a were correlated with shorter time overall survival (log-rank test, P = 0.009; P = 0.013). Moreover, multivariate Cox proportional hazards model indicated that miR-29b and miR-422a (P = 0.024; P = 0.016) were independent prognostic markers of overall survival of patients. Our result indicated that downregulation of miR-29b and miR-422a may be linked to the prediction of poor prognosis, indicating that miR-29b and miR-422a may be a valuable prognostic marker for osteosarcoma patients. PMID:26423405

  16. The effect of age of cochlear implantation on vocal characteristics in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Knight

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early cochlear implantation aids auditory feedback and supports better communication and self-monitoring of the voice. The objective of this study was to determine whether the age of cochlear implantation has an impact on vocal development in children implanted before age 4.Method and procedures: The study consisted of 19 participants in total. All implant recipients (experimental group were 3–5 years post-implantation, including four prelingual (0–2 years and five perilingual (2–4 years implant recipients. The control group consisted of 10 children whose hearing was within normal limits between the ages 3–6 years and 10 months, which was compared to the experimental group. Established paediatric norms were used for additional comparison. A questionnaire was used to gather information from each of the participant’s caregivers to determine whether other personal and contextual factors had an impact on voice production. An acoustic analysis was conducted for each participant using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program of the Computerized Speech Lab.Results: When the experimental group and the control group were compared, similar results were yielded for fundamental frequency and short-term perturbation (jitter and shimmer. More variability was noted in long-term frequency and amplitude measures, with significantly higher differences, and therefore further outside the norms, in the prelingual group when compared to the perilingual and control groups.Conclusion: In this study, age of implantation did not impact vocal characteristics. Further research should include larger sample sizes, with participants that are age and gender matched.Keywords: cochlear implant; vocal development; age of implantation; prelingual; lingual

  17. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. Objectives: To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. Methods: We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001 and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001. In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. Conclusions: These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs.

  18. Uroflowmetry nomogram in Iranian children aged 7 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Parvin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the voiding habits of Iranian children differs from other children because of some cultural and religious considerations, we aimed to establish normal reference values of urinary flow rates in Iranian children between 7 to 14 years of age. Methods Eight hundred and two uroflowmetry studies were performed on children with no history of a renal, urological, psychological or neurological disorder, between the ages 7 and 14. Five hundred twenty five studies from 192 girls and 335 boys were considered in this study excluding the staccato/interrupted voiding pattern or voided volume less than 20 ml. The voiding volume, the maximum and average urinary flow rates were extensively analyzed. Results The maximal and average urine flow rate nomograms were plotted for both girls and boys. Mean maximum urine flow rate was 19.9 (ml/sec for boys and 23.5 (ml/sec for girls with a mean voided volume of 142 (ml for boys and 147 (ml for girls. Flow rates showed a close association with voiding volume in both sexes. The maximum and average flow rates were higher in girls than in boys, and they showed a significant increase in flow rates with increasing age, where boys did not. The mean maximum urine flow rates (19.9 ml/sec for boys and 23.5 ml/sec for girls were found to be higher in this study than other studies. Conclusion Nomograms of maximal and average flow rates of girls and boys are presented in centile form, which can help the physician to evaluate the response to medical or surgical treatment and be useful for the screening of lower urinary tract disturbances in children, for a wide range of voided volumes.

  19. Predictors for snoring in children with rhinitis at age 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nathaniel S; Almqvist, Catarina; Grunstein, Ronald R; Marks, Guy B

    2007-07-01

    Snoring is often found in allergic diseases and may be an early manifestation of more serious sleep-disordered breathing. We aimed to investigate whether the risk factors for snoring among pre-school children with rhinitis are similar to those for allergic diseases in a birth cohort. The study cohort was drawn from participants in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS). This is a randomized controlled trial of dietary intervention and house dust mite avoidance during the first 5 years of life, aimed at reducing the risk of acquiring asthma and other allergic conditions in children at high-risk for allergic diseases. Parents of children with symptoms of rhinitis at age 5 years (n = 219 out of 516 cohort members) were asked if their child snored: 127 (60%) reported some snoring and 56 (26%) snored more than three times per week. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that children who were first-born (adjusted odds ratio, 2.50, 95% CI 1.20-5.21), were exposed to maternal tobacco smoke during the first year of life (2.40, 1.1-5.25), or who had asthma (2.51, 1.14-5.55) and/or eczema (2.29, 1.02-5.13) at age 5 years were more likely to snore. Birth-weight, body mass index at age 4.5, spirometry, and breastfeeding were not related to snoring. Risk factors for snoring are similar to risk factors for allergic disorders. Snoring may be part of the allergic spectrum of diseases. Our data may contribute to clinician's ability to effectively screen for snoring in preschool children. PMID:17534968

  20. Dental fluorosis severity in a group of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Yukie Fujibayashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in a group of school children in the city of Campo do Tenente (Parana, Brazil in order to compare the mean fluoride concentration in public water supply and discuss the effective values for fluoridation of water supply, as well as, the need of control of fluoride concentration within the water consumed by population. Material and methods: Firstly, 362 children enrolled in regular public schools, at elementary level, were examined by a single researcher, previously calibrated for Dean’s index application. From these, 90 children were affected by some degree of fluorosis, but only 40 returned the signed free and clarified consent form for participating in the research. Results: It was found that 42.5% of the children presented mild fluorosis and 32.5% moderate fluorosis. Moreover, it was observed that the average fluoride concentration in public water supply, in 2004, was 1.7 ppm of fluoride. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the need of a closer supervision of the city situation, by the inclusion of fluoridation external control and constant monitoring of the oral health status of the population.

  1. Adiposity in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappy, L

    2006-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that children born small for gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders as adults. This suggests that foetal undernutrition leads to permanent metabolic alterations, which predispose to metabolic abnormalities upon exposure to environmental factors such as low physical activity and/or high-energy intake in later life (thrifty phenotype hypothesis). However, this relationship is not restricted to foetal undernutrition or intrauterine growth retardation, but is also found for children born premature, or for high birth weight children. Furthermore, early post-natal nutrition, and more specifically catch-up growth, appear to modulate cardiovascular risk as well. Intrauterine growth retardation can be induced in animal models by energy/protein restriction, or ligation of uterine arteries. In such models, altered glucose homeostasis, including low beta-cell mass, low insulin secretion and insulin resistance is observed after a few weeks of age. In humans, several studies have confirmed that children born SGA have insulin resistance as adolescents and young adults. Alterations of glucose homeostasis and increased lipid oxidation can indeed be observed already in non-diabetic children born SGA at early pubertal stages. These children also have alterations of stature and changes in body composition (increased fat mass), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Permanent metabolic changes induced by foetal/early neonatal nutrition (metabolic inprinting) may involve modulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, or alterations of organ structure. It is also possible that events occurring during foetal/neonatal development lead to long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. PMID:17133233

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  3. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    OpenAIRE

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-01

    Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s ...

  4. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  5. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in dea

  6. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  7. Experimental study on biokinetics of radionuclides in age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, it becomes evident that dose coefficients for members of the public are necessary. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) established a task group of Committee 2 charged with the assessment of dose coefficients as a function of an individual's age. However, little data is available on the biokinetics of radionuclides in juvenile and is a need to develop age-dependent biokinetic models, such as for the gastrointestinal tract. The present paper reviewed an outline on characteristics of biokinetics of radionuclides in juvenile animals focusing on the previous experimental data. The following radionuclides are discussed: 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 106Ru, 110mAg, 115Cd, 125Sb, 137Cs, 141Ce, 203Hg and 3H. Generally, intestinal absorption and whole-body retention of radionuclides in Juveniles were higher than that of adult. In the case of sucklings, it is very important to study how radionuclides are transferred through the placenta and milk. The transfer rate of radionuclides through the placenta and milk is dependent on the period of gestation at the time of dosing. The IDES (Internal Dose Estimation System) which is based on the ICRP model was used for dose calculation. We modified the IDES using the biokinetic data which was gained by animal experiment. The IDES is flexible because the absorbed dose can be calculated by substituting arbitrary physical and physiological parameters and also substituting ingested dose coefficients not only for the ICRP Reference Man, but also for Japanese of 1 year old, 5 years old, 10 years old, 15 years old and the adult, respectively. (author)

  8. Behavior Management for School Aged Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Haack, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Behavior management treatments are the most commonly used nonpharmacological approaches for treating ADHD and associated impairments. This review focuses on behavioral parent training interventions for school age children in the home setting and adjunctive treatments developed to extend effects across settings. The underlying theoretical basis and content of these interventions are described. Empirical support includes numerous randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses...

  9. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    OpenAIRE

    Abir Aissaoui; Nidhal Haj Salem; Meryam Mougou; Fethi Maatouk; Ali Chadly

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Loca...

  10. [Bamako school age children and their diet from street vendors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, M; Monnier, T; Bendech, M A

    1994-01-01

    Eating outside the home is very common in African cities. Food is bought from street vendors and eaten on the street. A large proportion of these consumers are school children, but little is known about what they buy, and the reasons why they make the choices they do. We therefore surveyed 494 second and sixth year primary school children in 1993. They were all enrolled at schools or Muslim colleges in both affluent and underprivileged areas of Bamako (Mali). The language used for the survey was Bambara. Almost all the children had money, mostly given by either or both of their parents and in most cases supplemented by odd jobs. The richest group of children were those in the sixth year in the more privileged areas. However, within a district or a (school) class, there was no correlation between the family's socio-economic group (SEG) and money available to the child. The proportions of children in each area, SEG and class buying the following classes of food were nearly identical; drinks, ice cream, groundnuts, fruit, cooked meals, uncooked meals, and sweets. The amount of money available correlated with the purchase of cooked or uncooked meals and drinks. The amount spent on food correlated with the money available, and the relationship is particularly clear for cooked and uncooked meals. The independence of the children in buying food represents a large part of the total daily food budget of the family. Their true diet and its nutritional value should therefore be quantified. Strategies targeting these children to help improve their diet would have a favorable effect on nutrition, because of their autonomy. Any such strategy should involve the street vendors so as to improve the quality of their products. PMID:7850193

  11. A COMPARISON OF AUTOREFRACTOMETER WITH CYCLOPLEGIC RETINOSCOPY IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 15 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishree

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the accuracy of the autorefractometer with traditional retinoscopy as a means of determining the approximate subjective refraction in children after cycloplegia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observation study carried out in 72 eyes of 72 patients aged 3 to 15 years in upgraded department of Ophthalmology, LLRM Medical College, Meerut between April 2013 to June 2013. The negative spherical power of autorefracto meter was higher than retinoscopic group. The positive spherical power was lower in autorefractometer. DISCUSSION: Our observations in this younger age group amply that the inbuilt automatic fogging system of the autorefractometer fails to neutralize adequ ately the patient's accommodative efforts during manifest refraction. CONCLUSION: Manual retinoscopy is still the most accurate technique to estimate refractive status in children.

  12. Child maltreatment in Taiwan for 2004-2013: A shift in age group and forms of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Tsai; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2016-02-01

    Cases of child maltreatment are being increasingly reported in Taiwan. However, the trend or changes of child maltreatment in Taiwan are fragmentary and lack empirical evidence. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of substantiated child maltreatment cases from the previous decade, using mortality as an indicator to investigate the care of children who experienced substantiated maltreatment in the past to determine any new developments. Data for analysis and estimates were retrieved from the Department of Statistics in the Ministry of the Interior from 2004 to 2013. Trend analyses were conducted using the Joinpoint Regression Program. The child maltreatment rate in Taiwan was found to have nearly tripled from 2004 to 2013. A greater increase in the maltreatment of girls than boys and the maltreatment of aboriginal children than non-aboriginal children was noted from 2004 to 2013. When stratified by age group, the increase in maltreatment was most pronounced in children aged 12-17 years, and girls aged 12-17 years experienced the greatest increase in maltreatment. In terms of the proportional changes of different maltreatment forms among substantiated child maltreatment cases, child neglect was decreasing. The increase in sexual abuse was higher than for any other form of maltreatment and surpassed neglect by the end of 2013. Furthermore, the mortality rate of children with substantiated maltreatment record is increasing in Taiwan, whereas the mortality rate among children without any substantiated maltreatment record is decreasing. The results of this study highlight the need for policy reform in Taiwan regarding child maltreatment. PMID:26726760

  13. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25μg/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21μg/L (range=0.11-0.42μg/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21μg/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries

  14. THE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS IN THE RURAL AREAS OF BUCOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ILEANA MORAR (BUMBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure analysis of population by age groups in the rural area of Bucovina desires to create a recent image of the rural population by age groups in the region of Bucovina , provided that after the year 2000 have occurred socio – economic changes with repercussions on the demographic component. The structure analysis by age group will be based on the share of population indicators on the major age groups, the share of population by age and quinquennial gender illustrated by age pyramid, the index of demographic aging and age-dependency ratio. This study is definitely needed in forecasting future regional development objectives and measures.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea in preschool-aged Japanese children - efficiency of screening using lateral neck radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Takuro; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Kobayashi, Ryuichi; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takashi; Komada, Ichiro; Nishikawa, Michiko; Okawa, Masako; Koizumi, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Shoko; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in preschool-aged children diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) version 3 criteria was relatively higher than that diagnosed by ICSD-2. Although the assessment of the upper airway by lateral neck radiography was effective for detecting OSA in this age group, this assessment is not recommended for all children as a screening method because of parental concern related to radiation exposure. Objective This study investigated the prevalence of OSA and the screening capacity of lateral neck radiography in community-based preschool-aged children. Methods Parents of 211 children aged 3-6 years were requested to complete the sleep-related questionnaire. Subjects who agreed to further investigations were invited to undergo home type 3 portable monitoring and clinical examination, including radiography. We estimated the prevalence of OSA and evaluated the detection power of radiography for predicting OSA. Results One hundred and eighty-eight (89.1%) subjects completed the questionnaire and 67 (31.8%) agreed to further examinations. The weighted prevalence was 7.3% and 12.8% by ICSD-2 and 3, respectively. Area under the receiver operator curve for the adenoidal/nasopharyngeal and tonsil/pharyngeal ratios measured using radiography was slightly larger than that for tonsil size graded by visual inspection. PMID:26901288

  16. Changes in breathing pattern upon 100% oxygen in children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, K; Lenherr, N; Singer, F; Schulzke, S M; Frey, U; Latzin, P; Yammine, S

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2MBW) is an increasingly used tidal breathing test in young children to assess ventilation inhomogeneity. However, the test requires 100% oxygen to perform. We aimed to examine the potential influence of pure oxygen on breathing pattern in school-aged children. We performed tidal breathing measurements under room air followed by N2MBW in 16 former preterm children and 24 healthy controls. We compared tidal volume (VT), coefficient of variation of VT (CVVT), respiratory rate (RR), and minute ventilation (VE) between tidal breathing and N2MBW, and between the start and end of tidal breathing. Mean (range) age was 6.8 (5.9, 9.0) years. VT, RR and VE showed no significant change upon oxygen-exposure, while CVVT significantly decreased by 5% (95% CI: 1.2, 9.0; p=0.012). However CVVT was also the only parameter which significantly decreased during tidal breathing. Overall, pure oxygen has no systematic effect on breathing pattern in young school-aged children. N2MBW can reliably be used as tracer gas in this age group. PMID:26970571

  17. Dynamics of Learning Motivation in Early School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireyeva T.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process

  18. An Evaluation of Intelligence Quotient in Children with Myelomeningocele Aged 5-12 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tajik

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myelomeningocele is the most common central nervous system birth defect compatible with life. The various impairments occurring in these children are skeletal, genitourinary, psychological defect and infections. The learning disabilities are usually overlooked. We conducted this study to evaluate the intelligence quotient (IQ in these children using Ravens test. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in the Childrens Medical Center in Tehran from February 2005 to 2006. The case group included children of 5-12 years old, with myelomeningocele that were admitted or referred due to complications or follow-up. The control group was selected from children that were referred to the hospital for reasons other than myelomeningocele and diseases affecting brain development or neurological status and were matched for age and sex. An IQ test (Ravens progressive matrices test was taken and the rest of the data was collected by filling a questionnaire. The test was performed by the same person in the same circumstances for both groups. Findings: There were 47 cases for which 47 controls were randomly selected. The two groups were similar according to the socioeconomic status and the education level of the parents (p=0.59. The age of the patients at the time of surgery varied from 21 days to 8 years (mean=3.3 months. Only 21.3% of meningomylocele patients were ambulant with a normal gait. 46.8% of total patients had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt inserted and half of them had experienced shunt complications in the form of obstruction or infection. 72.3% of patients had incontinece (both for urine and feces. The IQ in the case group varied from 73 to 134 with a mean of 96.4, whereas it varied from 70 to 128 with a mean of 104.9% in the control group. A statistically significant correlation was found in comparing the IQ of both groups (p=0.000. In the case group none of the factors such as age at the time of meningomylocele repair, history of

  19. Nutritional Status of a Group of Children Under Five Suffering from Malaria in a Timor Leste District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagalys Ortega Alvelay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is a health problem in underdeveloped countries. The child population is particularly vulnerable. Objective: to determine the nutritional status of children under five suffering from malaria who attended a clinic in Timor Leste. Method: a descriptive, correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of 435 children under five years old, diagnosed with malaria, who attended consultation from June 2008 to July 2009. Nutritional status was evaluated. A medical history demographic, socioeconomic and Plasmodium type data was obtained. Results: 254 children (58.4% were in the group from 2 to 4 years old. Most children (415, 95.4% had no toilet or piped water in their homes. The average number of people living in the house is 8.3; 5.6 per room. Females were predominant with 50.3%, as well as rural children 402 (92.4%. Most children (84.6% are undernourished. Statistical relationship was found between nutritional status and age (X2 = 7.44, df = 1, p = 0.01 and nutritional status and sex (X2 = 14.37, df = 1, p = 0, 01. A higher frequency of moderate malnutrition was observed in children with malaria (41; 61.2%. Plasmodium vivax was highly frequent, being present in 299 children (68.7%. Conclusion: children from 0 to 1 year of age are 2 to 4 times more likely to experience malnutrition. Females are between 2 and 5 times more likely to be undernourished than other children with malaria.

  20. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (pself-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends. PMID:16927727

  1. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  2. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pyloriin school-aged Chinese in Taipei City and relationship between ABO blood groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzee-Chung Wu; Liang-Kung Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the seropositive rate of antibodies against H. pylori(anti-HP) in Taipei City and to compare the relationship of ABO blood groups and H. pylori infection.METHODS:In 1993, high school students in Shih-Lin District were randomly selected for blood samplings by their registration number at school. In addition, similar procedures were performed on the well-children clinics of Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Besides, randomly selected sera from the adults who took the physical examination were recruited for evaluation. Informed consents were obtained from all the subjects before blood samplings and parents were simultaneously informed for those who were younger than 18-year-old. Blood tests for anti-HP and ABO blood groupings were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Chi square tests were used for the comparisons between seroprevalence of H. pylori and ABO blood groups.RESULTS: Totally, 685 subjects were recruited (260 children aged 1-14 years, 425 high school students aged 15-18 years)were evaluated, and another 88 adult healthy volunteers were studied as well for comparison. The age-specific seropositive rate of anti-HP was 1.3 % at age 1-5 years,7.7 % at age 6-10 years, and 11.5 % at age 11-14 years.The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was abruptly increased in young adolescence: 18.6 % at age 15 years,28.1% at age 16 years, 32.4 % at age 17 years and 41.0%at age 18 years, respectively. In the 425 high school students,ABO blood groupings were performed, which disclosed 48.5 % (206/425) of blood group O, 24 % (102/425) of blood group A, 21.8 % (93/425) of blood group B and 5.6 %(24/425) of blood group AB. In comparison of the subjects with blood group O and the other blood groups, no statistical significance could be identified in the seroprevalence of H. pylori(P=0.99).CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in Taipei City in adults is similar to the developed countries,and the abrupt increase of H. pylori during high

  3. The Cognitive Processes Underlying Event-Based Prospective Memory in School-Age Children and Young Adults: A Formal Model-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.; Martin, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Fifty children 7 years of age (29 girls, 21 boys), 53 children 10 years of age (29 girls, 24 boys), and 36 young adults (19 women, 17 men) performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task. All 3 groups differed significantly in prospective memory performance, with adults showing the best performance and with 7-year-olds showing the…

  4. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children with spastic cerebral palsy and normal children with 7-12 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Akbarfahimi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP is one of the diagnostic tests used in assessing vestibular function. Two aims of this study were to investigate implications of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in children with spastic cerebral palsy (7-12 years, and to compare vestibular function in these children and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, myogenic potential was recorded in 31 children with spastic cerebral palsy (8 girls, 23 boys,7-12 years of age, with mean age of 8.77 years old and standard deviation of 1.52 years and 31 normal children (13 girls, 18 boys with mean age of 8.77 years and standard deviation of 1.52 years. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential was recorded with 500 Hz tone burst. The recorded parameters included p13 and n23 latency, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold.Results: Myogenic Potential was recorded in 31 normal children. They had bilateral responses. In children with cerebral palsy, 21 children showed bilateral responses, 3 children had only right-sided responses, 8 children had only left-sided responses, and two children did not show any responses. The statistical significant differences were shown between the two groups in n23, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold (p<0.05.Conclusion: These findings showed that cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential can be used in children with cerebral palsy. There were significant differences in myogenic potential parameters between the two groups. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of these differences.

  5. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF SEIZURES (EPILEPSY IN PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The study is aimed to reassess the role of CT in detecting various epileptogenic lesions with multi detector CT imaging, to know the value of CECT is evaluation of various lesions and to know the commonest CNS lesions ca using afebrile se i zures in Paediatric age group is the local population. METHODOLOGY: The study consists of 70 Pediatric patients suffering from afebrile seizures referred to Radio – diagnostic department S.V.R.R. Hospital at Tirupati for C.T. brain invest igation. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : A s our study is to evaluate epilepsy characterized by recurrent (more than two episodes seizures, with no immediate identifiable and avoidable cause (sleep deprivation, known metabolic disorders, alcohol withdrawal, pyrexia. Therefore we excluded patients below one month ago. Febrile convulsions, acute infections, toxic and known metabolic disorders Equipment used is Fourth generation Four slice CT with scan time 0.7 seconds Matrix size 640, gantry tilt 120, KV – 120 MAs – 100 to 200, Slice thickness 5mm and 2mm Auto power injector 3 to 3.5 ml per second. NECT : Continuous axial sections of brain, posterior fossa 3mm and rest of brain 5mm sections and 2mm sections were taken wherever necessary CECT is carried out logically in th ose cases which were inconclusive or ambiguous and NECT excluding more definite cases like congenital anomalies and calcified granulomas without peri lesion edema. IV CONTRAST : Non - ionic contrast medium at 1mg / kg body weight was used whenever indicated, n o adverse reactions were noted after injection of contrast medium and sedation was advised whenever the patient was un co - operative. RESULTS: In the present study we evaluated to cases of Pediatric Se i zures and observed and analyzed our findings with the available relevant clinical data and concluded that ; Out of 70 cases there are a Slight female Predilection 57%. And maximum incidence of Seizures was in the first 3 years, but

  6. Preparing Books for Children from Birth to Age Six: The Approach of Appropriateness for the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çer, Ekran

    2016-01-01

    Children's books must primarily be appropriate for children so that they could be a significant stimulus in children's lives. In other words, it is essential that the concepts child reality, literary criteria and artist sensitivity be reflected in books in order to create children's books. From birth to age 6, the fact that children's books are…

  7. The effect of high fiber snacks on digestive function and diet quality in a sample of school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Brauchla, Mary; McCabe, George P; Miller, Kevin B; Kranz, Sibylle

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber (DF) intake in American children is suboptimal, increasing the risk of GI distress and contributing to poor diet quality. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of introducing two high-fiber snacks per day on gastrointestinal function as well as nutrient and food group intake in healthy children ages 7–11 years old. Methods This study was a randomized controlled prospective intervention study of children 7–11 years of age (n = 81) attending a rural Mi...

  8. Rehabilitation of socially withdrawn preschool children through mixed-age and same-age socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, W; Rahe, D F; Hartup, W W

    1979-12-01

    24 socially withdrawn preschool children were located through classroom observations and assigned to 3 conditions: (a) socialization with a younger child during 10 play sessions, (b) socialization with an age mate during a similar series of sessions, and (c) no treatment. The socialization sessions, particularly those with a younger partner, were found to increase the sociability of the withdrawn children in their classrooms. Significant increases occurred mainly in the rate with which positive social reinforcement was emitted. Generally, the results support a leadership deficit theory of social isolation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed changes are discussed. PMID:535445

  9. Efficacy and Moderators of a Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Thigpen, Jennifer; HARDCASTLE, EMILY; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Keller, Gary; DUNBAR, JENNIFER P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Rakow, Aaron; Bettis, Alexandra; Reising, Michelle; Cole, David; Sterba, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Building on an earlier study (Compas et al., 2011), tests of main effects and potential moderators of a family group cognitive-behavioral (FGCB) preventive intervention for children of parents with a history of depression are reported in a sample of 180 families (242 children ages 9-15 years) in a randomized controlled trial assessed at 2-, 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-months after baseline. Significant effects favoring the FGCB intervention over a written information (WI) comparison condition were fo...

  10. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged. PMID:26773032

  11. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  12. Metabolic syndrome in children born small-for-gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Being born small-for-gestational age and a rapid increase in weight during early childhood and infancy has been strongly linked with chronic diseases, including metabolic syndrome, which has been related to intrauterine life environment and linked to epigenetic fetal programming. Metabolic syndrome includes waist circumference > 90th percentile for age, sex and race, higher levels of blood pressure, triglycerides and fasting glucose, and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Insulin resistance may be present as early as 1 year of age, and obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA than those born AGA. The programming of adaptive responses in children born SGA includes an association with increased blood pressure, changes in endothelial function, arterial properties and coronary disease. Early interventions should be directed to appropriate maternal nutrition, before and during pregnancy, promotion of breast feeding, and prevention of rapid weight gain during infancy, and to promote a healthy lifestyle.

  13. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Giuseppina Patriciello,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy Background: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. Methods: The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years, and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years. The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725, gender (P = 0.886, z-body mass index (P = 0.149, or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient (P = 0.163. The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M

  14. Age-related normal ranges for the Haller index in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daunt, Stephen W.; Cohen, Justine H.; Miller, Stephen F. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8 (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    The Haller index is an accepted CT method for evaluating thoracic dimensions in patients with pectus excavatum. The purpose of this study is to establish age- and gender-related norms for the Haller index in childhood. We retrospectively reviewed 574 consecutive chest CT examinations (M=285, F=289) performed at our institution from August 2001 through March 2002. Seventeen patients with a history of chest-wall deformity, trauma, or syndrome were excluded, for a total sample size of 557 patients. The Haller index was calculated for each patient, using electronic calipers. The sample population was then separated by gender and placed into 2-year age groupings. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons were performed to determine significance at a=0.05. The least-square mean Haller index values for each age group and gender were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. In both males and females, the 0- to 2-year age group showed a significantly smaller mean Haller index than older children. In addition, females had significantly greater Haller index values than males in the 0- to 6- and 12- to 18-year age groups. The Haller index, a quantitative measurement of chest-wall configuration, demonstrates significant age- and gender-related variability. This should be considered when evaluating the patient with suspected chest-wall deformity. (orig.)

  15. SOCIAL RESPONSES IN HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS OF INTERPERSONAL TENSION, OF A GROUP OF CHILDREN INSTITUTIONALIZED FOR PHYSICAL ABUSE, AND A GROUP OF NON-ABUSED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR REY

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation had two objectives: a to compare the number of punitive and not punitive socialresponses reported toward three hypothetical situations of interpersonal tension, by a group of 39institutionalized for physical abuse children and girls, with that informed by a group of 34 not abusedchildren and girls inscribed to an educational institution, and b to compare the number of punitive andnot punitive responses that the physically abused children and girls referred in this situations. All thechildren had between eight and twelve age-years, among second and quarter educational degree and lowsocioeconomic levels. The three hypothetical situations of interpersonal tension were presented verballywith the support of six sheets (three for each sex and their responses were gathered in a quantitative waythrough the content analysis. The application of the test U of Mann Whitney didn’t throw significantdifferences among the two groups. Nevertheless, it was found a significant difference at intra-grouplevel, in accordance with the test of Wicolxon.

  16. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yingshui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Results: Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001. Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079 more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618 more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Conclusions: Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions.

  17. Clinical Characteristics, Diagnosis and Treatment of Children with Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery in Each Age Group%左冠状动脉起源于肺动脉37例患儿各年龄段的临床特点及诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠丽; 李守军; 胡盛寿; 沈向东; 闫军; 王旭

    2012-01-01

    ECG探查冠状动脉,必要时加行多层螺旋CT或心血管造影以明确诊断,确诊后应尽快手术治疗.%Objective To investigate the clinical features,diagnosis and treatment of children with anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) in each age group and improve the knowledge and decrease the nusdiagnosis of this disorder. Methods Between Apr. 1999 and Mar.2011,37 patients[21 male and 16 female,aged (5.0±4.8) years] were examined and treated for ALCAPA in Fuwai Hospital.They were divided into 3 groups:included 8 infants ( ≥1 year),10 toddlers( > 1 -3 yeare)and 19 older children( >3 years). Of 37 patients with ALCAPA,31 cases were sick with regurgitation( MR) ,2 cases with left ventricular aneurysoi.l case with Tetralogy of fallot( TOF)/atrial septal defect ( ASD), 1 case with Bevere pulmonary stenosis ( PS)/partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC)and 1 case with ASD at the same time. The initial and final diagnosis and surgery result were also reviewed. Follow - ups of some patients were conducted in the out - patient and by recent telephone call and the records were established. Results Infants and toddlers had disorders at an earlier age than the older children. Thirteen of 37 patients( 35. 1% ,13/37 eases) .including 5 infants(62. 5%) ,3 toddlers (30.0%) and 5 older children (26.3%) had Q and ST -T segment changes in ECG.bul there was no statistical difference among the 3 groups. Chest radiograph in all patients showed marked cardiomegaly,cardiolhoracic ratio was biggest in infants,bigger in toddlers compared with the old children. Meanwhile left ventricular end - diastolic dimension( LVED) measured by echocardiography was greatly increased in infants compared with the other 2 groups. There were more infants with LVEF < 50% than the other 2 groups and there was no statistical difference between the toddlers and the older children. Eighteen of 37 patients(48.6% , 18/37 cases) were misdiagnosed at their

  18. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko N.B.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  19. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity. PMID:23945411

  20. Luminance- and texture-defined information processing in school-aged children with autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica B Rivest

    Full Text Available According to the complexity-specific hypothesis, the efficacy with which individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD process visual information varies according to the extensiveness of the neural network required to process stimuli. Specifically, adults with ASD are less sensitive to texture-defined (or second-order information, which necessitates the implication of several cortical visual areas. Conversely, the sensitivity to simple, luminance-defined (or first-order information, which mainly relies on primary visual cortex (V1 activity, has been found to be either superior (static material or intact (dynamic material in ASD. It is currently unknown if these autistic perceptual alterations are present in childhood. In the present study, behavioural (threshold and electrophysiological measures were obtained for static luminance- and texture-defined gratings presented to school-aged children with ASD and compared to those of typically developing children. Our behavioural and electrophysiological (P140 results indicate that luminance processing is likely unremarkable in autistic children. With respect to texture processing, there was no significant threshold difference between groups. However, unlike typical children, autistic children did not show reliable enhancements of brain activity (N230 and P340 in response to texture-defined gratings relative to luminance-defined gratings. This suggests reduced efficiency of neuro-integrative mechanisms operating at a perceptual level in autism. These results are in line with the idea that visual atypicalities mediated by intermediate-scale neural networks emerge before or during the school-age period in autism.

  1. Nutritional condition of school age children. Clinic, anthropo-medical and alimentary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Esther González Hermida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of children´s growth in an appropriate indicator of children health condition and should be used as one of the basis in the practice of preventive medicine. Objective: to determine the nutritional al condition of children of third and sixth grade of elementary schools of Health Area V of Cienfuegos Municipality. Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and relational study of 445 school age children from 4 elementary schools. A clinic assessment was carried out along with an anthropo-medical evaluation. A qualitative survey was developed to assess the frequency of consumption of different alimentary groups. Results: the relation weight/height in the two genders presents a prevalence of normal weight; undernourishment is more common among females, overweight is more usual among boys and obesity can be found in both genders. The variable weight/age showed one bad-nutrition (for defect among females, there was a prevalence of bad-nutrition for excess in both genders. There were no children with height under the third percentile, with prevalence of boys and girls tall and very tall. Bronchial asthma was the most common disease. Conclusions: Food consumption in general, taking into account frequency and kind of food, is not the appropriate. There is a relation between positive clinical findings and the anthropometric assessment of weight/height.

  2. Relative age effect on success in tennis competition in the older age-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Agricola; Rudolf Psotta; Reza Abdollahipour

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The theory of relative age effect assumes that children and adolescents - athletes born at the beginning of the calendar year in sports competitions are more successful than those who were born in the later months of the same year. This percentage is based on advantage of fitness, morphological and psychological assumptions of the older athletes. AIM: The research objective of the present study was to verify the assumption of competitive success of older players in the elite...

  3. Determination of behavioral reactions of a child of 3-6 ages group to be hospitalized due to an acute illness

    OpenAIRE

    Zümrüt Başbakkal; Sibel Sönmez; Nesrin Şen Celasin; Figen Esenay

    2010-01-01

    The study is executed with mothers of children aged 3-6 (n=170) whose children were hospitalized for the first time between the dates of 15.07.2003 and 15.06.2006, who were reachable by phone and accepted to participate in the study aiming determination of behavioral reactions of a child of 3-6 ages group to be hospitalized due to an acute illness.In this study, for data gathering "Personal Information Form" including 15 questions and "Inquiry Form of Behavior Changes of  3-6 Ages Group Child...

  4. The comparison of recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Pala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different Regions. In this respect, 227 children from Southeastern part of Turkey and 262 children from Marmara region of Turkey participated in this study in a volunteered way.The questionnaire adapted from previous studies was implemented on these participants. Afterwards, the data were analyzed in terms of frequency, percentage and independent group of t-test statistics. Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS 15.0 and the significance rate was determined 0,05. Consequently, significantly different result were found (p0,05.According to the findings of this research, 37,9 % of the participant from Southeastern part of Turkey chose “sports” option of the item of “what they do in their leisure time”, 53,3 % of participant within same region chose “football” option of the item of “which recreative activities they regularly deal with”. 51,5 % of the participant from Marmara region chose “sports” option of the former question: Additionally , 25,6 % of item chose “football”, 21,5 % of them chose “badminton” and 12,8 % of them chose “basketball” options of the latter question.

  5. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  6. Reasons for Drop out of Immunization in Children Aged Between 0-12 Months in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulhan Yigitalp

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, vaccination dropout reasons in children aged between 0-12 months was investigated. METHODS: A survey was carried out at eight primary health centers in the city center of Diyarbakir and also at three primary health centers, each in separate village. In collecting data, the records of “the form 012 records” (the card for the registration of vaccination that were available at eight primary health centers. The children who were droped out vaccination were accepted as the cases of the survey. Through those records, 350 children aged between 1,5 and 5 years, who remained droped out, were reached by-house-to-house visits. As the control group, for each droped out child one fully immunized child selected by the same method. The children were selected from the neighborhood of the same medical center and also of the same age group. Information about the mothers were collected by face-to-face- interviews. The features of underimmunized and fully immunized children were compared through the charts of frequency. Chi-square analysis was applied for the comparisons of the two group. For the factors that were considered to have effect on droping out, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: In the survey, it was seen that 62,3% of the mothers and 13,4% of the fathers of the underimmunized children were illiterate. It was also found that being the eighth child increased the risk of the underimmunization 6,07 (%95 CI:2,85-13,09 folds in comparison to the first child. In fully immunized children, vaccination card application was better than droped out children. Having vaccination at home increases the risk of underimmunization . CONCLUSION: We concluded that mother’s education level, order of child, consoling after vaccination, giving vaccine card, home visits for vaccination were the factors related with vaccination dropout. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 277-284

  7. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:26835531

  8. Self-Reported Needs and Expectations of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Participate in Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Vaya; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Many parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) participate in support groups, but very few studies have explored their motives to do so. The present study aims to explore the self-reported needs and expectations that parents express according to their gender and education and according to the age and gender of their child with ASD.…

  9. Differential Therapeutic Outcomes of Community-Based Group Interventions for Women and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    Two community-based group therapies, emotion focused versus goal oriented, are compared among women exposed to intimate partner violence (n = 46) and their children (n = 48) aged between 6 and 12 years. A series of repeated measures analyses are employed to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention following random assignment.…

  10. [Parenting style in Spanish parents with children aged 6 to 14].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Geta, Petra María

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style. PMID:22748726

  11. TABLET DEVICES, SMARTPHONES, GAME CONSOLES INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN’S SOCIALIZATION, PLAY ACTIVITY AND CHILD-PARENT RELATIONSHIPS OF CHILDREN IN TENDER AGE AND PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousova, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of 130 families having children of early and preschool age are given. The contingent of investigated has been divided into 2 groups: group №1 - children without speech and cognitive violations (n=80, group № 2 - are diagnosed manifestations of the general underdevelopment of the speech combined with like-autistic disturbances (n=50. All the children were divided into 2 groups: group №1 (n = 80, children are without speech disorders, group №2 (n = 50: signs of general underdevelopment of children’s speech are diagnosed, combined with like-autistic disturbances. Features of formation of skills of social interaction, development of a subject role-playing game and the child parent relations at against the active use of tablet devices and smartphones by them are studied. In both groups intensive and unfairly early game interaction with gadgets is marked. There is a clear hierarchy transformation of the family system towards the loss of parents dominant influence on children without an ability to use gadget as an obedience and encourage. Patterns of parental behavior in the study families demonstrate the priority of spending time with the gadget to joint leisure time and active integration of the gadget into child's life with delegating him an authority of development and game interaction with him.

  12. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...... levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody...... levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age...

  13. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  14. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children's myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24-2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41-1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  15. Elevated cortisol during play is associated with age and social engagement in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbett Blythe A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hallmark characteristic of autism is impaired reciprocal social interaction. While children find social interaction stress-reducing, many children with autism may find social interaction stress-inducing. The current study was designed to examine stress responsivity as measured by cortisol by comparing children with autism to neurotypical peers during an ecologically valid 20-minute playground paradigm. Methods The experiment involved sets of three children: a child with autism, a neurotypical child, and a confederate. Participants included 45 prepubescent males between 8 and 12 years of age (21 with autism and 24 neurotypical children. Results Children with autism showed fewer initiations (χ²(1 = 4.03, P = 0.044, rejected initiations from others more (χ²(1 = 7.10, P = 0.008 and spent less time interacting during motor (F(1,43 = 16.7, P = 0.0002 and cooperative (F(1,43 = 14.78, P = 0.0004 play. Repeated measures analysis of the cortisol values revealed a significant model (χ²(4 = 22.76, P P = 0.006 and cooperative (χ²(3 = 8.24, P = 0.04 play as well as reduced nonverbal social skills during motor (χ²(1 = 5.52, P = 0.018 and cooperative play (χ²(1 = 4.53, P = 0.033. Conclusions Overall, children with autism engaged in fewer social overtures and spent less time interacting than typically developing peers during play. The peer interaction paradigm resulted in significantly higher levels of cortisol in many children with autism. Distinct patterns emerged within the autism group based on developmental (older, biological (cortisol responder and behavioral patterns (peripheral group interaction. The enhanced cortisol response was observed in children who voluntarily engaged in interaction; thus, it does not support the notion of a response to social threat. Rather, it appears to reflect attendant metabolic preparedness and enhanced arousal from engaging socially. The data suggest that many children with autism

  16. The age transformations of thyroid size at the children and teenagers from the Slavgorod's area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data processing of the screen investigates of 1638 children and teenagers from the Slavgorod's area of the Mogilev Region is conducted. Ultrasonic diagnostics was used to determine the quantitative objective laws of the thyroid gland volume changes depending on age of the surveyed persons. It was used the method of the standard statistical analysis of data, which was received with the screen survey of the healthy children and children from contamination region. Thyroid gland biometrics was conducted by the Toshiba SSA-240A ultrasonic scanner by Brunn et al. technique. Linear dependence of total volume, volume of a left and right share of the thyroid gland from age and floor surveyed was established. Comparison this results with data, received from 'clean' regions, as well as in Germany and Sweden too, permits to expand representation about age changes of the thyroid gland volume and leads to a conclusion, that the increase of the thyroid gland volume at teenagers in the most degree is defined by iodine insufficiency. For girls the thyroid gland volume are more, than for boys in all age groups, and it was detected excess of volume of a right share in comparison with volume of a left share, which is more expressed at girls too

  17. Topical-steroid-induced iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the pediatric age group: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cushing syndrome, a systemic disorder, is the result of abnormally high blood level of cortisol or other glucocorticoids. The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is prolonged exogenous administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Prolonged use of topical corticosteroids, particularly in children, may cause Cushing syndrome and suppression of the hypothalamopituitory-adrenal axis, which is less common than that of oral or parenteral route. However, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the infantile age group due to topical steroid is very rare and only a few patients have been reported to date in the literature. Here we report a case of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome due to topical steroid application in a 5-month-old female child admitted to the hospital for repeated episodes of fever and cough.

  18. Ileal perforation associated with dengue in the paediatric age group: an uncommon presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Piyush; Gupta, Archika; Pandey, Anand; Kureel, Shiv Narain

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen in dengue, a common arboviral disease found in tropical and subtropical countries, is not uncommon and can occasionally present as acute surgical emergency requiring urgent surgical intervention. The spectrum of acute abdomen presenting as surgical emergency in dengue infection that raises suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe includes acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, appendicitis and, rarely, intestinal perforation. All cases of intestinal perforation including appendicular, gastric and jejunal perforation have been reported in adult patients during the course of dengue infection. However, intestinal perforation during the course of dengue infection in the paediatric age group has never been reported. We report two cases of ileal perforation in children occurring during the course of dengue infection. PMID:27485879

  19. Characterization of tinnitus in different age groups: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Al-Swiahb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize tinnitus in affected patients. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records from 470 consecutive patients who visited a tertiary care hospital for evaluation of chronic subjective tinnitus between January 2009 and June 2010 was performed. Patients were divided into three subgroups based on age. Clinical, audiological, and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were analyzed. Results: Of the 470 patients evaluated, 85 were less than 40, 217 between 40 and 60, and 168 above 60 years of age. Most patients were men and complained of unilateral, acute high-pitched tinnitus. Most patients above the age of 40 years complained of loud and annoying tinnitus and had worse stress and severity scores. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus in older adults is subjectively louder, more annoying, and more distressing than that found in younger patients. We recommend considering age in the patient management plan.

  20. Managing HCV infection in pediatric age group: Suggested recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in children is different from the adult infection in many ways, like natural course of the disease; duration, therapeutic response and side effects profile of the drug therapy; and prognosis. Special considerations include consideration on what could be the appropriate time to investigate a suspected child, when to institute drug therapy and how to prevent vertical transmission. Although over the past one decade many landmark studies have greatly increased our insight on this subject, yet we are far from developing a consensus statement. In this article, a concise yet comprehensive review of HCV infection in children - diagnosis and treatment - is given, followed by suggested recommendations at the end. It is hoped that these recommendations will help develop local guidelines on this subject.

  1. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Renes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA. Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr, 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP. The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. RESULTS: The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17. Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46. Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  2. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. PMID:26584469

  3. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphy...

  4. Prevalence of elimination dysfunction, among primary school age children in Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Basiri,

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Elimination dysfunction is referred to have various difficulties in urination and defecation, such as urinary frequency, delayed with difficulty in voiding or defecation. The prevalence of elimination dysfunction has been varied in different studies, as 21% of children experience elimination dysfunction during their childhood period. Presently, there are no studies pertaining to this difficulty in our country. Therefore, we carried out a descriptive study in primary schools from the Sari Township, regarding voiding and defecation dysfunction among children, and also we identified the epidemiology of the disease, in order to solve problems by implementing teaching programs and screening methods.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on Primary school age students in the Sari Township, during 2007 through 2008. Considering the prevalence of elimination dysfunction (15-25%, confidence coefficient 95%, SE 10%, and the sample size of 2,200 were randomly and equally selected from different parts of the township among the two-sex groups. A standard questionnaire including demographic characteristics and 10 questions on voiding status, in addition to 19 questions regarding defecation status was prepared. Questionnaires were distributed to the students by responsible school personnel and then referred to parents for completion. Data was analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive statistics (Frequency, Mean, and Standard Deviation. Chi Square test (χ² and Student T-test were used to compare the Means. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Of 2201 primary school age students, 48.7% were girls. The mean age was 8.96±1.43 year. Voiding and defecation dysfunction was reported in 38.4% and 29% of the cases respectively. There was no significant relationship between prevalence of voiding dysfunction and other factors such as mean age, sex and level of education; however, there was a significant

  5. Children's Experiences and Meaning Construction on Parental Divorce: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…

  6. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  7. Prospective Memory in Children: The Effects of Age and Task Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Messer, David J.; Ebdon, Pippa

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments examined effects of age and task interruption on children's prospective memory (PM), remembering to carry out a future task. Age explained a small portion of variance in performance. Children who did not have to interrupt their ongoing activity to complete the PM tasks performed significantly better than children who had to…

  8. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  9. Norm Scores of the Box and Block Test for Children Ages 3-10 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  10. Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Children and Adolescents: A Saint Petersburg Hodgkin's Lymphoma Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kulyova, Svetlana A.; Kolygin, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Prospective analysis of the efficacy of the original protocol SPbHL-05 was performed. Patients and Methods. Sixty patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) aged less than 18 years old were treated in accordance with SPbHL-05 from January 2000, to July 2009. In induction chemotherapy we used VBVP and ABVD schedules followed by involved-field radiotherapy. Fourteen patients (23,3%) with 0–2 adverse factors (the favourable group) received two cycles of chemotherapy (VBVP), 25 children (41,7...

  11. The Analysis of the Exhaled Nitric Oxide in a Group of Patients with Asthma, Aged 3-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirogowicz Iwona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the results of exhaled nitric oxide examination in a group of patients with hyper-responsive-ness. The study was performed on a group of 297 children who underwent spirometry, examination of exhaled nitric oxide, skin prick test and stress probe in years 2010-2012 in Pulmonology and Allergy Centre in Karpacz. Mean age of patients was 11.86. Patients were divided into four groups: with diagnosed asthma, with bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR, with described asthma without BHR and a group with BHR without diagnosed asthma. The results of the study confirmed the presence of high-er amount of exhaled nitric oxide in patients with asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. The elevation of NO concen-tration correlated with age; there was no significant difference between sexes.

  12. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  13. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja;

    2005-01-01

    --Revised. In a second study, the ASQ was obtained in 22 children born extremely preterm and 19 term children at the age of 35-44 mo. RESULTS: The overall ASQ score correlated significantly with IQ (p=0.007). The children born extremely preterm had an ASQ score of -1.06 SD below the score of the term children...

  14. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  15. Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Ha; Xu-Qing Zhuge; Qian Zheng; Bing Shi; Cai-Xia Gong; Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern inChinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.Methods:A total of93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of6-11 year-old and treated atWestChinaStomatologyHospital were selected.And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school inChengdu.Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists.Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups.Results:The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency.All patients showed elevations in behavior problems.But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders.Conclusions:Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties.Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient.

  16. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Lee

    Full Text Available After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV among high-risk age groups (≥40 years in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1% exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3% subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  17. Outcome Evaluation of a Group Treatment of Sexually Abused and Reactive Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffany, Adrienne; Panos, Patrick T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of group therapy in treating sexually abused children to prevent recidivism (subsequently re-abused or becoming abusers themselves). Methods: Recidivism rates of 617 children were compared between sexually abused children who received group treatment with those whose parents refused treatment.…

  18. A Programmatic Description of a Social Skills Group for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social skills are a common problem for children with autism. One method of developing appropriate social skills in children with autism has been group instruction. To date, however, group instruction has produced mixed results. The purpose of this article is to describe a promising method of teaching social skills to children in small…

  19. Maternal Characteristics Determine Stunting in Children of Less than Five Years of Age Results from a National Probabilistic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition and some variables are the main determining factors of birthweight and delayed intrauterine growth of children.Objective: To explore the association between the mothers’ biological and sociodemographic characteristics, and the anthropometry status in children under five years of age.Design: The population consisted of a sub-sample of 1,047 mother-and-child selected pairs from the probabilistic National Nutrition Survey, carried out in Mexico. Mother-and-child pairs included mothers aged 12 to 49 years, with children under five years of age. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history, 24-hour recall dietary intake, and the women and children’s anthropometry were collected. The association between maternal characteristics and children’s anthropometry status was assessed using multiple logistic regression models.Result: Nearly 16.7% of the children 2y. The height/age of the children was severely affected by maternal height and birth order. In addition, the interaction between socioeconomic level and maternal schooling had a marginal effect (p = 0.09 in the ≤2y group. On the other hand, whether the family received social services and the interaction between maternal height and a dichotomy urbanism variable were significant ( p = 0.05 and (p 2y group.Conclusion: Some biological and socioeconomic characteristics among mothers have a negative effect on their children’s attained size, especially in the period between 2 and 5 years of age.

  20. A PROFILE OF BLOOD PRESSURE PATTERN IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN AGED 6 TO 12 YEARS IN SUBURBAN CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study Blood Pressure (B.P. Pattern in normal school children in the age group of 6–12 years. OBJECTIVES: To determine Blood pressure pattern in school going children so that the prevalence of Hypertension in young adults can be predicted and mortality due to the disease can be prevented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a Prospective cross sectional study with Sample Size 1,400 children (Minimum 100 in each group. Children of both sexes between the age group of 6 – 12 years were selected were included. Children with Renal diseases and Family history of hypertension were excluded. Study Period: 1 Year (from January 2013 to December 2013. RESULTS: The results were analyzed with suitable statistical package with student ‘t’ test, paired ‘t’ test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Chi square tests. CONCLUSION: There is presently a lack of longitudinal data relating BP measurement in childhood to the risk of further cardiovascular disease. it would be logical to advice families with obese children to change their lifestyles with respect to diet, exercise and reduced salt intake to get their children accustomed to lifestyles which are favorable for the maintains of normal blood pressure.

  1. Perception of Affective Body Movements in HRI Across Age Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders; Segato, Nicolaj

    robots and the signals they produce. In this paper we focus on affective connotations of body movements and investigate how the perception of body movements of robots is related to age. Inspired by a study from Japan, we introduce culture as a variable in the experiment and discuss the difficulties of...... cross-cultural comparisons. The results show that there are certain age-related differences in the perception of affective body movements, but not as strong as in the original study. A follow up experiment puts the affective body movements into context and shows that recognition rates deteriorate for...

  2. Is the assessment of dental age by the Nolla method valid for eastern Turkish children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloglu, Ozkan; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Dane, Asim; Cantekin, Kenan; Yilmaz, Ahmet Berhan

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the Nolla method is appropriate for Turkish children for the determination of the dental age (DA). A group of 719 children between the ages of 6 and 18 years were included in the study. DAs from orthopantograms by the Nolla method were estimated. The results obtained were compared with chronologic age (CA). Paired t and the Wilcoxon tests were performed. Both genders were underestimated in dental maturity when compared with the reference samples in total (-0.3 years) (p<0.01). The differences in girls were statistically significant in total and in all groups except for 7-7.9. The differences in boys between the CAs and DAs were not statistically significant in total and in all groups except for 7-7.9 and 8-8.9. Although the accuracy of this method was suitable for boys, according to our findings, it was not suitable for girls. PMID:21418219

  3. Age Related Clinical and Laboratory Manifestations of Enteric Fever in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Patankar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Scanty literature is available on age related clinical features in children in Western India. A study wasthereby conducted to evaluate the clinical profile of enteric fever patients admitted in our hospital in theyear 2007. All patients with fever with Widal positive and/or with culture grown salmonella were included.A retrospective analysis of their clinical features, laboratory parameters and antimicrobial therapy wasdone. A total of 33 patients were included and divided into two age groups; 5 years. Meanage of presentation was 5 + 3 years. Male: Female ratio was 2:1. Common clinical features were fever(100%, hepatomegaly (82%, elevated liver enzymes (85%, anemia (88% and elevated ESR (80%.None of the patients had constipation. In the age group of 5 years age group. Of all the first line antibiotics used, Ceftriaxone was used in 29 (87.88%patients, Ciprofloxacin in 3 (9.1% patients, and Cefotaxime in 1 (3% patient. Failure of first line antibioticswas seen in 10 (30.3% patients. Complications were seen in 6 (18.18% patients, of which 2 (33.33%had serositis, 1 (16.67% each had osteomyelitis, synovitis, splenic abscess and shock. 31 (93.9% patientsrecovered. 1 (3% died and 1 (3% was lost to follow-up. Recovery was faster in 5 years old (9.4 ± 4.5 days (P = 0.01.Fever, hepatomegaly,elevated liver enzymes, anemia and elevated ESR are the common clinical features of enteric fever inchildren. Diarrhea is more common in younger children whereas relative bradycardia and gall bladdersludge is more common in older children. Constipation is not a feature. Recovery is better in youngerchildren. 30% of our patients had resistance to third generation cephalosporins as first line antibiotics.

  4. EFFECTIVENESS IN DYNAMIC BALANCE: A COMPARISON BETWEEN FOOT MUSCLE STRENGTHENING USING ELASTIC BAND AND WITHOUT ELASTIC BAND IN CHILDREN AGED 8–12 WITH FLEXIBLE FLATFEET

    OpenAIRE

    Indri Listyorini; Marietta Shanti; Tertianto Prabowo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of foot muscle strengthening exercises with and without elastic band to the dynamic balance function in children aged 8–12 years with flexible flatfeet. Methods: Forty-one children (aged 8–12 years) with flexible flatfeet and dynamic balance problem were randomly allocated into either the intervention or control group. Both groups received thrice weekly training for 6 weeks. The foot strengthening exercise regimens consisted of pronation, supination, sho...

  5. Exploring the impact of group work and mentoring for multiple heritage children's self-esteem, well-being and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, D; Hagan, T.; Bodfield, E.; Woodthorpe, K.; Grimsley, M

    2008-01-01

    Findings are reported from a study of an innovative Multiple Heritage Service in Sheffield (UK) which provides, inter alia, individual mentoring for young people and school-based group sessions on cultural heritage, dealing with racism and enhancing well-being. Groupwork, undertaken between November 2005 and December 2006, was evaluated by a before/after design with 43 children aged from eight to fifteen attending five different groups (response rate 77 per cent), using three well-establishe...

  6. Which age group spends the most in a national park?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Age (and its changing structure amongst the wider population is one of the most relevant aspects required to better understand and forecast the needs, interests and associated consumption behaviours of tourists. This research used age to investigate the expenditure patterns amongst a sample of visitors to the Table Mountain National Park (TMNP, South Africa. In March 2010, visitors to the TMNP were found to differ significantly from those at other parks, as they were younger and most of them were foreigners. This study found that younger visitors (18–29 years were higher spenders when compared to those aged 30–49 years. As parks are generally visited by older people, this study showed the economic importance of the younger market. The research also made clear implications and recommendations for park management as to how to address these findings. Conservation implications: Conservation is dependent on funding. One of the main sources of income is tourism and tourism related activities. This research can assist marketers and managers to target the right markets in order to be more sustainable. This research also shows the importance of environmental education at an early age in order to grow awareness and to target the right markets.

  7. MR imaging of capitellar ossification: a study in children of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fader, Lauren M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Eismann, Emily A.; Cornwall, Roger; Little, Kevin J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The capitellar ossification center is used routinely to evaluate elbow alignment on radiography. However, whether capitellar ossification is central and concentric to support this practice is unknown. To define the pattern of capitellar ossification at different ages of childhood. This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved. MR imaging examinations from 81 children (ages 1-13 years, at least 3 boys and 3 girls in each age group) were included. We determined the center points of the ossified capitellum and the cartilaginous capitellum on the sagittal and coronal sequences that best showed differentiation between cartilage and bone. Percentage offset of the center of the ossified capitellum from the center of the cartilaginous capitellum was calculated in anterior-posterior, proximal-distal and medial-lateral dimensions, and compared across age groups and between genders. Linear regressions were used to ascertain the effect of age on percentage offset for all patients and for each gender. Capitellar ossification begins eccentrically with sagittal anterior proximal offset and coronal medial offset. With age, ossification proceeds posteriorly, distally and laterally. Percentage offset gradually diminishes with age. The ossified capitellum centralizes in the sagittal plane by 12-13 years. In the coronal plane, the capitellum ossifies medially beyond the proximal radioulnar joint and remains eccentric at 12-13 years. Centralization in boys lags in the anterior-posterior dimension. Capitellar ossification is an eccentric process, with lag in anterior-posterior centralization in boys. Medial offset persists at 12-13 years. Recognition of this eccentric ossification may allow for more accurate assessment of elbow alignment on radiographs, especially in younger children. (orig.)

  8. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: Evidence from EEG and MEG data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eRuhnau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG, here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts towards complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation.

  9. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: evidence from EEG and MEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnau, Philipp; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Brauer, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9-10 years) and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times (RTs) in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts toward complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation. PMID:24155730

  10. The Effect of Distraction on Pain Level Felt by School-age Children During Venipuncture Procedure-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Ayfer; Gözen, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    The experimental study that follows was planned to determine the effectiveness of distraction on the pain level in school-age children as they underwent venipuncture. The study sample consisted of children between the ages of 7 and 12 years who underwent venipuncture at the Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between February and May 2012. A total of 144 children were conveniently sampled and evenly randomized into two groups of 72 children each. The primary instrument used to test children's pain level was the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R). During the blood draw, the experimental group was given a kaleidoscope and told to look through it and describe what they saw, then rate their pain level on the FPS-R. Results showed that during venipuncture, the pain level of the control group was significantly higher (FPS-R = 3.27 ± 2.87) than the experimental group (FPS-R = 1.80 ± 1.84; p = .001) suggesting that distraction with a kaleidoscope is effective in reducing the pain children experience during venipuncture. PMID:26459008

  11. The impact of attitude functions on luxury brand consumption: An age-based group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, Michael; Hegner, Sabrina; Horstmann, Florian; Brinkmann, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand the consumption of luxury brands in different age groups. Attitude functions (social-adjustive, value-expressive, hedonic, utilitarian) explain luxury brand consumption among three age groups. A total of 297 respondents between the age of 16 and 59 par

  12. Metabolism of oxycodone in human hepatocytes from different age groups and prediction of hepatic plasma clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiiaTurpeinen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1 and 10 µM was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 hours, and 1 µM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 µM. Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. In general, this in vitro to in vivo extrapolation method provides valuable information on the maturation of oxycodone metabolism that can be utilized in the design of clinical pharmacokinetic studies in infants and young children.

  13. Efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in school-aged children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial.A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine; sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints; and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage. Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score.Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10 D than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03 D and eyes closed group (0.07 D (P = 0.04. The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0% than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8% and the eyes closed group (34.9% (P = 0.03. No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes.Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the long-term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01756287.

  14. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  15. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  16. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over... (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A child age 22 or...

  17. Shame Solutions: How Shame Impacts School-Aged Children and What Teachers Can Do to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Though many psychologists and researchers argue over the age at which humans first experience shame, all agree that by age two children have the capacity to be shamed (Lansky and Morrison 1997). School-aged children have invariably been exposed to shame at home and receive an extra dose of it in our current school system. This essay investigates…

  18. Parental Age and Autism Spectrum Disorders Among New York City Children 0-36 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Carol A; McVeigh, Katharine H; Driver, Cynthia R; Govind, Prashil; Karpati, Adam

    2015-08-01

    We examined trends in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the association of ASD with parental age among young New York City (NYC) children. Children born in NYC to resident mothers from 1994-2001 were identified through vital statistics records (N = 927,003). Records were linked to data from NYC Early Intervention (EI) Program through 2004. The independent parental age-specific odds of having an ASD before 36 months of age were estimated using multiple logistic regression controlling for risk factors. The increase in ASD attributable to changes in parental age at birth was examined. Births to mothers and fathers 35 years or older increased 14.9 and 11.5 %, respectively, between 1994 and 2001. ASD prevalence in EI increased significantly from 1 in 3,300 children born in 1994 to 1 in 233 children born in 2001. Children born to mothers ages 25-29, 30-34 and 35 or older had significantly greater odds of being diagnosed with ASD than children of mothers younger than 25 years (OR 1.5, 1.6, and 1.9, respectively). Children born to fathers ages 35 or older (OR 1.4) had greater odds of ASD than children of fathers younger than 25. The change in parental age accounted for only 2.7 % of the increase in ASD prevalence. Older paternal age and maternal age were independently associated with increased risk of ASD. However, while parental age at birth increased between the 1994 and 2001 birth cohorts in NYC, it did not explain the increase in number of ASD cases. PMID:25776271

  19. Methodical aspects of ultrasonic research of cervical intervertebral disk and spiral canal children of the advanced school age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held ultrasound intervertebral discs (MPD), the spinal canal (PC) with the level of C2-C3 to C7-TH1 67 healthy children in the age groups 13-15 and 16-18 years. In the sagittal and axial projections defined sizes MPD PC dural spaces, radicular channels. Studied echo structure nucleus pulposus, the contours of the fibrous ring

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent Training and Emotion Socialization Program for Families of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Jasmin L.; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that…

  1. What children know about communication : a language biographical approach of the heterogeneity of plurilingual groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pichon-Vorstman, E.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    What do children know about communication? In the increasingly globalized world we live in, nowadays children more often come into contact with multiple languages at different ages and in variable contexts. Consequently, children may at times be required to communicate in situations in which they la

  2. Do sex and age affect strategic behavior and inequity aversion in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Guerra, Nereida; Leiva, David; Colell, Montserrat; Call, Josep

    2016-10-01

    The ultimatum game is commonly used to explore fairness in adults in bargaining situations. Although the changes in responses that occur during development have been investigated in children, the results have been mixed. Whereas some studies show that proposers offer more when they grow older, others indicate the opposite. Moreover, these studies are outcome-based and leave intentions out of the scene, although intentions play a relevant role in daily life. The mini-ultimatum game offers the opportunity to test both outcomes and intentions, but one major obstacle for accurately pinpointing developmental transitions in strategic behavior and inequity aversion so far has been the multiple confounds that have plagued previous studies, including different methods, small sample sizes, and reduced age differences. We administered an anonymous direct-method one-shot mini-ultimatum game to 478 6- and 10-year-old children. Strategic behavior was present at 10 years of age; older participants matched more accurately what responders would accept than younger participants. However, this was true only for older girls. No sex differences were detected in younger children. No age group seemed to consider the proposer's intentions given that the rejections of the default option were not significant across conditions. Both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity aversions were present in 6-year-olds. However, older children exhibited significantly more disadvantageous inequity aversion than younger children. This contrast made the pattern of rejection of 6-year-olds look more similar to the pattern of rejection found in adults. No sex differences were found in responders' behavior. PMID:27372561

  3. [Treatment outcome for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) obtained by the Polish Children's Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybicka, A; Kołecki, P; Pietras, W; Bogusławska-Jaworska, J; Wójcik, D; Armata, J; Eliasińska, A; Kowalczyk, J; Jackowska, T; Klus, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Stefańska, K; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Wiśniewska-Slusarz, H

    1998-02-01

    Fourty children with MDS treated in seven centres of The Polish Children's Leukemia Lymphoma Study Group in period 1975-1998y were included to the study. In 16 children RAEB-T, in 2 CMML in 10 RA and in 12 RAEB were diagnosed. Our and literature data showed that BMT is the best therapy for children with MDS. For children, who don't have a donor for BMT. Roacutan therapy seems to be the most effective. PMID:9686518

  4. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  5. Neurodevelopmental outcome at early school age of children born to mothers with gestational diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ornoy, A; Wolf, A.; Ratzon, N; Greenbaum, C; Dulitzky, M

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To study the metabolic derangements in the second half of pregnancy caused by gestational diabetes, on the long term development of children.
METHODS—The neuropsychological function of 32 school age children born to 32 mothers with well controlled gestational diabetes and 57 control children matched by age, birth order, and parental socioeconomic status was studied.
RESULTS—There were no differences in head circumference and height, but the children born to diabetic ...

  6. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG.Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the uprise of extremist, subcultural youth of multiple-aged groups, and the reasons whence they begin to perform distinctive functions that are specific for teenagers. Options for models of MAG humanistic educational systems formed in Russian and foreign social and pedagogical practice are listed. A complex of pedagogical conditions provided for the formation of social competence of adolescents in multiple-aged associations of humanistic orientation is considered. It has been found that this type of system is characterized by the following features: the principle of voluntary association of people, independence of subjects, rapid adaptation to changing socio-cultural situation, a variety of activities by interests, alternating change of activities, conflict resolution within the team, a high level of team spirit, selfmanagement, the creative nature of educational process, upbringing, socialization and self-realization. A brief description of conditions for development of fundamental human values among adolescents and formation of new specific complicated humanistic human and personal relations in global world is given.Scientific novelty. The author studies the following concepts: educational system of multiple-aged associations, teenager social competence, ambivalent behavior, emotional and moral compass of personality, invisible assets of the team, emergent effect of multiple-aged groups, inter-age communication. It was found that the specificity of MAG educational

  7. Educational intervention applied in children from 5 to 11 years of age with deforming oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Santos Haces Yanes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habits are complex neuromuscular patterns learnt by frequent repetition and act as unnatural forces that may cause dental maxillofacial defects. Objective: To assess the intervention of educative measures applied to children with deforming buccal habits in the primary school Raúl Suárez Martínez from the zone “Rafaelito”. Methods: A cuasi-experimental study was developed, with before-after intervention without control group including 253 children from December 2006 to November 2007. We applied the program “To Happily Smile” with a weekly frequency. Surveys were applied to children, parents and teachers after the educational actions to achieve the reduction ofincorrect habits. The studied variables were: age, sex, deforming habits frequency before and after the intervention. Results: The knowledge level of children, parents and teachers was significantly improved. Risk factors were eradicated in more than 50% of the children being the most frequent: lingual protraction, baby bottle suction, mainly among females. Conclusions: The intervention was successful for the reduction of deforming oral habits, and the high level of knowledge acquired. After the intervention it was shown that the educative process is a key tool for the General Comprehensive Dentist.  

  8. Intracranial tumors in children less than 2 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the characteristic CT findings in twelve cases of intracranial tumors in children under 2 years of age. The histological classification of them was as follows: 2 were teratomas, 3 ependymoma and ependymoblastomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, and 3 were other gliomas, including a pontine glioma. 1. Ten cases were located along the central neural axis. The supratentorial/infratentorial ratio became nearly equal at each age before and after the first year. 2. With regard to tumor size, approximately 70 % out of the brain tumors were more than 5 cm in diameter; especially, four cases had diameters of more than 7 cm. In the case of the teratomas, the cranial cavity was filled with several nodular tumors of varying densities. On admission, an ependymoblastoma in the posterior fossa had already invaded the pineal region. 3. Hydrocephalus was a frequent finding except for the two craniopharyngiomas and the pontine glioma. Some demonstrated an eminent ventricular collapse and a displacement of the midline structures because of the large size of the tumor masses. 4. The malignant gliomas had less peritumoral edemas in proportion to the large sizes of the tumor masses. The prognosis of some brain tumors in our cases less than 2 years of age was extremely poor, but an aggressive approach to them with surgical treatment, irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy may improve their chances of survival. (author)

  9. Behavioral Group Therapy Effect on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Fakour

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children and adolescents physical and psychological integrity threatening occur after disasters, whereby post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction. Psychological debriefing is a way for prevention and reducing PTSD symptoms. Many studies have shown the efficacy of behavioral therapy in treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Few evidence is available for using these techniques in combination for prevention and treatment of PTSD symptoms. This study compared the efficacy of psychological debriefing and cognitive behavioral group therapy combination on Bam earthquake related PTSD symptoms in children with a control group. Methods: In a control trial, we evaluated the efficacy of one session psychological debriefing and three sessions of group behavioral therapy in Bam earthquake adolescent survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The mean age of participants was 9.07 (SD=1.7 years and no one had sever PTSD or other psychiatric disorder that needed pharmacological interventions. Before and after interventions we evaluated PTSD symptoms by use of K-SADS questionnaire and compared them with the control group. Results: The study included 100 persons, of whom 20 persons were excluded during intervention because of migration. The mean values of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience and avoidance were reduced after interventions. This reduction was statistically significant only for symptoms of re-experience. In control group the mean values of PTSD symptoms increased during study which was statistically significant. The two groups showed statistically significant differences of symptom reduction in total PTSD symptoms, re-experience and avoidance. No difference was detected for hyper arousal. Conclusion: Psychological debriefing and group behavioral therapy may have preventive effect on PTSD symptoms and may reduce symptoms of re-experience.

  10. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  11. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli VASILEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Methods: The dynamics of the visual per-ception (visual gnosis in typically develop¬ing children were tested with an adapted version of the Poppelreuter-Ghent Test for figure-ground segregation. The total number of overlapping objects is 33, grouped accor¬ding to the level of difficulty. The children are given a group of objects separately in a following sequence and they should segregate and name the objects. Results: A number of 365 typically developing children without diagnosis of visual disorders and without corrected visus took part in the research. All children, aged 4, 5, and 6 from three different settlements attend state nursery schools and have Bulgarian as a mother tongue. A three-factor dispersion analysis was held to define the statistical significance of the independent factors age, gender and settlement. The research’s data define the 5 year olds as sensitive about the dynamics of the complex forms of visual perception, compared to the four year old children (pchildren (pchildren from the big town compared to the capital (pchildren at the age of six demonstrate a low rating

  12. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.; Makarova T.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiaritie...

  13. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... in the clinical management of young children with persistent problems of feeding, eating, and weight faltering....

  14. Blood Pressure Nomograms by Age and Weight for Iranian Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Hosseini; Masoud Baikpour; Mahmoud Yousefifard; Mehdi Yaseri; Mohammad Fayaz; Hoda Shirafkan; Arash Abbasi; Hadi Asady; Faezeh Javidilarijani; Behnaz Bazargani; Neamatollah Ataei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Normal standard references of blood pressure (BP) for children and adolescents have been suggested to be constructed based on anthropometric indices. Accordingly, we aimed to develop first BP reference percentiles by weight and age for Iranian children aged 3-18 years old. Materials and Methods: A total of 16,246 children and adolescents aged 3-18 years were included from 3 cross-sectional studies conducted in Tehran- Iran. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric indic...

  15. The Effects of the Parenting Styles on Social Skills of Children Aged 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…

  16. Factors Related to Emotional Responses in School-aged Children Who Have Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Veronica García

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions (a) What factors contribute to the emotional responses of school-age children who have asthma? (b) What are the potential gaps in the literature regarding the emotional responses of school-age children (ages 6–12) who have asthma? (c) Are children with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) and those who are minorities represented in the literature proportionate to their prevalence? Two main focus areas regardin...

  17. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Piyusha S Patil; Pallavi Pujar; Subbareddy, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above) were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group). There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene me...

  18. Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, for the treatment of persistent asthma in children aged 2 to 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, B; Franchi, L M; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The greatest prevalence of asthma is in preschool children; however, the clinical utility of asthma therapy for this age group is limited by a narrow therapeutic index, long-term tolerability, and frequency and/or difficulty of administration. Inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled....... To our knowledge, this represents the first large, multicenter study to address the effects of a leukotriene receptor antagonist in children younger than 5 years of age with persistent asthma, as well as one of the few asthma studies that incorporated end points validated for use in preschool...... children. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to determine the safety profile of montelukast, an oral leukotriene receptor antagonist, in preschool children with persistent asthma. Secondarily, the effect of montelukast on exploratory measures of asthma control was also studied. DESIGN AND STATISTICAL...

  19. The FAS fluency test in Brazilian children and teenagers: executive demands and the effects of age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Martins Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The FAS Verbal Fluency Test is widely used in neuropsychological clinical services and research. This study investigated the contributions of different executive functions, age and gender to FAS test performance in a sample of children and teenagers divided into two groups: G1 comprised 263 children aged 6-10 years, and G2 comprised 150 teenagers aged 10-14 years. All participants were assessed using the Cancellation Attention Test, the Auditory Working Memory Test, the Visual Working Memory Test, the Semantic Generation Test, and the Trail Making Test, in addition to the FAS test. For G1, age, auditory working memory and shifting were predictors of FAS performance. For G2, gender, auditory working memory, shifting and inhibition comprised the FAS explanatory model. The study contributed to our understanding of which are the best predictor variables for the FAS test in a Brazilian sample and how executive demands change with age.

  20. Validation of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire among Brazilian families of school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Amaral Mais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Children’s eating behaviors are influenced by parents, who are the first nutritional educators. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ was developed to measure feeding practices among parents, but has not yet been validated in Brazil, where child obesity rates are steeply increasing. The aim of the study was to test the validity of the CFPQ among Brazilian parents of school-aged children and propose a new version of the instrument. Methods Transcultural adaptation included translation into Portuguese, back-translation, content validity, testing for semantic equivalence, and piloting. Questionnaire data were obtained for 659 parents of 5-to-9-year-olds. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses and psychometric analyses (tests for internal consistency, factor correlations, item-discriminant and convergent validity, and test-retest reliability were conducted. Results Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a poor fit of the data to the original 12-factor model. Exploratory factor analysis generated a 6-factor model composed of 42 items: Healthy Eating Guidance, Monitoring, Restriction for Weight Control, Restriction for Health, Emotion Regulation/Food as Reward, and Pressure. This factor solution was supported by internal consistency tests (α=0.71-0.91 and factor correlations (rho=-0.16 to 0.32. Item-discriminant and convergent validity tests showed that parents who used coercive practices had more overweight children and were more concerned about their child’s weight (rho=0.09 to 0.40. Test-retest reliability was acceptable (ICC=0.45 to 0.77. Conclusions Since parental practices are highly culturally- and age group-sensitive, it is essential to conduct careful evaluations of questionnaires when introduced into specific age groups within new cultural settings. This modified 6-factor model of the CFPQ is valid to measure parental feeding behaviors of school-aged children in urban Brazilian settings.