Dunn, Liam; Prior, Tomas; Greer, Ristan; Kumar, Sailesh
The purpose of this study is to document the gender specific intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in term, singleton, appropriately grown babies. De-identified, routinely collected data of all women meeting inclusion criteria between 2001 and 2011 were examined (n=9223). Inclusion criteria were public (non-insured), primiparous women who had delivered singleton, appropriately grown babies at term. In this retrospective cohort study, we estimated 95% confidence intervals. Outcomes measured were maternal demographics, mode of delivery, birthweight, APGAR score, cord blood acidemia, respiratory distress, any resuscitation requirement, nursery admission and stillbirth rates. The sex ratio of male babies was 1.05:1 (4718 males; 4505 females, p=0.85). Male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental (p=0.004) or caesarean (pinfluencing factor on mode of delivery. Even after adjusting for birthweight, male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental delivery (OR 1.24, pgender may play an independent role in influencing pregnancy outcomes, although the underlying contributing physiology is not definitively established. The gender of the baby perhaps should be considered when counselling parents in the antepartum period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koshy, L M
During a pediatric conference in New Delhi, India, physicians compared their experiences with various diseases to the body of knowledge contained in Western-oriented medical textbooks. One physician noted that the most important longterm intervention to prevent low birth weight babies and congenital malformations is social and involves reducing discrimination against women in India. Many childhood disorders, such as thalassemia, can be prevented by proper genetic screening. Children with thalassemia depend upon blood transfusions to survive, yet they can contract serious and life-threatening illness from an unsafe blood supply. Another physician implicated improper handling by parents in habit disorders such as thumb sucking. A report on childhood epilepsy noted that 20% of the cases are resistant to therapy. A session on nephrotic syndrome relayed the practical experiences of the pediatricians. The fact that this syndrome recurs until puberty and, thus, requires longterm management makes it an important pediatric topic. Asthma was described as a condition which is increasing and which parents are afraid to acknowledge. Another physician suggested adding childbirth to the list of medical emergencies in India, since 75% of them are attended by untrained personnel who may contribute to the incidence of death from neonatal tetanus.
Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace
Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…
de Tychey, Claude; Briançon, Serge; Lighezzolo, Joëlle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Kabuth, Bernard; de Luigi, Valerie; Messembourg, Catherine; Girvan, Françoise; Rosati, Aurore; Thockler, Audrey; Vincent, Stephanie
To study the impact of postnatal depression on the quality of life of young French mothers and to evaluate if the gender of their child influences this. Postnatal depression (PND) constitutes a major public health problem considering its high prevalence and consequences upon quality of life and parental skills. This research is a cross-sectional study during the postnatal period. This study was carried out during a two-month period. Data were collected by interview and questionnaires. The authors compared the prevalence rate of PND and life quality in a cohort of 181 women and measured the short-term impact of the child's birth. Postnatal depression strongly negatively influences all dimensions of life quality explored through the SF36, e.g. physical functioning (PF), physical Role (RP), bodily pain (BP), mental health (MH), emotional role (RE), social functioning (SF), vitality (VT), general health (GH), standardized physical component (PCS) and standardized mental component (MCS). The baby's gender (having a boy) also significantly reduces quality of life, irrespective of depressive state. There is a relationship between baby gender and PND. This research is the first to show that the birth of a boy reduces several dimensions of the mothers' quality of life. The importance of the impairment of quality of life in case of PND, as well as its effects on mother-child interaction, could justify prevention programs and early psychotherapeutic care. Further research needs to explore the effectiveness of programmes targeting the construction of parenting skills as a preventative measure against PND, especially for parents of boys.
Muhammad, T.; Khattak, A.A.; Rehman, S.U.
Very preterm babies are important group of paediatric babies who require special attention. These babies are known to have increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Studying the morbidity and mortality pattern for this important paediatric group can help in better understanding of their care in the hospital settings. Objective of the study was to compare the mortality and morbidity pattern in Small-for-gestational age and appropriate-for-gestational age very preterm babies. This hospital based prospective (cohort) study was conducted at the department of Paediatrics, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar from March 2008 to April 2009. One hundred Small-for-gestational age (SGA) live born very preterm babies were compared with 100 appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) very preterm babies having similar gestational ages. Information regarding gestational age, birth weight, mortality, and morbidity (in terms of various biochemical and clinical markers) were recorded on a pre-designed questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 15. Results were interpreted in terms of descriptive (mean, proportions, standard deviation) and inferential statistical tests (with p-values). There was no difference between the two groups (SGA Vs AGA) with regards to gestational age and gender of the babies The mean weight of SGA babies was significantly lower as compared to AGA babies (1.1+-0.16 Kg Vs 1.5+-0.2 Kg; p=0.001). As compared to AGA babies, the SGA babies had a higher mortality (40% Vs 22%, p=0.006), and higher morbidity in terms of hyperbilirubinaemia (67% Vs 51%, p=0.02) and hypocalcaemia (24% Vs 10%, p=0.02). The difference in the mortality between the two groups was more prominent in babies with gestational age < 31 weeks (71.4% for SGA as compared to 39.3 % for AGA very preterm babies with gestational age < 31 weeks). Very preterm SGA infants have significantly higher mortality and morbidity in comparison to the AGA babies. In deciding
Wanka, Anna; Kolland, Franz; Psihoda, Sophie
Research indicates that the so-called baby boomer generation (the population born after World War II) exhibits worrying health trends. Taking age-cohort effects into account, it is still unclear how the mechanisms concerning stress and health function and how the distribution of stressors, stress mediators and stress effects on health differ between generations. The article approaches stress from a generational perspective asking: which are the stressors the baby boomer generation is facing? Under which conditions and with which resources is exposure to stressors harmful to health? Is there an accumulation of stress in later working life? In the course of the project "Wellbeing", a quantitative online survey was carried out in selected commercial enterprises and public institutions in four project partner countries. The results for Austrian participants are presented in this article. Employees of the baby boomer generation are exposed to both time-related and social stressors at the workplace and a high percentage of respondents expressed symptoms of physical and psychological stress. Stress mediators, such as agency-based coping strategies and social resources at the workplace could buffer these stressors; however, stressors and stress mediators are significantly correlated creating a "triple whammy" effect (i.e. exposure to stressors, lack of social resources and restricted coping), which particularly affects older male baby boomers. Social support buffers the negative effects of a limited health and lower education for female baby boomers, which supports the buffering hypothesis of social convoy theory, whereas male baby boomers lack the resources to effectively cope with work stress.
Yamamoto, Rinah; Ariely, Dan; Chi, Won; Langleben, Daniel D.; Elman, Igor
Background This study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults. Methodology and Principal Findings Healthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a) key pressing to change the viewing time of normal-looking babies and of those with abnormal facial features (e.g., cleft palate, strabismus, skin disorders, Down's syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome) and b) attractiveness ratings of these images. Exposure to the babies' images produced two different response patterns: for normal babies, there was a similar effort by the two groups to extend the visual processing with lower attractiveness ratings by men; for abnormal babies, women exerted greater effort to shorten the viewing time despite attractiveness ratings comparable to the men. Conclusions These results indicate that gender differences in the motivational processing of babies include excessive (relative to the esthetic valuation) motivation to extend the viewing time of normal babies by men vs. shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring. PMID:19554100
Full Text Available This study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults.Healthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a key pressing to change the viewing time of normal-looking babies and of those with abnormal facial features (e.g., cleft palate, strabismus, skin disorders, Down's syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome and b attractiveness ratings of these images. Exposure to the babies' images produced two different response patterns: for normal babies, there was a similar effort by the two groups to extend the visual processing with lower attractiveness ratings by men; for abnormal babies, women exerted greater effort to shorten the viewing time despite attractiveness ratings comparable to the men.These results indicate that gender differences in the motivational processing of babies include excessive (relative to the esthetic valuation motivation to extend the viewing time of normal babies by men vs. shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring.
Song, Zirui; Ferris, Timothy G
The United States is facing a significant demographic transition, with about 10,000 baby boomers turning age 65 each day. At the same time, the nation is experiencing a similarly striking transition in hospital capacity, as the supply of hospital beds has declined in recent decades. The juxtaposition of population aging and hospital capacity portends a potentially widening divergence between supply and demand for hospital care. We provide a closer look at current hospital capacity and a rethinking of the future role of hospital beds in meeting the needs of an aging population.
Full Text Available This paper examines the lives of baby boomers in Finland, and is based on several studies previously published in Finnish. The article considers the particular characteristics of this group of baby boomers. It then discusses whether the baby boom cohorts can also be called a generation. Following this, the life course of the boomer generation is contrasted with various images that have appeared in the media and elsewhere about their lives. Boomers have been presented as a radical’ or ‘selfish’ generation. This article proposes two new themes: boomers as a crossroads generation and boomers as a bridging generation. The paper also considers the emergence of the third age as approached from a generational perspective. The third age has been defined as a generational field underpinned by agency and consumption, with its roots in the youth culture of the post-war decades. This characterization is also highly relevant to the Finnish case, but needs to be elaborated by taking into account socio-historical knowledge of the distinctive life course of the boomer generation.
Studies of education and childhood studies in general tend to focus on the experiences and cultures of toddlers and school-age children. The experiences and cultures of babies and infants are often excluded from the scope of the studies of children. In Gilles Deleuze's (and Felix Guattari's) thinking, a child, and especially a baby or an infant,…
Corsi, Marcella; Samek Lodovici, Manuela
Ageing is a distinctly gendered phenomenon, women being increasingly represented in the older cohorts of the European population, due to their longer life expectancy than men. Furthermore, gender differences and inequalities are a fundamental feature of social exclusion and poverty in old age. The twofold discrimination against older women workers based on gender and age stereotypes, combined with their greater vulnerability in the labour market caused by women-specific work trajectories (i.e...
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The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…
Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan
Recent research points to the inborn abilities of infants and shows how early experiences influence cognitive skills. This book presents activities for parents and their infants--building on activities babies instinctively love--to develop their unique abilities. The book is organized around six intellectual skills: (1) problem solving; (2)…
Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\
Umweni, A. A.; Okeigbemen, S. A.
There is a scarcity of studies on gender issues in parenting cleft lip and palate (CLAP) babies. The birth of a CLAP child presents an immediate visible handicap that is distressing to parents. The aims and objectives of this study are to determine the influence of gender on the attitude of parents on the birth of CLAP babies, to articulate the…
Full Text Available Introduction. Ultrasound represents a method of examination of hips of newborn babies capable of defining hip condition and distinguishing stable and unstable hips based on morphological elements. It is accepted in a large number of countries as a method of examination of high risk newborns, or as a method of systematic screening. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate correlation between ultrasonically estimated hip maturity and respective gestation maturity both in premature and term-born babies, and to investigate the influence of different delivery types on hips condition. Methods. In our study 2045 patients, 1141 males and 904 females, were examined in at the Institute of Neonatology over a period of 5 years. The average age was 34.04 gestation weeks. There were significantly more premature (1698 or 83.03% than term-born babies (347 or 16.97%. Ultrasound hip examination, as a screening method, was carried out according to Graf. It was followed by clinical examination. Results were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (χ2-test, one-way ANOVA, multifactor ANOVA. Results. The overall frequency of unstable hips was 3.2%, 1.88% in males and 4.87% in females (p<0.05. 96.8% babies had stable hips, out of which 35.21% were mature and 61.59% immature. In the study of the breech presentation, out of 183 babies, unstable hips were found in 1.58% of male cases, and in 10.23% of female cases. Conclusion. Clinical screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip is insufficient for early diagnosis and decision about the treatment of premature babies. The high frequency of unstable hip type IIc (risky and IId (decentralized in premature babies requires early diagnosis and therapy. Wide swaddling for prematures should be applied up to eight months of age. Gentle manipulation is necessary while nursing and conducting physiotherapy of a premature baby.
Sanderson, W.; Scherbov, S.
Gender gaps are typically measured by subtracting the survival rates for women from that of men. In most countries and at most ages, these gender gaps indicate a survival rate disadvantage for men. This method is not informative because it is unclear whether larger or smaller gaps would be more equitable. Here we reconceptualize the gender gap in survival based on differences from gender-specific best practice rates and express those gender gaps in the metric years of age. If the age-specific...
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that affect exclusive breastfeeding of healthy babies aged 0-4 months. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend feeding babies of 0-6 months exclusively with breast milk and starting complementary foods after the sixth month. In Turkey, however, a vast majority of babies 1-5 months of age (89.4%) are given complementary foods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in central Ankara province, with a sampling of 514 individuals who were selected using the convenience sampling method. Of the 514 mothers who participated in my research, 260 (50.6%) were found to be feeding their babies exclusively with breast milk; 77 (15.0%), with breast milk + water; 87 (16.9%), with breast milk + baby formula; 70 (13.6%), with breast milk + baby formula + other foods; and 20 (3.9%), baby formula + other foods. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis results, the mother's employment [odds ratio (OR) = 0.488; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.288-0.827) considerably reduced the incidence of complementary foods, while frequent crying of the baby (OR = 1.687; 95% CI = 1.125-2.530) significantly increased the use of supplementary foods in infant nutrition. This study concluded that frequent crying of the baby increases the likelihood of giving the baby complementary foods. Midwives and nurses can encourage exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by providing individual education and counselling to women whose babies cry frequently. Exclusive breastfeeding of babies aged 0-6 months is crucial for the development and growth of the baby and instrumental in reducing infant morbidities and mortalities. One factor that increases the likelihood of provision of complementary foods is frequent crying of the baby. Midwives and nurses can encourage exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by providing individual education and counselling to women whose babies cry frequently.
Full Text Available This paper outlines two contrasting positions in interpreting contemporary change in later life. These are summarily represented by a cohort approach that focuses upon the baby boomers and a generational approach that focuses upon the third age. We argue that understanding the role of the sixties’ cultural revolution for the emergence of the third age offers a broader conceptual understanding of the transformation of later life than that provided by the more restrictive and restricting framework of a baby boom cohort. That many people, particularly in the USA, self identify with the term ‘baby boomer’ reflects not so much the power of cohorts as structuring influences on the ‘conscience collective’ as the role of the market and the media in shaping their social identities.
de Tychey, Claude; Vandelet, Elena; Laurent, Mélanie; Lighezzolo-Alnot, Joelle; Prudent, Cécile; Evrard, Renaud
The aim of this article is to present a French psychoanalytic model of how and to what extent the sequellae of sexual abuse by a male during a girl's childhood are transmitted to the next generation, as a function of the gender of the abused mother's children. The authors conducted a qualitative exploratory study based on the longitudinal follow-up of a woman who had two boys and a girl. They focused on the impact of two general sequellae: separation anxiety and negativity-disqualification of the paternal and/or male figures. From the methodological standpoint, they used a clinical interview to assess the mother, and a projective tool, a storytelling test, to assess the child's personality using content analysis. The results confirm both the merits of the theoretical framework and the relevance of the projective methodology for grasping sequellae transmitted to the child. The sequellae turned out to be markedly different for the two baby genders: rejection for the male, overprotection and ghostly encryption for the female. Avenues for using this tool and model in future quantitative, comparative studies are suggested.
Carney, Gemma M
The article proposes a Gender Politics of Aging approach to the study of aging societies. The approach recognizes the feminization of old age, ageism's roots in sexist discourse, and the need to recognize the role of politics in driving demographic debates. Drawing together arguments from feminist gerontology and political demography, the article argues that the intersection of politics and gender must be considered if appropriate responses to an older, feminized demography are to be produced. I conclude that the work of aging feminists provides a rich vein of research and praxis from which a gender politics of aging approach can draw.
Hartman-Stein, Paula E; Potkanowicz, Edward S
The first of the Baby Boomer generation will officially enter the beginning of old age in 2011 by turning 65. Recent research findings suggest that if the members of this cohort group engage in certain healthy behaviors and thought patterns in their middle years, they will experience a vital, satisfying life in their 70s and beyond. This article reviews the existing literature, including the results of longitudinal studies showing variables that predicted successful aging. Focusing on a lifespan psychology perspective of aging, the authors provide behavioral recommendations for middle age individuals that are likely to prevent disease-related disability, cognitive impairment, and late life depression. These include regular physical exercise, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, maintaining an optimistic mental outlook, and finding meaning in life. The good news for the Baby Boomers is that there is increasing evidence that their behavior at age 50 will impact how they feel at age 80.
Shelov, Steven P., Ed.; Hannemann, Robert E., Ed.
This book, prepared by the American Academy of Pediatrics, is designed to provide parents with the most accurate and up-to-date information about the health and well-being of their young children from birth through age 5. The titles of the book's 30 chapters are: (1) "Preparing for a New Baby"; (2) "Birth and the First Moments…
Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D.
Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their…
Li, Sitao; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Ping; Gao, Ping Ming; Xiao, Xin
We measured cord blood and urine 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels in babies of different gestational ages to determine lipid peroxidation status. Babies at gestational ages of 28-43 weeks were divided into group A (28-32 weeks), group B (33-36 weeks), group C (37-41 weeks), and group D (42-43 weeks). 8-iso-PGF2α in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth and urine at 6 hours after birth was and tested by ELISA. UCB and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group C were 130.09 ± 31.73 pg/ml and 27.14 ± 6.73 pg/ml, respectively. UCB 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group A and B were 188.42 ± 59.34 pg/ml and 189.37 ± 68.46 pg/ml, and urine 8-iso-PGF2α were 32.14 ± 7.32 pg/ml and 30.46 ± 8.83 pg/ml, respectively. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group D (post-term) were 252.01 ± 46.42 pg/ml and 44.00 ± 8.50 pg/ml. For all babies, UCB and urine iso-PGF2α levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, P iso-PGF2α levels in normal full-term babies. Urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels may reflect the extent of lipid peroxidation in babies. In pre-term and post-term babies, there was evidence for increased lipid peroxidation.
Rowntree, Margaret R
'Freedom of sexual expression' is a slogan that has long been synonymous with the generation known as the baby boomers during the 1960s and 1970s. But does this catchphrase still have currency for the men and women in this cohort who are mostly now over the age of fifty? This paper explores the question by reporting on qualitative data from a multi-method Australian study about the influence of growing older on baby boomers' sexual expression. The sample comprised ten interview participants and fifty-seven Internet survey respondents, aged between 50 and 70 years. Following a theoretical perspective known as the sociology of emotions, the analysis of data reveals that baby boomers' emotional experiences range from constraining to liberating sexual expression, to a paradoxical combination of both. The article argues that while sexual freedom is still an important concept to baby boomers, there are new emotional dimensions to its expression, particularly in the form of comfort and confidence, that come with age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sanz, M. T.; Menendez, J.
Studied how early treatment affected the development of a sample of 30 Down syndrome babies incorporated into the study at different ages. Found that development quotients descended significantly at 18 months of age as the period in treatment shortened. (AJH)
As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…
Guita Grin Debert
Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1) to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2) to analyze the ways discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the...
Full Text Available The issue of CEO age and gender vs. concurrent performance is extensively examined, but the association with subsequent performance has limited treatment in the financial literature, and with conflicting findings. In the current study, we examine the association between CEO age and gender, and subsequent company market performance using a more recent set of observations and the standard four-factor model to estimate future cumulative abnormal shareholder returns. We find that subsequent abnormal shareholder returns are marginally significantly higher for female CEOs than for their male counterparts, but no material pattern is observed between CEO age and subsequent abnormal shareholder return performance.
Dhar, H L
There are more women than men at any elderly age group. Depression and osteoporosis are the commonest problems in elderly subjects. Some problems specific to males are hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction and enlargement of prostrate and to females are post-menopausal disturbances, urinary incontinence and breast and lung cancer. However, problems of special concern in both male and female elderly are malnutrition, falls and cognitive dysfunction. Men and women in general suffer from the same sorts of health problems but the frequency of these problems as well as the speed of the onset of death distinguishes them. Infact cultural and social forces act to separate the sexes in their personal health ethos and their sick propensity. The impact of old age on women is different from that of men because of differences in their status and role in society. This is specially so because proportion of widows in 60+ age group is considerably higher than that of widowers. Sexuality is often overlooked as a health status particularly in elderly women. Clinicians should recognise the importance of sexual functions to the overall health of older persons particularly women. Religious participation and involvement are associated with positive mental and physical health. Family life is the key to the health of elders specially older men. Lack of social support increases the risk of mortality and supportive relationships are associated with lower illness rates, faster recovery rates and higher levels of health care behavior.
Guita Grin Debert
Full Text Available Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1 to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2 to analyze the ways discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the retiree associations that were studied, men had a tendency to assume they are not ‘old’ because their erectile function was still in good condition, and divorced or widowed women, in senior citizen associations, tend to regard themselves as happy due to having freed themselves from the sexual obligations imposed by marriage. In both cases, the dominant belief that there is a loss of sexual desire in old age was reproduced.
Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, Margrethe
Aim: To assess the association between maternal glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic pregnancies and the risk of delivering large for gestational age babies (LGA) taking into account maternal body mass index (BMI), weight gain, age, White class, and smoking habits. Method: We identified...... all pregnant diabetic women in a Danish county. HbA1c values after 20th gestational week were collected and offspring was categorized as large, normal or small for gestational age. Logistic regression models we fitted to assess the association between HbA1c and risk of delivering a LGA baby taking...... into account the impact of potential confounding from the above mentioned factors. Results: We found 209 singleton pregnancies of which 59% (95% CI: 52%-65%) terminated with a LGA baby. HbA1c, BMI, and weight gain were all associated with increasing risk of delivering a LGA baby. Analyses stratified...
As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life.
Full Text Available Background: It is increasingly acknowledged that not only gender equality but also gender ideology plays a role in explaining fertility in advanced societies. In a micro perspective, the potential mismatch between gender equality (i.e., the actual sharing taking place in a couple and gender ideology (i.e., attitudes and beliefs regarding gender roles may drive childbearing decisions. Objective: This paper assesses the impact of consistency between gender equality in attitudes and equality in the division of household labour on the likelihood of having another child, for different parities. Methods: Relying on two-wave panel data of the Bulgarian, Czech, French, Hungarian, and Lithuanian Generations and Gender Surveys, we build a couple typology defined by gender attitudes and housework-sharing. The typology identifies four types of couple: 1 gender-unequal attitudes and gender-unequal housework-sharing; 2 gender-equal attitudes and gender-unequal housework-sharing; 3 gender-unequal attitudes and gender-equal housework-sharing; 4 gender-equal attitudes and gender-equal housework-sharing. The couple types enter into a logistic regression model on childbirth. Results: The impact of the typology varies with parity and gender: taking as reference category the case of gender-equal attitudes and gender-equal division of housework, the effect of all the other couple types on a new childbirth is strong and negative for the second child and female respondents. Conclusions: The consistency between gender ideology and actual partners' housework-sharing is only favourable for childbearing as long as there is gender equality in both the dimensions.
Full Text Available Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities’ rights have to be secured, but also majorities rights have to considered if it happens that majorities are discriminated. Widely accepted gender and age inequalities presented on the media in stereotypes and safely-looking conservatist behaviours may lead to harassment and even violence. That is why understanding media messages and identifying overt and covert forms of discrimination are of special interest of educators. In this article several activities for class teachers are presented to encourage them to introduce the touchy topic of gender and age inequalities into their school practice.
Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities’ rights have to be secured, but also majorities rights have to considered if it happens that majorities are discriminated. Widely accepted gender and age inequalities presented on the media in stereot...
Duncan, David F; Nicholson, Thomas; White, John B; Bradley, Dana Burr; Bonaguro, John
Between now and 2030, the number of adults aged 65 and older in the United States will almost double, from around 37 million to more than 70 million, an increase from 12% of the U.S. population to almost 20%. It was long held that, with only a few isolated exceptions, substance abuse simply did not exist among this population. In light of the impact of the baby boom generation, this assumption may no longer be valid. The authors examined admissions of persons 55 years and older (n = 918,955) from the Treatment Episode Data Set (1998-2006). Total admissions with a primary drug problem with alcohol have remained relatively stable over this time. Admissions for problems with a primary drug other than alcohol have shown a steady and substantial increase. Clearly, data from the Treatment Episode Data Set indicate a coming wave of older addicts whose primary problem is not alcohol. The authors suspect that this wave is led primarily by the continuing emergence of the baby boomer generation.
O. V. Makarenk
Full Text Available Today, the definition “glaucoma” combines a number of eye pathologies that lead to irreversible blindness, and therefore is difficult disabling disease. Glaucoma occurs in people of working age, so this problem is not only medical, but also social, because it causes disability in substantial economic costs not only for individual patients, but also for the whole country – patients become unable to work. Gender features of glaucoma are also contradictory. In European literature the basic idea is that men are more likely to suffer from glaucoma than women. Such studies have not been conducted in the Podillya region of Ukraine, that makes impossible to design a reliable global data to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in different age groups for persons living in Vinnitsa region. Therefore, the aim of the study was a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients in Eye Microsurgery Department of Vinnitsa Regional Clinical Hospital for the period 2008-2012 years for determining the gender and age characteristics. Materials and methods 1418 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (841 men and 577 women aged 14 to 92 years (mean age 67,12 ± 7,64, which were treated in the Eye Microsurgery Department, took part in the study. For the purpose of the study they were divided into two groups: I – male patients with glaucoma, II – female patients with glaucoma. Each group was divided into 7 subgroups according to the ontogenesis scheme: A – teens, B – youth, C – I adulthood age, D – II adulthood age, E – elderly age, F – senily age and G – centenarians. Thus was allocated 12 research groups. Results The structure of the incidence of glaucoma is 59.31% in men and 40.69% in women. Incidence of glaucoma is highest in the IE group and is 34.98%. The group IIE incidence is lower – 35.32%. In the group D the incidence of glaucoma among men and women was very different (13.89% and 2.89%, respectively. It should also be noted
Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana
Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.
Attanayake, K; Munasinghe, S; Goonewardene, M; Widanapathirana, P; Sandeepani, I; Sanjeewa, L
To estimate the gestational age and birth weight centiles of babies delivered normally, without any obstetric intervention, in women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies establishing spontaneous onset of labour. Consecutive women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, attending the Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the Teaching Hospital Mahamodara Galle, Sri Lanka, with confirmed dates and establishing spontaneous onset of labor and delivering vaginally between gestational age of 34 - 41 weeks, without any obstetric intervention , during the period September 2013 to February 2014 were studied. The gestational age at spontaneous onset of labor and vaginal delivery and the birth weights of the babies were recorded. There were 3294 consecutive deliveries during this period, and of them 1602 (48.6%) met the inclusion criteria. Median gestational age at delivery was 275 days (range 238-291 days, IQR 269 to 280 days) and the median birth weight was 3000 g (range1700g - 4350g; IQR 2750-3250g). The 10th, 50th and 90th birth weight centiles of the babies delivered at a gestational age of 275 days were approximately 2570g, 3050g and 3550g respectively. The median gestational age among women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies who established spontaneous onset of labor and delivered vaginally, without any obstetric intervention, was approximately five days shorter than the traditionally accepted 280 days. At a gestational age of 275 days, the mean birth weight was approximately 3038g and the 50th centile of the birth weight of the babies delivered was approximately 3050g.
Dobbs, Bonnie M
In less than 5 years, the first wave of baby boomers will begin turning 65, with the last wave of boomers entering their senior years in January 2029. Currently, boomers make up a significant percentage of the population in Canada, the United States, and other developed countries. The baby boom generation has had a profound impact on our society over the last six decades, and this large cohort will continue to exert its influence for several decades to come. Central to this article is the rapid growth in the number of persons 65 years of age and older, beginning in 2011, with a corresponding increase in the number of older drivers. The demographic shift has important implications for licensing authorities, the regulatory bodies charged with licensing and 'fitness to drive' decisions. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the published scientific literature on licensing policies and procedures currently in use for older drivers, discuss their limitations, and provide recommendations for meeting the upcoming challenges of an aging baby boomer population of drivers. Online searches were conducted using the following databases: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Scopus, and TRIS. Google and Google Scholar also were searched for scientific articles. References identified from database and online searches were examined for relevant articles. A number of studies have investigated the utility of different licensing policies and procedures for identifying older drivers who may be at risk for impaired driving performance. Overall, results suggest that current policies and procedures are ineffective in identifying high-risk older drivers. The results also emphasize the need for a different approach for the identification of high risk older drivers by licensing agencies. Recommendations to assist with that goal are provided. The aging of the baby boomer population, combined with the projected high crash rates for this cohort of drivers as it moves through the senior years, underscores
Pillay, Kirubin; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Jansen, Katrien; Naulaers, Gunnar; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten
Objective. We develop a method for automated four-state sleep classification of preterm and term-born babies at term-age of 38-40 weeks postmenstrual age (the age since the last menstrual cycle of the mother) using multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. At this critical age, EEG differentiates from broader quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS) stages to four, more complex states, and the quality and timing of this differentiation is indicative of the level of brain development. However, existing methods for automated sleep classification remain focussed only on QS and AS sleep classification. Approach. EEG features were calculated from 16 EEG recordings, in 30 s epochs, and personalized feature scaling used to correct for some of the inter-recording variability, by standardizing each recording’s feature data using its mean and standard deviation. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) were trained, with the HMM incorporating knowledge of the sleep state transition probabilities. Performance of the GMM and HMM (with and without scaling) were compared, and Cohen’s kappa agreement calculated between the estimates and clinicians’ visual labels. Main results. For four-state classification, the HMM proved superior to the GMM. With the inclusion of personalized feature scaling, mean kappa (±standard deviation) was 0.62 (±0.16) compared to the GMM value of 0.55 (±0.15). Without feature scaling, kappas for the HMM and GMM dropped to 0.56 (±0.18) and 0.51 (±0.15), respectively. Significance. This is the first study to present a successful method for the automated staging of four states in term-age sleep using multichannel EEG. Results suggested a benefit in incorporating transition information using an HMM, and correcting for inter-recording variability through personalized feature scaling. Determining the timing and quality of these states are indicative of developmental delays in both preterm and term-born babies that may
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative
Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique
In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents' permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes.
Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique
In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents’ permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes. PMID:21212809
Full Text Available Baby boomers have been credited with an essentially ‘youthful’ approach to themselves, to consumption and to life-style. As they enter midlife and older age they are also faced with the challenges of a mature identity. This paper critically examines the strategies that baby boomers in the United Kingdom use to manage identity as they grow older. Specifically, questions concerning attitudes to cohort labels, personal ageing and other generations are compared to the consumption choices that are made in areas considered to be key to an ageing identity, including: appearance, clothing and bodily maintenance. Boomers identify with succeeding rather than preceding generations. While they claim not to be concerned with bodily ageing as such, their strategies are aimed at maintaining a balance between youthful and mature identities. Priority was given to blurring the boundaries between themselves and younger adult generations. The implications for the relationship between adult ageing and patterns of consumption are explored.
Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Bogers, S.; Kloosterman, M.
In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents' permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate
Галапчук-Тарнавська, Олена Михайлівна; Halapchuk-Tarnavska, Olena M.
Gender stereotypes are characteristic features of male/female gender group behavior that are expected by a society.Gender stereotypes in the Ukrainian language are viewed as ethnic stereotypes and perform the function of accumulating and systemizing the social, cultural and historical experiences of the Ukrainian people.Gender-marked age stereotypes are widely accepted believes held about certain age that are perceived as being appropriate for women and men.Family roles are also subject to ch...
Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist
Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.
Davis, Gary L; Roberts, William L
The Baby Boomer generation is composed of 78 million Americans who are just beginning to reach their retirement years. Most Boomers have at least one chronic health problem, and these significantly increase the expense of providing medical care. Liver disease is the 12th most common cause of death in the United States, representing a relatively small portion of overall healthcare costs compared with cardiovascular disease and malignancy. Nonetheless, hepatitis C and fatty liver disease are more common in the Boomers and may play a more dominant role as they age. As a consequence, primary liver cancer is likely to become more prevalent. As with most chronic illnesses, prevention rather than disease management is likely to have the greatest impact. For those already afflicted by chronic liver disease, recognition and treatment can reduce the incidence of late complications, as was clearly demonstrated with chronic hepatitis B and C. Perhaps obesity is the greatest threat to our future health, and fatty liver disease, although likely preventable, will probably become the disease that fills the waiting rooms of future hepatologists.
RESEARCH. Background. Several factors, including gestational age (GA), gender, race and geographical/regional area, contribute to variations in the ... While the impact of GA and gender are clearly established, the influences of region and ethnicity vary ... in the lying-in ward and babies in the Newborn Special Care Unit.
Swanepoel, De Wet; Eikelboom, Robert H; Hunter, Michael L; Friedland, Peter L; Atlas, Marcus D
The baby boomer population will become high users of the health-care system in coming years. Self-report of hearing loss at a primary health-care visit may offer timely referrals to audiological services, but there has been no population-based study of self-reported hearing loss in the baby boomer generation. To determine the clinical value and audiometric correspondence of self-reported hearing loss as a screening tool for the baby boomer population. A population-based study, Busselton Healthy Ageing Study (BHAS), surveying baby boomers born between 1946 and 1964 from the shire of Busselton, Western Australia. A randomized sample of noninstitutionalized baby-boomers listed on the electoral roll (n = 6690) and resident in the shire are eligible to participate. This study reports on data from the first 1004 attendees (53.5% female) with a mean age of 56.23 (SD = 5.43). Data from a self-report question on hearing loss and diagnostic pure tone audiometry was utilized for this study. Analysis included screening performance measures of self-report compared to audiometric cut-offs, receiver operator curve (ROC) to determine optimal level, analysis of variance to compare hearing status to self-report, and binary logistic regression to determine best audiometric predictors. Of the sample, 16% self-reported hearing loss (72.1% males). Logistic regression indicated 4000 Hz as the most important individual frequency related to self-report while the four-frequency average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) >25 dB in the worse ear was the most significant averaged cutoff with 68% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Of those who self-reported a hearing loss, 80% had either a four-frequency average hearing loss >25 dB in the worse ear or a high-frequency average (4000 and 8000 Hz) hearing loss greater than 35 dB in the worse ear. Baby boomer adults who self-report hearing impairment on direct inquiry are most likely to have a hearing loss. A simple question at a primary health care
Sarabia, Stephanie Elias; Martin, James I
This study examined the relationships of age to use of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs, and misuse of prescription drugs, among midlife women and whether these relationships are modified by birth cohort. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, which included 2,035 baby boomer and silent generation cohort women, ages 30 to 55. Midlife women across cohorts reduced alcohol and marijuana use, but not illicit and prescription drug misuse, as they aged. A modifying effect of birth cohort was not supported, but findings did support differential aging effects across substances. Implications are discussed.
Giúdici, Lidia; Bokser, Vivian Susana; Maricic, Maximiliano Alejo; Golombek, Sergio G; Ferrario, Claudia Cecilia
The aims of this Argentinian study were to describe and analyse the outcomes of a continuous interdisciplinary follow-up programme of patients with gastroschisis. This was a prospective, longitudinal study of babies with gastroschisis admitted from 1 November 2003 to 31 October 2014, and this paper presents results at one, three and six years of age. Matched-pairs analyses were carried out when they were one and six. We enrolled 62 babies and assessed 52 at one year of age, 34 at three years and 17 at six years. This showed that 63% had mental health problems and 5% had recurrent wheezing. Normal outcomes at one, three and six years were growth (80%, 85% and 80%), neurology-psychomotor development index (64%, 50% and 82%), audiology (100%, 76% and 76%), vision (98%, 94% and 89%) and language (55%, 62% and 65%). The rehospitalisation rates were 30%, 0.3% and zero, and the surgical re-intervention rates were 9%, 0.3% and 12%. Matched-pairs analysis showed no significant differences between outcomes at the ages of one and six. Babies born with gastroschisis were at risk for long-term morbidity and impairments, according to follow-up assessments at the ages of one, three and six years. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Using detailed estimates of personal consumption expenditures at the state level for 1900, 1929, 1970, and 1982 developed by Stanley Lebergott, this paper demonstrates that the passage of the Baby Boom from childhood through the teen years and into family formation would have caused market swings in patterns of aggregate consumption and savings in the United States during the past 50 years. The effect of age structure on personal consumption expenditures is estimated using population by singl...
Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan
We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…
Kristianto, Yonatan; Sulistyarini, Tri
Food complement of breast milk is food that contain nutrient, giving to child in age 6–36 months to complete nutrient requirement. Giving that food is precisely influenced by mother's behavior who have baby. The objective of the research to prove the factors that influence mother's behavior in giving food complement breast milk to child in age 6–36 months.The design of the research was correlation. The population was all mother who have children in age 6–36 months at Posyandu Mawar I Karangre...
Lee, Anne C C; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah
million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm-SGA. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were......BACKGROUND: National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low...... birthweight (age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from...
Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy
The potential benefits, drawbacks, and preferences of activity (both physical and nonphysical) among Baby-Boomers were the foci of this study. This study included 56 survey participants and 5 interviewees. Descriptive statistics illustrated a preference towards low impact physical activity and cognitively enriching nonphysical activities. Time…
Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew
Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.
The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…
Haematological Indices in Healthy Appropriate For-Gestational-Age (AGA) Pre Term Babies. ... International Journal of Medicine and Health Development. Journal Home ... Patient and Methods: All consecutive healthy pre-term new born babies delivered at UNTH and admitted into the hospital NBSCU were included.
This investigation was designed to study the effects of the antihistamine, chlorpheniramine maleate, as well as the influence of age and gender, singly and in combination with chlorpheniramine maleate...
May 1, 2014 ... population and how it varies with gender and age. Design: A .... horizontal in orientation. For the purpose of .... race as cornea curvature have been noted to exhibit ... Grosevenor, T. Role of Cornea in Emmetropia and. Myopia.
Angle, John; Wissmann, David A.
Age is a determinant of the gap between U.S. men's and women's work wages; young men are paid more as they age because of age; young women are not. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of the Labor Market Experience were analyzed for 5,225 men and 5,159 women. (KC)
Twigg, Julia; Majima, Shinobu
The article addresses debates around the changing nature of old age, using U.K. data on spending on dress and related aspects of appearance by older women to explore the potential role of consumption in the reconstitution of aged identities. Based on pseudo-cohort analysis of Family Expenditures Survey, it compares spending patterns on clothing, cosmetics and hairdressing, 1961-2011. It concludes that there is little evidence for the 'baby boomers' as a strategic or distinctive generation. There is evidence, however, for increased engagement by older women in aspects of appearance: shopping for clothes more frequently; more involved in the purchase of cosmetics; and women over 75 are now the most frequent attenders at hairdressers. The roots of these patterns, however, lie more in period than cohort effects, and in the role of producer-led developments such as mass cheap fashion and the development of anti-ageing products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bachmann, Gloria A; Mussman, Brianna
The transgender community has long been marginalized in society. As the world's population ages, gender-unbiased health services for this growing population, with age-related chronic illnesses, will be essential. To optimally eliminate hurdles that trans individuals often confront when requesting services, it appears judicious to eliminate the strict and antiquated definition of what constitutes "normal" female and "normal" male. A review of literature on transgender medicine on PubMed over the last five years was conducted. Existing statistics indicate that unacceptable bias and discrimination are occurring, making trans patients less likely to seek care. There are emerging initiatives that address the transgender and gender non-conforming population. Ongoing needs include defining what constitutes "gender equal," understanding the continuum of gender identity, and establishing and implementing guidelines for gender equal counseling and care. With the routine practice of defining sex at birth and equating sex with gender in the health care setting, the transgender patient encounters multiple barriers to accessing and acquiring health care services. These strict gender labels appear to preclude the institution of gender equal care. Care templates on gender equal patient encounters should be implemented to better address transgender health needs in a non-biased manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald
This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.
Kessing, L V
BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrence in affective disorder has been found to increase with each new episode. It is unclear whether it is universal without regard to gender, age and type of disorder. METHOD: Survival analysis was used to estimate the risk of recurrence in a case-register study...... episodes regardless of the combination of gender, age and type of disorder. Initially in the course of illness, unipolar and bipolar women experienced an equal greater risk of recurrence than men. The risk of recurrence after the first episode was increased for middle-aged and older unipolar women compared...... with the risk for younger women, while after all other episodes younger age at first episode increased the risk of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The course of severe unipolar and bipolar disorder seems to be progressive in nature irrespective of gender, age and type of disorder....
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Lorson, Kevin M; Stodden, David F; Langendorfer, Stephen J; Goodway, Jacqueline D
The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in throwing performance across an underexplored portion of the lifespan: middle adolescents (14-17 years old), young adults (18-25 years old), and adults (35-55 years old). Throwing performance was assessed using the body component levels from Roberton's developmental sequences for force and ball velocity that were recorded by a radar gun. Participants in each age group performed between 5 to 10 forceful overhand throws toward a target approximately 15m to 20m from the thrower. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test was used to determine gender differences and a Wilcoxon-Signed Ranks Test was used to determine age-group differences for each component. Gender and age-group differences in ball speed were determined by a 3 (age group) x 2 (gender) factorial analysis of variance with follow-up post-hoc tests. Young-adult men had higher body component levels and ball speed compared with the adolescent boys and adult men. Female age-group differences existed only for humerus action between young-adult and adult groups and for ball speed between young-adult and adolescent groups. Gender differences (p < .01) existed in component levels for the adolescent and young-adult groups, but not the adult groups. Gender differences in ball speed (p < .001) existed within each age group. Although these data were cross-sectional, the regressive developmental changes observed and the narrowing gender gap may eventually provide insight related to the relationships among motor skill competence, physical fitness, and physical activity across the lifespan.
... population increases the risks of cognitive decline and suicide. About 25% of older adults have some type of mental health problem, such as a mood disorder not associated with normal aging. Older adults with ...
Full Text Available The findings of the research into the perceived parental behavior provide contrasting data as to the existence and the nature of differences in the perception of parental behavior based on parents’ gender and respondents’ gender. The purpose of the present study is to examine the differences in the perceived parental behavior in adolescents with regard to parents’ gender and respondents’ age and gender. The study included 466 respondents (262 girls and 204 boys, in middle to late adolescence, divided into four sub-groups according to their age. The respondents were asked to fill in the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI questionnaire which measures the care and overprotection in mothers and fathers respectively. The obtained findings show the existence of significant difference based on the parents’ gender for both subscales: both maternal care and maternal overprotection were estimated as higher. Observing the differences by respondents’ gender on the whole sample, only one significant difference is found: paternal overprotection was estimated as higher by girls. The differences by age as observed within gender groups are completely disparate for girl and boy groups. The best insight into the differences is obtained through analysis by gender, for groups relatively homogenous in terms of their age (for the first three groups the only significant difference appears in the paternal overprotection subscale; the difference disappears in the subgroup of the oldest respondents’, while the differences between the perception of maternal and paternal care are of significance here. One particularly important finding for future research into rearing behavior is the fact that the perception of parental behavior changes over the period of adolescence differently for boys and girls; therefore, the analysis including perceived parental behavior should be performed for subgroups by gender, which are as homogenous as possible in terms of their age.
Wallace, J M; Bhattacharya, S; Horgan, G W
The weight of the placenta is a crude but useful proxy for its function in vivo. Accordingly extremes of placental weight are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes while even normal variations in placental size may impact lifelong health. Centile charts of placental weight for gestational age and gender are used to identify placental weight extremes but none report the effect of parity. Thus the objective was to produce gender and gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight in nulliparous and multiparous women. Data was extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank for all women delivering singleton babies in Aberdeen city and district after 24 weeks gestation. Gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight by gender and parity grouping (n = 88,649 deliveries over a 30 year period) were constructed using the LMS method after exclusion of outliers (0.63% of deliveries meeting study inclusion criteria). Tables and figures are presented for placental weight centiles according to gestational age, gender and parity grouping. Tables are additionally presented for the birth weight to placental weight ratio by gender. Placental weight and the fetal:placental weight ratio were higher in male versus female deliveries. Placental weight was greater in multiparous compared with nulliparous women. We present strong evidence that both gender and parity grouping influence placental weight centiles. The differences at any given gestational age are small and the effects of parity are greater overall than those of gender. In contrast the birth weight to placental weight ratio differs by gender only. These UK population specific centile charts may be useful in studies investigating the role of the placenta in mediating pregnancy outcome and lifelong health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study examined age and gender differences in the premarital sexual attitudes exhibited by adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 1044 participants in four age categories were drawn from 4 secondary schools and 4 universities all located within three states of South-West ...
This study examined middle-age gender differences in career challenges and emotional intelligence and its counselling implications. The study aimed at sensitizing the development of adult counselling programme for the middle-age persons. Survey design was adopted to obtain samples (800) from a large population of ...
The bachelor thesis deals with preschool children's play in the context of gender. The theoretical part is divided into three main chapters. The first one is devoted to the essence of play and its function for the child, the second one describes the main areas of child development at preschool age and the last chapter is devoted mainly to gender socialization and role of play in it. The practical part has the form of semi- structured interviews, which aimed to find out the extent of gender de...
Paz, Amira; Doron, Israel; Tur-Sinai, Aviad
The world is aging, and the percentages of older people are on a dramatic ascent. This dramatic demographic aging of human society is not gender neutral; it is mostly about older women. One of the key policy approaches to address the aging revolution is known as "active aging," crystalized by the WHO in 2002 by three pillars: participation, health, and security. The active aging policy has financial and economic aspects and affects both men and women. However, as argued in this article, a gender-based approach has not been adopted within the existing active aging framework. Therefore, a new gender-specific research agenda is needed, one that focuses on an interrelation between gender and different economic aspects of "active aging" from international, comparative, cultural, and longitudinal perspectives.
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Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes
Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..
Wing Lok Au
Full Text Available Objective. Wearable and wireless motion sensor devices have facilitated the automated computation of speed, amplitude, and rhythm of hand motion tasks. The aim of this study is to determine if there are any biological influences on these kinematic parameters. Methods. 80 healthy subjects performed hand motion tasks twice for each hand, with movements measured using a wireless motion sensor device (Kinesia, Cleveland Medical Devices Inc., Cleveland, OH. Multivariate analyses were performed with age, gender, and height added into the model. Results. Older subjects performed poorer in finger tapping (FT speed (r=0.593, p<0.001, hand-grasp (HG speed (r=0.517, p<0.001, and pronation-supination (PS speed (r=0.485, p<0.001. Men performed better in FT rhythm p<0.02, HG speed p<0.02, HG amplitude p<0.02, and HG rhythm p<0.05. Taller subjects performed better in the speed and amplitude components of FT p<0.02 and HG tasks p<0.02. After multivariate analyses, only age and gender emerged as significant independent factors influencing the speed but not the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. Gender exerted an independent influence only on HG speed, with better performance in men p<0.05. Conclusions. Age, gender, and height are not independent factors influencing the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. The speed component is affected by age and gender differences.
Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have
Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie
Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability
Liben, Lynn S
Gender has long been, and continues to be, a powerful predictor of developmental experiences and outcomes. Observations drawn from personal history, developmental science, and life beyond the academy show that historically, gender constraints have diminished in some ways, but remain robust in others. Reviewed are children's constructive processes that--in interaction with the embedding ecology--foster the emergence and persistence of gendered phenomena. Reviews of interventions designed to increase girls' science participation demonstrate the need to evaluate both intended and unintended program consequences. Discussion of the single-sex schooling debate shows the importance of foundational conceptualizations of gender, and illuminates research-to-policy processes. After identifying newly emerging gender conceptualizations, the concluding section highlights the need to consider how gender conceptualizations do and should affect science and society. © 2016 The Author. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Xu, J; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Iijima, K; Okada, K; Yamashita, K
Previous reports have suggested that brain atrophy is associated with aging and that there are gender differences in brain atrophy with aging. These reports, however, neither exclude silent brain lesions in "healthy subjects" nor divide the brain into subregions. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of gender on age-related changes in brain subregions by MR imaging. A computer-assisted system was used to calculate the brain matter area index (BMAI) of various regions of the brain from MR imaging of 331 subjects without brain lesions. There was significantly more brain atrophy with aging in the posterior parts of the right frontal lobe in male subjects than there was in female subjects. Age-related atrophy in the middle part of the right temporal lobe, the left basal ganglia, the parietal lobe, and the cerebellum also was found in male subjects, but not in female subjects. In the temporal lobe, thalamus, parieto-occipital lobe, and cerebellum, brain volume in the left hemisphere is significantly smaller than in the right hemisphere; sex and age did not affect the hemisphere differences of brain volume in these regions. The effect of gender on brain atrophy with aging varied in different subregions of the brain. There was more brain atrophy with aging in male subjects than in female subjects.
Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus
Whereas it is often stated that aging might have more negative consequences for the evaluation of women compared to men, evidence for this assumption is mixed. We took a differentiated look at age stereotypes of men and women, assuming that the life domain in which older persons are rated moderates gender differences in age stereotypes. A sample of 298 participants aged 20-92 rated 65 - year-old men and women on evaluative statements in eight different life domains. Furthermore, perceptions of gender- and domain-specific age-related changes were assessed by comparing the older targets to 45 - year-old men and women, respectively. The results speak in favor of the domain specificity of evaluative asymmetries in age stereotypes for men and women, and imply that an understanding of gendered perceptions of aging requires taking into account the complexities of domain-specific views on aging.
Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Ozge, Aynur; Saginc, Petek; Orekici, Gulhan; Uludüz, Derya; Yalın, Osman; Siva, Aksel; Bıçakçi, Şebnem; Karakurum, Başak; Öztürk, Musa
Migraine headache is one of the most common primary headache disorders and is three times more prevalent in women than in men, especially during the reproductive ages. The neurobiological basis of the female dominance has been partly established. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the headache manifestations in migraine patients. The study group consisted of 2082 adult patients from five different hospitals' tertiary care-based headache clinics. The relationship between headache characteristics and gender was evaluated in migraine with aura (MwA) and migraine without aura (MwoA). The duration, severity, frequency of headache and associated symptoms were evaluated in both genders and age-dependent variations and analyzed in two subgroups. Women with migraine were prone to significantly longer duration and intensity of headache attacks. Nausea, phonophobia and photophobia were more prevalent in women. Median headache duration was also longer in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.013) and MwoA (p < 0.001). Median headache intensity was higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.010) and MwoA (p = 0.009). The frequency of nausea was significantly higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.049). Throbbing headache quality and associated features (nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia) were significantly more frequent in women than in men in MwoA. The gender impact varied across age groups and significant changes were seen in female migraineurs after age 30. No age-dependent variation was observed in male migraineurs. Gender has an influence on the characteristics of the headache as well as on the associated symptoms in migraine patients, and this impact varies across the age groups, particularly in women. © International Headache Society 2014.
Full Text Available The present research examines the relationships between happiness and variables of gender, age and marital status as well as the degrees of happiness most frequently experienced by people. The sample was constituted by 163 males and females, between the ages of 20 and 60 years, single and married, and from middle class strata. They were administered the Scale of Satisfaction with Life, developed by Diener, with and added item to measure the degrees of happiness. There is no significan! statistically difference between genders; according to age the only significan contras! was between 30 and 50 years, with the notation that the highest means corresponded to ages 50 and 60 years old; married people were found to be happier than single ones. In general, the majority reported feeling happy, the other degrees contained very few frecuencies.
Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Støvring, Henrik; Holme Hansen, Ebba
RATIONALES, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing dispensing of statins has raised concern about the appropriateness of prescribing to various population groups. We aimed to (1) investigate incident and prevalent statin prescribing according to indication, gender and age and (2) relate prescribing...... patterns to evidence on beneficial and adverse effects. METHODS: A cohort of Danish inhabitants (n = 4 424 818) was followed in nationwide registries for dispensed statin prescriptions and hospital discharge information. We calculated incidence rates (2005-2009), prevalence trends (2000-2010) and absolute...... numbers of statin users according to register proxies for indication, gender and age. RESULTS: In 2010, the prevalence became highest for ages 75-84 and was higher in men than women (37% and 33%, respectively). Indication-specific incidences and prevalences peaked at ages around 65-70, but in myocardial...
Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.
Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…
Gender, Age and Locus of Control as Correlates of Remedial Learners' Attitude towards English Language. ... These findings have far-reaching implications for adult and non-formal education practitioners and other stakeholders interested in improving the lots of several learners out there, in English language. Keywords: ...
Drawing on the work of Carol Gilligan (1982) and Lawrence Kohlberg (1969) the study sought to examine children.s moral reasoning about situations involving conflicts and how they would resolve them. It also explored whether children.s choice of moral orientation varied across individual factors such as age and gender.
We explored the relationship between age, gender and anthropometric measurements and atherogenic index in hypertensive patients. A cross sectional study was done involving 109 adult hypertensive patients attending the cardiology clinic of Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital. Subjects were recruited ...
The conclusion of the study was that there were differences with respect to age, gender, course of study and school type in students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers, while there was none regarding form/class level. Among the counselling implications are that counsellors must take into consideration personal and ...
Full Text Available Collodion baby is a rare congenital disorder characterized by parchment like taught membrane covering the whole body. Other findings in our case include ectropion, eversion of lips, and flattening of nose and ears. Skin biopsy showed features consistant with the diagnosis of collodion baby. The child was treated with supportive measures like antibiotics, intravenous fluids, humidification, and application of emollients.
Syme, Maggie L; Cohn, Tracy J
Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N = 962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 years). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting 'other' gender. Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs.
Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna
Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.
Kim, YoungHo; Park, InKyoung; Kang, SooJin
The current study investigated how adolescents perceive their own health risks and compare their own likelihood of health risks with that of others of the same age. Moreover, the study identified the differences in health risk perceptions between males and females. A total of 625 adolescents (314 males and 311 females) from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul, voluntarily participated. In order to measure health risk perceptions a Korean version of self-other risk judgments profile was used. The findings indicated that study participants, regardless of gender and age, tend to underestimate their vulnerability to majority of health risk events. Furthermore, there were significant gender and age differences in health risk perception and perception bias in all health risk domains. The present study suggests that further research is needed to identify realistic and unrealistic perception mechanism for a large number of people from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.
Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James
To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants' introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources to be used by both health care professionals and parents for
This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…
Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian
The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investi......The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work...... is to investigate the blood flow pat- terns within a group of healthy volunteers (4 females, 7 males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry...... to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender is observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development....
Pekić Jasmina M.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the phenomenon of school indiscipline which proved to be an important factor of disruption in the teaching process. The aims of our research were to determine whether there were gender and age differences in expressing indiscipline during a class, as well as to examine the latent space of the School Indiscipline Scale. The sample included 897 students (42.1% boys and 57.9% girls who attend elementary (46.6% or secondary (53.4% school, aged 12 - 19. The instrument used was the Scale of School Indiscipline. The results of the component analysis indicated four components: nonparticipation, aggression, defiance to authority and cheating. By applying the MANOVA test we detected gender differences in all four subscales: that girls tend to cheat or not participate in the teaching process, while boys are more inclined to aggression and authority defiance. Regarding age differences it was noted that elementary school students are more inclined to behave aggressively while secondary school students tend not to participate and cheat. Bearing in mind that knowing gender and age differences of expressing unwanted behavior in school is very important it seems that the success of any prevention programs depend, to a large extent, upon their congruence with the students with different characteristics.
Burra, Patrizia; De Martin, Eleonora; Gitto, Stefano; Villa, Erica
Women constitute a particular group among patients with chronic liver disease and in the post-liver transplantation (LT) setting: they are set apart not only by traditional differences with respect to men (ie, body mass index, different etiologies of liver disease, and accessibility to transplantation) but also in increasingly evident ways related to hormonal changes that characterize first the fertile age and subsequently the postmenopausal period (eg, disease course variability and responses to therapy). The aim of this review is, therefore, to evaluate the role of the interplay of factors such as age, gender, and hormones in influencing the natural history of chronic liver disease before and after LT and their importance in determining outcomes after LT. As the population requiring LT ages and the mean age at transplantation increases, older females are being considered for transplantation. Older patients are at greater risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, osteoporosis, and a worse response to antiviral therapy. Female gender per se is associated with a greater risk for osteoporosis because of metabolic changes after menopause, the bodily structure of females, and, in the population of patients with chronic liver disease, the greater prevalence of cholestatic and autoimmune liver diseases. With menopause, the fall of protective estrogen levels can lead to increased fibrosis progression, and this represents a negative turning point for women with chronic liver disease and especially for patients with hepatitis C. Therefore, the notion of gender as a binary female/male factor is now giving way to the awareness of more complex disease processes within the female gender that follow hormonal, social, and age patterns and need to be addressed directly and specifically. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.
Jillian M. Couto
Full Text Available Microbes are beneficial to life on our planet as they facilitate natural processes such as global nutrient cycling in our environment. This article details a 30-minute activity to introduce pre-school children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age to microbes and biofilms in the natural environment.
Full Text Available We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia.
Jan 24, 2018 ... mass media have the power to easily propagate ideas on social change ... issue of 'baby factory' is becoming everyday news affecting the right of ... according to recent mass media reports, teenage girls and young women are.
In Lithuania, as well as in other countries, psychological studies on time perspective are still making their first steps. Currently, no theoretical paradigm is extensive enough to serve well as a basis for further fundamental and applied research in this field. The goal of this study was to explore the link between time perspective and personality traits in different gender and age groups. To analyse time perspective and personality traits, two independent studies were carried out (N=636 in ...
Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J
Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.
... wipes within your reach, but out of your baby’s reach. Car seat: The law requires drivers to place a child in a car seat designed for the child’s age, weight, and height. These requirements can vary by state and include: Rear-facing car seats for babies up to age 2. Forward-facing car seats ...
Fingerman, Karen L; Pillemer, Karl A; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J Jill
As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65-75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42-60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3-5 years from 1985 to 2005. These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers' personal values, family members' needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future.
Full Text Available Purpose . Gender identity manifestations in schoolchildren were investigated. Material . The study involved schoolchildren of 3 -11th forms of the secondary schools (206 – boys, 213 - girls. For the research of age peculiarities in psychological gender, a questioner worked out by Sundry Bam which consists of 60 statements was used. Results . A number of aspects of self description which have different psychological characteristics in boys and girls were analysed. A peculiarity of gender identity in schoolchildren, which was identified by the overall number of respondents in whom the androgens personality type was identified, was singled out. Out of 206 boys – 90% have an androgens index, as for the girls – 69.5% refer to androgens personality type. The presence of feminine character qualities in boys and masculine – in girls was found out, which proves maximal development of feminine and masculine in one person. This will help social adaptation of schoolchildren. Conclusions . Physical education has enormous potential emotional and physical impact on the formation of gender identity of students and their notions of femininity and masculinity. This can directly affect the formation of life value orientations students in general, including the formation of values in the sphere of physical culture.
Fahlgren, Martha K; Kleiman, Evan M; Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S
Although we know much about the effects of violence on victims, we know less about individuals who perpetrate violence. In the present study, we used a large, nationally representative sample of adults (National Comorbidity Study-Replication; n = 9,282) to examine demographics (i.e., age and gender) and social, occupational, and cognitive functioning among perpetrators of recent violence. We found that recent violence was more prevalent among younger individuals and males (i.e., these groups were more likely to engage in at least one act of violence). Among those who did engage in violence, there was no effect of age or gender on violence frequency (i.e., number of violent acts engaged in over the past year). Furthermore, gender moderated the effect of age on recent violence prevalence, but not violence frequency. Finally, those reporting violence over the past year showed greater impairment in all examined domains of functioning, but there was no association between impairment and frequency of violence. This study represents one of the first attempts to utilize 12-month prevalence data to explore the lifetime trajectory of violence among those who perpetrate it, which seems to peak in young adulthood and then decrease across the life span. Furthermore, although males are more likely to engage in violence than females, adults who engage in at least one act of violence demonstrate no difference in frequency of yearly violent acts, regardless of gender. Finally, it is apparent that merely engaging in any acts of violence over the past year is associated with functioning problems. Overall, most significant differences emerged between those who do and do not engage in violence, which is key for informing violence risk assessment and prevention.
Dunne, K P
Hypercarbic and hypoxic arousal responses during sleep were measured in healthy term infants, infants where a previous sibling died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infants suffering a clearly defined apparent life threatening event (ALTE) requiring vigorous or mouth to mouth resuscitation. Groups of infants were tested at approximately one, six and 13 weeks postnatally. Arousal was defined as gross body movement with eyes opening and moving or crying. Hypercarbic arousal was by step increases in F1 Co2 until arousal occurred or until endtidal (PETCO2) reached 8.7 KpA (65 mm Hg) Hypoxic arousal was by step decreases in FIO2 until arousal occurred or until an FIO2 of 0.15 had been maintained for 20 minutes. There was no difference in hypercaribic arousal threshold with age in any group. Hypercarbic arousal threshold was significantly higher in siblings (mean 53.4, 53.6, 54.7 mmHg. [7.12, 7.14, 7.29 KPA] at 0, 6, 13 postnatal weeks) compared to controls (mean 50.9, 52.3, 53.0mm Hg. [6.78, 6.97, 7.29 KPS respectively). ALTE infants differed only at 12 weeks having a significantly lower threshold (51.0mmHg. [6.80 KPA] V 53.0mm Hg. (7.06 KPA]) compared to controls. There was no difference in hypoxic arousal response with age in any group. An arousal response to hypoxia occurred in only 22% of ALTE infants and 40% of siblings compared to 67% of normal infants. Deficient sleep arousal, especially to hypoxia, is common in infants and especially those considered at increased risk from SIDS. This deficiency is present in the first postnatal week and did not vary overy the first three months of postnatal life.
Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S.F.; Rahat, T.
Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)
Zhuang, Ziqing; Landsittel, Douglas; Benson, Stacey; Roberge, Raymond; Shaffer, Ronald
The impact of race/ethnicity upon facial anthropometric data in the US workforce, on the development of personal protective equipment, has not been investigated to any significant degree. The proliferation of minority populations in the US workforce has increased the need to investigate differences in facial dimensions among these workers. The objective of this study was to determine the face shape and size differences among race and age groups from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health survey of 3997 US civilian workers. Survey participants were divided into two gender groups, four racial/ethnic groups, and three age groups. Measurements of height, weight, neck circumference, and 18 facial dimensions were collected using traditional anthropometric techniques. A multivariate analysis of the data was performed using Principal Component Analysis. An exploratory analysis to determine the effect of different demographic factors had on anthropometric features was assessed via a linear model. The 21 anthropometric measurements, body mass index, and the first and second principal component scores were dependent variables, while gender, ethnicity, age, occupation, weight, and height served as independent variables. Gender significantly contributes to size for 19 of 24 dependent variables. African-Americans have statistically shorter, wider, and shallower noses than Caucasians. Hispanic workers have 14 facial features that are significantly larger than Caucasians, while their nose protrusion, height, and head length are significantly shorter. The other ethnic group was composed primarily of Asian subjects and has statistically different dimensions from Caucasians for 16 anthropometric values. Nineteen anthropometric values for subjects at least 45 years of age are statistically different from those measured for subjects between 18 and 29 years of age. Workers employed in manufacturing, fire fighting, healthcare, law enforcement, and other occupational
Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S. F.; Rahat, T. [Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore (Pakistan)
Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)
Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola
The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.
Beales, Darren; Smith, Anne; O'Sullivan, Peter; Hunter, Michael; Straker, Leon
Back pain beliefs (BPBs) are an important modifiable factor related to disability associated with low back pain (LBP). Back pain beliefs have not been characterized in baby boomers, a group at risk for decreased activity levels and reduced productivity. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify factors related to BPBs and (2) to evaluate the association between LBP disability and beliefs. A cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling baby boomers (born 1946-1964) was conducted. Nine hundred fifty-eight baby boomers (mean age=56.2 years) participating in the Busselton Healthy Aging Study provided their history of LBP, BPBs, LBP behaviors related to care seeking (taking medication, seeking professional help) and activity modification (missing work, interference with normal activities, interference with recreational activities), LBP-related disability, and additional covariates with known associations with BPBs. Regression analyses were used to: (1) identify factors associated with more positive beliefs and (2) test the association between more positive BPBs and lower LBP disability, independent of other correlates of BPBs. More positive BPBs were associated with younger age, better mental well-being, and higher income, whereas more negative BPBs were associated with receiving sickness or disability benefits and the experience of LBP in the previous month. In participants who reported experiencing LBP within the previous month, more positive BPBs were associated with lower disability scale scores and a decreased probability of interference with usual activities, independent of pain intensity, age, mental well-being, income, and employment status. Cross-sectional analysis limits assessment of causality. Poorer BPBs were associated with greater disability. Characterization of the relationships between BPBs and LBP-associated behaviors and disability in baby boomers can assist in developing interventions to improve activity participation and productivity, potentially
Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.
Objectives: Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender.Method: An online survey was administered to a national sample ...
Teo Sir Hiang
Full Text Available Road safety is a substantial issue worldwide. Speeding contributed to one-third of all the fatal crashes reported from year 2002 to 2011 with young drivers reported to have the highest fatality and injury rates. This paper studied on the speeding driving behavior of 10 teenagers and 10 adults, from both genders. The aim was to investigate the relationship between age and gender with speeding driving behavior. The drivers were required to drive within an enclosed compound by using a test car. Results showed young and male drivers averagely travelled at higher velocity before entering the roundabout and at the same time accelerate to higher velocity upon exiting the roundabout compared to old and female drivers.
McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C
Objective To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants 1596 mother?child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2?ye...
Smith, Delores E.; Muenchen, Robert A.
Investigated the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender significantly influenced morals, while age differences affected six other dimensions. Some results contradicted past research. (RJM)
Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, Anna Margrethe
between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and relative risk of delivering an LGA baby was quantified based on logistic regression models and stratified analysis controlling for the five covariates. Results We included 209 singleton pregnancies with assessable HbA1c values of which 59% [95% confidence interval......Aims To examine the association between maternal glycated haemoglobin in the second half of diabetic pregnancies and the relative risk of delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies, controlling for maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, weight gain, age, White class and smoking...... (CI) 52-65%] terminated with an LGA baby. Increasing levels of HbA1c, BMI and weight gain were all associated with increasing risk of delivering an LGA baby. Analyses stratified according to maternal BMI showed that the association between HbA1c and risk of delivering an LGA baby was restricted...
Full Text Available It is well known that the kidney plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The normal aging process leads to changes in kidney morphology, hemodynamics and function, which increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in the elderly population. These disturbances are influenced by several factors, including gender. In general, females are protected by the effects of estrogens on the cardiorenal system. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of estrogens on renal function in the elderly; however, the relationships between androgens and kidney health during one’s lifetime are not well understood. Sex steroids have many complex actions, and the decline in their levels during aging clearly influences kidney function, decreases the renal reserve and facilitates the development of cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which sex hormones may influence renal function during the aging process.
Asthadi Mahendra Bhandesa
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the educational values of Hinduism on the Gumi Suda ceremony at the Birth of the twin babies with different genders in Pakraman Village of Ketewel, Sukawati District, Gianyar Regency. The data were collected by using interviews technique and literatures review. Furthermore, the data were analyzed through data reduction process or chosen according to the purpose of the research. The data analysis process was done continuously during the research from the beginning until the end of the research through the systematic tracking and arranging process of the transcripts of interviews, field notes and other materials. The Findings indicated that some of the educational values of Hinduism on the Gumi Suda ceremony at the birth of the twin babies with different genders in Pakraman Village of Ketewel, Sukawati District, Gianyar Regency are tattwa, ethics, ceremonial, health education and social educational values.
Full Text Available Many of the choices which impact in lifetime health, such as substance use, are made in adolescence. It becomes, therefore, important to know the factors associated to these behaviours in adolescence in different contexts of life. To analyze these factors, an explanatory model was developed using structural equation modeling. Data from 12.881 state school students from Portugal who participated in two waves of the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC / World Health Organization (WHO survey were analyzed. The model fits well the data [CFI: .985; NNFI: .980; RMSEA: .018 (.017-.020; SRMR: .018]. For each of the dependent factors, the levels of variance ranged from 12% (tobacco use to 47% (alcohol and illicit drugs use. Alcohol and tobacco present the strongest associations to illicit drugs use. Relationships with family, friends, classmates, and teachers were also associated with substance use, being this association mediated by certain factors, including psychological symptoms, well-being, and school satisfaction. Several non-invariant paths were obtained in gender and age comparisons. The results showed that substance use is associated with several factors and that social factors are mediated by personal factors. Results have also shown that gender and age are important factors on substance use.
This paper discusses how the subject of baby universes and their effects on spacetime coupling constants is in its infancy and rapidly developing. The subject is based on the non-existent (even by physicists' standards) Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity, and it is therefore necessary to make a number of assumptions in order to proceed. Nevertheless, the picture which has emerged is quite appealing: all spacetime coupling constants become dynamical variables when the effects of baby universes are taken into account. This fact might even solve the puzzle of the cosmological constant. The subject therefore seems worth further investigation
Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...
Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...
Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...
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Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio
Among the causes of fatalities during floods, the loss of stability is an aspect which has been usually investigated with conceptual models and laboratory experiments. The human body geometry has been often simplified to derive mechanical equilibrium conditions for toppling and sliding due to weight and hydrodynamic actions. Experimental activity produced water depth versus velocity diagrams showing the critical conditions for people partly immersed in floodwaters, whose scatter reflects the large variability of tested subjects (i.e. children, men and women with different physical characteristics). Nevertheless, the proposed hazard criteria based on the product number HV are not capable of distinguishing between different subjects. A dimensionless approach with a limited number of parameters and 3D numerical simulations highlight the significance of subject height and quantify the drag forces different subjects are able to withstand. From the mechanical point of view, this approach significantly reduces the experimental scatter. Differences in subjects' height are already an evidence of gender differences; however, many other parameters such as age and skeletal muscle mass may play a significant role in individual responses to floodwater actions, which can be responsible of the residual unexplained variance. In this work, a sensitivity analysis of critical instability conditions with respect to gender/age-related parameters is carried out and results and implications for flood risk management are discussed.
... Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Decisions to Make Delivery and Beyond Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen ... preschooler in planning for the baby . This will make him less jealous. ... you get them ready for the new baby. Buy your child (boy or girl) a doll so ...
Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
Full Text Available Studies have shown an inverse relationship between physical activity level (PAL, quality of life (QoL and use of medications in the elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze possible relationships and differences between PAL, QoL and use of medications in the elderly. A total of 192 subjects (≥ 60 years were selected by stratified random sampling according to census sector. The following assessment instruments were used: a Modified Baecke Questionnaire for older adults, b Medical Outcomes Study – 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and c Sociodemographic and Health Factors Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and parametric and nonparametric tests were used (p < 0.05. a With respect to chronological age, significant differences between groups were only observed for PAL, with G1 (60-69 years being more active than the other groups. b With respect to gender irrespective of age, analysis showed a difference in QoL and in the number of medications, with men reporting better perceived QoL and using fewer medications. c With respect to gender but considering chronological age, differences in PAL, QoL and medication use were observed between genders for specific age groups. In conclusion, in the elderly a PAL is low, declines even more during advanced age and is higher in men than in women during the first decade of old age, and b men report better perceived QoL and use fewer medications than women.
Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory Brain Stem Response (ABR is a result of eight nerve and brain stem nuclei stimulation. Several factors may affect the latencies, interpeak latencies and amplitudes in ABR especially sex and age. In this study, age and sex influence on ABR were studied. Methods: This study was performed on 120 cases (60 males and 60 females at Akhavan rehabilitation center of university of welfare and rehabilitation sciences, Tehran, Iran. Cases were divided in three age groups: 18-30, 31-50 and 51-70 years old. Each age group consists of 20 males and 20 females. Age and sex influences on absolute latency of wave I and V, and IPL of I-V were examined. Results: Independent t test showed that females have significantly shorter latency of wave I, V, and IPL I-V latency (P<0.001 than males. Two way ANOVA showed that latency of wave I, V and IPL I-V in 51-70 years old group was significantly higher than 18-30 and 31-50 years old groups (P<0.001 Discussion: According to the results of present study and similar studies, in clinical practice, different norms for older adults and both genders should be established.
Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Jinguji, Megumi; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masayuki; Nakajo, M.; Tateno, T.; Jinnouchi, S.
The purpose of this study is to examine the change in brain fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution with aging. Subjects were 85 men and 116 women who had no mental abnormality and no evidence of cancer in the whole body FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) study for cancer checkup. The brain data were extracted from whole body data, and stratified according to the age: 30-39 (M: 10, F: 18), 40-49 (M: 11, F: 14), 50-59 (M: 10, F: 27), 60-64 (M: 11, F: 13), 65-69 (M: 11, F: 11), 70-74 (M: 11, F: 10), 75-79 (M: 13, F: 11), over 80 (M: 8, F: 12) years. Forties or more male and female stratified age groups were compared with each gender 30's age data using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM)2. In the man, the FDG activity of the bilateral temporal and frontal lobes decreased and the decreased domains were expanded with aging. But in the females, the decreased domains were complicated in 40-69 years old. Dynamic changes of sex hormones in the individual female menopause may affect the complicated results in the females. Further studies are needed to confirm it. (author)
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Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus
This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…
Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat
There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline
Despite the best of intentions, we often act at the last minute when we are faced with a deadline. A recent recommendation by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to make In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) available to women up to 42 years of age instead of 39 intends to offer more women the chance of pregnancy. Given what we know about behavioural responses to what is, in essence, a deadline, the policy could lead to procrastination and fewer wanted pregnancies. We examine how many women it would take to delay trying for a baby for this policy to result in fewer pregnancies. We take a cohort of 1000 women from age 34. If no women delay trying, the increased age on access to IVF results in 31 more pregnancies. Because of declining fertility with age, it would take only about a third of these women to delay trying for a baby until age 35 for there to be zero net benefits of increased IVF availability. If all women delayed by a year, the new policy will lead to 59 fewer pregnancies. We also estimate the implications for IVF treatment numbers as this has psychological and personal consequences. Our findings highlight how no policy sits in a behavioural vacuum and all policy decisions should consider the likely behavioural responses and incorporate them into their design and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Been, Ella; Shefi, Sara; Soudack, Michalle
Cervical lordosis is of great importance to posture and function. Neck pain and disability is often associated with cervical lordosis malalignment. Surgical procedures involving cervical lordosis stabilization or restoration must take into account age and gender differences in cervical lordosis architecture to avoid further complications. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate differences in cervical lordosis between males and females from childhood to adulthood. This is a retrospective descriptive study. A total of 197 lateral cervical radiographs of patients aged 6-50 years were examined. These were divided into two age groups: the younger group (76 children aged 6-19; 48 boys and 28 girls) and the adult group (121 adults aged 20-50; 61 males and 60 females). The retrospective review of the radiographs was approved by the institutional review board. On each radiograph, six lordosis angles were measured including total cervical lordosis (FM-C7), upper (FM-C3; C1-C3) and lower (C3-C7) cervical lordosis, C1-C7 lordosis, and the angle between foramen magnum and the atlas (FM-C1). Wedging angles of each vertebral body (C3-C7) and intervertebral discs (C2-C3 to C6-C7) were also measured. Vertebral body wedging and intervertebral disc wedging were defined as the sum of the individual body or disc wedging of C3 to C7, respectively. Each cervical radiograph was classified according to four postural categories: A-lordotic, B-straight, C-double curve, and D-kyphotic. The total cervical lordosis of males and females was similar. Males had smaller upper cervical lordosis (FM-C3) and higher lower cervical lordosis (C3-C7) than females. The sum of vertebral body wedging of males and females is kyphotic (anterior height smaller than posterior height). Males had more lordotic intervertebral discs than females. Half of the adults (51%) had lordotic cervical spine, 41% had straight spine, and less than 10% had double curve or kyphotic spine. Children had
Full Text Available In this paper the important parameters of customer loyalty and impact of education, gender and age of the respondents will be tested. The study was conducted in the Republic of Croatia, as part of research relevant parameters of customer loyalty, loyal consumer behavior and the role of social networks in building and maintaining a loyal behavior. The concept of loyalty has a strong foothold in marketing theories and in theories of intellectual capital companies. Loyalty has been related to the management of intellectual capital, especially relational capital, as a component of intellectual capital. In terms of loyalty, series of key parameters that describe it or have an effect on it, and thus impacting the company's business appear.
Colley, Ann; North, Adrian; Hargreaves, David J
Eminent composers in Western European art music continue to be predominantly male and eminence in contemporary pop music is similarly male dominated. One contributing factor may be the continuing under-valuation of women's music. Possible anti-female bias in a contemporary genre was investigated using the Goldberg paradigm to elicit judgments of New Age compositions. Since stronger stereotyping effects occur when information provided about individuals is sparse, fictitious male and female composers were presented either by name only or by name with a brief biography. Evidence for anti-female bias was found in the name-only condition and was stronger when liking for the music was controlled. Other findings were the tendency for females to give higher ratings, and the association of gender differences in liking of the music with ratings of quality in the name-only condition. These results are relevant to the design of formal assessment procedures for musical composition.
Ratner, Shayna; Khwaja, Raamis; Xi, Yin; Zhang, Lihua; Dessouky, Riham; Rubin, Craig; Chhabra, Avneesh
To evaluate inter-reader performance for cross-sectional area and fat quantification of bilateral sciatic nerves on MRI and assess correlations with anthropometrics. In this IRB-approved, HIPPA-compliant study, three readers performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3T lumbosacral plexus MRIs over an 18-month period. Image slices were evaluated at two levels (A and B). The sciatic nerve was outlined using a free hand region of interest tool on PACS. Proton-density fat fraction (FF) and cross-sectional areas were recorded. Inter-reader agreement was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Spearman correlation coefficients were used for correlations with age, BMI and height and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess gender differences. A total of 67 patients were included in this study with male to female ratio of 1:1. Inter-reader agreement was good to excellent for FF measurements at both levels (ICC=0.71-0.90) and poor for sciatic nerve areas (ICC=0.08-0.27). Positive correlations of sciatic FF and area were seen with age (p value<0.05). Males had significantly higher sciatic intraneural fat than females (p<0.05). Fat quantification MRI is highly reproducible with significant positive correlations of sciatic FF and area with age, which may have implications for MRI diagnosis of sciatic neuropathy. (orig.)
Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı
In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England.Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013.Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42% linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56% records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district or that include missing values (delivery variables. The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%. The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England.Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.
Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan
Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135
Harron, Katie; Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan
Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.
Secondary school enrolment in Uganda has historically favoured males over females. Recently, however, researchers have reported that the secondary enrolment gender gap has significantly diminished, and perhaps even disappeared in Uganda. Even if gender parity is being achieved for enrolment broadly, there may be a gender gap concerning…
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n2p210 Studies have shown an inverse relationship between physical activity level (PAL, quality of life (QoL and use of medications in the elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze possible relationships and differences between PAL, QoL and use of medications in the elderly. A total of 192 subjects (≥ 60 years were selected by stratified random sampling according to census sector. The following assessment instruments were used: a Modified Baecke Questionnaire for older adults, b Medical Outcomes Study – 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and c Sociodemographic and Health Factors Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and parametric and nonparametric tests were used (p < 0.05. a With respect to chronological age, significant differences between groups were only observed for PAL, with G1 (60-69 years being more active than the other groups. b With respect to gender irrespective of age, analysis showed a difference in QoL and in the number of medications, with men reporting better perceived QoL and using fewer medications. c With respect to gender but considering chronological age, differences in PAL, QoL and medication use were observed between genders for specific age groups. In conclusion, in the elderly a PAL is low, declines even more during advanced age and is higher in men than in women during the first decade of old age, and b men report better perceived QoL and use fewer medications than women.
Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill
Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130
Özbulak, Gökhan; Aytar, Yusuf; Ekenel, Hazım Kemal
Age and gender are complementary soft biometric traits for face recognition. Successful estimation of age and gender from facial images taken under real-world conditions can contribute improving the identification results in the wild. In this study, in order to achieve robust age and gender classification in the wild, we have benefited from Deep Convolutional Neural Networks based representation. We have explored transferability of existing deep convolutional neural network (CNN) models for a...
Lauer, Jillian E.; Ilksoy, Sibel D.; Lourenco, Stella F.
Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal…
Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle
Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…
Zohreh Abdi Moghadam
Full Text Available BisphenolA (BPA or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenylpropanepresent in polycarbonate baby bottles may have harmful effects for formula-fed infants. This study evaluated the risks associated with exposure to BPA among Iranian formula-fed infants in an urban society in Isfahan. New and used baby bottles (n = 7 and 8, respectively as well as BPA-free marked bottles (n = 2 were collected from a retail outlet, and leaching of BPA was examined by conducting a migration test. Concentrations of BPA released from the new and used baby bottles were in the range of 0.49–8.58 and 0.63–2.47 μg/l, respectively. Next, probabilistic exposure estimation was performed. In all, 200 mothers registered with 11 health centres in Isfahan were interviewed. Data on feeding pattern, washing and sterilization practices, bottles types and manufacturers as well as the sex and weight of the infants were collected using a questionnaire. The results showed that majority of the surveyed infants were exposed to 0.1–0.3 μg/kg body weight (bw/d of BPA, which corresponded to approximately 2–7.5% of the defined t-TDI (4 μg/kgbw/d. These results suggested that the risk of the adverse effects caused by exposure to BPA was very low in formula-fed Iranian infants even in the worst-case scenario.
Rita V Vora
Full Text Available Michelin tire baby syndrome (MTBS, is a rare genodermatosis, characterized by generalized folding of excess skin and may be associated with various phenotypic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. Various congenital anomalies can be associated with it. It may be a clinical finding associated with various syndromes. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, and skin folds gradually diminish and disappear with age without any intervention. Here, we report a case of MTBS associated with convergent squint and hydrocephaly.
Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...
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Schafer, Markus H; Shippee, Tetyana P
Drawing on past studies of age identity, this article examined whether feeling older was associated with more pessimistic views about cognitive aging. Using respondents aged 55 years and older in the Midlife Development in the United States study, we estimated a series of linear regression models to predict people's dispositions toward their cognitive aging. The main comparison is whether the effects of age identity on cognitive aging differ for men and women. Beyond the effects of chronological age, older age identities were associated with more pessimistic dispositions about cognitive aging. This relationship, however, was found only among women. Age identity shapes cognitive aging dispositions, though the gendered nature of this relationship remains somewhat unclear. The findings give further evidence about the far-reaching implications of age identity for successful aging and suggest that future work can explicate how subjective aging processes may differ by gender.
Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R
This study examined gender, age, and task differences in positive touch and physical proximity during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- ( M = 53.50 months, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old ( M = 77.07 months, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Positive touch was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past emotions). Fathers touched their children positively more frequently during the play-related storytelling task than did mothers. Both mothers and fathers were in closer proximity to their 6-year-olds than their 4-year-olds. Mothers and fathers touched their children positively more frequently when reminiscing than when playing. Finally, 6-year-olds remained closer to their parents than did 4-year-olds. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed.
Full Text Available The research uses both qualitative and quantitative methodologies employing multiple sources of data collection. The data collection primarily used a questionnaire survey of primary schools in two English Local Authorities. The qualitative evidence of the teacher sample was through individual semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview of Local Authorities officers. There is an evidence trail which examines academic papers, HMI, QCA, Ofsted and DfES reports. The main findings from these reports indicate that teachers were becoming familiar with the use of computers. They understood the skills involved in using computers but were still uncertain as to a suitable pedagogy which made them lack confidence when using ICT in the classroom. Teachers’ major difficulty is finding time to keep pace or develop their ICT skills. The reports have a generic view of teachers, with no further analysis of gender, age or experience phenomena. The analysis of these variables concludes that teacher subject knowledge formed through teaching experience of the subject, informs teachers when computers aid teaching and learning.
Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Kim, Hyunduk
Intelligent digital signage systems transmit customized advertising and information by analyzing users and customers, unlike existing system that presented advertising in the form of broadcast without regard to type of customers. Currently, development of intelligent digital signage system has been pushed forward vigorously. In this study, we designed a system capable of analyzing gender and age of customers based on image obtained from camera, although there are many different methods for analyzing customers. We conducted age and gender recognition experiments using public database. The age/gender recognition experiments were performed through histogram matching method by extracting Local binary patterns (LBP) features after facial area on input image was normalized. The results of experiment showed that gender recognition rate was as high as approximately 97% on average. Age recognition was conducted based on categorization into 5 age classes. Age recognition rates for women and men were about 67% and 68%, respectively when that conducted separately for different gender.
Cournoyer, Robert J.; And Others
College-aged (n=88) and middle-aged (n=89) men completed 5 measures that assess gender role conflict and psychological well-being. Results indicate that, compared with college-aged men, middle-aged men were less conflicted about success, power, and competition, but were more conflicted about work and family responsibilities. The discussion focuses…
Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus
This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in self-concept-self-esteem relations might provide valuable knowledge for designing effective self-esteem enhancement interventions. We investigated grade and...
Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age sup...
Ladron de Guevara, David; Lobo, Gabriel; Perez, Andres; Jim ez, Cesar
Several factors influence MDP-Tc99m uptake by sacroiliac joint, and therefore the quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy index. Age and gender have been reported how not influencing SI/S ratio, although previous reports show discordant results. The aim of our study was evaluate the influence of age and gender in sacroiliac joint uptake in an adult control population (Au)
The following research question were formulated to guide the study;. • What is ... What is the influence of gender on librarians' job satisfaction in university .... relevant data which was analyzed using quantitative and qualitative statistics. From.
Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M
Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.
Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...
An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can
Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...
Lauer, Jillian E; Ilksoy, Sibel D; Lourenco, Stella F
Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between infants' (N = 51) performance on an object-preference task, administered between 6 and 13 months of age, and their play preferences at 4 years of age. Greater visual interest in a toy truck relative to a doll in infancy predicted significantly greater male-typical toy and activity preferences (e.g., play with vehicles, videogames) at age 4. These findings suggest that gender-typed object preferences present during the 1st year of life may represent the developmental precursors of gender-typed play preferences observed later in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age support is customarily provided by sons, but not daughters, in India. Using data from the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey, I find that women with sons overwhelmingly expect old age support from a son. By contrast, women with only daughters largely expect support from a daughter or a source besides a child. These findings suggest that fertility decline may place demographic pressure on gendered patterns of old age support and the gender system more broadly.
Scott, Kenneth A; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barón, Anna E; Tompa, Emile; Stallones, Lorann; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn
As the workforce ages, occupational injuries from falls on the same level will increase. Some industries may be more affected than others. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics to estimate same-level fall injury incidence rates by age group, gender, and industry for four sectors: 1) healthcare and social assistance; 2) manufacturing; 3) retail; and 4) transportation and warehousing. We calculated rate ratios and rate differences by age group and gender. Same-level fall injury incidence rates increase with age in all four sectors. However, patterns of rate ratios and rate differences vary by age group, gender, and industry. Younger workers, men, and manufacturing workers generally have lower rates. Variation in incidence rates suggests there are unrealized opportunities to prevent same-level fall injuries. Interventions should be evaluated for their effectiveness at reducing injuries, avoiding gender- or age-discrimination and improving work ability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Barrett, Anne E; Pai, Manacy; Redmond, Rebecca
Although studies document the health-enhancing effects of social engagement, they reveal little about the underlying mechanisms operating within specific organizational contexts. Limited attention is given to the role of inequality--particularly age and gender--in shaping either the organizations to which we belong or their consequences for our well-being. We address this issue by examining the Red Hat Society, a social organization for middle-aged and older women. Interviews with members (n=52) illustrate how age and gender inequality interact to shape the organization, which can be viewed as a gendered subculture of aging. Drawing on this framework, we discuss four processes through which participation generates benefits for older women involved in age- and gender-segregated organizations: enhancing social networks, countering invisibility, creating positive frames for aging experiences, and promoting youthful identities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andersen, Steffen; Ertac, Seda; Gneezy, Uri
Economists and other social scientists typically rely on gender differences in the family-career balance, discrimination, and ability to explain gender gaps in wages and in the prospect for advancement. A new explanation that has recently surfaced in the economics literature is that men are more...... competitively inclined than women, and having a successful career requires competitiveness. A natural question revolves around the underlying determinants of these documented competitive differences: are women simply born less competitive, or do they become so through the process of socialization? To shed light...
Barefoot, J C; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Helms, M J
in women than in men at ages 50 and 60, but not at age 80. Men showed increases in depressive symptoms from age 60 to 80, but women did not (interaction p genders. Potential explanations include differential...... changes in social roles with aging....
Burkhalter, Nancy A.; Wendt, Janice C.
Examined relationships between physical factors, psychological factors, gender, and age in middle school physical education (PE) students. Data on PE alienation, perceived competency toward physical fitness (PCf) and physical activity (PCp), and various fitness and strength measures indicated that gender and PCf significantly predicted fitness.…
This study investigated the extent to which gender differences in coping, school and family environments could account for variation in psychopathology among school-age children. Participants were 665 middle school students. Results showed no gender differences for PTSD. Females scored higher on emotional problems and prosocial behavior whereas…
Todd, Brenda K.; Barry, John A.; Thommessen, Sara A. O.
Many studies have found that a majority of boys and girls prefer to play with toys that are typed to their own gender but there is still uncertainty about the age at which such sex differences first appear, and under what conditions. Applying a standardized research protocol and using a selection of gender-typed toys, we observed the toy…
Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid
Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate…
age, race and gender, on the outcome of renal transplantation. Most reports ... Gender does not influence graft survival, but females do have a higher overall mortality rate following renal transplantation at our centre. S Afr Med 2003; 93: 689-695. have a suitable living ..... analysis of its role in graft outcome. Transplantation ...
Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa
A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)
Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh; Kalra, Chandan; Burne, John; Bastos, Teodiano
This study reports the effects of age and gender on the surface electromyogram while performing isometric contraction. Experiments were conducted with two age groups--Young (Age: 20-29) and Old (Age: 60-69) where they performed sustained isometric contractions at various force levels (50%, 75%, 100% of maximum voluntary contraction). Traditional features such as root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) were computed from the recorded sEMG. The result indicates that the MDF of sEMG was not significantly affected by age, but was impacted by gender in both age groups. Also there was a significant change in the RMS of sEMG with age and gender at all levels of contraction. The results also indicate a large inter-subject variation. This study will provide an understanding of the underlying physiological effects of muscle contraction and muscle fatigue in different cohorts.
Maria Letizia Zanier; Isabella Crespi
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous) significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first c...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...
Cosgun, Sema; Ozbek, I Yucel
This paper investigates the utility of forced expiratory spirometry (FES) test with efficient machine learning algorithms for the purpose of gender detection and age group classification. The proposed method has three main stages: feature extraction, training of the models and detection. In the first stage, some features are extracted from volume-time curve and expiratory flow-volume loop obtained from FES test. In the second stage, the probabilistic models for each gender and age group are constructed by training Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and Support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. In the final stage, the gender (or age group) of test subject is estimated by using the trained GMM (or SVM) model. Experiments have been evaluated on a large database from 4571 subjects. The experimental results show that average correct classification rate performance of both GMM and SVM methods based on the FES test is more than 99.3 % and 96.8 % for gender and age group classification, respectively.
Piette, B.M.A.G.; Schroers, B.J.; Zakrzewski, W.J.
Baby Skyrmions are topological solitons in a (2+1)-dimensional field theory which resembles the Skyrme model in important respects. We apply some of the techniques and approximations commonly used in discussions of the Skyrme model to the dynamics of baby Skyrmions and directly test them against numerical simulations. Specifically we study the effect of spin on the shape of a single baby Skyrmion, the dependence of the forces between two baby Skyrmions on the baby Skyrmions' relative orientation and the forces between two baby Skyrmions when one of them is spinning. ((orig.))
Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara
Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…
Conlon, Elizabeth G; Rahaley, Nicole; Davis, Jessica
Our study aimed to determine how age- and disease-related difficulties were associated with attitudes and beliefs about driving self-regulation in men and women in the baby boomer and older generations. Three hundred and ninety-nine men (n=204) and women (n=195) aged between 48 and 91 years participated in a cross-sectional study of Australian drivers. Demographic characteristics and measures of driving confidence, driving difficulty and driving self-regulation; perceptions of visual, physical and cognitive capacity; and attitudes and beliefs about driving were obtained. Driving self-regulation in men and women was explained by different mechanisms. For men, self-report of visual and cognitive difficulties and poor driving confidence predicted driving self-regulation. For women, negative attitudes toward driving mediated the associations found between health-related difficulties and driving self-regulation. Barriers to driving self-regulation were not associated with the driving self-regulatory practices of men or women. Regardless of generation, women reported poorer driving confidence, greater driving difficulty and more driving self-regulation than men. We concluded that age- and disease-related difficulties are related to increasing driving self-regulation in mature men and women. These results indicate that different pathways are needed in models of driving self-regulation for men and women regardless of generational cohort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CHATEAUROUX, E; WANG, X
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender, and target location upon arm reach capacity and posture. Background: The older adult population is growing in number. Their specific needs must be better understood to improve the design of work and life spaces. Method: Thirty-eight adults, divided into four groups according to their gender and age, participated in the experiment. They were asked to reach 84 targets located in a large space defined according to their anthrop...
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane; Johnston, J. Cyne
Baby sign language is advocated to improve children's communication development. However, the evidence to support the advantages of baby sign has been inconclusive. A systematic review was undertaken to summarize and appraise the research related to the effectiveness of symbolic gestures for typically developing, hearing infants with hearing…
The study examined the influence of Age, Gender and Religion on eating habit of youth. It made use of simple random technique in selecting 400 youths within Ikenne local government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The age range of the respondents was between 15 years and 40 years with the mean age of 25.2 and standard ...
Kouhei Masumoto PhD
Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were more likely to use cognitive reappraisal, further enhancing positive mood and reducing negative mood, whereas, age did not affect expressive suppression. Moreover, expressive suppression had a smaller impact on mood than cognitive reappraisal. A multi-group analysis showed significant gender differences. In men, cognitive reappraisal increased with age and influenced mood more positively than in women. Discussion: Our findings indicated gender differences in aging effects on emotion regulation. We discussed about these results from the cognitive process, motivation to emotion regulation, and cultural differences.
Masumoto, Kouhei; Taishi, Nozomi; Shiozaki, Mariko
Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were more likely to use cognitive reappraisal, further enhancing positive mood and reducing negative mood, whereas, age did not affect expressive suppression. Moreover, expressive suppression had a smaller impact on mood than cognitive reappraisal. A multi-group analysis showed significant gender differences. In men, cognitive reappraisal increased with age and influenced mood more positively than in women. Discussion: Our findings indicated gender differences in aging effects on emotion regulation. We discussed about these results from the cognitive process, motivation to emotion regulation, and cultural differences.
Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei
Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…
Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain
... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...
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Full Text Available ... a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your personal message: Thank you! Your e- ... good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but ...
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... is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can easily lead ...
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Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.
Butz, Sarah M; Sweeney, Jane K; Roberts, Pamela L; Rauh, Mitchell J
To examine relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics, and dynamic balance. Height, weight, and arm and foot length were measured in 160 children with typical development aged 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Pediatric Reach Test (PRT), and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Moderate to good positive relationships (r = 0.61 and r = 0.56) were found between increasing age and PRT and PBS scores. A fair negative relationship (r = -0.49) was observed between age and TUG test. No significant gender-by-age group difference was observed. Age had the strongest influence on TUG and PBS scores; arm length had the strongest influence on PRT scores. Dynamic balance ability is directly related to chronological age. Age and arm length have the strongest relationships with balance scores. These findings may assist pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance tests according to age rather than specific diagnosis.
Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R
This study examined gender differences in emotion word use during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.50, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old (M = 77.07, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Emotion talk was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Mothers mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers. During the play-related storytelling task, mothers of 4-year-old daughters mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did mothers of 4-year-old sons, whereas fathers of 4-year-old daughters directed a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers of 4-year-old sons during the reminiscence task. No gender differences were found with parents of 6-year-old children. During the reminiscence task daughters mentioned more emotion words with their fathers than with their mothers. Finally, mothers' use of emotion talk was related to whether children used emotion talk in both tasks. Fathers' use of emotion talk was only related to children's emotion talk during the reminiscence task. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Stevens, Sally J; Andrade, Rosi A C; Ruiz, Bridget S
Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society, especially prior to the mid-1960s. Along with this, more recent data indicates that rates of substance use among women are increasing. Factors contributing to this increase in substance abuse have begun to receive considerable attention, and recent research suggests that many issues exist that are unique to substance use among women. The purpose of this article is to discuss gender specific considerations in women's substance abuse by examining the history of substance use among women; analyzing gender-specific factors, including physiological factors, trauma-related factors, mental health issues, and cultural considerations that impact on women's substance use; articulating treatment approaches for working with substance abusing women and girls; and providing recommendations for further research in this area.
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Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to investigate the impact of gender as well as age on the choice of forms of address in Persian. The hypothesis is that variation in the forms of address is related not only to gender of the interlocutors but also to the age of them. For this study, 30 university students- 15 males and 15 females- participated in this process that all of them were asked to fill out a questionnaire presented in the appendix. The results of the data analysis indicate that both men and women use address forms of formality (Šoma more frequently in addressing the older people from both genders that shows age is more significant than gender in determining the pronouns in address system of Persian.
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Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D
Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill
Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…
Best-feeding the baby. Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breast- milk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Several studies have shown that leisure contributes to improving seniors’ quality of life. However, some of this research has also highlighted the fact that there are marked physical, socioeconomic, and cultural disparities in this population. Material and methods. To this end, this article presents the results of a survey conducted in 2015 in Montreal with 464 respondents aged 50 and over regarding their interests and leisure practices. Results. This study highlights the importance that persons in this age group give to physical and outdoor recreation as well as free and outdoor activities. However, this study has also confirmed that there exist, regarding the problem of leisure, more or less significant differences among seniors and baby boomers which need to be taken into account by local actors. Conclusions. The results obtained and the correlated analyses clearly indicate that the senior population is not homogeneous with respect to their practices and their leisure needs. This analytical finding confirms that leisure and community services must be planned, programmed, and promoted taking into account these generational differences, as well as physical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences.
Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte
The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.
Koren, L; Peled, E; Trogan, R; Norman, D; Berkovich, Y; Israelit, S
Initial pain level in the acute whiplash injury is the most consistent predictor of transformation to a chronic pain syndrome. The risk factors for those early pain levels were, to our knowledge, scarcely evaluate to this date. We set to evaluate whether gender, age or ethnicity comprise a risk factor for those initial pain levels. Further, gender, age and ethnicity have been shown to be bias factors in pain management. We investigated if gender, age or ethnicity are bias factor in pain management in the face of a standardized pain treatment protocol in the acute whiplash injury. We reviewed 2,538 patients with acute whiplash injury that were treated at our emergency department (ED). Gender, age and ethnicity were investigated as risk factors for elevated visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Those factors were also investigated as bias in pain medication administration in the face of a standardized analgesic protocol. Women had significantly higher VAS scores (p = 0.009). Age and ethnicity did not influence pain levels. There was no influence of gender or age on pain medication administration. The Jewish patients (the majority in Israel) were administered fewer pain medication (p whiplash injury. Age and ethnicity have less impact on those pain levels. A pain management protocol might reduce bias in pain management in the acute whiplash injury in the ED. The Jewish population tends to be less receptive to pain medication administration.
Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...
This book for beginning readers tells the story of a South African priest and his wife who are ashamed when their daughter tells them she is going to have a baby. They refuse to have anything to do with her when she is pregnant. However, when the baby comes, everything changes and they come to accept and love the baby. Large black and white…
Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but you’ll get ...
Full Text Available ... food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but you’ll get the hang of it! Don’t be afraid to ask for ...
Schofield, D J; Page, S L; Lyle, D M; Walker, T J
To compare the impact of ageing on the GP and nursing rural and city workforce. Cohort analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data was used to examine the age distribution of the city and rural GP and nursing workforce; patterns of attrition for those 50 years and over; and the impact of changes in working hours. The rural GP and nursing workforce is significantly older than their city counterparts (pbaby boomer' generation making up 52% of city GPs but 59% of rural GPs in 2001. While a large proportion of city and rural GPs continued to work past the age of 65 years, rural GPs left the workforce at a significantly younger age than city doctors (pgeneration X' GPs were no more likely to work long hours than those in the city (pbaby boomers' continued to work long hours. Rural GPs are retiring faster than city GPs and strategies to attract rural GPs and nurses will be critical to ensure adequate rural health care and that current rural workforce shortage do not worsen.
Vasilenko, Sara A; Evans-Polce, Rebecca J; Lanza, Stephanie T
Although research has documented age differences in substance use, less is known about how prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) vary across age and differ by gender and race/ethnicity. Time-varying effect models (TVEMs) were estimated on data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC III; N=36,309), a nationally representative survey of the adult population. The sample was 44% male; 53% White, 21% Black, 19% Hispanic/Latino, 6% other race/ethnicity. Prevalence of four SUDs (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and opioid use disorders) were flexibly estimated across ages 18-90 by gender and race/ethnicity. Estimated SUD prevalences were generally higher for men compared to women at most ages until the 70s. However, disparities by race/ethnicity varied with age, such that for most SUDs, estimated prevalences were higher for White participants at younger ages and Black participants at older ages. Results suggest relatively constant disparities by gender across age, and a crossover effect for Black and White participants. Findings demonstrate that Black individuals in midlife may be an important target of intervention programs for some substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in cytokine and immune mediator expression patterns in amniotic fluid due to gestational age, maternal age and fetal gender were investigated. Findings Amniotic fluid samples were obtained from 192 women, 82 with a mid-trimester amniocentesis (median gestational age 17 weeks and 110 with a caesarean section not in labor (median gestational age 39 weeks. Amniotic fluid was screened by commercial ELISAs for the TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokines and immune mediators IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, TNF alpha, GRO-alpha, MIP1alpha, MIP1beta, Histone, and IP10. Analysis was by Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. None of the 15 examined cytokines revealed any differences in expression patterns regarding fetal gender. Significant differences were found in IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF- alpha, GRO-alpha and MIP1-beta with respect to gestational age and in GRO-alpha regarding maternal age. Conclusion Cytokines utilized as biomarkers in the diagnosis of intrauterine infections are not influenced in their expression pattern by fetal gender but may vary with respect to maternal age and gestational age.
Lee, Baekhee; Lee, Mina; Yoh, Myeung Sook; You, Heecheon; Park, Hyunji; Jung, Kihyo; Lee, Byung Hwa; Na, Duk L; Kim, Geon Ha
The present study examined the effects of age (20s to 70s), gender (male and female), and hand (dominant and nondominant) on force control capabilities (FCCs) in four force control phases (initiation, development, maintenance, and termination). Normative data of FCCs by force control phase are needed for various populations in age and gender to identify a type of motor performance reduction and its severity. FCCs of 360 participants (30 for each combination of age group and gender) were measured using a finger dynamometer and quantified in terms of initiation time (IT), development time (DT), maintenance error (ME), and termination time (TT). Although gradual increases (1%~28%) by age were shown in IT, DT, and TT, a dramatic increase in ME was observed among participants in their 50s (26%), 60s (68%), and 70s (160%) compared to those in their 20s~40s. The most distinctive interaction effect of age and gender was found in ME out of the four FCC measures. Lastly, hand and its related interactions were not found significant. Normative FCC data were established for four age groups (20s~40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s) and gender. The normative FCC data can be used for evaluating an individual's motor performance, screening patients with brain disorders, and designing input devices triggered and/or operated by the finger. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Akhtar, Jamshed; Shaikh, Muhammad Ali; Saleem, Nasir; Taqvi, Syed Raees; Jehan, Yaqoot; Batool, Tayyaba; Zameer, Naima; Mirza, Farhat
Sirenomelia is a rare anomaly that rarely occurs as an isolated lesion. Several theories have been proposed regarding the etiopathogenesis. In this communication, we report a case of sirenomelia. Our patient was referred to hospital at the age of four hours. On examination, fusion of both lower limbs with hook shaped appendage, attached distally, absent genitalia and absent anal orifice was found. Spine was deficient in sacral region. Upper torso looked normal. Baby also had frothing from mouth. Abdomen was non-distended. Feeding tube no.10 was tried to pass through mouth, which got obstructed at the level of upper esophagus that suggested oesophageal atresia. The skeletogram revealed absence of pelvic bones, sacral agenesis, absent fibulae and fracture of both femora. The patient died at the age of 12 hours.
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency.Methods. Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (Cognition/ Depression/ Functionality/ Nutrition/ Appetite to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%, aged <80y (61% and home residents (54%.Results. Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age, than home dwellers for Cognition, Depression and Nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of Depression with increasing age. In contrast, Functionality and Appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inhability of these two instruments to dicriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100, and better appetite than women at all ages.Conclusions. Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the Depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents.
Mrowka, Ralf; Cimponeriu, Laura; Patzak, Andreas; Rosenblum, Michael G
Activity of many physiological subsystems has a well-expressed rhythmic character. Often, a dependency between physiological rhythms is established due to interaction between the corresponding subsystems. Traditional methods of data analysis allow one to quantify the strength of interaction but not the causal interrelation that is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of interaction. Here we present a recently developed method for quantification of coupling direction and apply it to an important problem. Namely, we study the mutual influence of respiratory and cardiovascular rhythms in healthy newborns within the first 6 mo of life in quiet and active sleep. We find an age-related change of the coupling direction: the interaction is nearly symmetric during the first days and becomes practically unidirectional (from respiration to heart rhythm) at the age of 6 mo. Next, we show that the direction of interaction is mainly determined by respiratory frequency. If the latter is less than approximately 0.6 Hz, the interaction occurs dominantly from respiration to heart. With higher respiratory frequencies that only occur at very young ages, the dominating direction is less pronounced or even abolished. The observed dependencies are not related to sleep stage, suggesting that the coupling direction is determined by system-inherent dynamical processes, rather than by functional modulations. The directional analysis may be applied to other interacting narrow band oscillatory systems, e.g., in the central nervous system. Thus it is an important step forward in revealing and understanding causal mechanisms of interactions.
Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.
Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L
This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...
Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein
Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…
Smyth, Bobby P
We sought to examine the fall in age of first drinking in Ireland and to determine whether there were gender differences. We also aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between the per capita alcohol consumption evident when people entered later adolescence and their age of drinking onset.
Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina
This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…
Powlishta, Kimberly K.
Investigated the impact of target age on gender stereotyping. College and elementary students viewed photographs of men, women, boys, and girls, rating each for masculine, feminine, and neutral personality traits. Adults also rated likelihood of masculine and feminine traits in adults versus children. Target age had important implications for…
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose
The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…
López-González, Ángel A; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni; Tomàs-Salvà, Matias; Yáñez, Aina
To describe the cardiovascular risk factors in a working population in the Balearic Islands and to examine whether differences by social class vary according to age and gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of active workers aged 20-65 years in the Balearic Islands. The participants were included in the study during their annual work health assessment in 2011. The following variables were collected: occupation, social class, age, gender, height, weight, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using two different equations (Framingham and REGICOR). Differences by social class were observed for most cardiovascular risk factors. The pattern of these differences differed depending on age group and gender. Differences in obesity by social class increased with age in women but decreased in men. More differences in hypertension by social class were found among women than among men, with differences increasing with age in both genders. Significant differences by social class were found among women in lipid profile, and these differences increased with age, mainly for low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors by social class were higher among women than among men. Some cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity showed significant inequalities from a very early age. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to investigate burnout levels of handball players in terms of age, gender and experience. In this study, 116 female and 128 male, totally 244 handball players with the mean age 22.39 ± 1.98 year participated voluntarily. Maslach Burnout Inventory that originally developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981) and adapted to…
Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.
Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…
Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi
This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…
Wiese, Holger; Kloth, Nadine; Gullmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.
Efficient processing of unfamiliar faces typically involves their categorization (e.g., into old vs. young or male vs. female). However, age and gender categorization may pose different perceptual demands. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the activity evoked during age vs. gender…
Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise
The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…
There are contradicting information on the influence of age and gender on blood lipid profile, some researchers believe the levels of total cholesterol and other components of lipid profile increase with age, others have proved significant negative correlation between total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and ...
Beckwith, Noor; Reisner, Sari L.; Zaslow, Shayne; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Keuroghlian, Alex S.
Abstract Purpose: Gender-affirming surgeries and hormone therapy are medically necessary treatments to alleviate gender dysphoria; however, significant gaps exist in the research and clinical literature on surgery utilization and age of hormone therapy initiation among transgender adults. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of electronic health record data from a random sample of 201 transgender patients of ages 18–64 years who presented for primary care between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2015 (inclusive) at an urban community health center in Boston, MA. Fifty percent in our analyses were trans masculine (TM), 50% trans feminine, and 24% reported a genderqueer/nonbinary gender identity. Regression models were fit to assess demographic, gender identity-related, sexual history, and mental health correlates of gender-affirming surgery and of age of hormone therapy initiation. Results: Overall, 95% of patients were prescribed hormones by their primary care provider, and the mean age of initiation of masculinizing or feminizing hormone prescriptions was 31.8 years (SD=11.1). Younger age of initiation of hormone prescriptions was associated with being TM, being a student, identifying as straight/heterosexual, having casual sexual partners, and not having past alcohol use disorder. Approximately one-third (32%) had a documented history of gender-affirming surgery. Factors associated with increased odds of surgery were older age, higher income levels, not identifying as bisexual, and not having a current psychotherapist. Conclusion: This study extends our understanding of prevalence and factors associated with gender-affirming treatments among transgender adults seeking primary care. Findings can inform future interventions to expand delivery of clinical care for transgender patients. PMID:29159310
Axelrad, Hila; Mcnamara, Tay K
The different pathways out of the labor force have been the focus of many recent studies, yet not enough scholarly attention has been paid to the effect of country-level, individual, and job characteristics and their potentially different influence across genders. The current article examines the relationships between retirement decisions and macroeconomic conditions, personal characteristics, and job satisfaction, while focusing on gender differences. Data came from 16,337 respondents in 13 European countries that participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). We find that the relative importance of macroeconomic conditions and job satisfaction differs by gender.
McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C
To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Observational cohort study. Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 1596 mother-child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2 years old. Among participants who completed the 2-year questionnaire and had complete mental health data (n=1146), 305 women (27%) were classified as high maternal mental health risk. Child development at age 2 was described and a resilience analysis was performed among a subgroup of families at maternal mental health risk. The primary outcome was child development problems. Protective factors were identified among families at risk, defined as maternal mental health risk, a composite measure created from participants' responses to mental health life course questions and standardised mental health measures. At age 2, 18% of children were classified as having development problems, 15% with behavioural problems and 13% with delayed social-emotional competencies. Among children living in a family with maternal mental health risk, protective factors against development problems included higher social support, higher optimism, more relationship happiness, less difficulty balancing work and family responsibilities, limiting the child's screen time to mental health, public health and early intervention strategies that support interpersonal relationships, social support, optimism, work-life balance, limiting children's screen time and establishing good sleep habits in the child's first 2 years show promise to positively influence early child development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Ejermo, Olof; Jung, Taehyun
This paper uses register-linked patent records covering an extended period 1985-2007 to analyze detailed demographic profiles of inventors. The analysis covers about 80 percent of all inventors with Swedish addresses listed on European Patent Office records. Examining temporal trends of gender, age, and education shows that the body of inventors is becoming more balanced in gender, younger, and more educated. However, the rate at which female inventors are entering into patenting has slowed d...
Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Bello, M.
This study investigates attitude towards corruption and the role of gender, religion, education and age using a Nigerian survey data. It also seeks to establish how attitudes towards corruption relates to some other reported ethical measures such as Islamic work ethics, money ethic and corruption perception. Over 3800 questionnaires were administered with 1833 or about 48% response rate. Results revealed no significant gender differences in corruption but women reported being more religious. ...
Kim, Hyunduk; Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Hwang, Byunghun
In this paper, we propose an age and gender estimation framework using the region-SIFT feature and multi-layered SVM classifier. The suggested framework entails three processes. The first step is landmark based face alignment. The second step is the feature extraction step. In this step, we introduce the region-SIFT feature extraction method based on facial landmarks. First, we define sub-regions of the face. We then extract SIFT features from each sub-region. In order to reduce the dimensions of features we employ a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Finally, we classify age and gender using a multi-layered Support Vector Machines (SVM) for efficient classification. Rather than performing gender estimation and age estimation independently, the use of the multi-layered SVM can improve the classification rate by constructing a classifier that estimate the age according to gender. Moreover, we collect a dataset of face images, called by DGIST_C, from the internet. A performance evaluation of proposed method was performed with the FERET database, CACD database, and DGIST_C database. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach classifies age and performs gender estimation very efficiently and accurately.
Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A
The present paper investigated gender differences on life satisfaction and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction in Norwegian adolescents aged 13-18 years. The potential moderating role of gender and age in the relation between self-esteem and life satisfaction was also investigated. A total of 1,239 adolescents from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway participated in the school-based survey study. Mean score differences on the variables used in the study were tested using t tests. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction, controlled for gender, age, stress, subjective health, and chronic health conditions. The results showed that boys scored higher than girls on both self-esteem and life satisfaction. Self-esteem was positively associated with life satisfaction, explaining 24 % of the variance. However, no interaction effect of gender × self-esteem or age × self-esteem was found in relation to life satisfaction. The results give support for that boys report higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than girls. Self-esteem has a positive role in association with adolescents' life satisfaction, and this relationship is equally strong for both genders and across age.
Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of ... brain volume reaches the peak at the age of 14.5 in men ..... child and adolescent brain and effects of genetic variation.
Danzinger, Paula R.; Welfel, Elizabeth Reynolds
Study compares the responses to the Age Bias Questionnaire among professional clinical counselors, psychologists, and clinical social workers. Results indicate that mental health professionals judged older clients significantly less competent and less likely to improve than younger clients. They also judged female clients as less competent than…
... al. Organic foods: Health and environmental advantages and disadvantages. Pediatrics. 2012;130:e1406. Morin K. Organic baby ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to verify the current anthropometrical status of the pupils of the age 12, as well as to compare it with the standards of raising in accordance with the WHO standards. In the study were included 62 pupils (42 male and 20 female. The anthropometric tests were done in height, weight, biacromial and elbow breadth, subcutaneous adipose tissue at the : suprailiac skinfold; subscapular skinfold; triceps skinfold, as well as the abdominal circumference. The results showed that there was a heterogenic distribution of results, especially in the body weight, where the distribution between the minimal and maximal results is 28-70 kg, with the average 43, 14 ± 9, 78 of standard deviation with the male pupils, while with the female pupils was noticed more homogenous group and the standard deviation was significantly lower than with the female pupils in all variables. The findings show that almost in all measured variables female pupils are more developed at this age, especially the body high, body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while as regards the abdominal circumference and body breadth, the male pupils are more developed. Comparison of symbolic sample of this research with the WHO data shows an approximate trend of raising and development of children which were included in this research, and the difference is as follows: Female pupils age 12, body height=151.97 cm
Vyas, K.; Eklem, M.; Seto, H.; Bobba, V.R.; Brown, P.; Haines, J.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.
The effects of age, gender, and laterality on sacroiliac/sacral ratios obtained during quantitative joint imaging were assessed in 97 nonarthritic control subjects. For the entire group, the right sacroiliac-to-sacral mean ratio of 1.27 in 54 males was significantly higher than the right mean ratio of 1.18 in 53 females. In both genders the right joint ratio tended to be higher than the left in all age groups. The difference in mean ratio between the two joints was wider for males than for females. The age did not afect the joint ratio in either gender. It is concluded that the range of normal sacroiliac-to-sacral ratios are different for males and females and should be taken into account during a quantitative sacroiliac joint imaging examination
Guo, Xitong; Han, Xiaocui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Dang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chun
Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly important and widely accepted. However, empirical studies on potential users' m-health acceptance behavior remain underexplored. Indeed, m-health adoption is not only a technology acceptance behavior, but also a health-related behavior. Based on the Protection Motivation Theory, this article explores users' m-health adoption behavior from the perspectives of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and also examines the moderating role of gender and age through a survey of potential users. The survey was conducted among 500 potential m-health service participants. Our results show that threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors influence adoption intention through attitude. It is also found that gender and age play different moderating roles with threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors. Gender and age play different roles between threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors in the acceptance of m-health. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F
We used repetition priming to investigate implicit and explicit processes of unfamiliar face categorization. During prime and test phases, participants categorized unfamiliar faces according to either age or gender. Faces presented at test were either new or primed in a task-congruent (same task during priming and test) or incongruent (different tasks) condition. During age categorization, reaction times revealed significant priming for both priming conditions, and event-related potentials yielded an increased N170 over the left hemisphere as a result of priming. During gender categorization, congruent faces elicited priming and a latency decrease in the right N170. Accordingly, information about age is extracted irrespective of processing demands, and priming facilitates the extraction of feature information reflected in the left N170 effect. By contrast, priming of gender categorization may depend on whether the task at initial presentation requires configural processing.
Ricarte Trives, Jorge Javier; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre Postigo, José Miguel; Ros Segura, Laura; Watkins, Ed
Our study tested the hypothesis that older adults and men use more adaptive emotion regulatory strategies but fewer negative emotion regulatory strategies than younger adults and women. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that rumination acts as a mediator variable for the effect of age and gender on depression scores. Differences in rumination, problem solving, distraction, autobiographical recall and depression were assessed in a group of young adults (18-29 years) compared to a group of older adults (50-76 years). The older group used more problem solving and distraction strategies when in a depressed state than their younger counterparts (ps .06). Ordinary least squares regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that rumination mediated the association between age, gender and depression scores. These results suggest that older adults and men select more adaptive strategies to regulate emotions than young adults and women with rumination acting as a significant mediator variable in the association between age, gender, and depression.
Kouhei Masumoto PhD; Nozomi Taishi PhD; Mariko Shiozaki PhD
Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were mo...
Williams, Anna-Leila; Ness, Peter Van; Dixon, Jane; McCorkle, Ruth
Despite solid basic science research supporting meditation's physiologic benefits, meditation remains a marginalized practice for many Westerners; observational and descriptive studies indicate a spectrum of barriers to meditation practice. The aim of this study was to determine differences in barriers to meditation by gender and age. A cross-sectional survey study of 150 family caregivers to adults with cancer visiting an outpatient chemotherapy center in Connecticut was conducted. The primary outcome was the Determinants of Meditation Practice Inventory. Explanatory variables included demographic characteristics, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Big Five Inventory, and Caregiver Reaction Assessment. Participants included 98 women and 52 men. Age range was 18-84 years (M = 52.3 years). The highest frequency of barriers for both genders related to misconceptions about meditation. The total number of barriers to meditation did not significantly vary by gender (p = .10) nor age (p = .27). After adjusting for personality trait, reactions to caregiving, and emotional distress, gender (adjusted β = 0.81, SE = 1.70, p = .63) and age (adjusted β = 0.02, SE = 0.05, p = .67) still did not predict the number of barriers to meditation. Backward elimination in model building showed that personality trait and reactions to caregiving account for 32% of the variability in barriers. The total number of barriers to meditation was examined, and a difference was not found by age or gender. It is possible that differences by age and gender exist at the item level of evaluation but were not evident when evaluating total scores. Further study is needed with samples large enough to have statistical power for item-level analysis.
Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle
This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.
Todd, B.; Barry, J.A.; Thommessen, S.
Many studies have found that a majority of boys and girls prefer to play with toys that are typed to their own gender but there is still uncertainty about the age at which such sex differences first appear, and under what conditions. Applying a standardized research protocol and using a selection of gender-typed toys, we observed the toy preferences of boys and girls engaged in independent play in UK nurseries, without the presence of a parent. The 101 boys and girls fell into three age group...
Gróf, Marek; Vagašová, Tatiana; Oltman, Marián; Skladaný, Ľubomír; Maličká, Lenka
The economy of each state provides a significant amount of money into the health care system with the aim of knowing the health status of its population in the context of socioeconomic characteristics for effective resource allocation. In recent years, there is a growing number of cancer deaths in Slovakia. Therefore, the structure of cancer deaths according to its primary determinants, such as age, sex and education with the aim of effective implementation of prevention programs in Slovakia was examined. Main source of data on deaths from 1996 to 2014 was provided by National Health Information Centre in Slovakia. However, data were available only from 2011. Standardized mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated by the method of direct standardization using European standard population. The R project for statistical computing was used for calculation of statistically significant differences among various groups of mortality. The results show that people with primary education die from cancer later than people with higher education. However, major differences related to both sex and age are present in people with university education. A different variety of cancers occur in childhood (neoplasm of brain), adolescents (neoplasm of bone), young adults (neoplasm of brain), or adults (lung cancer and breast cancer). Malignant neoplasm of brain was more prevalent at higher education levels, Malignant neoplasm of bladder and Malignant melanoma of skin were more prevalent at the university level of education. The results can be useful for economists to define the health priorities in each country, make the financial decisions in economics, and thus contribute to better health, economic growth, as well as effective spending of health expenditures. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017.
Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N
This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement.
Schneevogt, Daniela; Paggio, Patrizia
subjects. We conduct an emotion recognition task followed by two stereotype question- naires with different genders and age groups. While recent findings (Krems et al., 2015) suggest that women are biased to see anger in neutral facial expressions posed by females, in our sample both genders assign higher...... ratings of anger to all emotions expressed by females. Furthermore, we demonstrate an effect of gender on the fear-surprise-confusion observed by Tomkins and McCarter (1964); females overpredict fear, while males overpredict surprise.......Recent studies have demonstrated gender and cultural differences in the recognition of emotions in facial expressions. However, most studies were conducted on American subjects. In this pa- per, we explore the generalizability of several findings to a non-American culture in the form of Danish...
The Baby Skyrmion model is a two-dimensional analogue of the full three-dimensional Skyrme model. It is not just useful for guiding investigations in the Skyrme model, it also has applications in condensed matter physics. Previous results on multi-charged Baby Skyrmion solutions have pointed to a modular structure, comprised of charge two rings and single charge one Skyrmions, which combine to form higher charged structures. In this paper we present alternative numerical solutions that correspond to new finite Baby Skyrmion chains, which have lower energy than those found previously, and are also good candidates for the global minimum energy solutions. We then proceed from the infinite plane, to Baby Skyrmions on a cylinder and then a torus, to obtain the solutions of periodic Baby Skyrmions, of which periodic segments will correspond to sections of large charge Baby Skyrmions in the plane
Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun
In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause
Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause.
Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W; Starkes, Janet L; Weir, Patricia L; Grove, J Robert
A relative age effect has been identified in Masters sports (Medic, Starkes, & Young, 2007). Since gender, age, and type of sport have been found to influence the relative age effect in youth sports (Musch & Grondin, 2001), we examined how these three variables influenced possible relative age effects among Masters swimmers and track and field athletes. Using archived data between 1996 and 2006, frequency of participation entries and record-setting performances at the US Masters championships were examined as a function of an individual's constituent year within any 5-year age category. Study 1 investigated the frequency of Master athletes who participated; Study 2 examined the frequency of performance records that were set across constituent years within an age category, while accounting for the distribution of participation frequencies. Results showed that a participation-related relative age effect in Masters sports is stronger for males, that it becomes progressively stronger with each successive decade of life, and that it does not differ across track and field and swimming. In addition, a performance-related relative age effect in Masters sport seems to be stronger for swimming than track and field, but it does not differ across gender and decades of life.
Petrini, Laura; Tomczak Matthiesen, Susan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
The study investigates the impact of age and gender on (1) experimental pressure pain detection thresholds (PPDT) and pressure pain tolerance thresholds (PPTolT) and (2) participants’self-reports of pain intensity and unpleasantness at suprathreshold and subthreshold levels. Methods: twenty young...... (20–34, mean age = 24.6 ± 3.5 years, ten female) and twenty elderly (65–88, mean age = 73.7 ± 6.6 years, ten female) healthy volunteers were compared. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 28–30) assessed intact cognitive functioning. Pain thresholds were assessed together with the sensory intensity...... ratings to 1.3 × PPDT (pain) and 0.2 × PPDT (no pain). Results: PPDT and PPTolT significantly decreased with age and were lower in young females as compared with young males. No gender differences were observed in the elderly group. PPDT decreased significantly with age in males but not in females...
Rosanna M. Giaffredo Angrisani
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR in preterm (PT and term (T newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups.
Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina
Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.
Ioannidou, Theodora; Lechtenfeld, Olaf
We subject the baby Skyrme model to a Moyal deformation, for unitary or Grassmannian target spaces and without a potential term. In the Abelian case, the radial BPS configurations of the ordinary noncommutative sigma model also solve the baby Skyrme equation of motion. This gives a class of exact analytic noncommutative baby Skyrmions, which have a singular commutative limit but are stable against scaling due to the noncommutativity. We compute their energies, investigate their stability and determine the asymptotic two-Skyrmion interaction.
Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter
Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if pviolence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.
صادق تقی لو
Full Text Available Parenting styles play a major role in determining the life styles of adolescents and that is why they share a special significance. The present study was done with the aim to investigate adolescents’ perceived parenting styles based on their gender and age. The study was conducted by a post-event method and with a sample size of 623 subjects (311 female and 312 male, who were selected by the multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed, after being collected by the Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire, using multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that the main effects of gender and age are significant at 0.01 level. Parents’ interaction with boys is more authoritarian and with girls more authoritative; also compared with adolescents less than 17 years, they interact with adolescents 17 years old more permissively. The interaction effects of gender and age were significant at 0.05 level only in the permissive parenting style. This means that unlike the girls, parents use more and more the permissive parenting style along with increasing age of adolescent teenage boys. It was concluded that the interaction patterns of parents with children are not fixed and these patterns vary according to gender and age of the children.
Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Olek, Lauren; Schatz, Philip
Little is known regarding gender differences in concussion symptom reporting developmentally across the age span, specifically in pre-adolescent athletes. The present study asks: Do boys and girls differ in symptom reporting across the pre-adolescent to post-adolescent age span? This retrospective study utilized baseline assessments from 11,695 10-22 year-old athletes assigned to 3 independent groups: Pre-adolescent 10-12 year olds (n = 1,367; 12%), Adolescent 13-17 year olds (n = 2,974; 25%), and Late Adolescent 18-22 year olds (n = 7,354; 63%). Males represented 60% of the sample. Baseline ImPACT composite scores and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale scores (Total, Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, Sleep) were analyzed for the effects of age and gender. Statistically significant main effects were found for age and gender on all ImPACT composites, Total Symptoms, and Symptom factors. Significant interaction effects were noted between age and gender for all ImPACT composites, Total Symptoms, and Symptom factors. Total Symptoms and all Symptom factors were highest in adolescents (ages 13-17) for males and females. In the 10-12 age group, females displayed lower Total Symptoms, Physical, and Sleep factors than males. The notion of females being more likely than males to report symptoms does not appear to apply across the developmental age span, particularly prior to adolescence. Females show greater emotional endorsement across the youth age span (10-22 years). Adolescence (13-17 years) appears to be a time of increased symptomatology that may lessen after the age of 18. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitalization for heart failure (HF is associated with high-in-hospital and short- and long-term post discharge mortality. Age and gender are important predictors of mortality in hospitalized HF patients. However, studies assessing short- and long-term risk of death stratified by age and gender are scarce. Methods A nationwide cohort was identified (ICD-9 codes 402, 428 and followed through linkage of national registries. The crude 28-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality was computed by age and gender. Cox regression models were used for each period to study sex differences adjusting for potential confounders (age and comorbidities. Results 14,529 men, mean age 74 ± 11 years and 14,524 women, mean age 78 ± 11 years were identified. Mortality risk after admission for HF increased with age and the risk of death was higher among men than women. Hazard ratio's (men versus women and adjusted for age and co-morbidity were 1.21 (95%CI 1.14 to 1.28, 1.26 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.31, and 1.28 (95%CI 1.24 to 1.31 for 28 days, 1 year and 5 years mortality, respectively. Conclusions This study clearly shows age- and gender differences in short- and long-term risk of death after first hospitalization for HF with men having higher short- and long-term risk of death than women. As our study population includes both men and women from all ages, the estimates we provide maybe a good reflection of 'daily practice' risk of death and therefore be valuable for clinicians and policymakers.
Maria Letizia Zanier
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first critical reviews of the small but growing literature and national data concerning the effect of gender inequalities related to pension gaps in Italy. In the past, research on the balance of welfare provision between State, family, and market has ignored gender, while more recent studies have barely explored how gender roles, changing over time, interact with the shifts in pension policies. Considering the effects of work-life balance policies since the 2000 Lisbon agenda process and its development, the study especially focuses on the Italian case within the European context. The article examines how the choices in work-life balance policies vary between different national contexts and welfare regimes, by highlighting the Italian case. In this country, welfare and social policy regimes remain very unbalanced, showing a lack of awareness of family and women’s needs, as in many Southern countries, and Italy is not able to give appropriate answers to these problems and to the question of the growing gender gap. This article finally shows the poignancy of structural and cultural reasons for gender differentiated pension levels in Italy, within the European context, according to patterns of employment, marital, and maternal status between earlier and later generations of women.
Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most typical disease affecting many different factors of humanity. University students may be at increased risk of depression owing to the pressure and stress they encounter. Therefore, the purpose of this study is comparing the level of depression among male and female athletes and non-athletes undergraduate student of private university in Esfahan, Iran. The participants in this research are composed of 400 male and female athletes as well as no-athletes Iranian undergraduate students. The Beck depression test (BDI was employed to measure the degree of depression. T-test was used to evaluate the distinction between athletes and non-athletes at P≤0.05. The ANOVA was conducted to examine whether there was a relationship between level of depression among non-athletes and athletes. The result showed that the prevalence rate of depression among non-athlete male undergraduate students is significantly higher than that of athlete male students. The results also presented that level of depression among female students is much more frequent compared to males. This can be due to the fatigue and lack of energy that are more frequent among female in comparison to the male students. Physical activity was negatively related to the level of depression by severity among male and female undergraduate students. However, there is no distinct relationship between physical activity and level of depression according to the age of athlete and nonathlete male and female undergraduate students. This study has essential implications for clinical psychology due to the relationship between physical activity and prevalence of depression.
Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L
Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter ( 10 months) intervals. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Kverneland, Anders H.; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward
blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were...... analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both 20–84 years with equal gender distribution). The second cohort was run as a validation cohort by a different operator. The “ONE Study” panels were applied to analyze expression of >30 different surface markers to enumerate proportional...... cohort. Thus, we have proven the utility of our strategy and generated reproducible reference ranges accounting for age- and gender-dependent differences, which are crucial for a better patient monitoring and individualized therapy....
Green, Melanie C; Sabini, John
The authors used a representative national sample (N = 777) to test the evolutionary hypothesis that men would be more bothered by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity, the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM) effect. Our alternative conceptualization of jealousy suggests that there are distinct emotional components of jealousy that did not evolve differently by gender. The authors looked for effects of age, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of measure (continuous or dichotomous) on jealousy. The authors did not find age or SES effects. Forced-choice items provided support for our alternative view; both genders showed more anger and blame over sexual infidelity but more hurt feelings over emotional infidelity. Continuous measures indicated more emotional response to sexual than emotional infidelity among both genders. 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi
This study was conducted to assess occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group. A test of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group, was carried out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) for 4278 participants. The results of gender show that there are heavier occupational role, stronger interpersonal and physical strain in male than that in female, and the differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). The occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups. Different measure should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups.
Monteiro, Diogo M; Marinho, Daniel A; Moutão, João M; Vitorino, Anabela P; Antunes, Raúl N; Cid, Luís
This study's main purpose was to analyze reasons for dropout in competitive swimmers and differences between gender and age groups. The influence of dropout on swimmers intentions to return to competition, invariance across gender and validation of Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition were also analyzed. Study 1 - 366 athletes participated (N.=366; mean age 15.96, SD 5.99) and the data gathered was used for the exploratory analysis, and data gathered on 1008 athletes were used for the confirmatory analysis and the structural equations (N.=1008; mean age 16.26, SD 6.12); Study 2: 1008 athletes participated (N.=1008; mean age 16.26, SD 6.12) on the descriptive and inferential analysis of the reasons behind the practice dropout. The Questionnaire of Reasons Attrition was used in both studies to assess the reasons associated with the practice dropout. In study 1, the results showed an acceptable fit of the measurement model and invariance across gender and also predictive validity regarding swimmers intentions to return to competition (e.g., "demands/pressure" negatively predict intentions). In study 2, the main results showed that the most significant reason for dropout in both genders and all age groups was "dissatisfaction/other priorities"; the study also showed there to be differences between gender and age groups (e.g., female and younger athletes valued "demands/ pressure "more). This study offers useful guidelines for the training process and to support decisions on sports politics to be implemented to overcome the dropout rate. However, it is important to broaden the evidence to other sports and implement programs on identified priority areas based on longitudinal perspectives.
Salvador Sánchez, Javier; David, Mónica Delia; Torrent Setó, Aurora; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Portella Moll, Maria J; Pifarré Paredero, Josep; Vieta Pascual, Eduard; Mur Laín, María
The influence of age and gender in the electrical charge delivered in a given population was analysed using an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) clinical database. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study with descriptive analysis was performed using data from a database that included total bilateral frontotemporal ECT carried out with a Mecta spECTrum 5000Q ® in our hospital over 6 years. From 2006 to 2012, a total of 4,337 ECT were performed on 187 patients. Linear regression using mixed effects analysis was weighted by the inverse of the number of ECT performed on each patient per year of treatment. The results indicate that age is related with changes in the required charge (P=.031), as such that the older the age a higher charge is needed. Gender is also associated with changes in charge (P=.014), with women requiring less charge than men, a mean of 87.3mC less. When the effects of age and gender are included in the same model, both are significant (P=.0080 and P=.0041). Thus, for the same age, women require 99.0mC less charge than men, and in both genders the charge increases by 2.3mC per year. From our study, it is concluded that the effect of age on the dosage of the electrical charge is even more significant when related to gender. It would be of interest to promote the systematic collection of data for a better understanding and application of the technique. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of age and gender on second-grade children’s reading performance. Two hundred and eighty-seven children aged 7.1–8.2 years were divided into two age subgroups (the younger, 85–91 months and the older, 92–98 months and were examined in reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension tasks. Results showed a significant effect of age in reading performance, with the older children having better scores than younger ones for reading fluency, reading comprehension, and the total reading performance. Gender was not found to play an important role in reading performance. The findings are discussed on the ground of functional brain development and the different rates of cerebral maturation.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes of population by age and the gender structure in the regions of the Republic of Macedonia. Age and gender is very important not only for the development of demographic process but also for the development of regions. They play an important role in planning the health care needs and other services with the socio-economic and cultural character. In this sense they affect the performance of demographic processes (births, deaths, marriages, etc. and are a result of bilateral relations fertility, mortality, migration movements and other social processes. The main objective of this paper is to identify the aging phenomenon of population in state level and regions. This paper also dedicates special importance to the changes of age and sex structure, during the period between1981-2014 in the regions of the republic of Macedonia.
Uhrenholt, Lars; Charles, Annie Vesterby; Gregersen, Markil
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional autopsy study. OBJECTIVE: Quantify histological changes in the lower cervical spine facet joints with regard to age and gender using systematic random sampling of entire joints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a common debilitating musculoskeletal condition...... and one of the highest ranked causes of years lived with disability. The cause of neck pain is multifactorial and osteoarthritis is one potential cause. The cervical spine facet joints have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic neck pain. Hence, a detailed description of their anatomy and age......- and gender related changes is needed. METHODS: The lower four cervical spine segments (C4-C7 included) were obtained from 72 subjects during autopsy; 29 females (median age 53 years [22-77]) and 43 males (median age 38 years [20-78]). A total of 1132 articular facets were embedded in toto in hard plastic...
Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus
Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…
Talalaj, Izabela Anna; Walery, Maria
Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior
Talalaj, Izabela Anna, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Walery, Maria, E-mail: email@example.com
Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.
Conclusion: The study findings suggests that tinnitus is not correlated with age, gender and hearing loss. Overall, tinnitus is a complicated clinical condition which its real impact and degree of discomfort are unclear. More investigation is needed to clarify the factors involving in tinnitus annoyance.
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…
Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.
This paper analyses the degree to which the mixture of low-, middle- and high-income males in the neighbourhood affects the subsequent earnings of individuals, and aims to test explicitly the degree to which these impacts vary across gender, age, presence of children, employment status or income at
Wadsworth, Martha E.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Raviv, Tali; Ahlkvist, Jarl A.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Kline, Galena H.; Rea, Jacqueline; Burwell, Rebecca A.
This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological…
Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Meister, Denise G.; Forthun, Larry; Coatsworth, J. Doug; Grahame, Kamini Maraj
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore associations between academic achievement, employment, gender, and age in relation to students' sense of school membership and perception of adults in school. The sample consisted of 102 secondary, alternative school students. Results indicated that students with a more positive perception…
Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi
Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…
Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the…
Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree
Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Munoz, Jose M.; Carreras, Maria R.; Braza, Paloma; Garcia, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sanchez-Martin, Jose R.
In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of…
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, R.C.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Rentfrow, P.J.; Gebauer, J.E.; Potter, J.; Gosling, S.D.
Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from
Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle
This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article
Studied the relationships among academic achievement, learned helplessness, and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depression), controlled for gender and age, for 1,580 students with data collected in grades 3 and 4, 6 and 7, and 8 and 9. Results show that academic achievement is directly and indirectly related to the pattern of…
Cetin Gudunz, Hicran; Eksioglu, Subhan; Tarhan, Sinem
Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of personality traits, gender, age and effects of dispositional hope level in problematic internet usage of university students. Research Methods: This paper is an example of a descriptive study, which presents the relationship between problematic internet usage of university students…
Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf
Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…
Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy
Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)
Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.
Jared D. Wolfe; Peter Pyle; C. John. Ralph
Detailed accounts of molt and breeding cycles remain elusive for the majority of resident tropical bird species. We used data derived from a museum review and 12 years of banding data to infer breeding seasonality, molt patterns, and age and gender criteria for 27 common landbird species in northeastern Costa Rica. Prealternate molts appear to be rare, only occurring...
Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara
Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…
Nguyen, D.; Trieschnigg, D.; Dogruöz, A. Seza; Gravel, Rilana; Theune, Mariët; Meder, Theo; de Jong, Franciska
There is a growing interest in automatically predicting the gender and age of authors from texts. However, most research so far ignores that language use is related to the social identity of speakers, which may be different from their biological identity. In this paper, we combine insights from
Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Dogruoz, A. Seza; Gravel, Rilana; Theune, Mariet; Meder, Theo; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
There is a growing interest in automatically predicting the gender and age of authors from texts. However, most research so far ignores that language use is related to the social identity of speakers, which may be different from their biological identity. In this paper, we combine insights from
Lauridsen, Mette Munk; Grønbæk, Henning; Næser, Esben
Abstract Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a metabolic brain disorder occurring in patients with liver cirrhosis. MHE lessens a patient's quality of life, but is treatable when identified. The continuous reaction times (CRT) method is used in screening for MHE. Gender and age effects...
van der Meer, Christianne A. I.; Bakker, Anne; Smit, Annika S.; van Buschbach, Susanne; den Dekker, Melissa; Westerveld, Gré J.; Hutter, Renée C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda
Little is known about how age and gender are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and traumatic experiences in treatment-seeking police offers. In this study, we examined 967 diagnostic files of police officers seeking treatment for PTSD. Six hundred twelve (63%) of the
Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.
Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…
Shagina, N. B.; Degteva, M. O.; Tolstykh, E. I.
This paper presents a development of a new biokinetic model for strontium, which accounts for age and gender differences of metabolism in humans. This model was developed based on the long-term follow-up of the residents living on the banks of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) contaminated with 89,90Sr in 1950-1956. The new model uses the structure of ICRP model for strontium but model parameters have been estimated to account for age, gender and population differences in strontium retention and elimination. Estimates of age- and gender-specific model parameters were derived from (a) the results of long-term measurements of 90Sr-body burden for the Techa River population; (b) experimental studies of calcium and strontium metabolism in humans and (c) non-radiological data regarding bone metabolism (mineral content of the body, bone turnover, etc). As a result, the new model satisfactorily describes data on long-term retention of 90Sr in residents of the Techa River settlements of all ages and both genders and also data from studies during the period of global fallout in the UK and the USA and experimental data on strontium retention in humans. The new model can be used to calculate dose from 89,90Sr for the Techa River residents and also for other populations with similar parameters of skeletal maturation and also for other populations with similar parameters of skeletal maturation and involution. (Author) 27 refs
Syed, Javaid A.
The purpose of the present study was to test the Emotional Stability dimension of the Big Five factors of personality traits theory to predict or explain a relationship with Employee Organizational Commitment, when the relationship between Emotional Stability (ES) and Employee Organizational Commitment (EOC) was moderated by Gender and AgeGroup.…
Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari
In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…
May 2, 2011 ... gender and age of the patient had an effect on the pattern of the elemental distribution in their head hair ... were determined in 60 mentally ill patients and 43 healthy individuals (control) ..... as metal analysis of the diet taken by the indivi- ... permanent modifier for direct determination of bismuth in urine and.
Aydin, Selami; Harputlu, Leyla; Çelik, Seyda Savran; Ustuk, Özgehan; Güzel, Serhat
The number of studies on the relationship between certain demographic variables, age, gender and grade, and the levels of foreign language anxiety (FLA) in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context regarding adult and young learners is fairly limited, whereas the findings obtained from prior studies did not reach a consensus on the…
The objective of this work was to investigate the possible correlation between the exposure to selected toxic metals and the behavioural disorder of mentally ill patients. The study also sought to establish if gender and age of the patient had an effect on the pattern of the elemental distribution in their head hair and blood ...
Annas, G J
A professor of health law criticizes the decisions of New Jersey Superior Court Judge Harvey R. Sorkow which culminated in his awarding permanent custody of Baby M to her biological father, William Stern. Annas quotes from the In re Baby M decision and from the contract between Stern and his wife and surrogate mother Mary Beth Whitehead to support his contention that Sorkow "rendered a sermon filled with contradictions, double-standards, inapt analogies, and unsupported conclusions." He argues that legally Mrs. Whitehead could not have prospectively waived her right to rear a child she bore, that Sorkow was biased in favor of the "upper-middle-class Sterns," and that consideration should be given to returning Baby M to Mrs. Whitehead. He urges state legislatures to outlaw the sale of children, to affirm the legal status of the gestational mother, and to forbid a surrogate's relinquishment of parental rights until after her child's birth.
Full Text Available We report a 3-year-old girl born with fair complexion which became darker. The color change was insidious in onset at the age of 5 months, asymptomatic and progressive involving the entire body surface. Histopathology revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermal basal layer. Universal acquired melanosis is a rare form of hypermelanosis which was synonymously referred to as "Carbon baby". This is a rare presentation with only one earlier case report.
Jae Jung Lee
Full Text Available Objective Gender differences are a well-known clinical characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD. In-vivo imaging studies demonstrated that women have greater striatal dopamine transporter (DAT activity than do men, both in the normal population and in PD patients. We hypothesize that women exhibit more rapid aging-related striatal DAT reduction than do men, as the potential neuroprotective effect of estrogen wanes with age. Methods This study included 307 de novo PD patients (152 men and 155 women who underwent DAT scans for an initial diagnostic work-up. Gender differences in age-related DAT decline were assessed in striatal sub-regions using linear regression analysis. Results Female patients exhibited greater DAT activity compared with male patients in all striatal sub-regions. The linear regression analysis revealed that age-related DAT decline was greater in the anterior and posterior caudate, and the anterior putamen in women compared with men; we did not observe this difference in other sub-regions. Conclusions This study demonstrated the presence of gender differences in age-related DAT decline in striatal sub-regions, particularly in the antero-dorsal striatum, in patients with PD, presumably due to aging-related decrease in estrogen. Because this difference was not observed in the sensorimotor striatum, this finding also suggests that women may not have a greater capacity to tolerate PD pathogenesis than do men.
Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Many women quit smoking when they become pregnant. However, about 40 percent start smoking again 6 months after they have their baby. Quitting smoking has benefits for you and your baby that last longer than the 9 months of your pregnancy.
Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. T P Nafeesa Baby. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 80 Issue 2 February 2013 pp 289-294 Research Articles. Plasma excitations in a single-walled carbon nanotube with an external transverse magnetic field · K A Vijayalakshmi T P Nafeesa Baby.
SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2010. Abstract. We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia. Case report. A 40-year-old woman delivered a baby at 36 ...
... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse × What research is being done? The National ... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse See More About Research The National Institute ...
... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...
Ovbiagele, Bruce; Markovic, Daniela; Towfighi, Amytis
Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have resulted in better clinical outcomes after stroke; however, the influence of age and gender on recent trends in death during stroke hospitalization has not been specifically investigated. We assessed the impact of age and gender on nationwide patterns of in-hospital mortality after stroke. Data were obtained from all US states that contributed to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All patients admitted to hospitals between 1997 and 1998 (n=1 351 293) and 2005 and 2006 (n=1 202 449), with a discharge diagnosis of stroke (identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure codes), were included. Time trends for in-hospital mortality after stroke were evaluated by gender and age group based on 10-year age increments (84) using multivariable logistic regression. Between 1997 and 2006, in-hospital mortality rates decreased across time in all sub-groups (all P84 years. In unadjusted analysis, men aged >84 years in 1997-1998 had poorer mortality outcomes than similarly aged women (odds ratio 0·93, 95% confidence interval=0·88-0·98). This disparity worsened by 2005-2006 (odds ratio 0·88, 95% confidence interval=0·84-0·93). After adjusting for confounders, compared with similarly aged women, the mortality outcomes among men aged >84 years were poorer in 1997-1998 (odds ratio 0·97, 95% confidence interval=0·92-1·02) and were poorer in 2005-2006 (odds ratio 0·92, 95% confidence interval=0·87-0·96), P=0·04, for gender × time trend. Over the last decade, in-hospital mortality rates after stroke in the United States have declined for every age/gender group, except men aged >84 years. Given the rapidly ageing US population, avenues for boosting in-hospital survival among very elderly men with stroke need to be explored. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.
Molanorouzi, Keyvan; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony
In recent years, there has been a decline in physical activity among adults. Motivation has been shown to be a crucial factor in maintaining physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether motives for participation could accurately discriminate gender, age, and type of physical activity. A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. The Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) was used to assess motives for physical activity in 1,360 adults (703 males, 657 females) who had been exercising regularly for at least six months. The PALMS consists of 40 items that constitute eight sub-scales (mastery, enjoyment, psychological condition, physical condition, appearance, others' expectations, affiliation, competition/ego). Respondents were divided into two age groups (young adults aged 20 to 40 years and middle-aged adults 41 to 64 years) and five types of activity (individual racing sports plus bowls, team sports, racquet sports, martial arts, and exercise). The group discriminant function analyses revealed significant canonical functions correctly classifying the cases into gender (82%), age group (83%), team sport players 76%, individual racing sport plus bowls players 91%, racquet sport players 90%, exercisers 84%, and martial art players 91%. The competition/ego, appearance, physical condition, and mastery sub-scales contributed most to gender differences. Five sub-scales (mastery, psychological condition, others' expectations, affiliation, and enjoyment) contributed most to the discriminant function for age. For type of activity, different sub-scales were the strongest contributors to the discriminant function for each type of PA. The findings in this study suggest that strong and important motives for participation in physical activity are different across type of activity, age, and gender in adults. Understanding the motives that influence physical activity participation is critical for developing
Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most frequent community-acquired infections worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most common UTI pathogen although underlying host factors such as patients’ age and gender may influence prevalence of causative agents. In this study, 61 273 consecutive urine samples received over a 22-month period from outpatients clinics of an urban area of north Italy underwent microbiological culture with subsequent bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive samples. A total of 13 820 uropathogens were isolated and their prevalence analyzed according to patient’s gender and age group. Overall Escherichia coli accounted for 67.6% of all isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.8%, Enterococcus faecalis (6.3%, Proteus mirabilis (5.2%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%. Data stratification according to both age and gender showed E. coli isolation rates to be lower in both males aged ≥60 years (52.2%, E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa being more prevalent in this group (11.6% and 7.8%, resp., as well as in those aged ≤14 years (51.3% in whom P. mirabilis prevalence was found to be as high as 21.2%. Streptococcus agalactiae overall prevalence was found to be 2.3% although it was shown to occur most frequently in women aged between 15 and 59 years (4.1%. Susceptibility of E. coli to oral antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: fosfomycin (72.9%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (72.9%, ciprofloxacin (76.8%, ampicillin (48.0%, and amoxicillin/clavulanate (77.5%. In conclusion, both patients’ age and gender are significant factors in determining UTIs etiology; they can increase accuracy in defining the causative uropathogen as well as providing useful guidance to empiric treatment.
Howard, Lorraine E.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth
The ethos behind provision of early intervention programmes to infants and young children with additional support needs has been established for some time (e.g. Right-from-the-Start), but targeting the development of typically developing infants has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Baby sign is one of the many intervention techniques…
Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James
Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources
Schuster, Fabian; Ostermann, Thomas; Emcke, Timo; Schuster, Reinhard
Diagnostic diversity has been in the focus of several studies of health services research. As the fraction of people with statutory health insurance changes with age and gender it is assumed that diagnostic diversity may be influenced by these parameters. We analyze fractions of patients in Schleswig-Holstein with respect to the chapters of the ICD-10 code in outpatient treatment for quarter 2/2016 with respect to age and gender/sex of the patient. In a first approach we analyzed which diagnose chapters are most relevant in dependence of age and gender. To detect diagnostic diversity, we finally applied Shannon's entropy measure. Due to multimorbidity we used different standardizations. Shannon entropy strongly increases for women after the age of 15, reaching a limit level at the age of 50 years. Between 15 and 70 years we get higher values for women, after 75 years for men. This article describes a straight forward pragmatic approach to diagnostic diversity using Shannon's Entropy. From a methodological point of view, the use of Shannon's entropy as a measure for diversity should gain more attraction to researchers of health services research.
This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.
Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M
The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chole, Revant H.; Patil, Ranjitkumar N.; Balsaraf Chole, Swati; Gondivkar, Shailesh; Gadbail, Amol R.; Yuwanati, Monal B.
Introduction. Gonial angle and antegonial region are important landmarks in mandible which is influenced by gender, age, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth and to investigate their relationship to gender, age group, and dental status. Materials and Methods. A total of 1060 panoramic radiographs were evaluated: the dentulous group, 854 subjects and the edentulous group, 206 subjects. The patients were grouped into six age groups of 10-years each. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth were measured from panoramic radiographs. Results and Discussion. Corelation of age with gonial angle, antegonial angle and antegonial depth was not significant. Significant difference in mandibular angle was found between males and females. Males had significantly smaller antegonial angle and greater antegonial depth than females. Significant difference was found for gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth between right and left sides of mandible. Conclusion. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth can be implicated as a forensic tool for gender determination but not suitable for age determination
Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette
High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.
Haq, I.H.; Tahir, M.
To investigate the age and gender-related differences in mitral cells of the human cadaveric olfactory bulbs. Sixty olfactory bulbs, 30 each from male and female (age 20-76 years) human cadavers divided into six groups of age and gender-wise were collected from the mortuary of the King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Mitral cells were counted and their diameter was calculated from 10 micro m thick cresyl violet stained histological sections. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA for age-related differences and independent t-test for gender-related differences. There was significant reduction in the number of mitral cells and diameter of their nuclei with age. There was significant decrease in the number of mitral cells in males, between groups I and II (p < 0.001); II and III (p < 0.001); and I and III (p < 0.001); statistically significant decrease also occurred in females, between groups IV and V (p < 0.001); V and VI (p < 0.001); and IV and VI (p < 0.001). In most cases, the distance between individual mitral cells was seen to be much greater than in younger group. In group VI, few mitral cells were observed in the cell layer. There was also significant decrease in the diameter of mitral cell nuclei in males, between groups I and III (p < 0.001); and II and III (p < 0.010); in females, between groups IV and VI (p < 0.001); and V and VI (p < 0.001). No gender-related differences were observed. The number of mitral cells and diameter of their nuclei decreased with advancing age. (author)
Vincent, John; Glamser, Francis D
A large body of research has shown that a disproportionate number of elite youth male soccer players competing in age-segmented competition are born early in the selection year. The advantage of being born early in a cohort has been termed the "relative age effect". Although there has been an exponential growth in women's soccer, few studies have examined the relative age effect in female youth soccer. This study compared the relative age effect of 1,344 female and male youth soccer players considered by the US Olympic Development Program (ODP), in 2001, to be the most talented soccer players born in 1984. The birth dates were taken from the women's state and regional ODP, and national team rosters, and were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Results revealed only a marginal relative age effect for female ODP regional and national team players and no relative age effect for female ODP state team players. In comparison, a strong relative age effect was found in male state, regional and national team players. The results suggest that there are gender differences in the relative age effect of 17-year-old elite female and male soccer players. The gender differences may be explained by a complex interaction of biological and maturational differences with socialization influences.
Andrew W. Ellis
Full Text Available Two experiments examined the effects of age of acquisition (AoA and the gender of stimulus faces on familiarity decisions (Experiment 1 and gender decisions (Experiment 2 to the same set of famous and unfamiliar faces presented as whole faces, internal features or external features. In Experiment 1, familiarity decisions were faster to whole faces than to internal or external features. Famous faces with early AoA were recognised faster than later acquired faces, though the effect was only reliable for famous male faces, and for whole faces and internal features rather than for external features. In Experiment 2, gender decisions were made more rapidly to whole faces than to internal or external features. Classification was faster to famous than to unfamiliar faces when the faces were presented as internal features or external features, but not when they were presented as whole faces. More gender classification errors were made to famous than to unfamiliar male faces, but there was no effect of familiarity on the accuracy of responses to female faces. AoA had no effect on gender classification of whole faces or external features. Classification from internal features was faster for early than for late acquired male faces, but faster for late than for early female faces. In the light of the anomalous results for female faces, responses to male faces were analysed separately. The results for the male faces form the focus of the discussion.
Full Text Available AimTo investigate if during the third trimester of pregnancy fantasies emerge in the baby representations based on the information that pregnant women have on their real babies through ultrasound techniques.MethodA qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research based on a sample of 30 pregnant Portuguese women, whose average age is 32 years old, was developed. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a semi-directive interview entitled "Interview of Maternal Representations During Pregnancy – Revised Version" (IRMAG-R, Ammaniti & Tambelli, 2010 were employed.ResultsBaby representations are immersed in a fantasy dimension, which means that the imaginary baby is quite present in this phase of pregnancy. Pregnant women mainly attribute psychological characteristics to the babies, rather than physical characteristics. Regardless of the type of characteristics analysed, the preference for these characteristics emerges based on their wishes. Secondly, characteristics of the parents may also emerge. Fetal movements and information from ultrasound have no significant influence on the characterization of the baby.ConclusionDespite the development of ultrasound techniques, the imaginary baby defines parents representations about the baby on the third trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, a new understanding of how pregnant women experience the transition to the postnatal phase has to be considered.
Scheinin, Noora M; Wikman, Kristina; Jula, Antti
with the amyloid tracer 11C-PIB, in 64 cognitively healthy subjects (54-89 years). In addition to PET, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological testing, and APOE genotyping was performed. The results were assessed with a statistical general linear model as well as with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM......). Results: The effects of age (p gender (p = 0.001) on composite cortical 11C-PIB uptake were all significant. The effect of educational level was non-significant (p = 0.37). No significant interactions were found between any of the factors. Cortical 11C....... In this sample of cognitively healthy elderly individuals, men exhibited higher 11C-PIB uptake than women. Possible gender differences in Aβ accumulation have not been addressed in detail in previous studies, and deeper evaluation in the future is warranted....
Pezeshki, Zahra; Maleki, Maryam; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi
Backgrounds: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a choice of anti-cancer drug for cancer chemotherapy with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. It seems that age is an important factor influencing the side effects of CDDP. This study was designed to determine the role of age and gender simultaneously in CDDP induced renal toxicity. Methods: 40 Wistar male and female rats were assigned as 6 groups in 3 different age categories (10, 16, and 20 weeks old). The single dose of CDDP (7.5 mg/kg, ip) was administrated, and a week later measurements were performed. Results: Body weight changes in male (not in female) animals aged 16 and 20 weeks were more than 10 weeks old animals (PGender difference in serum level of Cr, BUN and nitrite, and Cr-clearance were observed in animals aged10 weeks (Pgender depended, and may be different at various ages. Creative Commons Attribution License
Gupta, Radhay Shyam; Yewale, Kiran; Hegde, Asha S; Mulik, Tejas; Bamrotiya, Manish; Yadav, Surendra; Rane, Tushar; Pardeshi, Kushalsinh; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Reddy, D C S
The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of web-based mobile technology monitoring tool, for ensuring linkages, and tracking of HIV-exposed child until 18 months of age. The 'early infant diagnosis (EID) Follow-up System' was designed as a tool for reminding the field level staff for follow-up of HIV-exposed babies. Using Java Swing Framework, software was developed which generates automatic advance SMS alerts regarding patient information to the Counsellor of the respective Integrated Counselling and Testing Center and district supervisor, 7 days prior to due dates. Simultaneously, system generated e-mail is sent to district program officer for monitoring and updating the line-list. Before the introduction of 'EID Follow-up System' in June 2013, only 55.9% (637/1139) of the HIV-exposed babies born were tested at 6 weeks for DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction during April 2011-March 2012. However, after its introduction, 68.4% (1117/1631) of them were tested during April 2012-March 2013. Correspondingly, the 18 months confirmatory HIV testing in eligible babies increased from 45.6% (934/2044) to 54.7%(1118/2044) during the same period. The replicable technology driven initiative would help in strengthening the follow-up mechanisms and reach every HIV-exposed child for EID.
Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas
Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes worldwide and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become a significant traffic safety issue worldwide. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location- and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrian age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot times. Data for all vehicle-pedestrian crashes on public roadways in the Melbourne metropolitan area from 2004 to 2013 are used in this research. Spatial autocorrelation is applied in examining the vehicle-pedestrian crashes in geographic information systems (GIS) to identify any dependency between time and location of these crashes. Spider plots and kernel density estimation (KDE) are then used to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle-pedestrian crashes for different age groups and genders. Temporal analysis shows that pedestrian age has a significant influence on the temporal distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, men and women have different crash patterns. In addition, results of the spatial analysis shows that areas with high risk of vehicle-pedestrian crashes can vary during different times of the day for different age groups and genders. For example, for those between ages 18 and 65, most vehicle-pedestrian crashes occur in the central business district (CBD) during the day, but between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., crashes among this age group occur mostly around hotels, clubs, and bars. This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrian age groups and genders. Therefore, specific safety measures should be in place during high crash times at different locations for different age groups and genders to
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the influence of gender and age on the quality of the professional lives of health care professionals at a university hospital. METHOD: a total of 546 professionals completed a general questionnaire that measured sociodemographic variables and evaluated job satisfaction using a scale adopted from the NTP 394 Job Satisfaction scale and translated into Spanish. RESULTS: overall, 77.2% of the professionals surveyed were satisfied with the work they perform. With regards to gender, we found overwhelming evidence of the feminization of practically all health care professions included in the study, with higher levels of job satisfaction among women than men. Regarding age, 20-30-year-olds and professionals over 61 years old showed higher satisfaction levels than did middle-aged professionals. Higher levels of dissatisfaction were reported by professionals between 41 and 50 years old. CONCLUSIONS: we were able to detect the influence of gender and age on the level of job satisfaction, finding significant associations between job satisfaction and both of these variables. Generally, women expressed more satisfaction than men, and elderly professionals showed higher satisfaction compared to younger professionals. Management policies should focus on taking action to correct the conditions that produce dissatisfaction among certain groups of employees.
Carrillo-García, César; Solano-Ruíz, María del Carmen; Martínez-Roche, María Emilia; Gómez-García, Carmen Isabel
to analyze the influence of gender and age on the quality of the professional lives of health care professionals at a university hospital. a total of 546 professionals completed a general questionnaire that measured sociodemographic variables and evaluated job satisfaction using a scale adopted from the NTP 394 Job Satisfaction scale and translated into Spanish. overall, 77.2% of the professionals surveyed were satisfied with the work they perform. With regards to gender, we found overwhelming evidence of the feminization of practically all health care professions included in the study, with higher levels of job satisfaction among women than men. Regarding age, 20-30-year-olds and professionals over 61 years old showed higher satisfaction levels than did middle-aged professionals. Higher levels of dissatisfaction were reported by professionals between 41 and 50 years old. we were able to detect the influence of gender and age on the level of job satisfaction, finding significant associations between job satisfaction and both of these variables. Generally, women expressed more satisfaction than men, and elderly professionals showed higher satisfaction compared to younger professionals. Management policies should focus on taking action to correct the conditions that produce dissatisfaction among certain groups of employees.
Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange
The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.
Smith, D E; Muenchen, R A
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. The relatively few studies that have been done regarding self-perceptions of these youth are not only dated but have utilized a unidimensional conceptualization of the self. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire which employs a multidimensional construct of the self was administered to a sample of 174 Jamaican adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M = 15.90 years, SD = 1.21). Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender was found to be significant on one self-image dimension: Morals, while age differences were evident on six dimensions: Social Relationships, Morals, Sexual Attitudes, Mastery of the External World, Vocational and Educational Goals, and Emotional Health. The results in some instances were contrary to those of past research. Discussion focused on cultural socialization and other factors affecting youth in Jamaican society.
Full Text Available Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe. Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence.
Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint Léger, Didier; Mellul, Myriam; Piérard, Gérald E.
Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men) for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe). Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:24455724
Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Pfeifer, Susanne; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Senn, Oliver
The differences in gender- and the age-related changes in triathlon (i.e., swimming, cycling, and running) performances have been previously investigated, but data are missing for duathlon (i.e., running, cycling, and running). We investigated the participation and performance trends and the gender difference and the age-related decline in performance, at the "Powerman Zofingen" long-distance duathlon (10-km run, 150-km cycle, and 30-km run) from 2002 to 2011. During this period, there were 2,236 finishers (272 women and 1,964 men, respectively). Linear regression analyses for the 3 split times, and the total event time, demonstrated that running and cycling times were fairly stable during the last decade for both male and female elite duathletes. The top 10 overall gender differences in times were 16 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 15 ± 3, and 16 ± 5%, for the 10-km run, 150-km cycle, 30-km run and the overall race time, respectively. There was a significant (p triathlons, the age-related decline in the duathlon performance was more pronounced in running than in cycling. Athletes and coaches can use these findings to plan the career in long-distance duathletes with the age of peak performance between 25 and 39 years for both women and men.
Bálint, S; Czobor, P; Komlósi, S; Mészáros, A; Simon, V; Bitter, I
Despite the growing recognition that the clinical symptom characteristics associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood in a high proportion of subjects, little is known about the persistence of neurocognitive deficits in ADHD. The objective was twofold: (1) to conduct a meta-analysis of neuropsychological studies to characterize attentional performance in subjects with adult ADHD by examining differences in ADHD versus normal control subjects; and (2) to investigate whether these differences vary as a function of age and gender. Twenty-five neuropsychological studies comparing subjects with adult ADHD and healthy controls were evaluated. Statistical effect size was determined to characterize the difference between ADHD and control subjects. Meta-regression analysis was applied to investigate whether the difference between ADHD and control subjects varied as a function of age and gender across studies. Tests measuring focused and sustained attention yielded an effect size with medium to large magnitude whereas tests of simple attention resulted in a small to medium effect size in terms of poorer attention functioning of ADHD subjects versus controls. On some of the measures (e.g. Stroop interference), a lower level of attention functioning in the ADHD group versus the controls was associated with male gender. Adult ADHD subjects display significantly poorer functioning versus healthy controls on complex but not on simple tasks of attention, and the degree of impairment varies with gender, with males displaying a higher level of impairment.
Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L
Although patterns of attachment have been linked to patterns of emotional experience, studies in developmentally diverse samples are few and have not yet examined possible gender differences in attachment or their implications for emotional wellbeing. This article describes patterns of attachment in a diverse sample of 616 men and women from middle age and later life, examines the relations between attachment and nine discrete emotions, and tests the thesis that gender moderates these associations. Convenience sampling was used to derive a sample of 616 ethnically diverse men and women from seven ethnic groups. Multiple regressions controlling for demographics found no gender differences in attachment categorizations although men reported greater dimensional fearful avoidance. Security predicted greater joy and interest whereas dismissingness was associated with lower shame and fear and with greater interest. Both preoccupation and fearful avoidance predicted most negative emotions but were not associated with positive emotions. Finally, gender moderated these associations such that (a) attachment security was more closely related to interest and, marginally, joy, among men; (b) fearful avoidance was more closely related to fear and contempt among men; and (c) preoccupation was associated with greater interest among men, whereas fear and contempt were associated with preoccupation among women only. Interpreted in the context of theories of emotions, the social origins of emotional experience, and the different roles that social relationships have for aging men and women, our data imply that attachment styles may differentially predict male emotions because of their less diverse networks.
Rice, Neil E; Lang, Iain A; Henley, William; Melzer, David
The baby-boom generation is entering retirement. Having experienced unprecedented prosperity and improved medical technology, they should be the healthiest generation ever. We compared prevalence of disease and risk factors at ages 50-61 years in baby boomers with the preceding generation and attributed differences to period or cohort effects. Data were from the Health Survey for England (HSE) from 1994 to 2007 (n = 48,563). Logistic regression models compared health status between birth cohorts. Age-period-cohort models identified cohort and period effects separately. Compared to the wartime generation, the baby-boomer group was heavier (3.02 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-3.63; p Baby boomers reported fewer heart attacks (OR = 0.61; CI, 0.47-0.79; p baby boomers are moving toward retirement with improved cardiovascular health. However, the baby-boomer cohort has a higher prevalence of mental illness diagnoses and shows no improvement in self-rated health compared to the wartime birth cohort. There remains substantial scope to reduce health risks and future disability.
Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure
Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.
Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet
Agcaoglu, O.; Miller, R.; Mayer, A.R.; Hugdahl, K.; Calhoun, V.D.
Brain lateralization is a widely studied topic, however there has been little work focused on lateralization of intrinsic networks (regions showing similar patterns of covariation among voxels) in the resting brain. In this study, we evaluate resting state network lateralization in an age and gender-balanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset comprising over 600 healthy subjects ranging in age from 12 to 71. After establishing sample-wide network lateralization properties, we continue with an investigation of age and gender effects on network lateralization. All data was gathered on the same scanner and preprocessed using an automated pipeline (Scott et al., 2011). Networks were extracted via group independent component analysis (gICA) (Calhoun, Adali, Pearlson, & Pekar, 2001). Twenty-eight resting state networks discussed in previous (Allen et al., 2011) work were re-analyzed with a focus on lateralization. We calculated homotopic voxelwise measures of laterality in addition to a global lateralization measure, called the laterality cofactor, for each network. As expected, many of the intrinsic brain networks were lateralized. For example, the visual network was strongly right lateralized, auditory network and default mode networks were mostly left lateralized. Attentional and frontal networks included nodes that were left lateralized and other nodes that were right lateralized. Age was strongly related to lateralization in multiple regions including sensorimotor network regions precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and supramarginal gyrus; and visual network regions lingual gyrus; attentional network regions inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus; and frontal network regions including the inferior frontal gyrus. Gender showed significant effects mainly in two regions, including visual and frontal networks. For example, the inferior frontal gyrus was more right lateralized in males. Significant effects of age
Agcaoglu, O; Miller, R; Mayer, A R; Hugdahl, K; Calhoun, V D
Brain lateralization is a widely studied topic, however there has been little work focused on lateralization of intrinsic networks (regions showing similar patterns of covariation among voxels) in the resting brain. In this study, we evaluate resting state network lateralization in an age and gender-balanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset comprising over 600 healthy subjects ranging in age from 12 to 71. After establishing sample-wide network lateralization properties, we continue with an investigation of age and gender effects on network lateralization. All data was gathered on the same scanner and preprocessed using an automated pipeline (Scott et al., 2011). Networks were extracted via group independent component analysis (gICA) (Calhoun et al., 2001). Twenty-eight resting state networks discussed in previous (Allen et al., 2011) work were re-analyzed with a focus on lateralization. We calculated homotopic voxelwise measures of laterality in addition to a global lateralization measure, called the laterality cofactor, for each network. As expected, many of the intrinsic brain networks were lateralized. For example, the visual network was strongly right lateralized, auditory network and default mode networks were mostly left lateralized. Attentional and frontal networks included nodes that were left lateralized and other nodes that were right lateralized. Age was strongly related to lateralization in multiple regions including sensorimotor network regions precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and supramarginal gyrus; and visual network regions lingual gyrus; attentional network regions inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus; and frontal network regions including the inferior frontal gyrus. Gender showed significant effects mainly in two regions, including visual and frontal networks. For example, the inferior frontal gyrus was more right lateralized in males. Significant effects of age were found in
Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman
This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.
Dong, Ruihua; Zhou, Tong; Chen, Jingsi; Zhang, Meiru; Zhang, Han; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Zhang, Liwen; Chen, Bo
Phthalate exposure has been reported to be associated with obesity (measured by body mass index [BMI]) and central obesity (measured by waist circumference [WC]). Yet, reported associations and the potential gender and age differences are inconsistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 2330 participants in the fall of 2012. Urinary metabolites of ten phthalates were measured. Height, body weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured using standardized methods. We performed logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between each urine phthalate metabolite (categorized into quartiles) and obesity and central obesity and conducted an additional, stratified analysis to explore the gender and age differences. In the overall study population, higher urinary levels of MMP, MEHHP, and MECPP were associated with increased ratios of central obesity. When stratifying by gender and central obesity, higher urinary levels of MMP, MEHHP, and MEOHP were associated with increased odds of central obesity in females, whereas MB z P was significantly associated inversely with central obesity in females. In males, it showed no significant P value for trend (P trend). When stratifying by age in females, higher urinary levels of MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, and MECPP were associated with increased odds of central obesity in women aged ≤45 years. In females aged >45 years, it showed no significant P trend. In conclusion, we found that association between phthalates and central obesity was stronger than between phthalates and obesity; association between phthalates and central obesity was stronger in females than in males and was stronger in younger females (aged ≤45 years) than in older females (aged >45 years).
Mankus, Annette M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J.
The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses—controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate—demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness. PMID:26500384
Rosati, Francesco; Calabrese, Armando; Costa, Roberta
their employees' CSR attitudes. In this regard, many studies show that individual characteristics can influence CSR attitudes. This research aims to identify the influence of three sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, educational level and age on three employee CSR attitudes, such as CSR demandingness...... and satisfied than female colleagues. Educational level differences also have a significant influence on CSR trust and CSR satisfaction, with graduated employees generally more trustful and satisfied than not graduated colleagues. However, employee gender and education do not influence CSR demandingness......, and employee age does not have a significant effect on any CSR attitude. This research indicates that the banks under study need to improve the effectiveness of their internal CSR communication, especially with women and not graduated employees, who show the lowest levels of CSR trust and satisfaction...
Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt
Recommending TV content to groups of viewers is best carried out when relevant information such as the demographics of the group is available. However, it can be difficult and time consuming to extract information for every user in the group. This paper shows how an audio analysis of the age...... and gender of a group of users watching the TV can be used for recommending a sequence of N short TV content items for the group. First, a state of the art audio-based classifier determines the age and gender of each user in an M-user group and creates a group profile. A genetic recommender algorithm...... profile, thus ensuring that items are proportionally allocated to users with respect to their demographic categorization. The proposed system is compared to an ideal system where the group demographics are provided explicitly. Results using real speaker utterances show that, in spite of the inaccuracies...
Dhar, Sohini; Gor, Beverly; Banerjee, Deborah; Krishnan, Sunil; Dorai, V K; Jones, Lovell; Kabad, Kanchan; Naik, Lakshmi Rai; Legha, Sewa S; Pande, Mala
Identify health perspectives among Asian Indians in greater Houston area, to guide a tailored community wide survey. Four focus groups of different ages, gender, and nativity were conducted at which participants were asked for their opinions about specific health topics. Key informant interviews were conducted with ten community leaders to validate focus group responses. Recordings from focus groups and key informant interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Diabetes, cancer, and hypertension were primary health concerns. Common themes were sedentary lifestyle and poor health literacy. Older participants were more accepting of having familial hypertension and high cholesterol. Women were more concerned about health of family members and dietary habits. Perspectives differed on eating habits, physical activity, use of Western medicine, and smoking based on nativity. Responses from key informant interviews validated focus group findings. Perspectives on health may differ among Asian Indians depending on gender, age, and nativity.
Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A
The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Fagan, Abigail A.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Antaramian, Susan; Hawkins, J. David
Parenting practices, age, and gender all influence adolescent delinquency and drug use, but few studies have examined how these factors interact to affect offending. Using data from 18,512 students in Grades 6, 8, 10 and 12, this study found that across grades, parents treated girls and boys differently, but neither sex received preferential treatment for all practices assessed, and younger children reported more positive parenting than older students. Family factors were significantly related to delinquency and drug use for both sexes and for all grades. However, particular parenting practices showed gender and age differences in the degree to which they were related to outcomes, which indicates complexities in parent/child interactions that must be taken into account when investigating the causes of adolescent offending and when planning strategies to prevent the development of problem behaviors. PMID:21499537
Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Pawel; Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Kuznik-Trocha, Kornelia; Klimek, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Krystyna
The authors studied the role of increased oxidative stress in the development of oxidative protein damage and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in ageing. The age- and gender-associated disturbances in connective tissue metabolism were evaluated by the plasma chondroitin sulphated glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG) and non-sulphated GAG-hyaluronan (HA) measurements. Plasma concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) was analysed in order to assess oxidative protein damage and evaluate the possible deleterious role of oxidative phenomenon on tissue proteoglycans' metabolism during the physiological ageing process. Sulphated and non-sulphated GAGs as well as AOPP were quantified in plasma samples from 177 healthy volunteers. A linear age-related decline of plasma CS-GAG level was found in this study (r=-0.46; page (r=0.44; page-dependent relationship has been shown in regard to AOPP. AOPP levels significantly increased with age (r=0.63; pphysiological ageing. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of AOPP and both CS-GAG (r=-0.31; page changes in the ECM are reflected by CS-GAG and HA plasma levels. Strong correlations between AOPP and ECM components indicate that oxidative stress targets protein and non-protein components of the connective tissue matrix during human ageing.
Biological and social factors determines human personality. Birth order and its influence rank among strong phenotype forming factors. Practical application of the knowledge is complicated due the lack of evidence in this area in the Czech Republic. In our study, we focused on the role of age-gap between siblings and the role of gender on the birth order in education. Proportion of firstborns in various group of biology students were analysed. We found significantly higher proportions of firs...
Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Woods, Carol; Unick, G. Jay
This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference grou...
Montagnese, Federica; Mondello, Stefania; Wenninger, Stephan; Kress, Wolfram; Schoser, Benedikt
This study aims to provide a detailed clinical characterization of a large cohort of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) patients investigating the influence of age and gender as modifying factors of DM2 phenotype. A retrospective study was conducted on 307 patients with genetically confirmed DM2. The following data were analyzed: (1) demographics, (2) clinical features (first symptom, muscular complaints, and multisystemic involvement), (3) diagnostics (serological tests, electromyography, and muscle biopsy). In this cohort (186 females, 121 males), a proximal weakness was the leading symptom at onset (55.4%), followed by myalgia (35.5%) and myotonia (25.4%). Proximal weakness was more common in women than men (64.9 vs. 43.8%, p = 0.0006), whereas being male was associated with higher odds for developing myalgia [OR 2.94 (95% CI 1.53-5.67)]. Patients with muscle weakness at onset were older than those with myalgia and myotonia (p women (p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively). Early onset of DM2 is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of multisystemic involvement [OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.98)]. In this updated clinical description of DM2 emerges a profound gender and age influence on the phenotype, emphasizing that female gender and ageing may be associated with a higher disease burden. These age- and gender-specific differences should be considered in diagnostics, management, and future clinical studies of DM2.
The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.
Jovi?i?, Ana ?.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor a...
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.
Sarraute, Carlos; Blanc, Pablo; Burroni, Javier
Mobile phone usage provides a wealth of information, which can be used to better understand the demographic structure of a population. In this paper we focus on the population of Mexican mobile phone users. Our first contribution is an observational study of mobile phone usage according to gender and age groups. We were able to detect significant differences in phone usage among different subgroups of the population. Our second contribution is to provide a novel methodology to predict demogra...
Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam
This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.
Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba
The purpose of our study was to explore the prevalence, and the role of mood, exercise frequency, age, and gender differences of exercise dependence. Regular exercisers (N = 409) completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Exercise Dependence Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. For data analyses, the participants were stratified for sex and age (age ranges = young adults: 18-24 years, adults: 25-44 years, and middle-aged adults: 45-64 years). We found that: (a) 4.4% of the participants were classified as at-risk for exercise dependence; (b) the men and the two younger groups (i.e., young adults and adults) had higher exercise dependence scores; and (c) age, gender, exercise frequency, and mood state were related to exercise dependence. Our results support previous research on the prevalence of exercise dependence and reveal that adulthood may be the critical age for developing exercise dependence. These findings have practical implication for identifying individuals at-risk for exercise dependence symptoms, and may aid in targeting and guiding the implementation of prevention program for adults.
Byles, Julie E; Gallienne, Lucy; Blyth, Fiona M; Banks, Emily
As populations age, psychological distress in late life will become of increasing public health and social importance. This study seeks to bridge the gap in information that exists about psychological distress in late life, by exploring the prevalence of psychological distress among a very large sample of older adults to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effect of these factors on the associations between measures of psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. We analyzed self-reported data from 236,508 men and women in the New South Wales 45 and Up Study, to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effects of these factors on associations between psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. Higher education, married status, and higher income were associated with lower risk of psychological distress. Although overall prevalence of psychological distress is lower at older ages, this increases after age 80, and is particularly associated with physical disabilities. Some older people (such as those requiring help because of disability and those with multiple comorbid health conditions) are at increased risk of psychological distress. These findings have implications for both healthcare providers and policy-makers in identifying and responding to the needs of older people in our aging society.
Rodrigues-Barbosa, Aline; de Miranda, Leticia Miranda; Vieira-Guimarães, Alexsander; Xavier-Corseuil, Herton; Weber-Corseuil, Marui
Presenting physical performance tests' (PPTs) descriptive reference values and prevalence according to gender and age-group regarding a representative sample of non-institutionalised older adults (aged 60 and over) living in Bridgetown (Barbados) and Havana (Cuba). This was a cross-sectional, population-based household survey. In Bridgetown and Havana, respectively, 1,508 and 1,905 subjects were examined who had been selected by probabilistic sampling. PPTs included handgrip strength, standing balance, timed repeated "chair stand" and "pick up a pen." The results from Bridgetown and Havana showed that values (mean ± standard deviations and percentiles) for men were greater than women in handgrip strength and "chair stand" tests (p≤0.01). Increasing age led to both genders having reduced (p≤0.001) prevalence of people having better results for each test (based on chi-square). Men had proportionately better scores than women in the four tests. The data suggested that younger people and men had better physical performance. Men and women in both countries had differences regarding the prevalence of people unable to perform the tests and better test results, according to the test and age-group. The data provided information about the range of performance that can be expected from people in different ages and helped understand usual rates of change in age-groups.
... your baby is 1 year old before feeding him cow’s milk. m Hold your baby while feeding him breast milk or formula in a bottle. m ... your baby is 1 year old before giving him juice. m When your baby is around 4 ...
Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander
Exogenous and endogenous damage to DNA is constantly challenging the stability of our genome. This DNA damage increase the frequency of errors in DNA replication, thus causing point mutations or chromosomal rearrangements and has been implicated in aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases...... in a study population consisting of 216 individuals from a population-based sample of twins aged 40-77 years. Age in this range did not seem to have any effect on the SSB parameters. However, γ-H2AX response and DSB repair capacity decreased with increasing age, although the associations did not reach...... statistical significance after adjustment for batch effect across multiple experiments. No gender differences were observed for any of the parameters analyzed. Our findings suggest that in PBMCs, the repair of SSBs is maintained until old age, whereas the response to and the repair of DSBs decrease....
Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.
Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S
There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; pcircadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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Warner, David F; Brown, Tyson H
A number of studies have demonstrated wide disparities in health among racial/ethnic groups and by gender, yet few have examined how race/ethnicity and gender intersect or combine to affect the health of older adults. The tendency of prior research to treat race/ethnicity and gender separately has potentially obscured important differences in how health is produced and maintained, undermining efforts to eliminate health disparities. The current study extends previous research by taking an intersectionality approach (Mullings & Schulz, 2006), grounded in life course theory, conceptualizing and modeling trajectories of functional limitations as dynamic life course processes that are jointly and simultaneously defined by race/ethnicity and gender. Data from the nationally representative 1994-2006 US Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are utilized to examine racial/ethnic/gender differences in intra-individual change in functional limitations among White, Black and Mexican American Men and Women, and the extent to which differences in life course capital account for group disparities in initial health status and rates of change with age. Results support an intersectionality approach, with all demographic groups exhibiting worse functional limitation trajectories than White Men. Whereas White Men had the lowest disability levels at baseline, White Women and racial/ethnic minority Men had intermediate disability levels and Black and Hispanic Women had the highest disability levels. These health disparities remained stable with age-except among Black Women who experience a trajectory of accelerated disablement. Dissimilar early life social origins, adult socioeconomic status, marital status, and health behaviors explain the racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among Men but only partially explain the disparities among Women. Net of controls for life course capital, Women of all racial/ethnic groups have higher levels of functional
Sang Hui Chu
Full Text Available Objectives: Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003 and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011 might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013. Conclusions: This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.
Debra L Foley
Full Text Available Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.
Veronika Olegovna Mokhova
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze the main ideas of the Medieval Period authors in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the most important theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of gender psychology. It is being considered the role of Christianity and the emergence of the women's education issue in the formation of gender stereotypes. In this article the Middle Ages period is being considered as a separate historical phase for the basic ideas formation in the gender psychology, which is a new approach to the history of gender science. To estimate medieval texts - European and Russian, the method of qualitative content analysis is used, by means of which the most relevant to the period ideas associated with the sexes are identified. For Europe, it inter-sexual features, for Russia - different behavioral requirements of the society associated with sexes. Conclusions contain ideas of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia that are relevant to the development and establishment of gender psychology. In Europe: the continuation of the ancient thesis of the initial androgyny of a human being; impact of the woman's education on her ability for development; consideration of sexuality as sinful; the issue of women's emancipation, the declining value of the large numerous families despite of a ban on interference in the reproductive cycle in the middle of the Medieval period. In Russia: the perception of inter-sexual characteristics as defined by the God; unconditional obedience of a woman to her husband; androgyny in the distribution of the farmers’ responsibilities.Objective: To analyze the main ideas of the authors of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the significant theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of the gender psychology.Method of the research work: A qualitative content analysis of the texts by the authors
Full Text Available Introduction: With progressive development in the growth and function of the jaws, changes are observed in size as well as shape of the mandible, which vary on the basis of age, gender, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate and assess the morphological changes of the mandible, with varying age, gender, and dental status, using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using digital panoramic radiographs taken by Kodak 8000c digital panoramic and cephalometric system on 150 patients, comprising fifty edentulous individuals (above 50 years of age, fifty old dentate individuals (above 50 years of age, and fifty young dentate individuals (below 25 years of age. All the mandibular measurements (gonial angle, ramus length, condylar length (CL, ramus notch depth, and cortical bone thickness were carried out using RadiAnt DICOM VIEWER 2.2.9 (32-bit software. The measurements were then subjected to paired t-test, Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Descriptive statistics for all the parameters on the right and left sides of the mandible in both males and females were analyzed. A statistical significance of P < 0.05 was observed for all the variables except one variable (CL. Conclusion: In the present study, all the variables showed increased measurements in males except gonial angle, which was found to be wider in females, indicating that women tend to get affected by varying dental statuses than men. Hence, the parameters used in this study may act as good indicators for the assessment of the effect of age, gender, and dental status on mandibular morphology.
О. В. Іващенко
Full Text Available The objective is to determine the gender-specific peculiarities of motor preparedness of children aged 6-10. Materials and methods: the participants in the study were girls aged 6 (n = 36, aged 7 (n = 48, aged 8 (n = 57, aged 9 (n = 38, aged 10 (n = 46; boys aged 6 (n = 48, aged 7 (n = 45, aged 8 (n = 60, aged 9 (n = 47, aged 10 (n = 40. To achieve the tasks set, the study relied on the following research methods: analysis of scientific literature, pedagogical testing and methods of mathematical statistics of research data reduction. The study used discriminant analysis as the modeling method. Results: the classification results of motor preparedness of girls and boys aged 6-10 indicate that the study has correctly classified 81.9-100% of the initial observations. The graphic material demonstrates the density of objects within each class and a clear distinction between the classes. This allows to maintain that there is a significant difference between girls and boys aged 6-10 in their motor preparedness. Conclusions. The girls aged 6-10 show the best results in movement coordination related to combinations of movements of arms and legs, as well as flexibility. The girls aged 10 show the best results in test No. 10 “300-m Race”. The boys aged 6-10, unlike the girls, show the best results in the development of general coordination of movements, strength, speed strength, strength and general endurance. It is possible to argue with a high level of reliability that by their classification characteristics girls and boys belong to different classes, and significantly differ in motor preparedness.
Ramzan, M.; Razzaq, A.; Kiyani, A.N.
To determine the frequency of hypoglycemia in small for gestational age neonates based on gestational age, gender, birth weight and mode of delivery. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Dec 2011 to Jul 2012. Material and Methods: We included 383 small for gestational age (SGA) neonates admitted in NICU. Blood glucose levels were checked in all neonates. Variables included in study were gestational age, gender, birth weight and mode of delivery. Results: Out of 383 SGA neonates enrolled by non-probability consecutive sampling, 191 (49.87%) were males and 192 (50.13%) were females. Out of these 203 (53%) were preterm, 165 (43.08%) were delivered at term and 15 (3.92%) were post-term SGA neonates with mean gestational age of 34 weeks 5 days. Out of the total 383 SGA neonates 208 (54.31%) developed hypoglycemia during stay in NICU and 175 (45.69%) remained euglycemic. Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates were at highest risk to develop hypoglycemia (82.35%). It was seen that SGA neonates delivered by instrumental vaginal delivery had highest risk of developing hypoglycemia i.e. 20 (76.92) out of 26 neonates. Out of 103 vaginal deliveries 41 (39.81%) had hypoglycemia and out of 254 Caesarean section 147 (57.87%) had hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Low birth weight neonates delivered by instrumental vaginal delivery were found to be at a higher risk of developing hypoglycemia. (author)
Trocino, A; Birolo, M; Dabbou, S; Gratta, F; Rigo, N; Xiccato, G
A total of 48 sub-adult hares and adult reproducing farmed hares were used to characterize carcass and meat traits according to the age and gender of animals. With respect to carcass traits, when age increased, the carcass weight significantly increased (2022 to 3391 g; Pcarcass traits. In conclusion, farmed hares have favourable slaughter results (high dressing percentage), carcass traits (high hind legs and loins rates), and meat nutritional value (high-protein, low-fat meat). This fact would offer additional commercial opportunities, in addition to restocking, to hare farmers.
Irena Colić Barić
Besides traditional nutrients, milk and dairy products contain some health promoting components. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency and preferences among dairy products in school children according to age and gender. The subjects were 234 healthy children at age 10-11 years and 14-15 years from two primary schools in Zagreb. Number of participants was well balanced according to age and gender. Dietary data were collected using specially designed food frequency questionnaire (FF...
Full Text Available A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (‘healthy’, ‘active’ and ‘successful’ aging has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12 year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being underweight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being underweight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.
Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J; Thomas, Shane A; Wells, Yvonne
A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well ("healthy," "active," and "successful" aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrient canals are anatomic structures of the alveolar bone through which neurovascular elements transit to supply teeth and supporting structures. Dental identification using nutrient canal of the mandibular alveolar process as the most compelling anatomic feature for antemortem–postmortem radiographic comparison can be potentially used in forensic identification. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the appearance of nutrient canals as a potential clue to age and gender determination. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients, 60 males and 60 females, were selected in the 11–60-year age group. Systemic disease, especially hypertension, was ruled out in the patients. Periapical radiographs were taken from mandibular anterior cuspid central incisor region because nutrient canals are commonly observed in this area. Data obtained was analyzed by SPSS software and various statistical analysis were carried out. Results: Study revealed nutrient canals to be commonly seen in females compared to males. Males had maximum canals in the age group of 21–30-year whereas females in the age group of 31–40 years had the maximum canals. Conclusion: Significant correlation was seen between the gender and nutrient canals whereas no significant correlation existed between the age and presence of nutrient canals.
Talkad Subbaiah Mahesh Kumar
Full Text Available Introduction: Sella turcica is a saddle-shaped concavity located in the middle cranial fossa of the skull. The exact dimensions of sella turcica are an important consideration in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases related to the pituitary gland and brain. The sella turcica size and morphology is different from person to person. Thus, obtaining any data in this regard will be a great help in detecting abnormalities within this anatomic area. Aim: The objective of this study was to find out the correlation between the morphological variations of sella turcica with age and gender. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 311 cephalograms of patients with age ranging 6–40 years. The contour of the sella turcica was traced and the linear measurements – length, depth, and diameter of sella turcica – were measured according to Silverman. Results: Morphology of sella turcica appeared to be normal shape in 27.3% of the study population followed by combination (26.7%, irregular (15.8%, pyramidal (10.6%, bridge (10%, oblique anterior wall (5.5%, and double contour (4.2%. Gender-wise comparison of the linear measurement was not statistically significant. Among the linear measurement, the parameter depth and diameter were statistically significant (P < 0.001 when correlated with age. On comparison of shape of sella turcica with linear measurements, the parameter length was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the linear measurements and gender. There exists a significant relationship between the mean depth and mean diameter with age. That is, as age increases, the depth and diameter increase. There is a significant relationship between the length and the different shapes of sella turcica.
Dorman, David C.; McManus, Brian E.; Marshall, Marianne W.; James, R. Arden; Struve, Melanie F.
In this study, we examined whether gender or age influences the pharmacokinetics of manganese sulfate (MnSO 4 ) or manganese phosphate (as the mineral form hureaulite). Young male and female rats and aged male rats (16 months old) were exposed 6 h day -1 for 5 days week -1 to air, MnSO 4 (at 0.01, 0.1, or 0.5 mg Mn m -3 ), or hureaulite (0.1 mg Mn m -3 ). Tissue manganese concentrations were determined in all groups at the end of the 90-day exposure and 45 days later. Tissue manganese concentrations were also determined in young male rats following 32 exposure days and 91 days after the 90-day exposure. Intravenous 54 Mn tracer studies were also performed in all groups immediately after the 90-day inhalation to assess whole-body manganese clearance rates. Gender and age did not affect manganese delivery to the striatum, a known target site for neurotoxicity in humans, but did influence manganese concentrations in other tissues. End-of-exposure olfactory bulb, lung, and blood manganese concentrations were higher in young male rats than in female or aged male rats and may reflect a portal-of-entry effect. Old male rats had higher testis but lower pancreas manganese concentrations when compared with young males. Young male and female rats exposed to MnSO 4 at 0.5 mg Mn m -3 had increased 54 Mn clearance rates when compared with air-exposed controls, while senescent males did not develop higher 54 Mn clearance rates. Data from this study should prove useful in developing dosimetry models for manganese that consider age or gender as potential sensitivity factors
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the values of selected haematological indices of the Polbar breed of chickens by gender and age. There was a significant WBC difference in cocks and hens with age. In each of the periods, cocks were characterized by a lower than hens number of LY. LY and NE declined with increasing age. Most values showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences for birds at different ages. These results of the haematological indices from consolidated Polbar breed can be used for comparisons with other breeds of poultry. The study deepens and organizes the knowledge within the possibilities of using and interpreting levels of haematological indicators for monitoring health of hens. In this paper, we managed to obtain information on the level of indicators rarely determined in chickens.
Barton, B K; Ulrich, T; Lyday, B
Thousands of American children under the age of 10 years are injured annually as pedestrians. Despite the scope of this public health problem, knowledge about behavioural control and developmental factors involved in the aetiology of child pedestrian safety is limited. The present study examined the roles of gender, age and two aspects of cognitive development (visual search and efficiency of processing) in children's safe pedestrian route selection. Measures of cognitive functioning (visual search and efficiency) and selections of risky pedestrian routes were collected from 65 children aged 5-9 years. Boys, younger children and those with less developed cognitive functioning selected riskier pedestrian routes. Cognitive functioning also subsumed age as a predictor of risky route selections. Our findings suggest developmental differences, specifically less developed cognitive functioning, play important roles in children's pedestrian decision making. Directions for future examination are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey ( N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents.
D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar
and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent...... flexors. Results: Males were signifantly stronger than females across all age groups. Elbow peak torque (EPT) was better preserved from 60s to 70s whereas knee peak torque (KPT) reduced significantly (PGender, thigh mass and age best...... predicted KPT (R2=0.60). Gender, forearm mass and age best predicted EPT (R2=0.75). Good crossvalidation was established for both elbow and knee models. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study of muscle strength created and validated strength scaled equations of EPT and KPT using only gender, segment mass...
Kim, Seong Yi; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cho, Youngtae
Suicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in both South Korea and Japan. The study aims to compare the descriptive epidemiology of suicide over the last two decades (1985-2006) and to explore the conditions associated with the different distribution of suicides in both countries. Age-standardized suicide rates were obtained from the OECD Health Data 2009. Age-specific suicide rates for the age groups were calculated from the WHO Mortality Database. Suicide methods were identified based on ICD-10. Through 1980-2000, Japan showed consistently higher suicide rates compared to Korea. However, from the mid-1990s, Korea showed an acute increase of suicides and finally surpassed Japan; the age-standardized suicide rate of Korea increased from 10.2 (per 100,000) in 1985 to 21.5 in 2006, while it slightly increased from 18.4 to 19.1 in Japan. The highest age-specific suicide rate was observed among Japanese men aged 45-64 years and Korean men aged over 64 years. The increase of elderly suicides among Korean women was notable. The gender ratio increased in Japan and decreased in Korea, respectively. The preferred suicide methods were hanging and pesticide poisoning in Korea and hanging in Japan. Because of the limited number of observations, hypothesis testing of specific risk factors was not possible. Age and gender distribution of suicide rates differed considerably between the two countries. Welfare protection throughout the life course in both countries, and pesticide regulation in Korea would be helpful in reducing the burden of suicide mortality in both countries, even if the social values could not be changed in a short time.
Hon, K L E; Leung, T F; Wong, K Y; Chow, C M; Chuh, A; Ng, P C
Quality of life (QoL) is impaired in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) but the various aspects of QoL may not be equally affected. Aim. To evaluate if age and gender affect some aspects of QoL in children with AD. The Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) was used for all children with AD seen at a paediatric dermatology clinic over a 3-year period. Disease severity was assessed using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS) tools. We reviewed CDLQI in 133 children (70 male and 63 female; age range 5-16 years) with AD. Itch, sleep disturbance, treatment and swimming/sports were the four aspects of QoL issues that were most commonly affected, in 50%, 47%, 38% and 29% of patients, respectively. Problems with interpersonal issues (friendship, school/holidays, and teasing/bullying) occurred in only a minority of children (genders similarly but were generally more common in children gender are relevant factors in QoL, with the issue of clothes/shoes being more troublesome for girls. itch and sleep disturbance seem to be a problem mainly in younger children.
Singh-Manoux, Archana; Guéguen, Alice; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Martikainen, Pekka; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Marmot, Michael
We examined gender differences in mortality, morbidity, and the association between the 2. We used health data from 2 studies of middle-aged men and women: the British Whitehall II cohort of employees from 20 civil service departments in London and the 1989 French GAZEL (this acronym refers to the French gas and electric companies) of employees of France's national gas and electricity company. Participants were aged 35 to 55 years when assessed for morbidity and followed up for mortality over 17 years. Male mortality was higher than female mortality in Whitehall II (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.91) and the GAZEL cohort (HR = 1.99; CI = 1.66, 2.40). Female excess morbidity was observed for some measures in the Whitehall II data and for 1 measure in the GAZEL data. Only self-reported sickness absence in the Whitehall II data was more strongly associated with mortality among men (P = .01). Mortality was lower among women than among men, but morbidity was not consistently higher. The lack of gender differences in the association between morbidity and mortality suggests that this is not a likely explanation for the gender paradox, which refers to higher morbidity but lower mortality among women than among men.
Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane
This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Reby, David; Levréro, Florence; Gustafsson, Erik; Mathevon, Nicolas
Background Despite widespread evidence that gender stereotypes influence human parental behavior, their potential effects on adults? perception of babies? cries have been overlooked. In particular, whether adult listeners overgeneralize the sex dimorphism that characterizes the voice of adult speakers (men are lower-pitched than women) to their perception of babies? cries has not been investigated. Methods We used playback experiments combining natural and re-synthesised cries of 3?month-old ...
The Baby Moves prospective cohort study protocol: using a smartphone application with the General Movements Assessment to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years for extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight infants.
Spittle, A J; Olsen, J; Kwong, A; Doyle, L W; Marschik, P B; Einspieler, C; Cheong, Jly
Infants born extremely preterm (EP; smartphone application (app) developed for caregivers to video and upload their infant's general movements to be scored remotely by a certified GMA assessor. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive ability of using the GMA via the Baby Moves app for neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born EP/ELBW. This prospective cohort study will recruit infants born EP/ELBW across the state of Victoria, Australia in 2016 and 2017. A control group of normal birth weight (>2500 g birth weight), term-born (≥37 weeks' gestation) infants will also be recruited as a local reference group. Parents will video their infant's general movements at two time points between 3 and 4 months' corrected age using the Baby Moves app. Videos will be scored by certified GMA assessors and classified as normal or abnormal. Parental satisfaction using the Baby Moves app will be assessed via survey. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age includes developmental delay according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and cerebral palsy diagnosis. This study was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committees at the Royal Children's Hospital, The Royal Women's Hospital, Monash Health and Mercy Health in Melbourne, Australia. Study findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.
Full Text Available This article reviews the major underpinnings of the Japanese welfare state in the context of social care from a feminist perspective. In Japan, familycare responsibilities have traditionally been assigned to women; hence, care has long been a women’s issue. However, as the social contract of a male breadwinner and a “professional housewife” gradually fades out, Japanese women find more opportunities to renegotiate their caring roles. Of course, this social transformation did not occur in isolation, it was influenced by patterns in economic development, state policies and mainly demographic changes. All this has stimulated new state responses in the form of social welfare expansion that arguably aim to relieve women of the burdens of family-care. The issue remains, however, as to whether Japan would be able to recognise that the main structural issues of population ageing do not originate from demographic changes, but from a strict gendered division of labour and gender inequality.
Pothisiri, Wiraporn; Quashie, Nekehia T
Data from the 2011 Survey of Older Persons in Thailand examines the association between preparations for old age (financial, health, caregiving, living arrangements, and spiritual) and three measures of well-being: financial satisfaction, life satisfaction, and physical health. The study further explores the role of social stratification and the gendered nature of these relationships. The sample ( N = 10,235) is restricted to adults 60 years and above, who are retired and answered the survey independently. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that different forms of preparation are positively associated with post-retirement well-being for men and women but socioeconomic resources are positively associated with all three well-being outcomes. Furthermore, for women, there are significant negative interaction effects of income and financial preparation on life satisfaction, as well as negative interaction effects of disability and caregiver preparation on self-rated health. Implications for long-term care, socioeconomic inequality, and gender inequality in paid labor are discussed.
Kortman, Hans G J; Wilder, Sarah C; Geisbush, Tom R; Narayanaswami, Pushpa; Rutkove, Seward B
Electrical impedance measurements of skeletal muscle may be sensitive to age-associated declines in muscle health. In an effort to evaluate this concept further, we performed electrical impedance myography (EIM) using a handheld array on 38 individuals aged 19–50 years and 41 individuals aged 60–85 years. Individuals either had seven upper extremity or seven lower extremity muscles measured. The 50 kHz reactance, resistance and phase were used as the major outcome variables. Although the phase values were similar in both groups, both reactance and resistance values were lower in the lower extremities of the older individuals as compared to the younger (−23 ± 6%, p = 0.001 for reactance and −27 ± 7%, p = 0.005 for resistance), whereas changes in upper extremity values were not significantly different (−9 ± 5%, p = 0.096 for reactance and +5 ± 9%, p = 0.55 for resistance). When analyzing the genders separately, it became clear that this reduction in lower extremity values was most pronounced in men and less consistently present in women. These findings suggest that age- and gender-associated differences in muscle condition are detectable using EIM. The relationship of these easily obtained parameters to standard functional, imaging, and pathological markers of sarcopenia deserves further study. (paper)
Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Fang; Yeung, Leo W.Y.; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamazaki, Eriko; Wang, Renping; Lam, Paul K.S.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin
Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA. Highlights: •The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, followed by PFOS and PFDA in all alligator samples. •Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males. •The concentrations of the five PFCAs showed significant negative correlation to age. -- Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators
Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela
The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000 and men (p = 0.000, and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000 and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021 than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.
Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao
Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.
Mitri, Rosy N; Boulos, Christa M; Adib, Salim M
The implications of rapid aging of the Lebanese population are under-researched. No national studies have so far investigated the living conditions and the health status of urban Lebanese elderly across gender. This was a cross-sectional study involving 905 randomly selected community dwelling elderly aged ≥65 years living in Greater Beirut. Gender differences were assessed among participants who completed a standardized questionnaire on socio-demographic factors, nutritional, health, and functional characteristics. The sample included 533 men (59%) and 372 women (41%). Elderly were regrouped into 'younger elderly' (≤70 years), and 'older elderly' (>70 years) which represented respectively 44.3% and 55.7% of the total population. Women, regardless of their age, were less educated and more likely to live alone. Moreover, poor nutritional status, self-perceived health, absence of physical activity, comorbidity, polymedication and depression were significantly higher among women. 'Older elderly' women became significantly more functionally disabled compared with men of their age. This study evidenced that Lebanese elderly women were disadvantaged regarding their socio-economic, health and functional status. It is requested a nationwide effort to improve the socio-economic status and the health of Lebanese elderly, especially women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Gunawardene, Piumali; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Singh, Lakshman; Bermeo, Sandra; Vogrin, Sara; Phu, Steven; Suriyaarachchi, Pushpa; Pignolo, Robert J; Duque, Gustavo
Circulating osteoprogenitor (COP) cells are blood-borne cells which express a variety of osteoblastic markers and are able to form bone nodules in vivo. Whereas a high percentage of COP cells (%COP) is associated with vascular calcification, low %COP has been associated with disability and frailty. However, the reference range of %COP in age- and gender-matching populations, and the age-related changes in %COP remain unknown. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 144 healthy volunteers in Western Sydney (20-90year-old, 10 male and 10 female subjects per decade). %COP was quantified by flow cytometry. A high inter-and intra-rater reliability was found. In average, in this healthy population average of %COP was 0.42. There was no significant difference in %COP among the age groups. Similarly, no significant difference was found in %COP with gender, weight, height or BMI. In addition, we identified a normal reference range of %COP of 0.1-3.8%. In conclusion, in addition to the identification of steady levels of COP cells with age, we also identified a normal reference range of %COP, which could be used in future studies looking at musculoskeletal diseases in older populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Small, G.W.; Kuhl, D.E.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Ashford, J.W.; Metter, E.J.; Mazziotta, J.C.
No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect
Kvarstein, Elfrida Hartveit; Nordviste, Ola; Dragland, Lone; Wilberg, Theresa
Outpatient group psychotherapy is frequent within specialist services, recruits a mixed population, but effects are poorly documented. This study investigates long-term outcomes for patients with personality disorder (PD) treated in outpatient, psychodynamic groups within secondary mental health service. A naturalistic study (N = 103) with repeated assessments of process and clinical outcomes. Longitudinal statistics are linear mixed models. The main PDs were avoidant, borderline and NOS PD, mean number of PDs 1.4(SD0.7), 60% females and mean initial age 38(SD10) years. Mean treatment duration was 1.5(SD 0.9) years. Therapist alliance and experienced group climate was satisfactory and stable. Improvements were significant (symptom distress, interpersonal problems, occupational functioning and additional mental health services), irrespective of general PD-severity, but not of PD-type, age or gender. The study demonstrates PD NOS benefits across all outcomes, occupational improvements for avoidant PD, despite prevailing symptoms, but generally poorer outcomes for males and age >38 years. For borderline PD, experienced conflict was stronger, treatment duration shorter and outcomes poor for early drop-outs (28%). Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is a recommendable treatment for moderate PDs, which may address avoidant strategies, but may not meet clinical challenges of borderline PD. The outcome differences related to gender and age are noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M
There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites
Judith Jiménez Díaz
Full Text Available Fundamental motor skills are the basis for participation in more advanced lifetime activities. Whereas considerable research has been reported on motor behavior of children, much less is known about performance in later years, especially adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine age and gender differences on fundamental motor skills (FMS ability across three age groups: children (M = 9.37 yr., SD = 1.26, adolescents (M = 14.80 yr., SD = 2.04 and young-adults (M = 19.88 yr., SD = 2.72. Participants (n = 114 were assessed on five locomotor skills (run, gallop, slide, hop, and distance jump and five object control skills (bounce, catch, overhand throw, strike and kick using the Test for Fundamental Motor Skills, which is a process-oriented instrument. ANOVA results comparing gender and group revealed no significant interactions. Moreover, main effects for group were found for three individual skills: galloping –adolescents and young-adults performed better than children (p < .01–, throwing –children and adolescents performed better than young-adults (p < .01 –, and kicking –young-adults performed better than children and adolescents (p < .05–. Also, we found main effects for gender for total FMS ability (p < .01, locomotor subscale (p < .05 and object control subscale (p < .01, and for six individual motor skills: run (p < .05, jump (p < .05, throw (p < .01, kick (p < .01, bounce (p < .01 and strike (p < .01; males outperformed females for all the skills. However, in view of total FMS ability, locomotor skills and object control skills results suggest similar performance across ages. Therefore, it is important to enhance fundamental motor skills at all ages, as an option to help individuals engage in physical activities.
Hawkes, Colin P
Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.
Lipford, Kristie J; McPherson, Laura; Hamoda, Reem; Browne, Teri; Gander, Jennifer C; Pastan, Stephen O; Patzer, Rachel E
Racial/ethnic, gender, and age disparities in access to renal transplantation among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have been well documented, but few studies have explored health care staff attitudes towards these inequalities. Staff perceptions can influence patient care and outcomes, and identifying staff perceptions on disparities could aid in the development of potential interventions to address these health inequities. The objective of this study was to investigate dialysis staff (n = 509), primarily social workers and nurse managers, perceptions of renal transplant disparities in the Southeastern United States. This is a mixed methods study that uses both deductive and inductive qualitative analysis of a dialysis staff survey conducted in 2012 using three open-ended questions that asked staff to discuss their perceptions of factors that may contribute to transplant disparities among African American, female, and elderly patients. Study results suggested that the majority of staff (n = 255, 28%) perceived patients' low socioeconomic status as the primary theme related to why renal transplant disparities exist between African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Staff cited patient perception of old age as a primary contributor (n = 188, 23%) to the disparity between young and elderly patients. The dialysis staff responses on gender transplant disparities suggested that staff were unaware of differences due to limited experience and observation (n = 76, 14.7%) of gender disparities. These findings suggest that dialysis facilities should educate staff on existing renal transplantation disparities, particularly gender disparities, and collaboratively work with transplant facilities to develop strategies to actively address modifiable patient barriers for transplant.
Sawicki, J A
Sibling rivalry can be found in many families and frequently creates a stressful and challenging situation for parents. The arrival of a new baby often causes older siblings to feel displaced, frustrated, angry, and even unloved. Age, gender, personality and temperament, and parental behavior are factors that appear to influence the degree to which sibling rivalry occurs. Common reactions of older siblings to the birth of a new baby include aggression toward the newborn, behavioral regression, and attention seeking behavior, as well as independence and maturity. Anticipatory guidance is recommended to help parents adequately prepare their older child for the arrival of a new sibling. Strategies for managing sibling rivalry include open parent-child communication, equal treatment of siblings, non-intervention in sibling conflicts, distraction, and separation. Parents can minimize feelings of jealousy between siblings by providing a supportive, nurturing environment that allows each child to feel secure and loved.
Oishi, Kenichi; Chang, Linda; Huang, Hao
The baby brain is constantly changing due to its active neurodevelopment, and research into the baby brain is one of the frontiers in neuroscience. To help guide neuroscientists and clinicians in their investigation of this frontier, maps of the baby brain, which contain a priori knowledge about neurodevelopment and anatomy, are essential. "Brain atlas" in this review refers to a 3D-brain image with a set of reference labels, such as a parcellation map, as the anatomical reference that guides the mapping of the brain. Recent advancements in scanners, sequences, and motion control methodologies enable the creation of various types of high-resolution baby brain atlases. What is becoming clear is that one atlas is not sufficient to characterize the existing knowledge about the anatomical variations, disease-related anatomical alterations, and the variations in time-dependent changes. In this review, the types and roles of the human baby brain MRI atlases that are currently available are described and discussed, and future directions in the field of developmental neuroscience and its clinical applications are proposed. The potential use of disease-based atlases to characterize clinically relevant information, such as clinical labels, in addition to conventional anatomical labels, is also discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Gender and age have been found to affect adults’ audio-visual (AV speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20-30 years and middle-aged adults (50-60 years with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females’ general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females’ speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy towards more visually dominated responses.
This : study : examines : the : travel : behaviour : and : attitudes : of : recently : resettled : refugees : in : Chittenden : County, : Vermont, : with : particular : attention : to : distinctions : based : on : gender : and : age. : It : is : base...
Bozdag, G; Sener, S
The aim of this study was to measure the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and cortical bone thickness in the zone of the gonial angle (GT) in panoramic radiographies from a large sample of males and females and to determine how they relate to patients' age, gender and dental status. 910 panoramic radiographs were obtained and grouped into age, dental status and gender. The MCI, MI, PMI and GT were analysed. Remarkable differences were observed for MCI and GT regarding gender, age groups and dental status on both sides (p PMI in females, dental status had an effect on the MI and PMI in males (p PMI (p PMI and MI measurements. The effects of age and tooth loss in the GT and MCI measurements are similar, and these indices can be accepted as more reliable in studies including both genders.
Daniel Monteiro de Vilhena e Santos
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the influence of gender, age, physicalactivity (PA and overweight/obesity on health-related physical fitness (HRPF passing rates. Asample of 581 boys and 529 girls, aged 6 to 10 years and enrolled in first cycle primary schoolsin Albergaria-a-Velha, Portugal, was studied. Weight and height were measured and BMI wascalculated. The FITNESSGRAM test battery was applied. The cut-off values of Cole et al.(2000 for overweight and obesity were used. PA levels were estimated using the questionnaireof Godin and Shephard. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. No positiveassociation was observed between PA and HRPF. Age does not seem to have an impact onHRPF passing rates.
Mboya, M M
This study examines gender and age differences in parenting practices among African adolescents in South Africa. The Perceived Parent Behavior Inventory (PPBI) was administered to 274 students (14 through 18 years of age) in Standards 6 through 10 who attended one public coeducational high school in Cape Town. The results indicate that for the three scales of the PPBI, girls score higher than boys, and that on the total score and two of the PPBI scales, the level of perceived parental behaviors decreases with age. These findings support the hypotheses that competence in social interaction is a more significant factor for girls than for boys and that younger adolescents have a closer association with their parents than do their older counterparts. The findings have important implications for the study of adolescent development in an African context.
Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen
Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.
Gur, R.C.; Mozley, P.D.; Resnick, S.M.; Gottlieb, G.L.; Kohn, M.; Zimmerman, R.; Herman, G.; Atlas, S.; Grossman, R.; Berretta, D.; Erwin, R.; Gur, R.E.
A prospective sample of 69 healthy adults, age range 18-80 years, was studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans of the entire cranium. Volumes were obtained by a segmentation algorithm that uses proton density and T 2 pixel values to correct field inhomogeneities (shading). Average (±SD) brain volume, excluding cerebellum, was 1090.91 ml and cerebrospinal fluid (DSF) volume was 127.91 ml. Brain volume was higher (by 5 ml) in the right hemisphere. Men had 91 ml higher brain and 20 ml higher CSF volume than women. Age was negatively correlated with brain volume and positively correlated with CSF volume. The slope fo the regression line with age for CSF was steeper for men than women. This difference in slopes was significant for sulca but not ventricular, CSF. The greatest amount of atrophy in elderly men was in the left hemisphere, whereas is women age effects were symmetric. The findings may point to neuroanatomic substrates of hemispheric specialization and gender differences in age-related changes in brain function. They suggest that women are less vulnerable to age-related changes in mental abilities, whereas men are particularly susceptible to aging effects on left hemispheric functions
Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai
Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…
Studies real household income after the birth of a baby reporting median child care expenses were zero in first and $6 in fourth quarter; mean expenses in fourth quarter were $210. Fertility rate of women aged 18-44 without high school education who had baby in 1988 was 87, compared to 63 for women with college degree. (LB)
Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene
To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....
Volden, C; Langemo, D; Adamson, M; Oechsle, L
A study of 478 adults from a rural-urban region was conducted to determine differences in health and life-style measures based on age, gender, and exercise involvement that would provide data to incorporate in healthy-living programs. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the framework for the study. Significant results related to age, gender, exercise, and initiation and maintenance of health-promoting practices were found.
Chang, Kathryn J.; Liz Thach, MW; Olsen, Janeen
This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect...
Pan, Yuanyi; Wu, Jianhong
With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible.
Background With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. Method The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. Results The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. Conclusion The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible. PMID:19922693
Goncy, Elizabeth A; Mrug, Sylvie
This study examined the location and time of adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Age, gender, and racial differences in location and time of use were studied for each substance. Using cross-sectional data collected through the schoolwide Pride Survey, 20,055 students between the ages of 10 and 19 years (53.6% female, 55.1% Black, 44.9% White) in one metropolitan area reported on their frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, as well as the location and time of use of each substance. Chi-square tests compared the rates, locations, and times for each substance across boys and girls; Black and White students; and early, middle, and late adolescents. Older adolescents reported higher rates of substance use at friends' homes, at school, and in cars and lower rates of alcohol use at home compared with younger youth. Males were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use at school and on weeknights and alcohol use in cars, whereas females were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use on the weekends. No gender differences emerged for times and locations of cigarette use. Compared with Black youth, White adolescents were more likely to use all substances at friends' homes and on weekends; to smoke cigarettes at school, in the car, and on weeknights; and to use alcohol at home. Black adolescents were more likely to report using alcohol at home, at school, in cars, during and after school, and on weeknights and were more likely to report using marijuana at school. The location and time of adolescent substance use vary substantially by age, gender, and race. These differences may help tailor substance use prevention and intervention programs to specific subgroups of youth to improve program effectiveness.
Mester, Anita; Magyar, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Akos; Somogyi, Viktoria; Tanczos, Bence; Peto, Katalin; Nemeth, Norbert
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a life-threatening clinical disorder. During I/R, the microrheological parameters of blood (red blood cell deformability and aggregation) worsen, which may contribute to microcirculatory deterioration. Age and gender also have a great influence on hemorheological parameters. We aimed to investigate the gender and age-related microrheological alterations during intestinal I/R. After the cannulation of the left femoral artery, median laparotomy was performed in Crl:WI rats under general anesthesia. In the young control animals there were no other interventions (female n = 7; male n = 7). In the young (female n = 7; male n = 7) and older I/R groups (female n = 6; male n = 6), the superior mesenteric artery was clipped for 30 min, and a 120-min reperfusion period was observed afterward. Blood samples were taken before and at the 30-min ischemia, in the 30th, 60th, and 120th min of the reperfusion. Hematological parameters, erythrocyte deformability, and aggregation were determined. Hematocrit increased significantly in the younger female I/R group. Red blood cell count was higher in male and older animals. In case of white blood cell count, male animals had higher values compared with females. Platelet count elevated in the younger male and older female I/R animals. Red blood cell deformability worsened, mainly in the male and older I/R groups. Enhanced erythrocyte aggregation was seen in all groups, being more expressed in the female I/R groups. Microrheological parameters show gender and age-related differences during intestinal I/R. These observations have importance in the planning and evaluation of experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ajla Rahimić Ćatić
Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (PConclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.
Alshami, Ali M.
Objectives: To establish the period prevalence of spinal disorders referred to physical therapy in a university hospital over a 3-year period, and to determine the relationships of common spinal disorders with patients’ age and gender. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Computer data of all new electronic referrals from January 2011 to December 2013 were retrieved and reviewed. The computer data included demographic information, referring facility, and diagnosis/disorder. Results: One thousand six hundred and sixty-nine (28.1%) of all referred patients (5929) had spinal disorders. The most common disorders affected the lumbar spine (53.1%) and cervical spine (27.1%), and pain was the most common disorder. Neck pain (60.5%) was more common in patients spondylosis was common (~30%) in the >30 age groups. Spondylosis and low back pain were more prevalent in women (7.8% and 76.2%) than in men (73.9% and 3.3%). Conclusion: Spinal disorders were common compared with other disorders. Low back pain and neck pain were the most common spinal disorders. Age and gender were weakly related to some of the disorders that affected the lumbar and cervical spine. PMID:25987116
Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Koch, Vera Hermina Kalika; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Gilio, Alfredo Elias
Choosing the antimicrobial agent for initial therapy of urinary tract infection (UTI) is usually empirical and should consider the prevalence of uropathogens in different age groups and gender. To establish prevalence rates of uropathogens in community-acquired UTI in relation to age and gender. Cross-sectional study conducted in the emergency department (ED) of a general hospital, from January to December, 2010, in patients younger than 15 years old who had clinical suspicion of UTI and collected quantitative urine culture. UTI was defined as urine culture with growth of a single agent > 100.000 colony forming units (cfu)/mL in a midstream collection or ≥ 50.000 cfu/mL in urethral catheterization. There were 63.464 visits to ED. 2577 urine cultures were obtained, of whom 291 were positive for UTI (prevalence = 11.3% of clinical suspicion and 0.46% of visits), 212 cases (72.8%) in females, median age = 2.6 years. The predominant uropathogen was E. coli (76.6%), followed by Proteus mirabilis (10.3%) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4.1%). Among infants 10 years (24.4% vs 0.4%; OR = 79.265; p 10 years and Proteus mirabilis in males.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of gender on the 30 m sprint performance of middle school students (10-13 ages. The study included 25 male and 25 female total 50 middle school students. The mean age of female students was found as 12,36 ± 0,48 (year, the mean body weight as 42,03 ± 3,63 (kg, and the mean height as 151,11 ±5,61 (cm, and the mean age of male students was found as 12,28 ± 0,45 (year, the mean height as 152,28 ± 5,04 (cm, and the mean body weight as 43,35 ± 1,88 (kg. The mean sprint performance of female students was calculated as 6,33 ± 0,53 seconds, and the mean sprint performance of the male students was 6,17 ± 0,47 seconds. As a result the effect of gender on sprint performance was found to be insignificant between the groups (p>0,05.
Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H
Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.
Del Ferraro, S; Iavicoli, S; Russo, S; Molinaro, V
The hospital is a thermal environment where comfort must be calibrated by taking into account two different groups of people, that is, patients and medical staff. The study involves 30 patients and 19 medical staff with a view to verifying if Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) index can accurately predict thermal sensations of both groups also taking into account any potential effects of age and gender. The methodology adopted is based on the comparison between PMV values (calculated according to ISO 7730 after having collected environmental data and estimated personal parameters) and perceptual judgments (Actual Mean Vote, AMV), expressed by the subjects interviewed. Different statistical analyses show that PMV model finds his best correlation with AMV values in a sample of male medical staff under 65 years of age. It has been observed that gender and age are factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of thermal comfort in the hospital due to very weak correlation between AMV and PMV values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.