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Sample records for agaricus blazei contra

  1. Indução de resistência em plantas de berinjela por Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei contra Ralstonia solanacearum: aspectos bioquímicos e biomassa vegetal Induction of resistance in eggplants by Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei against Ralstonia solanacearum: biochemical aspects and vegetable biomass

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    Ricardo Ferrari Silva

    2008-06-01

    ão foi alterada. Com base nos resultados, ficou evidenciado que o aSm e os isolados Abl-11 e Abl-28 de A. blazei apresentam potencial para induzir resistência em berinjela contra R. solanacearum.The bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is an important disease for eggplants, which control is difficult. Induction of resistance in plants is a promising method for disease control. Fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei and Lentinula edodes have substances that exhibit antibiotic activity or are able of acting as elicitors of resistance in plants. The objectives of the present work were to verify the effect of aqueous extracts from the mushrooms and the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (aSm on in vitro bacterial growth and to control bacterial wilt as well as to investigate the activity of certain enzymes. The inhibitory effect on the pathogen was evaluated by using different concentrations of aqueous extracts. The induced resistance was studied in plants treated with the biological or chemical inducers, by measuring the intensity of wilt and alterations in some defense-related enzymes. The results showed that the isolates of A. blazei and L. edodes, used in several dilutions, did not inhibit in vitro bacterial growth. The extracts of the isolates Abl-11 and Abl-28 from A. blazei (15%, v/v and aSm (0,05 g/L caused significant reduction in the occurrence of wilted leaves, when applied two days before inoculation. Plants treated with aSm or aqueous extracts of Abl-11 and Abl-28 exhibited increased peroxidase activity. The chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenoloxidase activities did not change in plants treated with Abl-28 and aSm. However, plants treated with Abl-11 exhibited increased phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenoloxidase activities, while the chitinase activity was not affected. Based upon the results, it was shown that the aSm and the isolates Abl-11 and Abl-28 of A. blazei exhibited a potential to induce resistance in eggplants

  2. Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits

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    Biedron R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis L. due to its origin in Brazilian rain forest, is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which also comprises medicinal mushrooms such as Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. AbM has been used in traditional medicine locally and also recently as a health food worldwide. Since it has been found to possess immunomodulatory properties, its biological and health-related effects, as well as its isolated active ingredients e.g. beta-glucans, have been examined by scientists. Otherinvestigations have been performed with mixed mushroom products, such as AndoSanTM, which contains mostly AbM, but also the two other mushrooms above. AbM-related benefits reviewed here include effects against cancer, infections, inflammation, allergy/ asthma and diabetes. Effects of AndoSanTMand other AbM-based extracts have been compared in a bacterial sepsis model.

  3. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei on Pleurotus spp. spent substrate

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    Regina Maria Miranda Gern

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the use of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju for the previous lignocellulolytic decomposition of banana tree leaf straw and the further use of the degraded straw as substrate for the culture of Agaricus blazei. For optimising the production of A. blazei in terms of yield (Y% and biological efficiency (BE%, adjustments to the composition of the substrate were evaluated in a 2(5 experimental design. The following components were tested in relation to % of substrate dry mass: urea (1 and 10%, rice bran (10 or 20% or ammonium sulphate (0 or 10%, inoculum (10 or 20% and the casing material (subsoil or burned rice husks. The best results (79.71 Y% and 6.73 BE% were found when the substrate containing 10% of rice bran, without ammonium sulphate, inoculated with 20% and covered with subsoil was used.O cultivo de fungos comestíveis e medicinais utilizando resíduos da agroindústria vem se apresentando como uma alternativa econômica para o pequeno produtor rural, favorecendo a agricultura familiar do nordeste catarinense. Este trabalho avaliou o fungo Pleurotus para a decomposição lignocelulolítica de palha de folhas de bananeira e a utilização da palha residual como substrato para o cultivo de Agaricus blazei. Ajustes na composição do substrato residual de Pleurotus, tais como o tipo e a concentração da fonte de nitrogênio, a porcentagem de inóculo e a camada de cobertura, foram avaliadas. O substrato residual que mais favoreceu a produção de A. blazei em Eficiência Biológica (6,73%, Rendimento (79,71% e menor tempo para emissão do primeiro primórdio (27 dias foi o substrato residual de P. ostreatus inoculado com 20% de inóculo (ms, 10% de farelo de arroz (ms, sem sulfato de amônio e utilizando terra de subsolo como camada de cobertura.

  4. Antigenotoxic Properties of Agaricus blazei against Hydrogen Peroxide in Human Peripheral Blood Cells

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    Borozan, Sunčica; Topalović, Dijana; Ciptasari, Ummi; Bajić, Vladan

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Agaricus blazei mushroom in its dried and powdered mycelial form was evaluated for its antigenotoxic properties for the first time. Antigenotoxic effects in human peripheral blood cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage were examined in pretreatment and posttreatment protocol by comet assay. The results showed better antigenotoxic properties of Agaricus blazei on the interventional level, respectively, after treatment. Agaricus blazei in concentration of 250 μg/mL after treatment was most efficient in regard to its action against DNA damage. The evaluation of repair kinetics showed decrease in H2O2 induced DNA damage 15 min after the application of A. blazei, reaching the maximum potency after 30 min. Analysis of antioxidant properties of Agaricus blazei revealed strong •OH scavenging properties and moderate reducing power, while its DPPH scavenging ability was weak. In regard to our findings, we can conclude that our preliminary results demonstrated antigenotoxic properties of Agaricus blazei and its strong •OH scavenging ability. Mechanisms underlying its properties should be further evaluated in in vivo studies.

  5. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human PathogenPseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Nicolic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence,

  6. Identification of cadmium-induced Agaricus blazei genes through suppression subtractive hybridization.

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    Wang, Liling; Li, Haibo; Wei, Hailong; Wu, Xueqian; Ke, Leqin

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. Filamentous fungi are very promising organisms for controlling and reducing the amount of heavy metals released by human and industrial activities. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in Cd accumulation and tolerance of filamentous fungi are not fully understood. Agaricus blazei Murrill, an edible mushroom with medicinal properties, demonstrates high tolerance for heavy metals, especially Cd. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of A. blazei after Cd exposure, we constructed a forward subtractive library that represents cadmium-induced genes in A. blazei under 4 ppm Cd stress for 14 days using suppression subtractive hybridization combined with mirror orientation selection. Differential screening allowed us to identify 39 upregulated genes, 26 of which are involved in metabolism, protein fate, cellular transport, transport facilitation and transport routes, cell rescue, defense and virulence, transcription, and the action of proteins with a binding function, and 13 are encoding hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. Induction of six A. blazei genes after Cd exposure was further confirmed by RT-qPCR. The cDNAs isolated in this study contribute to our understanding of genes involved in the biochemical pathways that participate in the response of filamentous fungi to Cd exposure.

  7. Composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei na dieta de frangos de corte Spent mushroom substrate of Agaricus blazei in broiler chicks diet

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    Alexandre Magno Batista Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição de um antibiótico por diferentes níveis do composto exaurido do cogumelo (CEC Agaricus blazei sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram avaliadas sete dietas, seis com adição de CEC (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% e uma com antibiótico (avilamicina 10 ppm. Foram utilizados 588 pintos de 1 dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições por dieta (três por sexo e 14 aves por unidade experimental. As aves que não receberam qualquer aditivo na dieta apresentaram os piores resultados de desempenho. Níveis de CEC superiores a 0,4% ocasionaram redução gradual no desempenho. O nível de 0,2% de CEC proporcionou o maior ganho de peso e o de 0,21%, a melhor conversão alimentar e o maior consumo de ração. À exceção do rendimento de peito e do rendimento de gordura abdominal, os aditivos não influenciaram os rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes. O composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei pode ser utilizado como aditivo alternativo ao antibiótico no nível de 0,2% da dieta, pois não prejudicou o desempenho produtivo e o rendimento de carcaça das aves.The effect of the substitution of an antibiotic by different levels of spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Agaricus blazei on the performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 42 days old was evaluated. Seven diets were evaluated, six with SMS addiction (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and one with antibiotic (avilamycin 10 ppm. A total of 588 one day old chicks was allotted to a complete randomized design, with six replications per diet (three per sex and 14 birds per experimental unit. The birds fed diet with any additive showed the worst performance results. Levels of SMS above 0.4% caused gradual reduction in the performance. The level of 0.2% of SMS provided the highest value of weight gain and of 0.21% promoted the best feed conversion and the highest value of feed intake

  8. Study on Several Characteristics of Agaricus blazei Murril Strain J3 Irradiated by 60Co

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    WENG Bo-qi; JIANG Zhi-he; HUANG Ting-jun; CHEN Jian; ZHENG Wei-wen

    2003-01-01

    A new mutant strain J3 from Agaricus blazei Murril was obtained by 60Co irradiation. The yields of successive generations were increased more than 70% to compare with their original strain. The component analysis on amino acids and fatty acid illuminated that the nutrient value of strain J3 fruiting body was better than the original strain. The apparent nodule structure was found in the hyphea of J3 strain through the observation by scanning electron microscope. RAPD analysis showed the great difference of PCR fingerprints between J3 and its original strain. It is a promising mutant strain for further commercial development in the future.

  9. Influence of structural features on immunostimulating activity of glucans extracted from Agaricus blazei mushroom

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    Kozarski Maja S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight b-D-glucans derived from Basidiomycetes cell walls are able to specifically activate cellular and humoral components of the host immune system. The aim of this paper was to examine immunomodulating activity of native, chemically and enzimatically modified glucans from Agaricus blazei mushroom and to determine which structural features are of primary importance for their stimulation referring to humane immune cells. The immunomodulating activities were tested in vitro, by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and measuring of interferon-gamma (IFN-g production by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Measurements of immunomodulatory capacity of Agaricus blazei native glucans showed their expressive immunostimulating effect on activated PBMCs and synthesis of IFN-g. The results obtained after the stimulation of cells with 1M H2SO4 and 1M NaOH, the treated glucans showed that primary structure is of more importance than the tertiary structure of the triple helix for their immunostimulating activity and synthesis of IFN-g. Glucans of lower molecular weight obtained after acid hydrolysis appeared as effective immunostimulators of PBMC's. The results obtained after the incubation of cells with 1,6 b-glucanase modified glucans suggest that b-(1,6 binding of glucose monomers probably has no importance for the production of imunostimulating effects, in vitro. This confirmed that b-(1,3 bonds are the primary determinants of immunomodulatory activities and stimulation of IFN-g synthesis.

  10. Effects of extraction methods on the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

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    Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Feng; Liu, Yong; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Wu, Songhai

    2013-11-01

    Five polysaccharides were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) through different extraction methods including hot water extraction, single enzyme extraction (pectinase, cellulase or papain) and compound enzymes extraction (cellulase:pectinase:papain). Their characteristics such as the polysaccharide yield, polysaccharide content, protein content, infrared spectra were determined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical, DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical and reducing power. The results showed that five extracts exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with other methods, the compound enzymes extraction method was found to present the highest polysaccharides yield (17.44%). Moreover, compound enzymes extracts exhibited the strongest reducing power and highest scavenging rates on hydroxyl radicals, DPPH radicals and ABTS radicals. On the contrary, hot water extraction method had the lowest polysaccharides yield of 11.95%, whose extracts also exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities. Overall, the available data obtained in vitro models suggested that ABM extracts were natural antioxidants and compound enzymes extraction was an appropriate, mild and effective extracting method for obtaining the polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM).

  11. Agaricus blazei production on non-composted substrates based on sunflower seed hulls and spent oyster mushroom substrate.

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    González Matute, R; Figlas, D; Curvetto, N

    2011-06-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is usually cultivated using the same biphasic composting method employed for A. bisporus. Because cultivation of A. blazei on traditional A. bisporus composts poses some disadvantages, non-composted substrates were studied for A. blazei cultivation. Mycelial growth rate and productive performance of A. blazei were evaluated on substrates containing sunflower seed hulls, Pleurotus spp. spent mushroom substrate, or their combination, in the absence or in the presence of different supplements (vermicompost, peat or brewery residues). Substrates were prepared by initially soaking them and then they were sterilized (1 atm for 120 min). In addition, each substrate's degradation was measured after cultivation by obtaining the lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, organic matter, total fiber, ash, carbon and nitrogen contents before spawn-run and at the end of two flushes of A. blazei. The cultivation of A. blazei on non-composted substrates is possible and with a low rate of contamination when using the spent mushroom substrate as the main component or combined 50:50 with sunflower seed hulls. In addition, the best yields were obtained on those substrates containing spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with supplements and those mixtures with sunflower seed hulls and vermicompost. These yields were similar to those reported on composted substrates. Substrate changes in composition measured at the end of two flushes indicate that the lignin-hemicellulose fraction was preferentially used and that the substrates exhibiting the best yield showed greater biodegradation of lignin-hemicellulose fraction than the others did.

  12. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

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    Marina Soković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  13. Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation

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    Dalla S. O. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn’t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect

  14. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

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    F. Firenzuoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and antimutagenic properties, although the biological pathways and chemical substances involved in its pharmacological activities are still not clear. The polysaccharides phytocomplex is thought to be responsible for its immunostimulant and antitumor properties, probably through an opsonizing biochemical pathway. Clinical studies are positive confirmations, but we are still at the beginning, and there are perplexing concerns especially relative to the content of agaritine. Argantine is a well-known carcinogenic and toxic substance in animals, that must be completely and fully evaluated.

  15. Extratos de Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici, in vitro Extracts of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei on Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici., in vitro

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    Ana Cristina Grade Fiori-Tutida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de buscar medidas alternativas para o controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici testou-se o efeito fungitóxico in vitro dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre esses fungos. Os extratos brutos aquosos de ambos os cogumelos não tiveram efeito significativo tanto no crescimento micelial quanto na germinação de esporos de B. sorokiniana. Por outro lado, os extratos dos cogumelos inibiram a germinação de esporos de P. recondita f. sp. tritici, com destaque para o isolado LE 96/17 de L. edodes que apresentou inibição da ordem de 52,4%.With the purpose of finding alternative ways to control Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. triciti, the fungitoxic effect in vitro of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei mushrooms was tested on these fungi. The aqueous crude extract of both mushrooms did not have significant effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of B. sorokiniana . On the other hand, the mushroom extracts inhibited the germination of P. recondita f. sp. tritici uredospores, particularly on the L. edodes (96/17, which exhibited the largest inhibition of spore germination (52,38%.

  16. Effects of an Agaricus blazei Aqueous Extract Pretreatment on Paracetamol-Induced Brain and Liver Injury in Rats

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    Andréia A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of an Agaricus blazei aqueous extract pretreatment on paracetamol injury in rats was examined not only in terms of the classical indicators (e.g., levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma but also in terms of functional and metabolic parameters (e.g., gluconeogenesis. Considering solely the classical indicators for tissue damage, the results can be regarded as an indication that the A. blazei extract is able to provide a reasonable degree of protection against the paracetamol injury in both the hepatic and brain tissues. The A. blazei pretreatment largely prevented the increased levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma (ASP, ALT, LDH, and ALP and practically normalized the TBARS levels in both liver and brain tissues. With respect to the functional and metabolic parameters of the liver, however, the extract provided little or no protection. This includes morphological signs of inflammation and the especially important functional parameter gluconeogenesis, which was impaired by paracetamol. Considering these results and the long list of extracts and substances that are said to have hepatoprotective effects, it would be useful to incorporate evaluations of functional parameters into the experimental protocols of studies aiming to attribute or refute effective hepatoprotective actions to natural products.

  17. Common desease and insect in Agaricus blazei and their control%巴西蘑菇常见病虫害及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林衍铨; 黄建成; 胡润芳

    2000-01-01

    @@ 巴西蘑菇(Agaricus blazei Murrill,日本商品名称姬松茸)在栽培过程中,往往会出现各种病、虫害,轻者降低品质,造成减产,重者甚至绝收.现将巴西蘑菇常见的病虫害及其防治措施介绍如下.

  18. Serum hepatic biochemistry and electrophoretic protein profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with extracts of Agaricus blazei Murill

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    Durval Verçosa Junior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compounds isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill represent a group of promising natural immunomodulators for use in the treatment of neoplasms. We have evaluated the serum biochemical profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with different extracts of A. blazei. Total, supernatant, and polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei were obtained from suspensions (at acidic or neutral pH kept in a water bath at 60 °C or in an ultrasonic bath at 37 °C. After oral administering the extracts to mice for 21 days, blood samples were collected for determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine kinase (CK, urea, total protein, albumin, globulins, and alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulin fractions. The presence of the tumor led to a significant increase in serum CK and AST activities and in the concentrations of total globulin and the gamma-globulin fraction, and to a decrease in the albumin and alpha2-globulin levels. The polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei reduced the serum AST and ALT activities, probably due to a hepatoprotective effect. In addition, polysaccharide and supernatant extracts inhibited the tumor-induced increase in gamma-globulin levels. Thus, the supernatant and polysaccharide fractions of the extract of A. blazei have potential for use in complementary antineoplastic treatments.

  19. Chitosan oligosaccharides in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill extract reduces hepatoma formation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency

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    YEH, MING YANG; SHANG, HUNG SHENG; LU, HSU FENG; CHOU, JASON; YEH, CHUN; CHANG, JIN BIOU; HUNG, HSIAO FANG; KUO, WAN LIN; WU, LUNG YUAN; CHUNG, JING GUNG

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan and Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) extracts possess antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan, ABM extract or the two in combination were effective against tumors in tumor-bearing mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with SK-Hep 1 cells and were then were divided into the following six groups: Group 1, control group; group 2, chitosan 5 mg/kg/day; group 3, chitosan 20 mg/kg/day; group 4, ABM (246 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) combined; group 5, ABM (984 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (20 mg/kg/day) combined; and group 6, ABM (984 mg/kg/day). The mice were treated with the different concentrations of chitosan, ABM or combinations of the two for 6 weeks. The levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tissue histopathological features were examined in the surviving animals. Based on the results of the investigation, the treatments performed in groups 2, 3 and 4 were identified as being capable of reducing the weights of the tumors, however, group 4, which was treated with chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) in combination with ABM (246 mg/kg/day) was able to reduce the levels of GOT and VEGF. As a result, treatment with chitosan in combination with ABM may offer potential in cancer therapy and requires further investigation. PMID:25760985

  20. A polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (ABP-AW1) as a potential Th1 immunity-stimulating adjuvant.

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    Cui, Liran; Sun, Yongxu; Xu, Hao; Xu, Huiyu; Cong, Huan; Liu, Jicheng

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a 'depot' of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4(+)CD69(+) T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant.

  1. Chitosan oligosaccharides in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill extract reduces hepatoma formation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency.

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    Yeh, Ming-Yang; Shang, Hung-Sheng; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chou, Jason; Yeh, Chun; Chang, Jin-Biou; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Kuo, Wan-Lin; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan and Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) extracts possess antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan, ABM extract or the two in combination were effective against tumors in tumor‑bearing mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with SK-Hep 1 cells and were then were divided into the following six groups: Group 1, control group; group 2, chitosan 5 mg/kg/day; group 3, chitosan 20 mg/kg/day; group 4, ABM (246 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) combined; group 5, ABM (984 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (20 mg/kg/day) combined; and group 6, ABM (984 mg/kg/day). The mice were treated with the different concentrations of chitosan, ABM or combinations of the two for 6 weeks. The levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tissue histopathological features were examined in the surviving animals. Based on the results of the investigation, the treatments performed in groups 2, 3 and 4 were identified as being capable of reducing the weights of the tumors, however, group 4, which was treated with chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) in combination with ABM (246 mg/kg/day) was able to reduce the levels of GOT and VEGF. As a result, treatment with chitosan in combination with ABM may offer potential in cancer therapy and requires further investigation.

  2. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats

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    Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7, 12 (C12 and CA12, and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23. The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells.

  3. Studies on Odontotermes formosanus Food Choice between Agaricus blazei and Its Substrate%黑翅土白蚁对姬松茸及其培养料的取食性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德伟; 林辉; 罗海凌; 林春梅; 林占熺

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of Odontotermes formosanus to Agaricus blazei Murrill cultivation, studies were carried out on food selectiveness of Odontotermes formosanus by observing 5 different materials ( fruitbody of Agaricus blazei Murrill, bamboo powder, Juncao, Juncao substrate of Agaricus blazei Murrill, bamboo substrate of Agaricus blazei Murrill) foraging behaviors. The results showed that consumption rate of Juncao and bamboo powders were very significantly higher than that of other 3 materials. And the consumption rate of Agaricus blazei Murrill was 0. The mud sheet area and mud sheet coverage rate of Juncao and bamboo powders were very significantly higher than that of the other 3 materials. These all indicated that the volatile substances distributed from mycelium and fruitbody of Agaricus blazei Murrill could inhibit termites' feeding. And the harms of termites in Agaricus blazei Murrill were mainly from cultivation materials.%通过观察黑翅土白蚁工蚁的觅食行为,进行了黑翅土白蚁对5种材料(姬松茸、木屑、菌草草粉、菌草姬松茸培养料、木屑姬松茸培养料)的取食选择性研究.结果表明,木屑和菌草草粉的被食率极显著高于其他3种材料,而姬松茸被食率为0;木屑与菌草草粉的泥被面积和泥被覆盖率极显著高于其他3种材料.这都表明姬松茸菌丝及其子实体散发出来的挥发性物质可以抑制黑翅土白蚁取食,黑翅土白蚁为害姬松茸主要是对其栽培料的破坏.

  4. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation

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    Geir Hetland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β-glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mouse models, in addition to anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease patients. These effects are mediated through the mushroom's stimulation of innate immune cells, such as monocytes, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and the amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance and inflammation.

  5. A polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murill induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Hongmin; Han, Junqing; Liu, Li

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides are the major active ingredients of fungus Agaricus blazei for treating and preventing cancer. However, there are no reports showing anti-tumor activity of A. blazei polysaccharides (ABP) on human leukemia (HL)-60 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that ABP efficiently inhibited proliferation of cultured HL-60 cells, which was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The increase in ABP-induced apoptosis was accompanied by loss of mitochondria membrane potential (∆Ψm), cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, activation of caspase-3, degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and the elevated ratio of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). Moreover, z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, reversed the cytotoxic effects and apoptotic characteristics induced by ABP in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, we confirmed that ABP could obviously inhibit the solid cancer growth of leukemia HL-60 in tumor xenograft model. These data demonstrated that ABP effectively induced the apoptosis of HL-60 cells via a signaling cascade of mitochondrial caspase-3-dependent pathway.

  6. The dynamics of 1.3-β-D-glucan given in the form of Agaricus blazei Murill powder to the body of white mice Sprague Dawley and effect of renal and hepatic histopathology

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    Misgiati Misgiati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of compound 1,3-β-glucan in Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM powder and the effect of renal and hepatic histopathology performed on 24 male rats aged 2 months, were randomly conducted in three treatments there are control, ABM powder, and the pure compound 1.3-β-glucan for 28 days. Provision of treatment given in the morning and then 1, 3, 8, 12, and 24 hours after administration of treatment blood was collected, while for urine and feces were collected every 8 hours. Giving treatment was continued until day 28. The results showed that the levels of 1,3-β-glucan in pure compounds is higher than the Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM powder. The effects on the kidneys and liver histopathology showed that cells necrosis more on pure compounds from the mushroom powder gods, both the kidneys and liver. This study shows that the use of pure compounds to be more careful than Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM powder in determining the doses used.

  7. Optimization of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats(ISSR) Reaction System for Agaricus blazei%姬松茸ISSR特异扩增体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新坚; 江秀红; 蔡海松; 郑永标; 林陈强

    2007-01-01

    为了建立稳定的姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Murill)简单序列重复区间(Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats,ISSR)分子标记技术体系,笔者通过单因子试验分别研究了模板DNA、Mg2+浓度、dNTP、引物浓度和Taq酶用量对姬松茸ISSR-PCR扩增的影响,确定了姬松茸ISSR分析的最佳PCR条件为:25μL反应体系中,模板DNA 20 ng,引物0.75μmol/L,dNTP 200μmol/L,Mg2+2.0 mmol/L,Taq DNA polymerase 1.5 U.并应用该优化体系筛选到6个适合姬松茸ISSR-PCR扩增的引物,为利用ISSR标记技术研究姬松茸的种质资源提供了参考.

  8. Oral Treatment with Extract of Agaricus blazei Murill Enhanced Th1 Response through Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Suppressed OVA-Sensitized Allergy in Mice

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    Go Bouike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the mechanism of the antiallergic activity of Agaricus blazei Murill extract (ABME, the present paper used an in vivo allergy model and an in vitro intestinal gut model. During OVA sensitization, the serum IgE levels decreased significantly in ABME group. Interleukin (IL-4 and -5 produced from OVA-restimulated splenocytes was significantly decreased, and anti-CD3ε/CD28 antibody treatment also reduced IL-10, -4, and -5 production and increased IFN-γ production in ABME group. These results suggest that oral administration of ABME improves Th1/Th2 balance. Moreover, a coculture system constructed of Caco-2 cells and splenocytes from OT-II mice or RAW 264.7 cells indicated that the significant increases in IFN-γ production by ABME treatment. Therefore, it was concluded that the antiallergic activity of ABME was due to the activation of macrophages by epithelial cells and the promotion of the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells in the immune.

  9. Blood parameters of sheep with high infection of Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei

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    Gabriela Almeida Bastos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood and parasitological parameters of sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei were assessed. Lambs infected with the nematode were divided into three groups: treated with basidiocarp powder from the fungus, wormed with trichlorfon, and a control group that did not receive anthelmintic. Split-plot design analysis was performed where the treatments were defined as plots and four periods of collection were defined as subplots. Interaction between the treatments and the collection periods for the fecal egg counts per gram of feces (FEC was observed. Treatment with “mushroom of the sun” showed anthelmintic efficacies ranging from 28.6 to 54.2%. Similar performances to weight gain were observed among the groups. A significant interaction between treatments and evaluation periods was observed for erythrocyte counts, hematocrit value, and serum concentrations of albumin and urea. The values of the mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte distribution width, and leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts, as well as the mean platelet volume, varied among the collection days. The administration of “mushroom of the sun” significantly reduced the FEC, did not influence on the erythrocyte count and hematocrit value, which remained within normal limits. However it increased the serum concentrations of albumin.

  10. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-Based Mushroom Extract AndoSan in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing High Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Double Blinded Clinical Study

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    Jon-Magnus Tangen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients or placebo (21 patients. Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021.

  11. 姬松茸60Co辐射新菌株J3营养成分与农药残留分析%Analysis on Nutrients and Pesticide Residues in Strain J3 Agaricus blazei Murill Irradiated by 60Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁伯琦; 江枝和; 肖淑霞; 雷锦桂; 王义祥; 唐翔虬

    2011-01-01

    通过常规生产床栽,对比研究姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J和原菌株J在营养品质以及重金属含量和农药残留情况.结果表明,姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J子实体中鲜味氨基酸总量(56.5 g·kg)、甜味氨基酸总量(52.4g·kg)、硫氨基酸总量(15.8 g·kg)、支链氨基酸总量(38.1 g·kg)、芳香族氨基酸总量(16.1 g·kg)、儿童氨基酸总量(17.8 g·kg)、必需氨基酸总量(95 g·kg),分别占氨基酸总量(221.7 g·kg)的25.48%、23.64%、7.13%、17.19%、7.26%、8.03%和42.85%,分别比姬松茸J高28.12%、12.93%、0%、14.41%、12.59%、16.34%和11.76%.J的多不饱和脂肪酸(76.15%)和不饱和脂肪酸(77.55%)分别比姬松茸原菌株J高4.39%和3.82%.J子实体含镉(3.86 mg·kg)、汞(0.42 mg·kg)和砷(0.09 mg·kg),也分别比原菌株J低45.86%、32.25%和18.18%;其铅含量符合国家食用菌卫生标准GB 7096-2003;砷含量符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T749-2003的标准.子实体中联苯菊酯、溴氰菊酯、百菌清、六六六、多菌灵、阿维菌素、甲基托布津、甲胺磷、毒死蜱、滴滴涕和二氧化硫含量均符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T 749-2003的标准.%A garicus blazei Murill as rare edible fungi was adored by more and more customers.But with the increasing attention of food hygiene quality, it was important guidance of the safety production of Agaricus blazei to understand the health status of Agaricus blazei in the actual cultivation.This paper studied the difference in terms of nutritional quality, heavy metal contents and pesticide residues between strain J3 and J1.The results showed that the contents of delicious amino acid(56.5 g· kg-1), sweet amino acid(52.4 g· kg-1), sulfur amino acid( 15.8 g·kg-1), branched chain amino acid(38.1 g· kg-1), aromatic amino acid( 16.1 g·kg-1), children amino acid( 17.8 g·kg-1), necessary amino acid (95.0 g·kg-1)in the fruit bodies ofAgaricus blazei J3, occupied 25.48%, 23.64%, 7.13%, 17.19%, 7.26

  12. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg(-1) d(-1)), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg(-1) d(-1)) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass.

  13. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4(+) CD25(-) cells into CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1(+ ) CD11b(+) monocytes, nether CD8(+) T cells nor CD4(+) T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2(-/-) mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs.

  14. Detection and Evaluation on Levels of Heavy Metals in Brazilian Mushroom (Agaricus blazei) in Funan, Anhui Province%安徽阜南巴西菇重金属含量的检测和评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炎炘; 李能树; 王彩云; 彭玲芳

    2015-01-01

    为摸清安徽阜南县生产巴西菇(Agaricus blazei)的食用安全性,对其菌盖和菌柄样品中汞、砷、镉、铬的含量进行了检测.发现菌盖重金属含量分别为汞0.019 mg·kg-1、砷0.414 mg· kg-1、镉0.022 mg·kg-1、铬1.246mg· kg-1;菌柄重金属含量分别为汞0.043 mg·kg-1、砷0.402 mg·kg-1、镉0.226 mg· kg-1、铬1.501 mg·kg-1.与国家标准比对结果表明:菌盖和菌柄内汞、砷、镉含量没有超标,而菌柄中铬的单因素污染指数为1.001.通过单因子污染指数法对巴西菇的重金属污染状况进行评价,确认样品菌盖、菌柄中汞、砷、镉的污染等级属非污染,菌柄中铬污染为轻微污染.

  15. Effect of the Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSanTM, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn's Disease in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Palm Therkelsen

    Full Text Available Ingestion of AndoSanTM, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with Crohn's disease (CD. In this randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSanTM also resulted in clinical effects.50 patients with symptomatic CD were randomized for oral daily consumption of AndoSanTM or placebo for a 21-day experimental period, in this per-protocol study. Patients reported validated scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSanTM group (n = 25 symptoms improved from baseline (day 0 to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI of 5.52 (4.64-6.40, 4.48 (3.69-5.27 and 4.08 (3.22-4.94 (p<0,001. We found significant improvements in symptom score for both genders in the AndoSanTM group, and no significant changes in the placebo (n = 25 group. There were however no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.106, although a marginal effect in symptom score for men (p = 0.054. There were comparable improvements in physical, mental and total fatigue for both groups. HRQoL versus baseline were at day 21 improved for bodily pain and vitality in the AndoSanTM group and for vitality and social functioning in the placebo group. No crucial changes in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin were detected.The results from this single-blinded randomized clinical trial shows significant improvement on symptoms, for both genders, in the AndoSanTM group, but no significant differences between the study groups. The results on fatigue, HRQoL, fecal calprotectin and blood samples were quite similar compared with placebo. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSanTM. CD patients with mild to moderate symptoms may have beneficiary

  16. Effect of a Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSan™, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study.

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    Stig Palm Therkelsen

    Full Text Available Ingestion of AndoSan™, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects because of reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with ulcerative colitis. In this randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSan™ also resulted in clinical effects.50 patients with symptomatic ulcerative colitis were block-randomized and blinded for oral daily intake of AndoSan™ or placebo for the 21 days' experimental period. The patients reported scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSan™ group (n = 24 symptoms improved from baseline (day 0 to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI of 5.88 (4.92-6.83, 4.71 (3.90-5.52 (p = 0.002 and 4.50 (3.70-5.30 (p = 0.001. Corresponding improved mean scores (±SD for total fatigue were 16.6 (5.59, 14.1 (4.50 (p = 0.001 and 15.1 (4.09 (p = 0.023. These scores in the placebo group (n = 26 were not improved. When comparing the two study groups using mixed model statistics, we found significant better scores for the AndoSan™-patients. HRQoL for dimensions bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health improved in the AndoSan™ group. There were no alterations in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin.Beneficiary effects on symptoms, fatigue and HRQoL from AndoSan™ consumption were demonstrated in this per-protocol study, supporting its use as a supplement to conventional medication for patients with mild to moderate symptoms from ulcerative colitis. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSan™ in this study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496053.

  17. 姬松茸“福姬J77”新菌株选育研究%A Brief Report on Breeding of agaricus blazei Strain "FUJI J77"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋虎; 陈爱华; 江枝和; 雷锦桂; 王义祥; 翁伯琦

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a strain of agaricus blazei named J1 was used as original strain. Using 60Co-UV compound mutation, a mutant strain was got that had significant differences with J1 in morphology. The result of fruiting experiment showed that the agronomic characters of the mutant strain including color of fruiting body, the average weight per fruitbody, the diameter of pileus, the thickness of pileus, the diameter of stalk, the height of stalk, and so on, was significantly different with J1 , and the yield increased significantly. Biological characteristic research indicated:the mycelium growth rate of mutant strain and J1 has significant differences in different temperature, pH and ratio of material to water. The mycelium of mutant strain and J1 were observed by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, and the results showed that the mycelium of mutant strain with pariculate on surface was thinner than J1. The analysis of SSR marks fingerprint showed that the mutant strain and J1 had obvious differences. Series of studies showed that the mutant strain which was named "FUJI J77" is a new strain that has great potential for development.%以姬松茸J1为出发菌株,采用60Co-紫外线复合诱变,得到1株与原菌株形态差异显著的姬松茸诱变菌株.经出菇试验,诱变菌株在子实体颜色、朵重、盖直径、盖厚、柄直径、柄长度等农艺形状与原菌株均有明显差异,产量大幅提高.生物学特性研究表明,诱变菌株在不同温度、不同pH及不同料水比情况下菌丝的生长速度与姬松茸J1均有很大差异.用扫描电镜观察诱变菌株及出发菌株的菌丝体,诱变菌株菌丝变细,表面有颗粒物,与原菌株有显著差异.经过SSR标记的指纹图谱分析,诱变菌株与原菌株也存在明显差异.研究结果表明,该诱变菌株为一个具有很大开发潜力的新菌株,命名为福姬J77.

  18. 姬松茸多糖对铅中毒大鼠铅代谢及体内铜、钙、锌、铁、锰含量的影响%EFFECTS OF AGARICUS BLAZEI MUILL POLYSACCHARIDES ON LEAD METABOLISM AND THE CONTENTS OF COPPER, CALCIUM, ZINC, IRON AND MANGANESE IN LEAD-POISONING RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红艳; 冯翠萍; 王伟娟; 常明昌; 孟俊龙; 冯两蕊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解姬松茸多糖(Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides,ABP)对Pb中毒大鼠体内Pb、Cu、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn含量的影响.方法 选择健康45日龄SD大鼠48只,随机分为6组,每组8只,雌雄各半,分别为正常对照组、Pb中毒组、多糖组、Pb中毒+低剂量多糖干预组、Pb中毒+中剂量多糖干预组和Pb中毒+高剂量多糖干预组.Pb中毒组和Pb中毒+多糖干预组都给予0.2%醋酸铅溶液,自由饮用,其它组给予蒸馏水.多糖、低剂量、中剂量及高剂量组分别按每天每只100、50、100、200mg/kg体重灌服姬松茸多糖液,各组灌服液体积相等,为1ml.正常对照组和Pb中毒组每天每只灌胃2ml的生理盐水.饲养60d后,取大鼠肝脏、肾脏、心脏和血,分别测定Pb、Cu、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn含量.结果 (1)与正常对照组比较,Pb中毒组各组织和三个多糖干预组中肝脏、肾脏和血中Pb含量升高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01),Pb中毒组心脏中的Ca、血中的Fe含量升高(P<0.05或P<0.01),其余均下降(P<0.05或P<0.01),多糖组中肾脏和心脏中的Ca,血中的Fe略有下降,其余均略有升高,差异无统计学意义.(2)与Pb中毒组比较,低剂量多糖显著降低血铅含量(P<0.01),中剂量多糖显著降低心脏中铅含量(P<0.01),其他组织铅含量差异无统计学意义,随着ABP剂量的升高,三个多糖干预组中心脏中的Ca和血中的Fe的含量逐渐降低,而其他指标均逐渐升高,当ABP剂量达到200mg/kg时,显著下降或升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 姬松茸多糖促进Pb的排出,对Pb致大鼠微量元素失衡具有调节作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides (ABP) on Pb metabolism and the contents of Pb, Cu, Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn in lead-poisoning rats. Method Forty eight healthy 45 d SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (female ; male=1:1): control group, ABP group, lead-poisoning group, lead+low-dose ABP group

  19. Laccases production by A.blazei mushroom grown either in composted or non-composted substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Matute, Ramiro; Figlas, Norma Débora; Curvetto, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei is an edible and medicinal mushroom commonly cultivated on compost. However, non-composted substrates are being particularly studied for specialty mushrooms because their economic and labour advantages. Addition of salt minerals to the substrate or casing materials may stimulate both the synthesis and activity of enzymes involved in the mushroom substrate biotransformation and eventually lead to an increase not only in mushroom productivity but in the fruitbody mineral content...

  20. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmation of the sensory scent features of the most commonly consumed Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus subrufescens exhibiting anticancerous traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győrfi, Júlia; Geösel, András; Kiss, Mária; Nemes, Katalin; Csóka, Mariann; Korány, Kornél

    2013-02-01

    In Hungary, fairly little is known about Agaricus subrufescens Peck (formerly called Agaricus blazei Murrill), which is cultivated on an industrial scale in the Far East. Nevertheless, this mushroom species exerts a curative influence and might become a new pillar of cancer research and antitumorous therapy. The present study gives a detailed discussion on the compositional differences of the scent components of A. subrufescens and its close relative Agaricus bisporus based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements, subsequent to Likens-Nickerson simultaneous distillation-extraction.

  1. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested

  2. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaković, Milena; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each compone

  3. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei. Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food.

  4. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  5. 水煮和微波处理对巴西蘑菇营养品质及抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of boiling and microwaving treatments on nutritional characteristics and antioxidant activities of mushroom(Agaricus blazei Murril)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 孙丽平; 翟庆娇; 常佳驹; 庄永亮

    2012-01-01

    The effects of boiling and microwaving on nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities of fresh and frozen A.blazei Murril(AbM) were evaluated and compared.The results showed that the contents of crude protein,ash,total soluble protein,total soluble sugar,vitamin C,and total phenolics decreased by both cooking treatments,but no significant changes were observed in lipids.Boiling and microwaving significantly changed the compositions of amino acids and decreased the contents of glucose,galactose and mannose,and the effect of boiling was higher than that of microwaving.Furthermore,boiling and microwaving significantly decreased the DPPH· scavenging activity and reducing power of AbM.Analysis of the relations between the antioxidant activities and total phenolic concentrations testified that the cooking treatments not only decreased the total phenolic contents,but also changed the types and relative amounts of phenolic compounds of AbM.%研究了水煮和微波加热处理对新鲜巴西蘑菇营养成分及其抗氧化能力的影响。结果表明,水煮和微波加热处理不同程度上降低了总蛋白质、灰分、可溶性蛋白质、可溶性多糖、总酚和VC的含量,而对脂肪的含量没有显著性变化。另外,加热处理明显改变了巴西蘑菇氨基酸和单糖的组成,微波处理的损失率显著低于水煮处理。加热处理对巴西蘑菇的还原力和清除DPPH·能力的影响显示,水煮和微波处理不仅降低了巴西蘑菇总酚含量,而且改变了其总酚的组成,水煮处理对其抗氧化能力的破坏能力明显高于微波处理。研究可为消费者日常生活合理烹调巴西蘑菇提供科学依据。

  6. Agaricus subrufescens : new to Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Rui-lin; Callac, Philippe; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Bahkali, Ali H.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus subrufescens is an edible and medicinal mushroom of Agaricaceae, Agaricales originally described from North America. It has increasingly been used as a health food and alternative medicine and is also used in cosmetics. Agaricus subrufescens has been shown to exhibit many pharmaceutical traits such as anti-cancer, anti-microbial and immunomodulatory properties and is rich in bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Recently, four specimens of Agaricus subrufescens were co...

  7. Agaricus subrufescens: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Ruilin; Callac, Philippe; Moukha, Serge; Férandon, Cyril; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have currently become a hot issue due to their various therapeutic properties. Of these, Agaricus subrufescens, also known as the “almond mushroom”, has long been valued by many societies (i.e., Brazil, China, France, and USA). Since its discovery in 1893, this mushroom has been cultivated throughout the world, especially in Brazil where several strains of A. subrufescens have been developed and used as health food and alternative medicine. This article presents up-to-date...

  8. Agaricus subrufescens: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Ruilin; Callac, Philippe; Moukha, Serge; Férandon, Cyril; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have currently become a hot issue due to their various therapeutic properties. Of these, Agaricus subrufescens, also known as the “almond mushroom”, has long been valued by many societies (i.e., Brazil, China, France, and USA). Since its discovery in 1893, this mushroom has been cultivated throughout the world, especially in Brazil where several strains of A. subrufescens have been developed and used as health food and alternative medicine. This article presents up-to-date information on this mushroom including its taxonomy and health promoting benefits. Medicinal properties of A. subrufescens are emphasized in several studies which are reviewed here. In addition, safety issues concerning the use of this fungus will be discussed. PMID:23961172

  9. Auraalne Contra / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-

    2001-01-01

    Bibliogr. joonealustes märkustes. Rets. rmt. : Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Suusamütsi tutt : luulet aastatest 1974-2000. Urvaste ; Tartu : Mina Ise, 2001; Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Contra on õhk : [helikassett]. Urvaste :¡ Mina Ise, 2000

  10. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species are being reported for the first time from the region. The commercial button mushroom Agaricus bisporus lacks good breeding characters due to its bisporic nature. These wild cousins of the button mushroom can definitely prove to be a good source of genetic manipulations to the existing strains and also to develop new strains with improved characters.

  11. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichers Harry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei were found to contain (1→6,(1→4-linked α-glucan, (1→6-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly

  12. Agaricus bisporus and related Agaricus species on lignocellulose: production of manganese peroxidase and multicopper oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Lankinen, Pauliina; Lundell, Taina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnological, microbiological, and genetic studies of Agaricus species other than A. bisporus, the white button mushroom, have been limited so far. To expand the knowledge in the genus Agaricus, six novel wild-type isolates of Agaricus spp. were studied on their nutritional demands for enzyme production and mycelial growth. All the selected Agaricus species produced extracellular manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activities in semi-solid rye bran cultures. Moderate MnP activities were measured for A. bisporus, A. bernardii and A. campestris. The highest laccase activities were obtained for A. bisporus and A. campestris. On soy medium, the highest mycelial tyrosinase activity was determined for A. bernardii. For A. bisporus, addition of copper caused no increase in laccase or tyrosinase activities on soy or malt extract media. Hyphal growth rate of the isolates was studied on lignocellulose amended agar plates. Fastest growth was obtained for A. bisporus on wheat bran and birch leaf litter agar. Except for A. bernardii, hyphal growth rates correlated well with MnP and laccase production levels between Agaricus species. Molecular taxonomy of the novel Agaricus spp. positioned them to distinct phylogenetic clusters with species-level identity. In conclusion, our data point to the importance of both MnP and multicopper enzymes in Agaricus spp. while growing on lignocelluloses.

  13. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phenllinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyanoglu, M.; Canbek, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Yamac, M.; Senturk, H.; Kartkaya, K.; Oglakci, A.; Turgak, O.; Kanbak, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100¿mg per kg body w

  14. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  15. Uptake and transformation of arsenic during the reproductive life stage of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2016-11-01

    Fruiting bodies from the Agaricus genus have been found to contain non-toxic arsenobetaine (AB) as a major compound. It is unknown whether AB is formed during the vegetative or reproductive life stages of the fungus, or by the surrounding microbial community, but AB's structural similarity to glycine betaine has led to the hypothesis that AB may be adventitiously accumulated as an osmolyte. To investigate the potential formation of AB during the reproductive life stage of Agaricus species, growth substrate and fungi were collected during the commercial growth of Agaricus bisporus and analyzed for arsenic speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS. AB was found to be the major arsenic compound in the fungus at the earliest growth stage of fruiting (the primordium). The growth substrate mainly contained arsenate (As(V)). The distribution of arsenic in an A. bisporus primordium grown on As(V) treated substrate, and in a mature Agaricus campestris fruiting body collected from arsenic contaminated mine tailings, was mapped using two dimensional XAS imaging. The primordium and stalk of the mature fruiting body were both found to be growing around pockets of substrate material containing higher As concentrations, and AB was found exclusively in the fungal tissues. In the mature A. campestris the highest proportion of AB was found in the cap, supporting the AB as an osmolyte hypothesis. The results have allowed us to pinpoint the fungus life stage at which AB formation takes place, namely reproduction, which provides a direction for further research.

  16. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    to provide data for the evaluation of whether the consumption of the cultivated mushroom constitutes a human risk. The present report summarises the Nordic seminar which had the aim to present Nordic studies and to promote exchange of information between chemists and toxicologists in the field of Agaricus...... bisporus research. American, English and Czech researchers gave an up-to-date overview on the cultivated mushroom and its hydrazines and reviewed their ongoing research. Finally, Nordic researchers summarised their chemical and toxicological studies on behalf of the Nordic Project Group on Phenylhydrazines...

  17. Contra continuity and almost contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Baby; Chakraborty, Jayasree

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we introduce fuzzy contra continuity and almost contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological space. Fuzzy almost contra continuity is weaker than fuzzy contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological space. Then we investigate their characterizations and properties. We also established some equivalent relation on fuzzy contra continuity and fuzzy almost contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological spaces.

  18. Lovell contra Lovell

    OpenAIRE

    Canosa Benítez, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Lovell contra Lovell es poner, uno frente a otro, los proyectos de dos maestros del siglo XX para el mismo cliente y en ubicaciones distintas en la California de los años 20. Las ideas que contienen, los conceptos de uso del suelo, la mirada de la casa y sus espacios al abierto se configuran con criterios semejantes en resoluciones plásticas próximas. Con origen en el repertorio espacial ensayado en la famosa Schindler-Chace studio-dwelling en Kings Road, Schindl...

  19. Agaritine content of 53 Agaricus species collected from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzova, V.; Hajslova, J.; Peroutka, R.

    2009-01-01

    carcinogen. There was a huge variation in agaritine content between species, but less variation between samples of a species. Whereas the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus commonly contain 200-500 mg agaritine kg-1 fresh weight, no less than 24 of the 53 species contained agaritine levels above 1000 mg......Fifty-three different species of the genus Agaricus were collected in the Czech Republic during the period 1998-2001 and identified by an experienced mycologist. The samples were analysed for agaritine (N2-(-L-glutamyl)-4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine) content, a precursor to a suspected rodent...... strain development of Agaricus mushrooms for cultivation. No correlation could be observed between agaritine content and size of the mushroom, week of the year when collected, year of collection, or site of collection. Besides occurring in the genus Agaricus, some species of the genera Leucoagaricus...

  20. Agaricus bisporus genome sequence: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Burton, Kerry S

    2013-06-01

    The genomes of two isolates of Agaricus bisporus have been sequenced recently. This soil-inhabiting fungus has a wide geographical distribution in nature and it is also cultivated in an industrialized indoor process ($4.7bn annual worldwide value) to produce edible mushrooms. Previously this lignocellulosic fungus has resisted precise econutritional classification, i.e. into white- or brown-rot decomposers. The generation of the genome sequence and transcriptomic analyses has revealed a new classification, 'humicolous', for species adapted to grow in humic-rich, partially decomposed leaf material. The Agaricus biporus genomes contain a collection of polysaccharide and lignin-degrading genes and more interestingly an expanded number of genes (relative to other lignocellulosic fungi) that enhance degradation of lignin derivatives, i.e. heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases. A motif that is hypothesized to be a promoter element in the humicolous adaptation suite is present in a large number of genes specifically up-regulated when the mycelium is grown on humic-rich substrate. The genome sequence of A. bisporus offers a platform to explore fungal biology in carbon-rich soil environments and terrestrial cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

  1. contra la pobreza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezaidi A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El conjunto del territorio marroquí encierra un rico patrimonio geológico esencialmente térmico y mineral. La explotación de este patrimonio nacional con fines terapéuticos puede desempeñar un papel económico y social importante para la creación de empleo, sobre todo en las zonas áridas y saharianas que sufren la sequía, la desertificación y la emigración de los jóvenes que habitan en zonas rurales. En el marco la Declaración del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas invitando a las naciones del mundo a contribuir de manera prioritaria en la lucha contra la pobreza y la extrema pobreza, se inserta nuestra propuesta, para los sectores más desprovistos, de un turismo de salud como la clave para asociar la lucha contra la pobreza y el turismo sostenible, sin desvirtuar el patrimonio natural ni condenarlo a la desaparición. Nuestro artículo se inscribe asimismo en el marco de la Iniciativa Nacional para el Desarrollo Humano (INDH que sitúa el ciudadano como objetivo de las estrategias de desarrollo y factor prioritario del mismo.

  2. Mycosphere Essay 8: A review of genus Agaricus in tropical and humid subtropical regions of Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathna, Samantha Chandranath; Chen, J.; Mortimer, P.E.; Xu, J.C.; Zhao, R.L.; Callac, Philippe; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Agaricus includes both edible and poisonous species, with more than 400 species worldwide. This genus includes many species, which are enormously important as sources of food and medicine, such as the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and the almond mushroom (Agaricus subrufescens). This paper reviews the genus Agaricus in tropical and humid subtropical regions of Asia, including the history, characteristics, pertinent morphological and organoleptic taxonomic traits, molecular phy...

  3. Literatura contra desarraigo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé A. Perozo Ruiz.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reflexiones contenidas en Literatura contra desarraigo son una clara interpretación propia realizadas por Xosé A. Perozo. Nacidas del ejercicio literario constante y productivo nos acerca a conceptos actuales como el nacionalismo o la España de las Autonomías. Desde la lejanía, asistimos a la recuperación de la memoria social extremeña, que se trasluce en las novelas del autor son expuestas de manera biográfica en este artículo metaliterario, donde se detiene en la saga de Los Lancharro, o el personaje de Cerrato, ambientadas en la zona geográfica de la Campiña Sur de la Guerra Civil y posguerra.

  4. Biodegradation of lignin by Agaricus Bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The lignolytic activity of Agaricus bisporus will be addressed in this paper. Sound and fungally degraded lignins were characterized by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FnR) and elemental analysis. Fungally degraded lignins displayed increased wt%N, wt%H and wt%O content and decreased wt%C content The FTIR spectrum of decayed lignin showed an increase in the relative intensity of absorption bands assigned to carbonyl and carboxyl functional groups located on the aliphatic side chain and a decrease in absorption bands assigned to aromatic skeletal vibration modes. Semiquantitative Py-GC-MS revealed an 82% decrease in lignin derived pyrolysis products upon biodegradation. No significant increase in pyrolysis products with an oxygenated aliphatic side chain were detected in the fungally degraded lignin however shortening of the aliphatic side chain via cleavage at the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} positions was observed.

  5. Two new species in Agaricus tropical clade I

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Guinberteau, Jacques; Chen, Jie; Vellinga, Else C.; Zhao, Rui-lin; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Yan, Jiye; Hyde, Kevin D.; Callac, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    As part of our efforts of study the saprobic mushrooms in Asia we have collected numerous taxa of the genus Agaricus in northern Thailand. It is likely that more than 40 new species occur in this region and many are potentially edible or medicinal. A recent phylogenetic study revealed that most species of this region belong to exclusively tropical clades of which the largest one, TR I, was suspected to represent section Brunneopicti. In this paper we introduce two new species as Agaricus chia...

  6. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Canbek, Mediha; van Griensven, Leo J L D; Yamac, Mustafa; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazım; Oglakcı, Aysegul; Turgak, Ozge; Kanbak, Gungor

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100 mg per kg body weight per day for 7 d after the onset of the disease. The caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity of the liver tissues of sacrificed rats, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were determined. In addition, light and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies were performed for histopathological and cytological evaluations on liver sections. PSs from A. brasiliensis decreased ALT level and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the outer membrane integrity; microscopic examinations also revealed normal hepatocytes and tissue. On the basis of our data, it can be argued that crude PSs from Agaricus brasiliensis have therapeutic potential for alcoholic liver injury.

  7. Antitumor Activity of Exopolysaccharide of Agaricus blazei on S-180 Grafted in Mice%姬松茸胞外多糖抗肿瘤活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范雷法; 潘慧娟; Soccol CR; Pamdey A

    2004-01-01

    通过深层发酵培养姬松茸菌丝体,滤取菌丝体后获得菌丝体培养液,经沉淀离心收集其胞外粗多糖,再用蒸馏水溶解,取可溶性部分.对接种S-180的小白鼠24h后腹腔注射给药,连续10d,剂量为10 mg/kg·d.5周后剥取瘤块,与对照组比较瘤重.结果发现,姬松茸深层发酵生产的胞外多糖对小鼠接种的腹水瘤S-180有较强的抗性,肿瘤抑制率达到44.53%,完全抑制率达到50%.

  8. La violencia contra las mujeres

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Gómez, Alicia; Escrig Gil, Gemma; Forcada Martínez, Águeda

    2010-01-01

    Las mujeres con diversidad funcional en la agenda jurídico política española: la Ley estatal contra la violencia de género y sus nuevos desafíos,SOLEDAD ARNAU RIPOLLÉS. La violencia contra las mujeres. El estado de la cuestión: Una cuestión de estado. “La violencia en el ámbito laboral”, ENCARNA BARRAGÁN BRITO. El problema de la rehabilitación de los maltratadores, ESPERANZA BOSCH FIOL. La violencia política, LEONORA CASTAÑO CANO. La violencia psicológica, ...

  9. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  10. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  11. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; Kersten, M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to in

  12. Radiation protection effect by the combination of propolis and agaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Yamada, Katsunori; Ukawa, Yuuichi [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    The aims of the radioprotection are a human and the safety keeping of the environment. The leukocyte that much research is to do in the animals, and relations between the lymphocyte and the radiation are being made distinct until now. It paid attention to it in this determination stage, and lymphocyte toward the radiation was observed by using the ICR mice used for the lymphocyte simulation abundantly in this research. And, it was examined about the fetal effect toward the radiation. So, an excuse as a radioprotective agent of the effect on the fetus toward the radiation was examined experimentally by using the propolis and agaricus by this research. Therefore, it is a purpose to obtain information as a medicament of the radioprotection. ICR mice were used for the experiment. The pregnant mice were placed in plastic cages for radiation exposure, and were treated with a single whole-body X -radiation at 1 Gy and 2Gy with a dose rate of 35 cGy/min on 8 days after the conception. 100 mg/kg of propolis and agaricus. The total number of irradiated dams observed in this study was 40, a total of 38 non-irradiated control and sham control dams was also prepared, and 659 non-irradiated live fetuses served as controls. Statistical significant difference was recognized between the lymphocyte of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + propolis and agaricus extracts of water solution administrated group toward the lymphocyte and embryonic death of control group and sham control group (p<0.01). But, when it was compared with the lymphocyte and embryonic death rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group, the lymphocyte rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group was decrease. And, if propolis and agaricus was administered, the embryo beyond the haploid number that did implantation was found out in the exposure beyond 1.0Gy or 2.0Gy.

  13. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay.

  14. Physiologic response of Agaricus subrufescens using different casing materials and practices applied in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Zied, Diego Cunha; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2013-01-01

    Casing materials and practices used in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus were evaluated in the cultivation of Agaricus subrufescens, using the best techniques for optimization of production, including the possibility of re-casing of the compost for the production of a second crop of mushroom. Casing based on peat moss, loam soil or coir was compared to casing material mixed with or without spawn-run compost. Based on the results, we conclude that the casing layer used in the cultivation of A. subrufescens should not necessarily be the same as that used in the cultivation of A. bisporus. For the tested strain cultivated with loam soil as casing layer, the ruffling technique is highly superior to CACing and should be pursued in further research. The re-casing of compost in new cycles showed good results suggesting that the currently used compost could be improved.

  15. Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus as functional foods Hongos del género Agaricus como alimentos funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine; R. Vinhal da Costa; M.ª R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functional foods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasi...

  16. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  17. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Foulongne-Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG, and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens.

  18. Violencia intrafamiliar contra las mujeres

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2012-01-01

    El presente texto pretende abordar el tema de violencia en contra de las mujeres desde la perspectiva familiar, es decir la violencia intrafamiliar o también llamada doméstica, entendida y afirmada desde la Corte Constitucional, como aquella violencia que causa daño o maltrato físico, psíquico o sexual, trato cruel, intimidatorio o degradante, amenaza, agravio, ofensa o cualquier otra forma de agresión, producida entre miembros de una familia, llámese cónyuge o compañero permanente, padre o m...

  19. A violencia contra a muller

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Calvo, María Sol

    2013-01-01

    Grao en Medicina Esta unidade didáctica denominada “Violencia contra a muller”, está incluída no bloque de “Clínica forense” da materia “Medicina legal”, que se imparte no segundo semestre do 5º curso do Grao en Medicina. Esta materia é froito da interrelación entre a Medicina e o Dereito nun dobre sentido: o primeiro refírese á aplicación dos coñecementos médicos para resolver cuestións xudiciais (Medicina legal propiamente dita). O segundo ocúpase da regulación xurídica da práctica médic...

  20. Biological Control of Olive Green Mold in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautorus, T E; Townsley, P M

    1983-02-01

    Successful methods to control the damaging weed mold Chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. An attempt was made to control C. olivaceum by biological means. A thermophilic Bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against C. olivaceum on Trypticase soy agar (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase I). When inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus not only provided a significant degree of protection from C. olivaceum, but also increased yields of Agaricus bisporus.

  1. Violencia contra inmigrantes en Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara-Palacios

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Violence against immigrants in TamaulipasMigrants in Mexico are subjected to extortions, kidnappings, rapes and killings. Tamaulipas, a state situated in the northeast of Mexico, has registered an unprecedented level of violence against migrants. In August of 2010, 72 migrants were massacred in San Fernando (Tamaulipas and in April of 2011, 194 corpses of migrants were found in the same place. Furthermore, since 2009, rural communities in central Tamaulipas, which receive more than five thousand migrants a year to work in harvesting oranges, have suffered violent attacks targeting immigrants. This paper, based on a qualitative methodology that includes in-depth interviews with 60 immigrants conducted between April 2011 and November 2011, examines the forms of cultural, direct, structural and post-structural violence suffered by immigrant workers employed in the orange sector of Tamaulipas.Resumen:Los migrantes en México son objeto de extorsiones, secuestros, violaciones y asesinatos. Tamaulipas, un estado situado en el noreste de México, ha registrado niveles sin precedentes de violencia contra los migrantes. En Agosto de 2010 72 migrantes fueron masacrados en San Fernando (Tamaulipas, y en Abril de 2011 194 cadáveres de migrantes fueron encontrados en el mismo lugar. Asimismo, las comunidades rurales del centro de Tamaulipas, que reciben anualmente más de 5 mil migrantes para trabajar en la pizca de la naranja, han sufrido desde el año 2009 violentos ataques dirigidos contra los migrantes. Este artículo, basado en una metodología cualitativa que incluye entrevistas en profundidad con 60 migrantes realizadas entre Abril y Noviembre de 2011, examina las formas de violencia cultural, directa, estructural y postestructural sufrida por los trabajadores migratorios empleados en el sector citrícola de Tamaulipas.

  2. The effects of Agaricus sylvaticus fungi dietary supplementation on the metabolism and blood pressure of patients with colorectal cancer during post surgical phase Efectos de la suplementación dietética con hongos Agaricus sylvaticus en el metabolismo y la presión arterial en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal en la fase postoperatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Costa Fortes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic, biochemical and enzymatic alterations are common in patients with cancer. Medicinal fungi has been used as adjuvants in cancer therapy due to its immunomodulatory and nutritional effects. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic and blood pressure effects on patients with colorectal cancer after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Methods: The methodology used was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at the Base Hospital of the Federal District-Brazil. Samples of 56 patients with colorectal cancer, divided into two groups: Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/day and placebo. Three serum evaluations were conducted throughout the treatment: glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase; total, direct and indirect bilirubin; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase; immunoglobulins A (IgA, G (IgG and M (IgM; total proteins and protein fractions; blood pressure levels were measured as well. The results were analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 14.0 programs, Student's t test, F statistical test, with p Introducción: Las alteraciones en los parámetros bioquímicos enzimáticos son comunes en pacientes con cáncer. El hongo medicinales se ha utilizado como coadyuvante para el tratamiento contra el cáncer debido a sus sustancias imunomoduladoras. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el metabolismo y la presión arterial de los pacientes con cáncer colorrectal después suplementación dietética con hongo Agaricus sylvaticus. Métodos: La metodología utilizada fue un ensayo clínico clínico, aleatorizado, ciego, placebo-controlado desarrollado en el Hospital de Base del Distrito Federal-Brasil. Una muestra de 56 pacientes con cáncer colorrectal separados en dos grupos: Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/ día y placebo. Tres evaluaciones de glucosa sérica, coles-terol total

  3. Violencia contra las mujeres y alguien mas...

    OpenAIRE

    Piatti, Mª de Lujan

    2013-01-01

    La violencia contra las mujeres es una clara vulneración a sus derechos humanos. Es una violencia ejercida contra ellas por el solo hecho de ser mujeres; no se trata de casos aislados, sino que constituye un fenómeno social, presente en la sociedad actual sin distinción de razas, lugar geográfico, nivel cultural, religión, sistema político o económico. Investigar sobre “La violencia contra las mujeres y alguien más…”, desde una mirada multidisciplinar, significa bucear en las profundidades de...

  4. Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus as functional foods Hongos del género Agaricus como alimentos funcionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functional foods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasize the toxicity characteristics and safety for its use in therapy or in human nutrition. These mushrooms exhibit numerous bioactive substances as well as safety regarding toxicity, which characterize them as functional foods. Despite the countless beneficial effects on human health, mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are little known by the population, making it necessary partnership and combined efforts among producers, industries and researchers in order to disseminate, research and consumption of these foods.Hongos del género Agaricus son conocidos por sus propiedades farmacológicas y culinarias. En este estudio, se realizó una revisión crítica de la literatura, centrándose principalmente en los aspectos de la composición química de estos hongos, cuyas propiedades farmacológicas y composición nutricional caracterizarlos como alimentos funcionales. También se discutió artículos realizados in vitro e in vivo demostrando el potencial antioxidante de alta de la familia Agaricaceae, además de los artículos que hacen hincapié en las características de toxicidad y seguridad para su uso en terapia o en la nutrición humana. Estos hongos presentan numerosas sustancias bioactivas, así como la seguridad en relación con la toxicidad, lo que les caracterizan como alimentos funcionales. A pesar de los innumerables efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud humana, las setas del género Agaricus son poco conocidos por la población, por lo que es colaboraci

  5. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of silver in wild Agaricus campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J.; Danisiewicz, D. [Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    1995-07-01

    Silver is an element naturally occurring in small concentrations in different environmental sites. However, many anthropogenic sources of silver led to contamination of this element in soil surfaces, pastures, and coastal marine areas in different parts of the world. Estimates are that 40% of the 1.15x10{sup 4}t of silver produced annually worldwide, will escape into the environment. Due to municipal waste discharge and/or industrial effluents with high silver concentrations, 100 x above the background level have been reported in invertebrate species from polluted marine areas. The meta-stabile radioisotope, {sup 110m}Ag, is a main component of the liquid effluents from nuclear facilities under normal operating conditions. The presence of {sup 111}Ag and {sup 110m}Ag also has been widely found throughout Europe in the 1986 Chernobyl fallout. Silver ions are environmentally harmful. High toxic effects have been observed at low concentrations, especially in aquatic species. Species of lower fungi as well as the mushroom Agaricus bisporus are know to bioaccumulate high concentrations of silver when grown on an artificially enriched substrate. This study looks at the relationship between the silver content of soil and bioconcentration potential of wild Agaricus campestris from sites under different use and with different concentrations of heavy metals. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. CIA and the Contras' cocaine connection

    OpenAIRE

    Kain, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The evidence shows that the government knew that the Contras’ decided to traffic cocaine to finance themselves. The government participated in the drug trafficking by not interrupting it. CIA ordered the Contras to traffic drugs. Traffickers were protected from prosecution and received government contract. The government knew and sanctioned the drug trafficking into the US to support the Contras. The White House urged lenience for at least one convicted trafficker and terrorist.

  7. Vacuna contra el VPH (HPV Vaccine)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-25

    Desde el 2006, hay una vacuna que protege contra los tipos de VPH que causan cáncer con mayor frecuencia. Este podcast habla sobre la importancia de que los padres hablen con los proveedores de atención médica de sus hijos sobre ponerles la vacuna contra el VPH.  Created: 7/25/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/4/2013.

  8. Violencia intrafamiliar contra las mujeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto pretende abordar el tema de violencia en contra de las mujeres desde la perspectiva familiar, es decir la violencia intrafamiliar o también llamada doméstica, entendida y afirmada desde la Corte Constitucional, como aquella violencia que causa daño o maltrato físico, psíquico o sexual, trato cruel, intimidatorio o degradante, amenaza, agravio, ofensa o cualquier otra forma de agresión, producida entre miembros de una familia, llámese cónyuge o compañero permanente, padre o madre, aunque no convivan bajo el mismo techo, ascendientes o descendientes de estos incluyendo hijos adoptivos, y en general todas las personas que de manera permanente se hallaren integrados a la unidad doméstica. Junto a ello el documento explicará de qué forma afecta esta particular clase de violencia a las mujeres, los abusos y malos tratos que la materializan, y las medidas adoptadas por el Estado Colombiano para enfrentar sus consecuencias, y por último la presentación de los conceptos que maneja la Corte Constitucional en la interpretación de dicho fenómeno.

  9. La Ciudad Contra el Campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Ocampo Hernán

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available La Colombia colonial regida por virreyes, alcabaleros y frailes, fundó su economía en escasas faenas pastoriles que eran más pasatiempo de nuestros abuelos que correría económica, y en el laboreo de las minas, donde la carne de los negros inflaba las arcas de los chapetones y acrecentaba el afán imperialista de España. Contra los pilones de las rocas hostiles trabajaba una recua importada, que nunca supo de la vida cristiana y cuyo sudor recogían tres o cuatro ciudades antipáticas, encaprichadas en aclimatar las costumbres hispánicas y en gozar de los lujos y prebendas propios de una nación crecida. Hispánicas, fafaracheras y endomingadas nuestras pequeñas ciudades, aparecían en un todo divorciadas de la índole misma del pueblo, de la textura de la Colombia tropical. En esta forma fuimos preparando una línea divisoria entre la ciudad y el campo. Las ciudades progresan, se fundan nuevos pueblos, la conquista se realiza abriendo la selva para plantar moradas y clavar iglesias, mientras que en el campo reina la misma e irremediable soledad. Continúa así la lucha entre la ciudad y el campo, en la cual la primera resulta siempre triunfadora. Toda la riqueza rural está garantizando el progreso y embellecimiento de nuestras urbes, Así la despoblación de los campos no es un hecho tolerado por el país, sino preparado por éste. El traslado patrimonial del campo a la ciudad ha permitido que las clases urbanas se organicen.

  10. Effects of catalysts on liquefaction of Agaricus versicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical liquefaction process is used for producing energy from biomass. The common reaction conditions for supercritical liquefaction process are the 240-380 °C temperature range and 5-20 Mpa pressure values range. Agaricus versicolor (L.) was liquefied by acetone in an autoclave (75 mL) under high pressure with (aluminium oxide and calcium hydroxide) and without catalyst at 290 °C for producing bio-oil. The products of liquefaction (bio-oil) were analysed and characterized using various methods including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-MS identified 27 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 290 °C.

  11. Against inequality Contra la desigualdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugger William

    1998-12-01

    es impracticable porque el Estado siempre actua, aún cuando siga políticas económicas no intervencionistas. En contra del simplismo de quienes defienden la disyunción 'Estado o mercado'. En cuanto a la desigualdad, resume así el problema central de nuestra época: ¿Cuánta desigualdad creará y permitirá el Estado para preservar la estructura de mercado?

  12. Continuos g-contraíbles

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    Michael A. Rincón-Villamizar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diremos que un continuo X es g-contraíble si existe una función continua y sobreyectiva f : X → X que es homotópica a una función constante. En este artículo hacemos una recopilación de los resultados conocidos acerca de los continuos g-contraíbles. Mostraremos que existe un continuo que no es g-contraíble tal que el producto numerable de él con sí mismo sí lo es.Con esto damos respuesta negativa a un caso particular de la Pregunta 3.2 que propusimos en el artículo “On g-contractibility of continua” [3].

  13. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil El valor nutritivo de Agaricus Sylvaticus: setas cultivadas en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus, known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi.En la caracterización bromatológica del género Agaricus sylvaticus (A. sylvaticus, conocido como la seta del sol y cultivado en Brasil, es necesario determinar las sustancias con potencial farmacológico y nutritivo con el objetivo de un uso seguro en la alimentación y la medicina humana. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición química de la seta A. sylvaticus cultivada en Brasil. Se obtuvieron las setas en su forma deshidratada de un cultivador del estado de Minas Gerais. A través de este estudio pudimos observar la rica composición química del hongo, destacando la variedad y cantidad de minerales así como su alto contenido en proteínas. Esta seta contiene muchos componentes con propiedades medicinales, que se sabe que son excelentes antioxidantes. Los resultados también muestran que la composición de A. sylvaticus mostraba diferencias al compararla con la composición química de otros hongos de la familia Agaricaceae.

  14. Contra pürib sajandi rahvakirjanikuks / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2001-01-01

    Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Suusamütsi tutt : luulet aastatest 1974-2000. Urvaste ; Tartu : Mina Ise, 2001. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 184-185, pealkirjaga "Contra - uue sajandi rahvakirjanik?"

  15. Ave sol contra excrementum : Kiri / Harri Tibar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tibar, Harri

    1996-01-01

    Peeter Sauteri novell 'Kõhuvalu'. Vastukaja : Bogovski, Paul. Surun kätt, dotsent hr. Tibar! // Sõnumileht. - 1996. - 24. apr. - Lk.14; Väljataga, Märt. Viisipärasus contra inimlähedus // Sõnumileht. - 1996. - 26. apr. - Lk.14

  16. The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon) and some environmental and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as button mushroom, requires the use of substrates for its cultivation, such as chicken and/or horse manure and the application of manufacturing steps, such as storage and composting that produce odours. The odours may cause disturbance to people living near the plant and may be a problem for workers. This article examines some measures that can be taken to reduce the odorous emissions during the production of Agaricus bisporus. The possibility of recovery of some organic matter left from the cultivation is examined. Finally, some occupational hazards for workers are highlighted.

  17. Production of recombinant Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzi, Chiara; Bleve, Gianluca; Spagnolo, Stefano; Perrotta, Carla; Grieco, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase is able to oxidize various phenolic compounds, thus being an enzyme of great importance for a number of biotechnological applications. The tyrosinase-coding PPO2 gene was isolated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using total RNA extracted from the mushroom fruit bodies as template. The gene was sequenced and cloned into pYES2 plasmid, and the resulting pY-PPO2 recombinant vector was then used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by enzymatic activity staining with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) indicated that the recombinant tyrosinase is biologically active. The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed and biochemically characterized, showing that the catalytic constants of the recombinant tyrosinase were higher than those obtained when a commercial tyrosinase was used, for all the tested substrates. The present study describes the recombinant production of A. bisporus tyrosinase in active form. The produced enzyme has similar properties to the one produced in the native A. bisporus host, and its expression in S. cerevisiae provides good potential for protein engineering and functional studies of this important enzyme.

  18. Agaricus bisporus attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Min Young; Park, Jae Ho; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom, WBM) is widely consumed in most countries and is reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known regarding its effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which are related to dysfunction of intestinal immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBMs in an animal model of DSS-induced colitis. Male, 4-week-old ICR mice (n=10 per group) were fed a normal diet with or without 10% WBM for 4 weeks, and colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. WBMs prevented DSS-induced shortening of colon length (P=.033) and diminished diarrhea (P=.049) and gross bleeding (P=.001), resulting in a decreased disease activity index. Results of histological analysis showed that WBMs suppressed mucosal damage. In addition, WBMs attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity (P=.012) and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (P=.020) in the colon segment. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role for the WBM as an immunomodulator that can prevent and/or treat ulcerative colitis.

  19. Extraction optimization and bioactivity of exopolysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong; Mao, Jian; Meng, Xiangyong

    2013-02-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of EPS produced by Agaricus bisporus MJ-0811 in submerged culture. The optimal levels for ethanol concentration (85%, v/v), pH (8) and precipitation time (22 h) were determined, and EPS production was estimated at 2.71 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 2.69 g/L. In addition, the antioxidant activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its effects on body weights and blood glucose of diabetic mice. The study suggests that EPS has beneficial antioxidant activities (hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, superoxide radical-scavenging activities) in vitro, anti-diabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic mice. The EPS from A. bisporus may be a novel resource of natural antioxidants and anti-diabetic agents for use in the functional food or medicine.

  20. Absence of induced resistance in Agaricus bisporus against Lecanicillium fungicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Roeland L; Schrier, Niek; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Lugones, Luis G; Baars, Johan J P; Zijlstra, Carolien; de Weerdt, Marjanne; Wösten, Han A B; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2013-03-01

    Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease and is an important problem in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. Little is known about the defense of mushrooms against pathogens in general and L. fungicola in particular. In plants and animals, a first attack by a pathogen often induces a systemic response that results in an acquired resistance to subsequent attacks by the same pathogen. The development of functionally similar responses in these two eukaryotic kingdoms indicates that they are important to all multi-cellular organisms. We investigated if such responses also occur in the interaction between the white button mushroom and L. fungicola. A first infection of mushrooms of the commercial A. bisporus strain Sylvan A15 by L. fungicola did not induce systemic resistance against a subsequent infection. Similar results were obtained with the A. bisporus strain MES01497, which was demonstrated to be more resistant to dry bubble disease. Apparently, fruiting bodies of A. bisporus do not express induced resistance against L. fungicola.

  1. Nutritional values of different strains of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional values and chemical composition of different strains of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus were studied. The study covered four strains cultivated in Poland: OCNOS-1, Somycel-11 , Somycel-92, and Somycel-653. The samples were analyzed for dry matter, vitamin C, nitrates, nitrites, total nitrogen and crude protein (N × 4.38, amino acid composition, soluble carbohydrates composition, and minerals content. Besides, whiteness values were determined by Hunter's method. All determinations were made on two of fruit-bodies of two sizes: 25-40 mm in pileus diameter (small and 40-50 mm in pileus diameter (large. A significantly higher dry matter content was found in strain 1 in comparison with strain 92. The lowest value of total nitrogen was detected for strain 92 and the highest for strain 653. From among the four analyzed strains, strain 92 contained the highest amount of essential amino acids. Trehalose content was significantly lower in strain 11 in comparison with other strains both in small and large fruit-body.

  2. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON THE AGARICUS BISPORUS MUSHROOMS DEHYDRATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA I. MIHALCEA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms are foods with high nutritional value, delicious and therapeutic products. The main objective of this research was to investigate the influence of different temperatures of the dehydration process on the microstructure and color of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Tray drying conditions were: constant air velocity, 50, 60 and 70 °C suited to relative humidity (RH values of 12.17, 4.8 and 2.26 % respectively. Mathematical modeling of drying process, effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy calculations were presented. The effective moisture diffusivity was between (1.09665 – 2.11723·10-10 m2∙s-1 for white and (0.99522 – 1.69885·10-10 m2∙s-1 for brown mushrooms. The activation energy values indicate a higher energy input for the white mushrooms drying. SEM micrographs revealed the overall integrity of the tissue and some hyphae from the stipes of brown and white mushroom appeared intact and similar. At 70 °C, the presence of these crystals is more emphasis due to calcium.

  3. Tyrosinase activity and isoform composition in separate tissues during development of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.; Wichers, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    During growth of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies the amount of active tyrosinase increased. The amount of active tyrosinase can be related to the degree of browning, as opposed to the fully activated tyrosinase level. Isoelectric focusing revealed that active and latent tyrosinase isoforms having dif

  4. Peculiarities of agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach strains obtained under the. gamma. -ray effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanek, M.; Dudka, Yi.O.; Byis' ko, N.A.; Vasser, S.P.; Srv, A.; Kolesnichenko, L.P.; Yablons' kij, Yi. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Novy Hradek. Mikrobiologicky Ustav; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Botaniki)

    A technique of irradiation of Agaricus bisporus (J.Lge) Imbach strains by gamma-rays is described, characteristics of strains, received during irradiation are given (productivity, protein content). The efficiency of gamma-ray usage in A bisporus selection is considered.

  5. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...

  6. Transformation of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) using T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T.S.P.; Lavrijssen, B.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is known to transfer parts of its tumour-inducing plasmid, the T-DNA, to plants, yeasts and filamentous fungi. We have used this system to transform germinating basidiospores and vegetative mycelium of a commercial strain of the cultivated basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. A

  7. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Himanshu Karaiya; Kumari Amrita; Swapnil Tiwari; Vishakha Dubey; C. Ramalingam

    2013-01-01

    Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporu...

  8. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Aurin M; Heijboer, Amber; Boschker, Henricus T S; Bonnet, Barbara; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2017-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol N-acetylglucosamine g(-1) compost in the absence of A. bisporus (negative control). A similar increase was found in the presence of this mushroom forming fungus. The fungal phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) marker C18:2ω6, indicative of the living fraction of the fungal biomass, decreased from 575 to 280 nmol g(-1) compost in the negative control. In contrast, it increased to 1200 nmol g(-1) compost in the presence of A. bisporus. Laccase activity was absent throughout culturing in the negative control, while it correlated with the fungal PLFA marker in the presence of A. bisporus. PLFA was also used to quantify living bacterial biomass. In the negative control, the bacterial markers remained constant at 3000-3200 nmol PLFA g(-1) compost. In contrast, they decreased to 850 nmol g(-1) compost during vegetative growth of A. bisporus, implying that bacterial biomass decreased from 17.7 to 4.7 mg g(-1) compost. The relative amount of the Gram positive associated PLFA markers a15:0 and a17:0 and the Gram negative PLFA associated markers cy17:0 and cy19:0 increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting that Gram negative bacteria are more suppressed by A. bisporus. Together, these data indicate that fungal biomass can make up 6.8% of the compost after A. bisporus colonization, 57% of which being dead. Moreover, results show that A. bisporus impacts biomass and composition of bacteria in compost.

  9. Bsn-t Alleles from French Field Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Callac, Philippe; Hocquart, Sophie; Imbernon, Micheline; Desmerger, Christophe; Olivier, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    In the Agaricus bisporus desert population in California, the dominant Bsn-t allele determines the production of tetrasporic basidia and homokaryotic spores (n) that characterize a heterothallic life cycle. Strains belonging to a French population have the Bsn-b/b genotype that results in bisporic basidia that produce heterokaryotic spores (n + n) which characterize a pseudohomothallic life cycle. More recombination occurs in the tetrasporic population than in the bisporic population. In Fran...

  10. Seguridad contra incendios en edificios con atrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faller, George

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Atria are commonly used in the design of buildings to improve the environment of the space. Nevertheless the current Spanish codes do not address the fire safety concerns associated with this type of building. A new draft code, the "Código Técnico de la Edificación .. (CTE, proposes a series of measures to address the issue of fire safety in atria, based on the approach adopted by the British atrium codeo. In order to simplify the application of the measures, buildings are classified according to use and appropriate measures are presented in a tabulated format. As could be expected from such an approach, the simplification of the pro cess imposes limits on design flexibility, and given a set of prescribed solutions, the designer would often not be able to achieve the ideal building form. This article discusses the limits of a prescriptive approach to fire safety in buildings with atria , and describes an alternative approach based on fire engineering principles that offers the architect more design flexibilty .Cada vez se utilizan más atrios para mejorar el ambiente dentro de los edificios. Sin embargo, las normativas actualmente vigentes en España no ofrecen soluciones para abordar los riesgos -en caso de incendio- en este tipo de edificios. El borrador del nuevo Código Técnico de la Edificación (CTE plantea una serie de medidas de seguridad contra incendios en atrios, basada en el planteamiento seguido en por las normas británicas. Para simplificar la aplicación de dichas medidas, se fijan algunas características del edificio y se ofrecen soluciones basadas en medidas obtenidas de una tabla . Como es era de esperar con este tipo de planteamiento, la facilidad de aplicación va en detrimento de la flexibilidad, y resulta que con las soluciones prescritas el diseñador no puede conseguir la forma deseada en el edificio. Este artículo trata de ilustrar las restricciones que conllevan un planteamiento prescriptivo para la seguridad

  11. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjosheva Melania

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species.

  12. Futuro de las vacunas contra hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de la Hoz Restrepo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Las hepatitis virales representan una de las amenazas más importantes para la salud del hombre. Más de 350 millones de personas son portadoras del virus de la hepatitis B (VHB y más de 900 millones han sido infectados alrededor del mundo. En este momento se cuenta con una vacuna recombinante segura y efectiva contra este virus, la cual es producida en células de levadura y contiene el antígeno de superficie del VHB como inmunogeno. En Colombia han recibido la vacuna mas de 5 millones de personas, especialmente menores de 15 años, mientras que en el mundo llega a más de 500 millones de personas. Muchos han sido los países donde la introducción de la vacuna ha llevado a una dramática reducción de los niveles de endemicidad de VHB y entre ellos pueden contarse algunas zonas endémicas de nuestro país. En esos sitios se ha constatado que la prevalencia de la infección y de portadores, se ha reducido en más de un 70% después de la introducción de la vacuna e incluso en Taiwán se ha demostrado ya, una reducción en la incidencia de carcinoma hepatocelular.

    Pese a estos éxitos, algunas características epidemiológicas de la hepatitis B como el alto número de portadores y la posibilidad de transmisión intrauterina, hacen pensar que la eliminación de la infección por VHB está lejos todavía. Adicionalmente hay una proporción de personas, que no desarrolla anticuerpos protectores contra el virus a pesar de recibir un esquema de vacunación adecuado. Debido a ello se ha avanzado en el diseño de vacunas contra VHB mejoradas en su capacidad inmunogénica, tales como vacunas que contienen combinaciones de antígeno de superficie (HBsAg y de otras dos proteínas de la envoltura, las pre S. Otra variación de la vacuna que está en desarrollo, es la incorporación de antígenos mutantes

  13. Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis (1→6)-β-D-glucans show immunostimulatory activity on human THP-1 derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Alquini, Giovana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Iacomini, Marcello; Wichers, Harry J; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2013-04-15

    The (1→6)-β-D-glucans from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis were purified to evaluate their effects on the innate immune system. THP-1 macrophages were used to investigate the induction of the expression of TNF-α, IL1β, and COX-2 by RT-PCR. The purification of the polysaccharides gave rise to fractions containing 96-98% of glucose. The samples were analyzed by GC-MS, HPSEC and (13)C NMR, which confirmed the presence of homogeneous (1→6)-β-D-glucans. The β-glucans were incubated with THP-1 derived macrophages, for 3 h and 6 h to evaluate their effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Both β-glucans stimulated the expression of such genes as much as the pro-inflammatory control (LPS). When the cells were incubated with LPS+β-glucan, a significant inhibition of the expression of IL-1β and COX-2 was observed for both treatments after 3 h of incubation. By the results, we conclude that the (1→6)-β-D-glucans present an immunostimulatory activity when administered to THP-1 derived macrophages.

  14. Removal of phenol from industrial effluents using enzymatic extract from Agaricus bisporus; Remocao de fenol de efluentes industriais utilizando extrato enzimatico de Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, E.; Coelho, M.A.Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica]. E-mail: alice@eq.ufrj.br; Langone, M.A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: langonem@uerj.br

    2003-07-01

    Phenols are toxic pollutants found in several industrial wastes, mainly in oil industry. These substances impose several risks to human health. Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is a polyphenol oxidase found in several life forms, like in the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. In this fungal tissue, the enzyme is readily available leading to high activity extracts needing no extensive purification. The tyrosinase extract is able to modify phenols in non-soluble reaction products, proving its potential as a biocatalyst for applications involving biomodification of phenols or bioremediation of phenol-polluted water. The purpose of this work was to employ the crude extract from the Agaricus bisporus mushroom in the removal of phenol from a synthetic oil industry wastewater. The crude extract was used in enzymatic reactions employing aqueous phenol solutions without pH control. The initial phenol concentration in all substrate solutions was 100 mg/L and different enzymatic concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 U/mL were tested. Both reactions, with 200 U/mL and 400 U/mL enzymatic activity, lead to 90% of phenol removal. The treated and not treated samples toxicity were measured using Artemia salina (crustacean) and Brachydanio rerio (fish) bioassays. The final effluent shown to be less toxicity than the polluted water. (author)

  15. On Estonian Folk Culture: Pro et contra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Õunapuu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The year 2013 was designated the year of heritage in Estonia, with any kind of intangible and tangible heritage enjoying pride of place. Heritage was written and spoken about and revived in all kinds of ways and manners. The motto of the year was: There is no heritage without heir. Cultural heritage is a comprehensive concept. This article focuses, above all, on indigenous cultural heritage and, more precisely, its tangible (so-called object part. Was the Estonian peasant, 120 years back, with his gradually increasing self-confidence, proud or ashamed of his archaic household items? Rustic folk culture was highly viable at that time. In many places people still wore folk costumes – if not daily, then at least the older generation used to wear them to church. A great part of Estonians still lived as if in a museum. Actually, this reminded of the old times that people tried to put behind them, and sons were sent to school in town for a better and more civilised future. In the context of this article, the most important agency is peasants’ attitude towards tangible heritage – folk culture in the widest sense of the word. The appendix, Pro et contra, at the end of the article exemplifies this on the basis of different sources.

  16. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange. Imbach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span of fruiting body harvests.

  17. Primordia initiation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) strains on axenic casing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.; Fermor, T.R.; Lincoln, S.; Dobrovin-Pennington, A.; Evered, C.; Mead, A.; Li, R. [Hort Research International, Wellesbourne (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    The mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has a requirement for a 'casing layer' that has specific physical, chemical and microbiological properties which stimulate and promote the initiation of primordia. Some of these primordia then may develop further into sporophores, involving differentiation of tissue. Wild and commercial strains of A. bisporus were cultured in axenic and nonaxenic microcosms, using a rye grain substrate covered by a range of organic and inorganic casing materials. In axenic culture, A. bisporus (commercial strain A15) was capable of producing primordia and mature sporophores on charcoal (wood and activated), anthracite coal, lignite and zeolite, but not on bark, coir, peat, rockwool, silica or vermiculite.

  18. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta F. Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mold aeroallergens might explain severe food reactions to cross-reacting homologs mushroom proteins.

  19. Expression of the urease gene of Agaricus bisporus: a tool for studying fruit body formation and post-harvest development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, M.J.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Drift, van der C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Burton, K.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Camp, op den H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit body initials of Agaricus bisporus contain high levels of urea, which decrease in the following developmental stages until stage 4 (harvest) when urea levels increase again. At storage, the high urea content may affect the quality of the mushroom, i.e. by the formation of ammonia from urea thr

  20. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morin, E.; Kohler, A.; Baker, A.R.; Foulongne-Oriol, M.; Lombard, V.; Nagy, L.G.; Ohm, R.A.; Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Brun, A.; Aerts, A.L.; Bailey, A.M.; Billette, C.; Coutinho, P.M.; Deakin, G.; Doddapaneni, H.; Floudas, D.; Grimwood, J.; Hildén, K.; Kües, U.; LaButti, K.M.; Lapidus, A.; Lindquist, E.A.; Lucas, S.M.; Murat, C.; Riley, R.W.; Salamov, A.A.; Schmutz, J.; Subramanian, V.; Wösten, H.A.B.; Xu, J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Foster, G.D.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Cullen, D.; Vries, de R.P.; Lundell, T.; Hibbett, D.S.; Henrissat, B.; Burton, K.S.; Kerrigan, R.W.; Challen, M.P.; Grigorievf, I.V.; Martin, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibi

  1. Unraveling the mystery of commercial cultivation of Agaricus bisporus : plant biomass utilization and its effect on mushroom production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus, the white button mushroom, is economically the most important mushroom cultivated worldwide. Growth of A. bisporus needs a substrate produced by the composting of animal manure, wheat straw, gypsum, water and different additives. Therefore lignocellulose which is a complex mixture

  2. Extracts of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Phellinus linteus Induce Proapoptotic Effects in the Human Leukemia Cell Line K562

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shnyreva, A.V.; Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the effects of Agaricus bisporus and Phellinus linteus ethanol extracts on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cytokine release and apoptosis in the human leukemia cell line K562. In particular, we applied quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays to monitor alterations o

  3. First report of Syzygites megalocarpus (Mucorales) web mold on the commercial portabella button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach mushrooms are cultivated commercially under environmentally controlled conditions in several states within the US. They are the most important crop in Pennsylvania and an important high value crop in many other states. In August 2011 we first observed a mucoraceous m...

  4. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...

  5. The ornithine cycle enzyme arginase from Agaricus bisporus and its role in urea accumulation in fruit bodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, M.J.M.; Welboren, W.; Drift, C. van der; Jetten, M.S.M.; Griensven, L.J.L.D. van; Camp, H.J.M. op den

    2005-01-01

    An extensive survey of higher fungi revealed that members of the family Agaricaceae, including Agaricus bisporus, accumulate substantial amounts of urea in their fruit bodies. An important role of the ornithine cycle enzymes in urea accumulation has been proposed. In this work, we present the clonin

  6. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenejad, F; Yakhchali, B; Rasooli, I

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms such as Agaricus bisporus, are cultivated for food worldwide. Fruit body initiation in Agaricus bisporus is a phase change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage which depends on the presence of a casing layer with particular physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The phase change is achieved practically by environmental manipulation and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria such as Pseuodomonas putida. In this study, 274 individual bacterial isolates were collected by screening the casing layer of 14 edible mushroom farms. The isolates were analysed with respect to biochemical properties, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore and growth in the presence of volatile compound of 1-octen-3-ol. It was found that approximately 97% of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 36% were able to solubilize phosphorus. Among the isolates, 23 strains were selected as potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) for inoculation of the casing layer. Field experiments using these strains showed various promoting effects on production of mushroom. Finally, 2 strains (strains Bt4 and Ps7) showing the highest increase in A. bisporus production, were characterized as Pseuodomonas putida by molecular methods and identified as the best suited growth promoting inoculants for application in production farms for increasing the mushroom yield.

  7. Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer 1 Based Characterization of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Kim, Dae Wook; Oh, Youn-Lee; Hyun, Min Woo; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-12-01

    Breeding the button mushroom requires genetic information about its strains. This study was undertaken to genetically characterize four domestically bred button mushroom strains (Saea, Saejung, Saedo, Saeyeon cultivars) and to assess the possibility of using the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region of rDNA as a genetically variable region in the genetic characterization. For the experiment, 34 strains of Agaricus bisporus, two strains of A. bitorquis, and one strain of A. silvaticus, from 17 countries were used. Nucleotide sequence analysis of IGS1 rDNA in these 37 Agaricus strains confirmed that genetic variations exist, not only among the four domestic strains, but also between the four domestic strains and foreign strains. Crossing two different haploid strains of A. bisporus seems to generate genetic variation in the IGS1 region in their off-spring haploid strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the IGS1 sequence revealed all A. bisporus strains could be differentiated from A. silvaticus and A. bitorquis strains. Five genetic groups were resolved among A. bisporus strains. Saejung and Saeyeon cultivars formed a separate genetic group. Our results suggest that IGS1 could be complementarily applied in the polymorphism analysis of button mushroom.

  8. Vacunas contra el virus dengue: desarrollo histórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aguilar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre del Dengue (FD y la Fiebre Hemorrágica del Dengue (FHD han emergido como la principal enfermedad viral transmitida por artrópodos que afecta al hombre. Las características de la enfermedad, la ausencia de drogas antivirales contra la misma, el incremento en el número de enfermos, de países afectados y la dificultad para el control del vector han convertido el desarrollo de vacunas contra el dengue en una prioridad para la salud pública mundial. Los intentos para lograr este objetivo datan de mediados del siglo pasado para lo cual han sido exploradas diferentes estrategias. A pesar de los avances realizados al respecto mucho queda por aclarar y definir para disponer de un inmunógeno contra el virus.

  9. La violencia contra la mujer en la prensa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Encarnación Pérez Salicio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen de la tesis doctoral "La violencia sobre la mujer y su tratamiento en la prensa vasca", que analiza los textos sobre violencia contra la mujer aparecidos en la prensa vasca durante los años 1995, 1996 y 1997 y que viene a demostrar que existe en la prensa, al igual que en el resto de la sociedad, una forma de entender las relaciones de género que permite entender y justificar la violencia contra la mujer.

  10. Bibliografía: violencias contra las mujeres

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Vásquez, Lya Yaneth

    2001-01-01

    La violencia contra las mujeres, en sus diferentes manifestaciones, pero en particular la violencia intrafamiliar o doméstica y la violencia sexual, constituyen hoy en día en Colombia y en el mundo "cuestiones" de interés público. En efecto, en los años 90 estos tipos de agresión contra las mujeres se colocaron en las agendas tanto internacionales, como nacionales. La campaña de los diferentes organismos de las Naciones Unidas: Una vida sin violencia, un derecho nuestro, lanzada en 1998 para ...

  11. Mecanismo da contração muscular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam uma síntese dos conceitos atuais sôbre o mecanismo da contração muscular. Inicialmente estabelecem o conceito de membrana polarizada e despolarizada. Salientam a importância da substância contrátil (actomiosina e da energia fornecida pelo ácido adenosintrifosfórico. São discutidas também as reações químicas que se processam para a formação dessas substâncias, bem como o papel da mioglobina na contração muscular.

  12. Las Violencias contra las Mujeres en una Sociedad en Guerra

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Gómez, Olga Amparo

    2008-01-01

    Las violencias contra las mujeres exceden los acontecimientos violentos, y abarcan su producción y reproducción como fenómeno social y discursivo. Los hechos violentos y los discursos sobre la violencia aparecen entrelazados, especialmente si se piensa en papel que juega la cultura patriarcal en el desarrollo, perpetuación y validación de las violencias contra las mujeres. “A las mujeres nos violan, nos asaltan y nos golpean, nos ultrajan, nos humillan, nos deshumanizan, nos manosean, nos ase...

  13. Alterações gastrointestinais em pacientes com câncer colorretal em ensaio clínico com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Gastrointestinal alterations in patients with colorectal cancer on clinical trial supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Fortes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fungos medicinais podem normalizar a função intestinal, aumentar o apetite e reduzir os efeitos adversos do tratamento convencional do câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória após suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus. METODOLOGIA: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. Amostra constituída de 56 pacientes (24 homens e 32 mulheres, estádios I, II e III, seguindo determinados critérios de inclusão e exclusão, separados em grupos placebo e Agaricus sylvaticus (30mg/kg/dia e acompanhados por um período de seis meses. Para avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais foram utilizados um formulário-padrão e uma anamnese dirigida-padrão. O método de análise dos resultados foi qualitativo e descritivo, utilizando os programas Microsoft Excel 2003 e Epi Info 2004 para Windows, versão 3.3.2. RESULTADOS: Após seis meses de tratamento, observou-se, no grupo Agaricus sylvaticus, aumento do apetite e redução da constipação, diarréia, diarréia alternada com constipação, flatulência, retenção de flatos, pirose, plenitude pós-prandial, náuseas, distensão e dor abdominais, fatos não observados no grupo placebo. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus é capaz de melhorar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes no pós-operatório de câncer colorretal, promovendo melhoria na qualidade de vida desses pacientes.INTRODUCTION: Medicinal fungus may normalize intestinal function, increase appetite and reduce adverse effects caused by conventional cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gastrointestinal alterations of patients with colorectal cancer in post-operative phase after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus. METHODOLOGY: Randomized, double-blind, placebo

  14. Effect of cultivation practices on the β-glucan content of Agaricus subrufescens basidiocarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Pardo González, Jose Emilio; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Carvalho, Maiara Andrade; Minhoni, Marli Teixeira de Almeida

    2014-01-08

    The present work aimed to assess the effect of the following treatments on the medicinal potential (β-glucan content) and agronomical performance (yield) of Agaricus subrufescens: five different fungal strains, three cultivation substrates (compost), four casing layers, and four cultivation environments. Two experiments were performed, and the results indicate that the greatest contribution to the variation in β-glucan content was the strain (35.8%), followed by the casing layer (34.5%), the cultivation environment (15.7%), and the type of compost (9.9%). On the other hand the variation in yield was affected most by the cultivation environment (82.1%), followed by the strain (81.3%), casing layer (49.1%), and compost type (15.2%). These findings underscore the importance of developing a production protocol that employs specific cultivation practices for improving mushroom yield as well as β-glucan content.

  15. Effect of storage conditions on the quality of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of quality factors were studied during storage of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus at 2°C in controlled atmospheres. A concentration of 15% CO2 and 1.5-2% O2 and an atmosphere with a continuous flow of nitrogen retarded cap expansion and stipe elongation, while 10% CO2 retarded only cap expansion. Controlled atmospheres suppressed the growth of some microorganisms. The toughness of mushrooms stored in a normal atmosphere at 2°C markedly decreased during storage, while 10% CO2 and nitrogen atmosphere did not influence toughness as compared to initial mushrooms. The acceptability value of mushrooms in controlled atmospheres was lower during 13 days of storage as compared to normal atmosphere. Normal atmosphere appeared to keep whiteness of mushrooms longer than did other treatments.

  16. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms.

  17. Mitochondrial recombination in natural populations of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Ying; Pun, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    In the majority of sexual eukaryotes, the mitochondrial genomes are inherited uniparentally and have predominantly clonal population structures. In clonally evolving genomes, alleles at different loci will be in significant linkage disequilibrium. In this study, the associations among alleles at nine mitochondrial loci were analyzed for 379 isolates in four natural populations of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The results indicated that the mitochondrial genome in the Desert California population was not significantly different from random recombination. In contrast, the three other populations all showed predominantly clonal mitochondrial population structure. While no evidence of recombination was found in the Alberta, Canada A. bisporus population, signatures of recombination were evident in the Coastal Californian and the French populations. We discuss the potential mechanisms that could have contributed to the observed mitochondrial recombination and to the differences in allelic associations among the geographic populations in this economically important mushroom.

  18. The influence of compost on carbohydrates and minerals content in the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on the carbohydrates and mineral composition of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus was carried out. In this study the strain Somycel 11 was used. It was found that mannitol, glucose and fructose contents in mushrooms growing on broiler chicken manure were significantly higher than on horse manure. Noticeable differences of macro- and microelement contents were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost. Phosphorus content in mushroom tissue of the first three flushes growing on horse manure was 2.7 times higher than in those from broiler chicken manure. Boron level in mushrooms in all flushes growing on broiler chicken manure was four times higher as compared with that on horse manure.

  19. Packed bed column studies on lead(II) removal from industrial wastewater by modified Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yunchuan; Lei, Daiyin; Ni, Jiangxia; Ren, Zhuolin; Chen, Can; Xu, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus showed best performance in removing Pb(II) with a biosorption capacity of 86.4 mg g(-1) after modification with NaOH. In this work, the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater has been conducted in column mode. The metal removal was dependent on the flow rate, initial metal concentration, and bed height. The experimental data obtained from the biosorption process was successfully correlated with the Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Five biosorption-desorption cycles yielded 95.34%, 92.27%, 90.13%, 86.75%, and 81.52% regeneration, respectively. Pb(II) could be effectively removed from industrial wastewater; some metal ions and organics were also removed concomitantly, and the obtained effluent had characteristics of better quality. The results confirmed that modified A. bisporus could be applied for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater in a continuous column process.

  20. The influence of flushes on some constituents of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus cultivated on different composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on some chemical components contained in the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was studied. The strain Somycel 11 was analyzed. The following determinations were made: dry matter, total nitrogen and crude protein, nitrates, nitrites and amino acids composition. It has been noted that the crude protein from. combined flushes III to VI of mushrooms cultivated on horse manure was about 24% higher than in those grown on broiler chicken manure. Some changes in amino acids composition, especially lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, serine, methionine, glutamic acid and alanine were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost.

  1. Quality Characteristics of Microwave-Vacuum Dried Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Giri & Suresh Prasad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus slices as well as whole mushrooms were dried by microwave-vacuum drying technique to a moisture content of around 6 %(d.b.. The dehydrated mushrooms were compared with hot-air dried products on the basis of different quality attributes such as colour, texture, rehydration ratio and sensory score. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant difference among the drying methods for all the attributes at p ≤ 0.05. Microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms had significantly higher rehydration potential, lower density, better colour and softer texture than those obtained by air drying. The microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms were rated much better than air dried products by a sensory panel in terms of appearance, color and overall acceptability.

  2. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp. were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1. The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost. The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  3. Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Compost Against Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Sheng, Jiping; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Yanyan; Lee, David Yue Wei; Yang, Yang; Xu, Mingshuang; Shen, Lin

    2015-07-08

    Bacillus subtilis strain B154, isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushroom compost infected by red bread mold, exhibited antagonistic activities against Neurospora sitophila. Antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was also observed. The maximum antifungal activity was reached during the stationary phase. This antifungal activity was stable over a wide pH and temperature range and was not affected by proteases. Assay of antifungal activity in vitro indicated that a purified antifungal substance could strongly inhibit mycelia growth and spore germination of N. sitophila. In addition, treatment with strain B154 in A. bisporus mushroom compost infected with N. sitophila significantly increased the yield of bisporus mushrooms. Ultraviolet scan spectroscopy, tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed a molecular weight consistent with 1498.7633 Da. The antifungal compound might belong to a new type of lipopeptide fengycin.

  4. Effects of preservation methods on amino acids and 5'-nucleotides of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Huang, Fan; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, S A; Wang, Yan-Feng; Huang, Wen

    2014-04-15

    In this study, the proximate composition, free amino acids content and 5'-nucleotides in frozen, canned and salted Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were investigated. We found that the three kinds of A. bisporus products were good sources of protein, with amount varying in the ranges of 16.54-24.35g/100g (dry weight). Freezing, canning and salting process, followed by 6months of storage led to a significant reduction in free amino acids, especially tyrosine, alanine, glutamine and cysteine. There were medium levels of MSG-like amino acids in frozen A. bisporus and canned A. bisporus, and low levels of MSG-like amino acids in salted A. bisporus. The mount of flavor 5'-nucleotides in frozen A. bisporus was higher than that of canned and salted A. bisporus. The present study thus suggests that freezing is beneficial for the preservation of A. bisporus.

  5. Method Development for the Determination of Free and Esterified Sterols in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-05-04

    Ergosterol is the major sterol in button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and can occur as free alcohol or esterified with fatty acids (ergosteryl esters). In this study, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM) was used to determine ergosterol and ergosteryl esters as well as other sterols and steryl esters in button mushrooms. Different quality control measures were established and sample preparation procedures were compared to prevent the formation of artifacts and the degradation of ergosteryl esters. The final method was then used for the determination of ergosterol (443 ± 44 mg/100 g dry matter (d.m.)) and esterified ergosterol (12 ± 6 mg/100 g d.m.) in button mushroom samples (n = 4). While the free sterol fraction was vastly dominated by ergosterol (∼90% of five sterols in total), the steryl ester fraction was more diversified (nine sterols in total, ergosterol ∼55%) and consisted primarily of linoleic acid esters.

  6. Chemical and ultrastructural studies of lignocellulose biodegradation during Agaricus bisporus cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Hexiang; Liu, Qinghong; Ng, TziBun

    2014-01-01

    During Agaricus bisporus cultivation, lignocellulose degradation is the result of the activity of both the mushroom and microbial communities developed during the composting. To investigate the lignocellulose degradation in detail from the beginning to the end of the process, the functional groups of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin have been studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the morphological changes of lignocelluloses were elucidated with scanning electron microscopy. The aperture of lignin and cellulose increased to enable the mycelia of A. bisporus to penetrate into the medium and to degrade lignocelluloses in a more direct way. The chemical structure changes implied a preferential use of lignin that could make for better use of cellulose to boost growth of A. bisporus. Changes in chemical structure together with ultrastructural changes induced by the microbial flora during cultivation substrate production by the composting substrate are important in promoting the utilization of lignocelluloses by A. bisporus.

  7. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Vos, Aurin M; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J P; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2016-08-01

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom forming basidiomycete using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphology, cap expansion rate, and total number and biomass of mushrooms were not affected by over-expression of c2h2. However, yield per day of the c2h2 over-expression strains peaked 1 day earlier. These data and expression analysis indicate that C2H2 impacts timing of mushroom formation at an early stage of development, making its encoding gene a target for breeding of commercial mushroom strains.

  8. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  9. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  10. Fungicide sensitivity of selected Verticillium fungicola isolates from Agaricus bisporus farms

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    Potočnik Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of Verticillium fungicola, isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from mushroom farms in Serbia during 2002-2003, were studied. By observing their colony morphology under different growth conditions and their pathogenic characteristics, the isolates were identified as V. fungicola var. fungicola. The peat/lime casing was the primary source of infection. Testing of sensitivity to selected fungicides showed that all isolates were highly resistant to benomyl (EC50 values were higher than 200.00 mg/l, moderately sensitive to iprodione (EC50 values were between 11.93 and 22.80 mg/l, and highly sensitive to prochloraz-Mn (EC50 values were less than 3.00 mg/l.

  11. Antimutagenic effect of aqueous extract from Agaricus brasiliensis on culture of human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Paula H; Nascimento, José S; Rocha, Beatriz H G; Piana, Clause F B; Santos, Raquel A; Takahashi, Catarina S

    2013-02-01

    The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom), native from the southeast of Brazil, is well known by its medicinal properties that include effects on diabetes, cholesterol levels, and osteoporosis. The antimutagenic effects of A. brasiliensis has been investigated recently and revealed some controversial results depending on the temperature by which the A. brasiliensis tea is obtained. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the A. brasiliensis extract prepared in two different temperatures, 4°C and 25°C, on the doxorubicin-induced DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes. The results demonstrated that A. brasiliensis was able to reduce the DXR-induced DNA damage in both temperatures; however, the CA test was more sensitive to demonstrate a better reduction when the cells were treated with an extract obtained at 25°C. A. brasiliensis extract obtained in different temperatures exhibited antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects in human lymphocytes.

  12. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

    2009-07-22

    Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet.

  13. Macrophage immunomodulating and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from Agaricus bisporus white button mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Yong Tae; Song, Chi Hyun; Pang, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) is widely consumed in most countries for its culinary properties. Recently, its dietary intake has been shown to protect against breast cancer. Mushroom polysaccharides are known for their immunomodulating and antitumor properties; however, little is known regarding the properties of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Using size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude extract of A. bisporus, two polysaccharide fractions (designated as ABP-1 and ABP-2) were obtained. The estimated molecular masses of ABP-1 and ABP-2 were 2,000 kDa and 40-70 kDa, respectively, and their sugar compositions consisted mainly of glucose, mannose, xylose, and fructose. Analysis of the effects of the polysaccharides on murine macrophages demonstrated that both fractions stimulated the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Modulation of macrophage function by A. bisporus polysaccharides was mediated in part through activation of nuclear factor-κB with the production p50/105 heterodimers. Both ABP-1 and ABP-2 had the ability to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells but had little effect on the growth of human colon, prostate, gastric cancer, and murine Sarcoma 180 cells as assessed by a tetrazolium dye [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]-based assay. However, when murine Sarcoma 180 cells exposed to ABP-1 or ABP-2 were implanted subcutaneously into mice, a reduction in tumor growth was observed compared with that observed in control mice. Taken together, our data provide a molecular basis to explain in part the reported beneficial therapeutic effects of A. bisporus WBM intake and suggest that macrophages likely contribute to the antitumor effects of Agaricus polysaccharides.

  14. Violence against Amazon women Violencia contra mujeres amazónicas Violência contra mulheres amazônicas

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    Vera Lúcia de Azevedo Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.Este es un estudio exploratorio de naturaleza cualitativa, que se realizó con el objetivo de analizar la violencia contra mujeres amazónicas, presentada en los periódicos, según el tipo y su gravedad, y citación de encuadramiento del agresor en la Ley Maria de la Penha. Fueron consultados 181 ejemplares de un periódico regional. A partir del análisis de contenido, fueron seleccionadas 164 notas sobre violencias contra mujeres, de ellas 46 fueron incluidas como corpus de análisis. Los resultados fueron reunidos en tres grupos temáticos: mujeres asesinadas con crueldad, la violencia sexual contra mujeres no tiene edad y la violencia contra mujeres y el límite de la Ley Maria de la Penha. La violencia contra esas mujeres presentó variación en cuanto a la forma y a la gravedad, ocurriendo inclusive homicidios. Las mujeres son sometidas a violencia sexual desde la infancia hasta la edad adulta. El encuadramiento legal del agresor demuestra a la comunidad un medio para enfrentamiento de ese fenómeno social.Este é um estudo exploratório de natureza qualitativa, com o objetivo de analisar a viol

  15. Evidence for Outcrossing via the Buller Phenomenon in a Substrate Simultaneously Inoculated with Spores and Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We...

  16. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach

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    Grzegorz Koc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737 has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  17. Vitamin D2 Formation from Post-Harvest UV-B Treatment of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and Retention during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this research were to study the effects of high intensity (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mW/cm2), dose (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J/cm2), and post-harvest time (1 and 4 days) on the vitamin D2 formation in Portabella mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) as a result of UV-B exposure, as well as the vitamin D...

  18. Remoção de cor de efluentes têxteis com cogumelos Agaricus bispora = Decolorization of textile effluent with mushroom Agaricus bispora

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    Maria Alice Zarur Coelho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O emprego direto de cogumelos Agaricus bispora foi avaliado para a remoção de cor de uma mistura sintética de corantes reativos. Avaliou-se o efeito da granulometria das partículas (cubos de 0,5 ou 1,0 cm e cogumelos moídos, da massa de cogumelos (10, 20, 40, 60 ou 80 g em 250 mL de solução e de diferentes formas de tratamento do cogumelo sobre a remoção de cor de uma solução sintética dos corantes Reactive Yellow 37, Reactive Black 5 e Reactive Red na concentração de 13,3 mg L-1 cada corante. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para maiores áreas superficiais de contato do cogumelo (cogumelo moído com o efluente colorido e sob aeração contínua. A adição de acetona durante o processo de moagem, seguido de congelamento, contribuiu para o aumento da remoção de cor, obtendo-se os melhoresresultados: 73% após 6h, com 20 g de biocatalisador 250 mL-1 de efluente. A utilização de diferentes lotes e marcas de cogumelo levou à obtenção de diferentes atividades enzimáticas, mas percentuais similares de remoção de cor, indicando que a remoção de cor não possuirelação direta com a atividade enzimática.The direct application of Agaricus bispora mushroom was evaluated for decolorization of a synthetic mixture of reactive dyes. The effects of particle size (0.5 or 1.0 cm cubes and triturated mushroom, mushroom mass (10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 g in 250 mL of solution and different mushroom tissue treatments were analyzed regarding color removal efficiency of dyes Reactive Yellow 37, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red in a synthetic solution of 13.3 mg L-1 concentrationof each dye. The best results were found with larger superficial contact area between mushroom particle (triturated mushroom and colored effluent under continuous aeration. Acetone addition during mushroom trituration process followed by a freezing step contributed to decolorization improvement, leading to best results: 73% after 6h, with 20 g of biocatalyst 250 m

  19. Pasteurization of Brazilian peat for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivationPasteurização de turfa brasileira para o cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis

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    Augusto Ferreira da Eira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus brasiliensis is a Brazilian basidiomycete which has been cultivated and consumed around the world as a therapeutic food. Casing layer is one of the most important steps on A. brasiliensis cultivation and European peat is the most used casing layer. Besides the importance of it on mushroom cultivation the peat import could be a risk of exotic organism introduction. Alternative as Brazilian peat is barely used for mushroom growers in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate Brazilian peat with and without pasteurization as casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum prepared by composted traditional method. After mycelium colonization of the substratum a pasteurized or non pasteurized Brazilian peat (casing layer was added. It was concluded that pasteurization of the casing layer increases in 30% yield after 65 days of cultivation. There is no difference of yield for pasteurized and non pasteurized casing layer until 30 days of cultivation. An increase of flies is observed in non pasteurized casing layer. The production flush is easily perceived with pasteurized casing layer but not with non pasteurized casing layer.Agaricus brasiliensis é um basidiomiceto originário do Brasil, produzido e consumido mundialmente como alimento terapêutico. A camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de A. brasiliensis, sendo a turfa européia a mais utilizada para este fim. Apesar da importância deste material no cultivo de cogumelos, a sua importação implica em riscos de introdução de organismos exóticos. Alternativas como a turfa brasileira são pouco exploradas pelos produtores brasileiros. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a turfa brasileira, com e sem pasteurização, como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente cultivado em grãos de trigo e transferido para o substrato

  20. Inmunidad contra los nematodos gastrointestinales: la historia caprina

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Jacinto Aguilar-Caballero; J. F. J. Torres-Acosta; R. Cámara Sarmiento; Hoste, H.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es describir el estado del arte de la inmunidad de los caprinos contra los nematodos gastrointestinales. Las bases teóricas de la inmunidad se apoyan en la literatura disponible en rumiantes particularmente en las ovejas. Se presentan los hallazgos sobre la inmunidad innata y adquirida en los caprinos, los mecanismos efectores y los factores que influyen sobre el establecimiento de la respuesta inmune (humoral y celular) publicados en la literatura.

  1. TRADICION CONTRA NOVEDAD, O LAS ANTIMONIAS DE LA ESPANA LIBERAL

    OpenAIRE

    García Guirao, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Reaccionarios contra revolucionarios. Historia de las Cruzadas del siglo XIX. Para ayudar a nuestra imaginación a proyectar una idea rotunda y sintética sobre lo más importante del período de la Historia de España (también de Europa) que se extiende por todo el siglo XIX, podríamos utilizar diferentes elementos, si bien creemos pertinente empezar con el que sigue

  2. Nuevos avances y retos en la lucha contra el terrorismo

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    José Escribano Úbeda-Portugués

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno del Terrorismo tiene un carácter eminentemente de consecución de objetivos políticos, lo cual diferencia tal actividad ilícita respecto a las actividades ilícitas propias de la Delincuencia Organizada. Aunque en la financiación del Terrorismo, los grupos terroristas realizan actividades ilícitas propias de la Delincuencia Organizada como el tráfico ilícito de drogas, el tráfico ilícito de armas o el Blanqueo de Capitales.La evolución normativa contra el Terrorismo es amplia, habiéndose desarrollado proyectos de instrumentos jurídico internacionales ya en el Derecho Internacional Clásico.En cuanto al marco jurídico actual, cabe resaltar que la obra de Naciones Unidas al respecto es amplia. Existen actualmente 13 Convenios sobre las distintas manifestaciones del Terrorismo. De ellos hay cuatro Convenios sobre Terrorismo Aéreo; dos sobre el Terrorismo Marítimo; dos sobre el Terrorismo Nuclear; uno sobre el Terrorismo contra personas internacionalmente protegidas; uno contra el Terrorismo de toma de rehenes; uno sobre explosivos plásticos; uno sobre atentados terroristas con bombas, y por último, un Convenio Internacional contra la financiación del Terrorismo.La obra de Naciones Unidas al respecto es amplia, pero está fragmentada en torno a cada una de las manifestaciones del Terrorismo. Bien es verdad que Naciones Unidas ha conseguido crear órganos ad hoc en el marco del Consejo de Seguridad o que ha realizado numerosas Resoluciones al respecto tanto del Consejo de Seguridad, como a nivel de la Asamblea General. Estamos, por tanto, ante un carácter fragmentario del marco jurídico actual en la lucha contra el Terrorismo en el plano de Naciones Unidas por falta de consenso sobre el concepto mismo de “ Terrorismo “.El problema de definir de forma consensuada el concepto se encuentra en la dificultad de trazar la línea divisoria entre actividades terroristas y movimientos de liberación nacional. Por ello se

  3. Avaliação in vivo da qualidade protéica do champignon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al.).

    OpenAIRE

    HENRIQUES,Gilberto Simeone; Simeone, Maria Lúcia Ferreira; Amazonas,Maria Angela Lopes de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O trabalho aqui descrito trata da avaliação de uma dieta experimental contendo Champingnon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis) como fonte de proteína em um modelo experimental de ratos. MÉTODOS: Para este propósito, foram selecionados 24 ratos Wistar machos, recém desmamados (21 dias) divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais cada, que foram alimentados com uma dieta padrão de caseína, ou com uma dieta experimental de proteína de Agaricus brasiliensis ambas contendo 10% de proteína e isoener...

  4. Life quality of postsurgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with agaricus sylvaticus fungus Calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal con suplementación dietética con hongos agaricus sylvaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Costa Fortes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Therapeutical alternatives, directed to improve life quality and reduce adverse effects of cancer treatment, have been the purpose of studies that try to prove the immunomodulator efficacy of medicinal fungi as coadjuvant for conventional therapies. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on the life quality of post-surgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus cultivated in Brazil. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial carried out at the Federal District Base Hospital-Brazil, for six months. Samples of 56 enrolled patients (24 men and 32 women, stadium phases I, II and III, separated as placebo and Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/day supplemented groups. Form-standard and direct anamnesis-standard were used to evaluate indicators for life quality. The method of analysis was qualitative and descriptive, processed with Microsoft Excel 2003 and Epi Info 2004 programs. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Research Committee-Health Department-Federal District. Results: After six months of treatment, the supplemented group had increased adhesion to physical activity; improved disposition and good mood; reduced complaints of pains and alterations of sleep such as insomnia and restless sleep; presenting more appetite, reduced constipation, diarrhea, alternate diarrhea/constipation, flatulence, flatus retention, pyrosis, postprandial fullness, nausea, abdominal distention and abdominal pain, facts not observed in the placebo group. Conclusions: The results suggest that a dietary supplement with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus is capable of improving the life quality of patients with colorectal cancer in post-surgical phase.Introducción: Alternativas terapéuticas para mejorar la calidad de vida y reducir los efectos adversos de los medicamentos, han sido la propuesta de estudios que intentan probar los efectos de hongos medicinales en

  5. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Monokaryotic Progeny Strains of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Yun, Yeo Hong; Oh, Youn-Lee; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-03-01

    To promote the selection of promising monokaryotic strains of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during breeding, 61 progeny strains derived from basidiospores of two different lines of dikaryotic parental strains, ASI1038 and ASI1346, were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing of the intergenic spacer I (IGS I) region in their rDNA and by extracellular enzyme assays. Nineteen different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 1,301 to 1,348 bp, were present among twenty ASI1346-derived progeny strains, while 15 different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 700 to 1,347 bp, were present among twenty ASI1038-derived progeny strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the IGS sequences revealed that different clades were present in both the ASI10388- and ASI1346-derived progeny strains. Plating assays of seven kinds of extracellular enzymes (β-glucosidase, avicelase, CM-cellulase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, and protease) also revealed apparent variation in the ability to produce extracellular enzymes among the 40 tested progeny strains from both parental A. bisporus strains. Overall, this study demonstrates that characterization of IGS I regions and extracellular enzymes is useful for the assessment of the substrate-degrading ability and heterogenicity of A. bisporus monokaryotic strains.

  6. Bsn-t Alleles from French Field Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callac, Philippe; Hocquart, Sophie; Imbernon, Micheline; Desmerger, Christophe; Olivier, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    In the Agaricus bisporus desert population in California, the dominant Bsn-t allele determines the production of tetrasporic basidia and homokaryotic spores (n) that characterize a heterothallic life cycle. Strains belonging to a French population have the Bsn-b/b genotype that results in bisporic basidia that produce heterokaryotic spores (n + n) which characterize a pseudohomothallic life cycle. More recombination occurs in the tetrasporic population than in the bisporic population. In France, tetrasporic strains are rare. For two such isolates, Bs 261 and Bs 423, we determined the life cycle, the heritability of the tetrasporic trait, the amount of variation in the recombination rate, and the haploid fruiting ability. We found that (i) Bs 261 was heterothallic, (ii) Bs 423 was homokaryotic and homothallic, (iii) Bs 261 was Bsn-t/b, (iv) recombination on a segment of chromosome I depended on the genotype at BSN, (v) some of the homokaryotic offspring of Bs 261 and all of the progeny of Bs 423 were able to fruit, (vi) Bs 261 and Bs 423 were closely related, and (vii) Bs 423 was partially intersterile with other strains of the species. PMID:9603821

  7. Phenotypic variation of Pseudomonas putida and P. tolaasii affects attachment to Agaricus bisporus mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, P B

    1991-12-01

    The effect of phenotypic variation on attachment of Pseudomonas tolaasii and P. putida to Agaricus bisporus mycelium was investigated. Quantitative studies demonstrated the ability of each isolate to attach rapidly and firmly to A. bisporus mycelium and significant differences in attachment of wild-type and phenotypic variant strains were observed. This was most pronounced in P. tolaasii, where the percentage attachment of the wild-type form was always greater than that of the phenotypic variant. The medium upon which the bacteria were cultured, prior to conducting an attachment assay, had a significant effect on their ability to attach. Attachment of the wild-type form of P. putida was enhanced when the assay was performed in the presence of CaCl2, suggesting the involvement of electrostatic forces. No correlation was observed between bacterial hydrophobicity and ability to attach to A. bisporus mycelium. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the results obtained from the quantitative studies and provided further evidence for marked differences in the ability of the pseudomonads to attach to mycelium. Fibrillar structures and amorphous material were frequently associated with attached cells and appeared to anchor bacteria to each other and to the hyphal surface. A time-course study of attachment using transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of uneven fibrillar material on the surface of cells. This material stained positive for polysaccharide and may be involved in ensuring rapid, firm attachment of the cells.

  8. Characterization of single spore isolates of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach using conventional and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Suman, B C; Gupta, Dharmesh

    2014-10-01

    Strains A-15, S11, S-140, and U3 of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach, were used as parent strains for raising single spore homokaryotic isolates. Out of total 1,642 single spore isolates, only 36 single spore isolates were homokaryons and exhibited slow mycelial growth rate (≤2.0 mm/day) and appressed colony morphology. All these SSIs failed to produce pinheads in Petri plates even after 65 days of incubation, whereas the strandy slow growing SSIs along with parent strains were able to form the fructification in petriplates after 30 days. Out of 24, six ISSR primers, exhibited scorable bands. In the ISSR fingerprints, single spore isolates, homokaryons, lacked amplification products at multiple loci; they grow slowly and all of them had appressed types of colony morphology. The study revealed losses of ISSR polymorphic patterns in non-fertile homokaryotic single spore isolates compared to the parental control or fertile heterokaryotic single spore isolates.

  9. Uptake and fate of Cd and Zn in edible fungi of the Agaricus bisporus species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetter, M.

    1979-01-01

    Cd and Zn were added to growth substrate of fungi in order to investigate the Cd uptake and the effects of Zn on Cd uptake in the edible fungus Agaricus bisporus. Fungus yields were found to decrease with Cd uptake. This effect was completely overcome and sometimes even overcompensated by adding zinc. Cd concentrations in the fungi increased with the soil Cd concentration: When Cd (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg Fg) was added to the soil cover as well as to the substrate, Cd concentrations in the fungi were found to be about 70% higher than in fungi where the same amount of Cd had been added only to the substrate. The following interactions between Cd and Zn uptake were observed: Low soil Cd concentrations enhance Zn uptake. In contrast, Zn enhances Cd uptake in fungi with low Cd concentrations. At high soil Cd concentrations, Zn inhibits Cd uptake. Cd concentrations in the fungi increased with the age of the cultures and with the size of the fungi. The highest concentrations were found in the lamellae. The enrichment factors are lower in the cultivated variety (0.6 to 1.4 in dependence of the soil Cd concentration) than in wild-growing fungi.

  10. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments.

  11. Combined effect of kinetin and radiation treatment on the cap opening of Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    Cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) with a cap diameter of 3-5 cm were incubated at 20 deg C during the experimental period (30-72 h). The degree of cap opening was determined and the data were evaluated. It was found that kinetin solutions in the 0 to 32 mg kg/sup -1/ range stimulated the opening of the mushroom cap. The shorter the time elapsed between picking and treating the mushrooms, the greater was the effect. A kinetin solution with a concentration of 100 mg kg/sup -1/ inhibited the opening of the cap. Cap opening in irradiated mushrooms cannot be induced even with kinetin concentrations that stimulate cap opening. Treatment with 0, 2.5 and 10 kGy doses of radiation the stimulating effect on cap opening decreased as a function of the rising dose. The radiation effects in kinetin solutions and various natural cytokinins (zeatin, 2iP and 2iPA) were studied and it was found that cytokinin solutions lost 50-60% of their activity after a radiation dose of only 1 kGy.

  12. Synthesis of double-stranded RNA in a virus-enriched fraction from Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriskantha, A.; Wach, P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.; Romaine, C.P.

    1986-03-01

    Partially purified virus preparations from sporophores of Agaricus bisporus affected with LaFrance disease had up to a 15-fold-higher RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity than did comparable preparations from health sporophores. Enzyme activity was dependent upon the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/ and the four nucleoside triphosphates and was insensitive to actinomycin D, ..cap alpha..-amanitin, and rifampin. The /sup 3/H-labeled enzyme reaction products were double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as indicated by CF-11 cellulose column chromatography and by their ionic-strength-dependent sensitivity to hydrolysis by RNase A. The principal dsRNA products had estimated molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium centrifugation of the virus preparation resolved a single peak of RNA polymerase activity that banded with a 35-nm spherical virus particle containing dsRNAs with molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. The data suggest that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with the 35-nm spherical virus is a replicase which catalyzes the synthesis of the genomic dsRNAs.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; Lacroix, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Laberge, I.; Gagnon, M. (Canadian Irradiation Centre, Laval, PQ (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage.

  14. Shelf-life extension of fresh Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus by application of Tomato paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishverya srivastava,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A mushroom is a fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The edible mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus are the fleshy edible bodies devoid of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushroom browning occurs mainly as a result of tyrosinase activity, an enzyme belonging to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO family and known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Tomato is an attractive candidate for food processing applications as fresh cut. However along with its desirable delicate taste, tomato shows a marked susceptibility to browning. This condition is mainly attributed to polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO. This PPO activity was observed especially in flesh tissues which was probably due to the presence of monophenolic substrates inducing a lag period, enzyme inhibitors and / or diphenolic substrates causing suicide inactivation, and proenzyme or latent isoforms of PPO. A paste of fresh tomatoes (wild and hybrid when applied to the freshly grown mushrooms were less subject to brown blotch as compared to the untreated mushroom. Other vegetable paste or paste made of the unwanted weeds that show tyrosinase activity can also be effected for the same purpose.

  15. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Jia, Liang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were evaluated by various methods in vitro and in vivo. In antioxidant assays in vitro, ethanolic extract of A. bisporus was found to have strong reducing power, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and moderate hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with ethanolic extract of A. bisporus via gavage for 30 consecutive days. As a result, administration of ethanolic extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serums, livers and hearts of mice. In addition, the total phenolic content in the extract determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method was 6.18mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight. The main phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were determined as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and myricetin. These results suggested that ethanolic extract of A. bisporus had potent antioxidant activity and could be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  16. Agaricus bisporus compost improves the potential of Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid for copper accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdziak, Z; Mleczek, M; Gąsecka, M; Drzewiecka, K; Kaczmarek, Z; Siwulski, M; Goliński, P

    2016-08-02

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of spent mushroom compost (SMC) from the production of Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) to stimulate the growth and efficiency of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid. Roots, shoots and leaves were analysed in terms of total Cu content and selected biometric parameters. Due to the absence of information regarding the physiological response of the studied plant, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phenolic compounds and salicylic acid (SA) contents were investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness (usefulness) of SMC in promoting the growth and stimulation of Cu accumulation by the studied Salix taxon. The highest Cu content in roots and shoots was found at the 10% SMC addition (507±22 and 380±11 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while there was a reduction of the content in leaves and young shoots (109±8 and 124±7 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively). In terms of physiological response, lowered secretion of LMWOAs, biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and SA, as well as accumulation of soluble sugars in Salix leaves was observed with SMC addition. Simultaneously, an elevation of the total phenolic content in leaves of plants cultivated with SMC was observed, considered as antioxidant biomolecules.

  17. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus.

  18. Proteomic response of Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum to Agaricus bisporus tissue and mushroom compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Matt; Grogan, Helen; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    A cellular proteomic analysis was performed on Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum. Thirty-four individual protein spots were excised from 2-D electropherograms and analysed by ESI-Trap Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Searches of the NCBInr and SwissProt protein databases identified functions for 31 of these proteins based on sequence homology. A differential expression study was performed on the intracellular fraction of T. aggressivum f. europaeum grown in media containing Agaricus bisporus tissue and Phase 3 mushroom compost compared to a control medium. Differential expression was observed for seven proteins, three of which were upregulated in both treatments, two were down regulated in both treatments and two showed qualitatively different regulation under the two treatments. No proteins directly relating to fungal cell wall degradation or other mycoparasitic activity were observed. Functions of differentially produced intracellular proteins included oxidative stress tolerance, cytoskeletal structure, and cell longevity. Differential production of these proteins may contribute to the growth of T. aggressivum in mushroom compost and its virulence toward A. bisporus.

  19. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-09-23

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P < 0.0001), which is equivalent to 17.6 μg (704 IU) vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found in fatty fish like the Atlantic salmon.

  20. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert J R; Hildén, Kristiina S; Kabel, Mirjam A; Mäkelä, Miia R; Altelaar, Maarten A F; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass. Relatively little is known about how A. bisporus grows in the controlled environment in commercial production facilities and utilizes its substrate. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we showed that changes in plant biomass degradation by A. bisporus occur throughout its life cycle. Ligninolytic genes were only highly expressed during the spawning stage day 16. In contrast, (hemi-)cellulolytic genes were highly expressed at the first flush, whereas low expression was observed at the second flush. The essential role for many highly expressed plant biomass degrading genes was supported by exo-proteome analysis. Our data also support a model of sequential lignocellulose degradation by wood-decaying fungi proposed in previous studies, concluding that lignin is degraded at the initial stage of growth in compost and is not modified after the spawning stage. The observed differences in gene expression involved in (hemi-)cellulose degradation between the first and second flushes could partially explain the reduction in the number of mushrooms during the second flush.

  1. Fungicide sensitivity of Trichoderma spp. from Agaricus bisporus farms in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanović, Dejana; Potočnik, Ivana; Vukojević, Jelena; Stajić, Mirjana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Todorović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould disease, induce great losses in Agaricus bisporus farms. Fungicides are widely used to control mushroom diseases although green mould control is encumbered with difficulties. The aims of this study were, therefore, to research in vitro toxicity of several commercial fungicides to Trichoderma isolates originating from Serbian and Bosnia-Herzegovina farms, and to evaluate the effects of pH and light on their growth. The majority of isolates demonstrated optimal growth at pH 5.0, and the rest at pH 6.0. A few isolates also grew well at pH 7. The weakest mycelial growth was noted at pH 8.0-9.0. Generally, light had an inhibitory effect on the growth of tested isolates. The isolates showed the highest susceptibility to chlorothalonil and carbendazim (ED50 less than 1 mg L(-1)), and were less sensitive to iprodione (ED50 ranged 0.84-6.72 mg L(-1)), weakly resistant to thiophanate-methyl (ED50 = 3.75-24.13 mg L(-1)), and resistant to trifloxystrobin (ED50 = 10.25-178.23 mg L(-1)). Considering the toxicity of fungicides to A. bisporus, carbendazim showed the best selective toxicity (0.02), iprodione and chlorothalonil moderate (0.16), and thiophanate-methyl the lowest (1.24), while trifloxystrobin toxicity to A. bisporus was not tested because of its inefficiency against Trichoderma isolates.

  2. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function.

  3. Agronomic quantitative assessment of substrates based on spents of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Raquel Picornell Buendía

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the agronomic viability of substrates based on spents of Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange Imbach (SAS and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. (SPS was studied. In addition to the commercial substrate used as reference, six different treatments were considered. In this experiment, SPS and SAS were mixed in different ratios (from 6,000 g and 0 g, respectively, up to 3,000 g and 3,000 g, respectively. SAS was subjected to a heat treatment in a growing room ("cook out" and then to a maturation treatment which consisted of a controlled recomposting process in growing rooms. SPS was subjected to a pasteurizing heat treatment (60 °C - 65 °C, 8 h and progressive decrease for at least 15 h to a "spawning" temperature (25 °C.SPS (5,400 g + SAS (600 g and SPS (4,800 g + SAS (1,200 g were prepared substrates with biological efficiencies (BE of 35.98 % and 39.68 % respectively, lower than the control (46.18 % and acceptable yields. The average unit mass of fruiting body harvested was low.

  4. Effect of microwave blanching on the quality of frozen Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaś, Emilia; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of microwave blanching on the levels of selected quality parameters in frozen Agaricus bisporus. Before freezing, mushrooms underwent one of the following treatments: blanching in water; blanching in a solution of sodium metabisulphite and citric acid; microwaving for 5 min; and combined blanching (first in water, then in a microwave oven). Products were freeze stored for 8 months at -25 ℃. Frozen storage resulted in decreased levels of vitamin B1, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of 10-49%, as well as an increase in polyphenol oxidase activity compared with products immediately after freezing. The values for most colour parameters and whiteness intensity decreased, while cream, yellow, brown and grey saturation increased. There was a considerable deterioration in sensory quality, particularly colour. Microwave-blanched products had significantly higher dry matter, ash, vitamin B1 and B2 content than the remaining products as well as half the polyphenol oxidase activity. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were highest in the product blanched in the sodium metabisulphite solution, followed by the microwave-blanched product. Compared with the product blanched using sodium metabisulphite, microwave-blanched mushrooms showed slightly greater darkening but were superior in flavour and aroma.

  5. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of the lectin from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditamo, Yanina; Rupil, Lucia L; Sendra, Victor G; Nores, Gustavo A; Roth, German A; Irazoqui, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are glycan-binding proteins that are resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and enter intact to blood circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus lectin (ABL) on innate and adaptive immune responses as well as its effect in two different experimental pathologies that involve the immune system. ABL inhibited in vitro nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in response to the pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, it did not modify the activity of arginase, showing that while ABL downregulates M1 activation, it does not affect M2 activation. ABL also inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogen Con A, or in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. During the in vivo studies, oral administration of ABL to BALB/c mice induced a marked inhibition of NO production by peritoneal macrophages after LPS stimuli. The influence of ABL on tumor growth was studied in BALB/c mice receiving daily oral doses of ABL and implanted with CT26 tumor cells. ABL treatment induced significantly higher rate of tumor growth when compared with control mice. On the other hand, oral ABL administration in Wistar rats induced a marked diminution of the incidence of the disease and the severity of the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We can conclude that ABL has an in vivo immunomodulatory effect reducing the innate and adaptive responses. This food lectin shows potential therapeutic application on control of inflammatory autoimmune pathologies.

  6. Chemical characterisation and speciation of organic selenium in cultivated selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Tebo; Callahan, Damien L; Dunshea, Frank R; Doronila, Augustine; Kolev, Spas D; Ng, Ken

    2013-12-15

    The selenium concentration in Agaricus bisporus cultivated in growth compost irrigated with sodium selenite solution increased by 28- and 43-fold compared to the control mushroom irrigated solely with water. Selenium contents of mushroom proteins increased from 13.8 to 60.1 and 14.1 to 137 μgSe/g in caps and stalks from control and selenised mushrooms, respectively. Selenocystine (SeCys; detected as [SeCys]2 dimer), selenomethionine (SeMet), and methyl-selenocysteine (MeSeCys) were separated, identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry from water solubilised and acetone precipitated proteins, and significant increases were observed for the selenised mushrooms. The maximum selenoamino acids concentration in caps and stalks of control/selenised mushrooms was 4.16/9.65 μg/g dried weight (DW) for SeCys, 0.08/0.58 μg/g DW for SeMet, and 0.031/0.10 μg/g DW for MeSeCys, respectively. The most notable result was the much higher levels of SeCys accumulated by A. bisporus compared to SeMet and MeSeCys, for both control and selenised A. bisporus.

  7. A detailed analysis of the recombination landscape of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Gao, Wei; Lavrijssen, Brian; Hendrickx, Patrick; Sedaghat-Tellgerd, Narges; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Kong, Won-Sik; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Baars, Johan J P; Visser, Richard G F

    2016-08-01

    The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the world's most cultivated mushroom species, but in spite of its economic importance generation of new cultivars by outbreeding is exceptional. Previous genetic analyses of the white bisporus variety, including all cultivars and most wild isolates revealed that crossing over frequencies are low, which might explain the lack of introducing novel traits into existing cultivars. By generating two high quality whole genome sequence assemblies (one de novo and the other by improving the existing reference genome) of the first commercial white hybrid Horst U1, a detailed study of the crossover (CO) landscape was initiated. Using a set of 626 SNPs in a haploid offspring of 139 single spore isolates and whole genome sequencing on a limited number of homo- and heterokaryotic single spore isolates, we precisely mapped all COs showing that they are almost exclusively restricted to regions of about 100kb at the chromosome ends. Most basidia of A. bisporus var. bisporus produce two spores and pair preferentially via non-sister nuclei. Combined with the COs restricted to the chromosome ends, these spores retain most of the heterozygosity of the parent thus explaining how present-day white cultivars are genetically so close to the first hybrid marketed in 1980. To our knowledge this is the first example of an organism which displays such specific CO landscape.

  8. Effect of spent mushroom compost tea on mycelial growth and yield of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Francisco J; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Tello, Julio C; Navarro, María J

    2012-08-01

    Preliminary studies suggested that the use of compost tea made from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) may be regarded as a potential method for biologically controlling dry bubble disease in button mushroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SMS compost tea on the host, the button mushroom, to ascertain whether the addition of these water extracts has a toxic effect on Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth and on mushroom yield. In vitro experiments showed that the addition of SMS compost tea to the culture medium inoculated with a mushroom spawn grain did not have an inhibitory effect on A. bisporus mycelial growth. The effect of compost teas on the quantitative production parameters of A. bisporus (yield, unitary weight, biological efficiency and earliness) was tested in a cropping trial, applying the compost teas to the casing in three different drench applications. Quantitative production parameters were not significantly affected by the compost tea treatments although there was a slight delay of 0.8-1.4 days in the harvest time of the first flush. These results suggest that compost teas have no fungitoxic effect on A. bisporus so that they can be considered a suitable biocontrol substance for the control of dry bubble disease.

  9. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using partially purified laccase from residual compost of agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayolo-Deloisa, K. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Machin-Ramirez, C. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rito-Palomares, M. [Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Trejo-Hernandez, M.R. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Laccase partially purified from residual compost of Agaricus bisporus by an aqueous two-phase system (Lac ATPS) was used in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). The capacity of the enzyme to oxidize polyaromatic compounds was compared to that of the crude laccase extract (CE). After treatment of 72 h, Lac ATPS and CE were not capable of oxidizing Flu and Phe, while Ant, BaP, and BaA were oxidized, resulting in percentages of oxidation of 11.2 {+-} 1, 26 {+-} 2, and 11.7 {+-} 4 % with CE, respectively. When Lac ATPS was used, the following percentages of oxidation were obtained: 11.4 {+-} 3 % for Ant, 34 {+-} 0.1 % for BaP, and 13.6 {+-} 2 % for BaA. The results reported here demonstrate the potential application of Lac ATPS for the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Agaricus subrufescens: substratum nitrogen concentration and mycelial extraction method on antitumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÍRIA B.D. BERTÉLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Antitumor activity of Agaricus subrufescens has been shown on vegetative mycelium and basidiocarp. However, few studies have assessed the effect of A. subrufescens cultivation conditions and extraction methods on antitumor activity. This study evaluated the effect of nitrogen concentration on the cultivation medium of A. subrufescens and the extraction method of mycelial antineoplastic actives against sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Two nitrogen sources (isolated soybean protein and NaNO3 and 10 nitrogen concentrations (0.25 to 8.0 g/L were used. Dried mycelium extract was obtained by hot water infusion (1:10 mass:volume; 90 °C or by aqueous mixture (1:10 mass:volume, ambient temperature in ultrapure water. The doses were administered daily by gavage to mice implanted with sarcoma 180 cells. Isolated soy protein is more efficient to mycelial biomass production than NaNO3. The mycelial biomass production increases when the cultivation medium is added with high nitrogen concentrations as well as the splenic index and the antitumor activity of the moistened mycelial powder. Hot water extract is more effective than the moistened mycelial powder to reduce tumor. The antitumor activity of hot water mycelial extract is similar to the one of basidiocarps, presenting lower metabolic demand on the spleen, keeping blood parameters normal and promoting animal wellness.

  11. Efeito protetor do aleitamento materno contra a obesidade infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaban Geni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão da literatura sobre a hipótese de que o aleitamento materno teria um efeito protetor contra a obesidade infantil, a plausibilidade biológica dessa hipótese e os mecanismos potencialmente envolvidos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Informações coletadas a partir de artigos publicados em revistas científicas indexadas, livros e teses de pós-graduação. A maioria dos artigos foi identificada a partir das bases de dados MEDLINE e Scielo, usando as palavras-chave "aleitamento materno", "sobrepeso", "obesidade", "crianças" e "adolescentes". O período pesquisado foi de 1980 a 2002. Outros artigos foram identificados a partir das referências bibliográficas citadas nos primeiros artigos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A maioria dos estudos revisados relatou um efeito protetor do aleitamento materno contra a obesidade infantil; alguns estudos não encontraram associação entre aleitamento materno e obesidade; um estudo, com um pequeno tamanho amostral, relatou maior adiposidade entre as crianças que receberam aleitamento materno. Diferentes definições de exposição e desfecho dificultam a comparação entre os estudos. Imprinting metabólico foi sugerido como um mecanismo potencialmente envolvido para explicar a associação. Aspectos comportamentais também podem estar envolvidos. CONCLUSÃO: O aleitamento materno parece ter um efeito protetor contra a obesidade infantil, porém essa questão merece uma investigação mais aprofundada.

  12. Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Sierra- Fernandez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño. Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente.

  13. Nuevos avances y retos en la lucha contra el terrorismo

    OpenAIRE

    José Escribano Úbeda-Portugués

    2009-01-01

    El fenómeno del Terrorismo tiene un carácter eminentemente de consecución de objetivos políticos, lo cual diferencia tal actividad ilícita respecto a las actividades ilícitas propias de la Delincuencia Organizada. Aunque en la financiación del Terrorismo, los grupos terroristas realizan actividades ilícitas propias de la Delincuencia Organizada como el tráfico ilícito de drogas, el tráfico ilícito de armas o el Blanqueo de Capitales.La evolución normativa contra el Terrorismo es amplia, habié...

  14. Una vacuna contra la tuberculosi, provada en cabres

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez del Val, Bernat

    2012-01-01

    Investigadors del CReSA han dut a terme el primer estudi de vacunació contra la tuberculosi utilitzant com a model experimental la cabra domèstica, que reprodueix amb molta similitud la resposta a la tuberculosi en humans. La vacuna, anomenada AdAg85A, ha estat dissenyada per investigadors de McMaster University (Canadà) per prevenir la tuberculosi en humans, i actualment es troba en fase I d’assajos clínics. De moment, aquest estudi mostra que la inoculació d’aquesta nova vacuna, com a refor...

  15. Direitos humanos e violência contra as mulheres: uma luta contra a sociedade patriarcal-racista-capitalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirla Cisne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é  problematizar a importância da luta por direitos humanos no combate às violências contras as mulheres, inserindo essa luta nos limites e contradições de uma sociedade que têm a desigualdade e a exploração de classe, raça/etnia e sexo como elementos constituintes. Nesse entendimento, as múltiplas formas de violência contra a mulher, seja ela física, psicológica, sexual, obstétrica, patrimonial ou social, não resultam das relações individuais isoladamente, mas, sobretudo, são estruturadas pelas relações sociais de sexo, classe, raça/etnia que consubstanciam a sociedade patriarcal-racista-capitalista. São essas relações sociais que dão base à ideologia que naturaliza situações de violências às mulheres. É essa sociedade permeada por relações de opressão, exploração e também apropriação sobre as mulheres que promove cotidianamente situações de violência permeadas e potencializadas pela desigualdade de classe, pelo sexismo e pelo racismo, o que não apenas provoca a demanda pela luta por direitos humanos, mas a exige.  Falar em direitos humanos para as mulheres é falar na necessidade de lutar por uma sociedade sem violência e sem as apropriações, explorações e opressões que dão corpo as múltiplas violências contra as mulheres.

  16. How mushrooms feed on compost: conversion of carbohydrates and linin in industrial wheat straw based compost enabling the growth of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this thesis, the fate of carbohydrates and lignin was studied in industrial wheat straw based compost during composting and growth of Agaricus bisporus. The aim was to understand the availability and degradability of carbohydrates in order to help improve their utilizati

  17. The edible and medicinal button mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (J.Lge) imbach] and its relatives: Present status, use and future in commerce and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Netherlands is the largest exporter of button mushrooms [Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge.) Imbach] in the world and the third largest producer after China and the United States of America. The production volume has increased dramatically over the last 30 years, from an annual production of 30,000 tonn

  18. Functional analysis of dsRNAs (L1, L3, L5, and M2) associated with isometric 34-nm virions of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDerLende, TR; Duitman, EH; Gunnewijk, MGW; Yu, L; Wessels, JGH

    1996-01-01

    cDNA clones of dsRNAs associated with La France disease of Agaricus bisporus were isolated, Clones corresponding to L1 and L5 dsRNAs were sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of L1 dsRNA (1078 amino acids, M(r) 121K) showed significant homology with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of other dsRNA

  19. Un compromiso compartido para la Misión contra el Cáncer

    Science.gov (United States)

    En la reunión anual de la AACR, el vicepresidente Biden habló acerca de la Iniciativa Nacional de la Misión contra el Cáncer y del papel crítico que tendrá toda la comunidad investigadora en acelerar el progreso contra el cáncer.

  20. La violencia sexual como un atentado contra la dignidad de la mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Millan, Maximiliana

    2015-01-01

    La violencia sexual contra la mujer es la manifestación extrema de la desigualdad y del sometimiento en el que viven las mujeres en el mundo. Constituye un atentado contra el derecho a la vida, a la libertad, y la dignidad de las mujeres. Por tanto, para

  1. MECANISMOS INVOLUCRADOS EN LA RESPUESTA CONTRA PROTEINAS CITRULINADAS EN ARTRITIS REUMATOIDE.

    OpenAIRE

    CATALAN MARTINA, DIEGO FRANCISCO

    2010-01-01

    La artritis reumatoide (AR) es una enfermedad autoinmune, cuya patogenia está orquestada por linfocitos T CD4+ específicos contra proteínas propias o autoantígenos. La descripción de anticuerpos dirigidos contra una variedad de proteínas citrulinadas (ACP 192p.

  2. Cloning of a chitinase gene from Ewingella americana, a pathogen of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Inglis

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a gene encoding a chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 from Ewingella americana, a recently described pathogen of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. This gene, designated chiA (EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ accession number X90562, was cloned by expression screening of a plasmid-based E. americana HindIII genomic library in Escherichia coli using remazol brilliant violet-stained carboxymethylated chitin incorporated into selective medium. The chiA gene has a 918-bp ORF, terminated by a TAA codon, with a calculated polypeptide size of 33.2 kDa, likely corresponding to a previously purified and characterised 33-kDa endochitinase from E. americana. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 33% identity with chitinase II from Aeromonas sp. No. 10S-24 and 7.8% identity with a chitinase from Saccharopolyspora erythraeus. Homology to other chitinase sequences was otherwise low. The peptide sequence deduced from chiA lacks a typical N-terminal signal sequence and also lacks the chitin binding and type III fibronectin homology units common to many bacterial chitinases. The possibility that this chitinase is not primarily adapted for the environmental mineralisation of pre-formed chitin, but rather for the breakdown of nascent chitin, is discussed in the context of mushroom disease.O gene que codifica uma quitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 foi isolado de Ewingella americana, recentemente descrita como patógeno do cogumelo Agaricus bisporus. Este gene, denominado chiA (EMBL/Genebank/DDBJ número de acesso X9061, foi clonado e selecionado a partir de livraria genômica construída por digestão do DNA de E. americana com HindIII e ligação em plasmídio de expressão em E. coli, utilizando meio seletivo contendo quitina carboximetilada, corada com "remazol brilliant violet'' para seleção de clones. O gene chiA apresenta uma ORF de 918 bp, código terminador TAA, tendo o tamanho do polipeptídeo sido calculado como 33,2 kDa, o qual corresponde ao tamanho de 33 kDa da endoquitinase

  3. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase in an aqueous extract from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzi, Hicham; Depagne, Christophe; Coradin, Thibaud

    2012-01-11

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in an aqueous extract from mushroom Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach was studied, using pyrocatechol as a substrate. Optimal conditions for enzymatic studies were determined to be pH 7.0 and 35-40 °C. The kinetics of PPO-catalyzed oxidation of pyrocatechol followed the Haldane model with an optimum substrate concentration of 20 mM. Thermal inactivation of PPO was examined in more detail between 50 and 73 °C and in relation to exposure time. Obtained monophasic kinetics were adequately described by a first-order model, with significant inactivation occurring with increasing temperature (less than 10% preserved activity after 6 min at 65 °C). Arrhenius plot determination and calculated thermodynamic parameters suggest that the PPO in aqueous extract from Agaricus bisporus mushroom is a structurally robust yet temperature-sensitive biocatalyst whose inactivation process is mainly entropy-driven.

  4. Diversity in the ability of Agaricus bisporus wild isolates to fruit at high temperature (25°C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Callac, Philippe; Navarro-Rodriguez, Anna-Maria; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-11-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus commercially cultivated requires 16-19 °C during the fruiting period. Wild strains are also present in natural habitat, and in light of their wide range of geographic distribution reported, from boreal region to tropical region, questions on the development adaptation to temperature arose. Isolates from various geographic areas were screened for their ability to fruit at higher temperature (FHT ability) than commercial cultivars. The FHT trait discriminated at the varietal rank. Agaricus bisporus var. eurotetrasporus was unable to develop any sporophores whilst A. bisporus var. burnettii adapted perfectly to 25 °C for fruiting, suggesting that the FHT ability is a fixed trait in these varieties. In contrast, FHT ability of A. bisporus var. bisporus appeared variable and correlated neither with climate/microclimate nor with habitat. However, FHT ability taken as a whole appeared higher in North American populations than in European ones. Some A. bisporus var. bisporus isolates revealed a good potential for cultivation at 25 °C.

  5. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Ji; Chen, Hai-Yan; Fan, Lin-Lin; Jiao, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Qi-He; Jiao, Ying-Chun

    2015-09-25

    With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg) prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses.

  6. Effects of sesame and bitter almond seed oils on mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kalyoncu, Ismail Hakki

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus from Nigde University Mushroom Research Centre (Aksaray-Nigde was monitored in malt extract agar medium containing sesame or bitter almond seed oils. With 1 % sesame oil, highest growth was established and less growth period was determined as 27.4 days. All of the samples with sesame oil showed better growth according to the control, being the stimulative effect of sesame oil higher than that of bitter almond oil.

    El crecimiento secundario de micelios de Agaricus bisporus del Centro de Investigación de Hongos de la Universidad de Nigde (Aksaray-Nigde se siguió en agar con extracto de malta conteniendo aceites de semillas de almendra amarga o sésamo. El mayor crecimiento se obtuvo con aceite de sésamo al 1%, y el periodo más corto para dicho crecimiento se estableció en 27.4 días. Todas las muestras con aceite de sésamo mostraron mejor crecimiento que el control, siendo el efecto estimulante del aceite de sésamo mayor que el del aceite de almendra amarga.

  7. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ji Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p < 0.05. With such excellent activities, we purified the polysaccharide and analyzed its molecular weight (120 kDa as well as monosaccharide components (glucose, fructose and mannose. This study indicated that wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses

  8. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 10(8) CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 10(8) CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation.

  9. NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus: biochemical and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, M A; Müller, Y; Baars, J J; Op den Camp, H J; van der Drift, C; Van Griensven, L J; Visser, J; Schaap, P J

    1999-04-01

    The NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) of Agaricus bisporus, a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism, was purified to homogeneity. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme is 474 kDa comprising four subunits of 116 kDa. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is about 7.0. Km values for ammonium, 2-oxoglutarate, NADH, glutamate and NAD+ were 6.5, 3.5, 0.06, 37.1 and 0.046 mM, respectively. The enzyme is specific for NAD(H). The gene encoding this enzyme (gdhB) was isolated from an A. bisporus H39 recombinant lambda phage library. The deduced amino acid sequence specifies a 1029-amino acid protein with a deduced molecular mass of 115,463 Da, which displays a significant degree of similarity with NAD-GDH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. The ORF is interrupted by fifteen introns. Northern analysis combined with enzyme activity measurements suggest that NAD-GDH from A. bisporus is regulated by the nitrogen source. NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on glutamate were higher than NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on ammonium as a nitrogen source. Combined with the kinetic parameters, these results suggest a catabolic role for NAD-GDH. However, upon addition of ammonium to the culture transcription of the gene is not repressed as strongly as that of the gene encoding NADP-GDH (gdhA). To date, tetrameric NAD-GDHs with large subunits, and their corresponding genes, have only been isolated from a few species. This enzyme represents the first NAD-GDH of basidiomycete origin to be purified and is the first such enzyme from basidiomycetes whose sequence has been determined.

  10. Genetic variation and combining ability analysis of bruising sensitivity in Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Advanced button mushroom cultivars that are less sensitive to mechanical bruising are required by the mushroom industry, where automated harvesting still cannot be used for the fresh mushroom market. The genetic variation in bruising sensitivity (BS of Agaricus bisporus was studied through an incomplete set of diallel crosses to get insight in the heritability of BS and the combining ability of the parental lines used and, in this way, to estimate their breeding value. To this end nineteen homokaryotic lines recovered from wild strains and cultivars were inter-crossed in a diallel scheme. Fifty-one successful hybrids were grown under controlled conditions, and the BS of these hybrids was assessed. BS was shown to be a trait with a very high heritability. The results also showed that brown hybrids were generally less sensitive to bruising than white hybrids. The diallel scheme allowed to estimate the general combining ability (GCA for each homokaryotic parental line and to estimate the specific combining ability (SCA of each hybrid. The line with the lowest GCA is seen as the most attractive donor for improving resistance to bruising. The line gave rise to hybrids sensitive to bruising having the highest GCA value. The highest negative SCA possibly indicates heterosis effects for resistance to bruising. This study provides a foundation for estimating breeding value of parental lines to further study the genetic factors underlying bruising sensitivity and other quality-related traits, and to select potential parental lines for further heterosis breeding. The approach of studying combining ability in a diallel scheme was used for the first time in button mushroom breeding.

  11. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  12. Purification and Characterization of β-Glucosidase from Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ašić, Adna; Bešić, Larisa; Muhović, Imer; Dogan, Serkan; Turan, Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    β-Glucosidase (β-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) is a catalytic enzyme present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that selectively catalyzes either the linkage between two glycone residues or between glycone and aryl or alkyl aglycone residue. Growing edible mushrooms in the soil with increased cellulose content can lead to the production of glucose, which is a process dependent on β-glucosidase. In this study, β-glucosidase was isolated from Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) using ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, giving 10.12-fold purification. Biochemical properties of the enzyme were investigated and complete characterization was performed. The enzyme is a dimer with two subunits of approximately 46 and 62 kDa. Optimum pH for the enzyme is 4.0, while the optimum temperature is 55 °C. The enzyme was found to be exceptionally thermostable. The most suitable commercial substrate for this enzyme is p-NPGlu with Km and Vmax values of 1.751 mM and 833 U/mg, respectively. Enzyme was inhibited in a competitive manner by both glucose and δ-gluconolactone with IC50 values of 19.185 and 0.39 mM, respectively and Ki values of 9.402 mM and 7.2 µM, respectively. Heavy metal ions that were found to inhibit β-glucosidase activity are I(-), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Ag(+), and Cu(2+). This is the first study giving complete biochemical characterization of A. bisporus β-glucosidase.

  13. Pathogenic variation in isolates of Pseudomonas causing the brown blotch of cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abou-Zeid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven bacterial isolates were isolated from superficial brown discolorations on the caps of cultivated Agaricus bisporus. After White Line Assay (WLA and the assist of Biolog computer-identification system, isolates were divided into groups: (I comprised ninteen bacterial isolates that positively responded to a Pseudomonas "reactans" reference strain (NCPPB1311 in WLA and were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasii, (II comprised two isolates which were WLA+ towards the reference strain (JCM21583 of P. tolaasii and were proposed to be P. "reactans". The third group comprised six isolates, two of which weakly responded to the strain of P. tolaasii and were identified as P. gingeri whereas the other four were WLA- and identified as P. fluorescens (three isolates and P. marginalis (one isolate. Isolates of P. tolaasii showed high aggressiveness compared with those of P. "reactans" in pathogenicity tests. Cubes of 1 cm³ of A. bisporus turned brown and decreased in size when were inoculated with 10 µl of P. tolaasii suspension containing 10(8 CFU ml-1, whereas a similar concentration of P. "reactans" caused only light browning. Fifty µl of the same concentration of P. tolaasii isolates gave typical brown blotch symptoms on fresh mushroom sporophores whereas the two P. "reactans" isolates caused superficial light discoloration only after inoculation with 100 µl of the same concentration. Mixture from both bacterial suspensions increased the brown areas formed on the pileus. This is the first pathogenicity report of P. tolasii and P. "reactans" isolated from cultivated A. bisporus in Egypt.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of the interactions between Agaricus bisporus and Lecanicillium fungicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andy M; Collopy, Patrick D; Thomas, D John; Sergeant, Martin R; Costa, Ana M S B; Barker, Gary L A; Mills, Peter R; Challen, Michael P; Foster, Gary D

    2013-06-01

    Agaricus bisporus is susceptible to a number of diseases, particularly those caused by fungi, with Lecanicillium fungicola being the most serious. Control of this disease is important for the security of crop production, however given the lack of knowledge about fungal-fungal interactions, such disease control is rather limited. Exploiting the recently released genome sequence of A. bisporus, here we report studies simultaneously investigating both the host and the pathogen, focussing on transcriptional changes associated with the cap spotting lesions typically seen in this interaction. Forward-suppressive subtractive hybridisation (SSH) analysis identified 68 A. bisporus unigenes induced during infection. Chitin deacetylase showed the strongest response, with almost 1000-fold up-regulation during infection, so was targeted for down-regulation by silencing to see if it was involved in defence against L. fungicola. Transgenic lines were made expressing hairpin RNAi constructs, however no changes in susceptibility to L. fungicola were observed. Amongst the other up-regulated genes there were none with readily apparent roles in resisting infection in this susceptible interaction. Reverse-SSH identified 72 unigenes from A. bisporus showing reduced expression, including two tyrosinases, several genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and a hydrophobin. The forward-SSH analysis of infected mushrooms also yielded 64 unigenes which were not of A. bisporus origin and thus derived from L. fungicola. An EST analysis of infection-mimicking conditions generated an additional 623 unigenes from L. fungicola including several oxidoreductases, cell wall degrading enzymes, ABC and MFS transporter proteins and various other genes believed to play roles in other pathosystems. Together, this analysis shows how both the pathogen and the host modify their gene expression during an infection-interaction, shedding some light on the disease process, although we note that some 40% of unigenes

  15. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Lu

    Full Text Available Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  16. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; D' Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I{sup -}) and 32 kGy/h (I{sup +}). Both I{sup +} and I{sup -} showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L{sup *} value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L{sup *} value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I{sup -}. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I{sup -} contained more phenols than I{sup +} and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered (p{<=}0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I{sup +}. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I{sup +}, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly (p{<=}0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I{sup -} than in I{sup +}. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I{sup +} was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I{sup +} than in I{sup -}.

  17. A note on challenge trials to determine the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Dara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if the number of micro-organisms does not exceed 100 colony forming units (cfu/g throughout its shelf-life. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Guidelines for conducting challenge tests for growth assessment of L. monocytogenes on foods were published by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL in 2014. The aim of this study was to use these guidelines to determine if refrigerated, fresh, whole, closed-cap, prepackaged mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus support the growth of L. monocytogenes. Three batches of mushrooms were artificially inoculated at approximately 100 cfu/g with a three-strain mix of L. monocytogenes and incubated for 2 days at 8°C followed by 4 days at 12°C. L. monocytogenes numbers were determined (in triplicate for each batch on days 0, 2 and 6. Water activity, pH and total bacterial counts were also determined. There was no increase in the number of L. monocytogenes above the threshold of 0.5 log cfu/g in any of the replicates. In 8 of 9 replicates, the numbers decreased indicating that A. bisporus do not support the growth of L. monocytogenes. As the EU regulations allow < 100 cfu/g if the food cannot support growth of L. monocytogenes, the significance of this study is that mushrooms with < 100 cfu/g may be within the regulations and therefore, quantitative rather than qualitative determination may be required.

  18. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  19. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, F T G S; Camelini, C M; Cordeiro, M N S; Mascarello, A; Malagoli, B G; Larsen, I V; Rossi, M J; Nunes, R J; Braga, F C; Brandt, C R; Simões, C M O

    2013-06-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurring during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14% sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm(-1) in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1→6)-(1→3)-β-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1→3)-β-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1→3)-β-D-gluco-(1→2)-β-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC₅₀=605.6 μg/mL) and MI-S (EC₅₀=342.1 μg/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC₅₀>1500 μg/mL).

  20. Optimization of chemical sulfation, structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of Agaricus bisporus fucogalactan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-08-01

    A fucogalactan (E) was isolated from aqueous extract of Agaricus bisporus. The monosaccharide composition, methylation, and NMR analyses showed it is constituted by a (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp main-chain, partially methylated at O-3, and partially substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end-units of α-l-Fucp or α-d-Galp. HPSEC analysis showed it had Mw of 1.28×10(4)gmol(-1). The polysaccharide was sulfated modifying reaction time, molar ratio of sulfation agent to hydroxyl group on the polysaccharide (ηClSO3H/OH ratio), and ratio of total reaction volume to weight of sample (VT/w ratio; μLmg(-1)). The degree of substitution (DS) was evaluated for all sulfated derivatives. The sulfated fucogalactan with the highest DS value (2.83) had the best anticoagulant activity on Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Protrombin Time (PT) assays. This sulfated fucogalactan, named E100, was obtained with the optimal conditions of ηClSO3H/OH ratio of 18, VT/w ratio of 100, in 6h of reaction. The results showed that E100 produces a linear increment of APTT for concentrations of 15-45μgmL(-1), whereas PT was almost constant between 20 and 400μgmL(-1), suggesting an anticoagulant activity via inhibition of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. NMR and methylation analyses showed that α-d-Galp units of the main chain were greatly sulfated on 2-O-, 3-O-, and 4-O-positions.

  1. Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase: influence of covalent FAD linkage on catalysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krondorfer, Iris; Brugger, Dagmar; Paukner, Regina; Scheiblbrandner, Stefan; Pirker, Katharina F; Hofbauer, Stefan; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2014-09-15

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a monomeric flavoprotein belonging to the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) family of oxidoreductases. It catalyzes the oxidation of free, non-phosphorylated sugars to the corresponding keto sugars. The enzyme harbors an FAD cofactor that is covalently attached to histidine 103 via an 8α-N(3) histidyl linkage. Our previous work showed that variant H103Y was still able to bind FAD (non-covalently) and perform catalysis but steady-state kinetic parameters for several substrates were negatively affected. In order to investigate the impact of the covalent FAD attachment in Agaricus meleagris PDH in more detail, pre-steady-state kinetics, reduction potential and stability of the variant H103Y in comparison to the wild-type enzyme were probed. Stopped-flow analysis revealed that the mutation slowed down the reductive half-reaction by around three orders of magnitude whereas the oxidative half-reaction was affected only to a minor degree. This was reflected by a decrease in the standard reduction potential of variant H103Y compared to the wild-type protein. The existence of an anionic semiquinone radical in the resting state of both the wild-type and variant H103Y was demonstrated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and suggested a higher mobility of the cofactor in the variant H103Y. Unfolding studies showed significant negative effects of the disruption of the covalent bond on thermal and conformational stability. The results are discussed with respect to the role of covalently bound FAD in catalysis and stability.

  2. Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Sierra- Fernandez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño. Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente.The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on

  3. Violencia contra sindicalistas en medio del conflicto armado colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Echandía Castilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la violencia contra sindicalistas en medio del conflicto armado colombiano pone al descubierto el carácter selectivo y sistemático de una violencia deliberada que busca debilitar, neutralizar, desarticular o cooptar a las organizaciones sociales, reducir su capacidad de presión y acallar sus reivindicaciones. Los homicidios de sindicalistas se han reducido en los últimos años debido a la desmovilización de parte del componente de las autodefensas y al repliegue de las guerrillas, y a su salida de zonas que disputaban con los paramilitares. Las bandas criminales también asesinan sindicalistas, pero en menor número.

  4. La lucha contra la pobreza, un problema internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Hillenkamp, Isabelle; Servet,, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    El artículo revisa siete décadas de ayuda al desarrollo y de lucha contra la pobreza, entendida primero a través de una comprensión global de los países «pobres» y luego en el contexto de una creciente conciencia de las disparidades entre países y de las desigualdades sociales internas. Se cubren así sucesivamente periodos tan diferentes como los inicios de la Guerra Fría y la descolonización, las grandes décadas del desarrollo de los años 1960 y 1970, bajo la influencia de las ideas keynesia...

  5. Batallas contra la lepra: estado, medicina y ciencia en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Miranda Canal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Diana Obregón Torres. Batallas contra la lepra: Estado, medicina y ciencia en Colombia, Medellín: Banco de la República / EAFIT, 2002, pp. 436. La historia de las ciencias y de la medicina en Colombia tiene sus orígenes en dos obras que aparecen en el siglo XIX: la Memoria sobre el estudio de la batán/ca en la Nueva Granada de Florentino Vezga (incluida en el primer número del Boletín de la Sociedad de Naturalistas Neogranadinos, en 1860 y las Memorias para la historia de la medicina en Santafé de Bogotá de Pedro María Ibáñez (publicada por la Imprenta de Vapor de Zalamea Hermanos, en 1884.

  6. Tratamiento contra la rabia humana: un poco de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión histórica del tratamiento utilizado contra la rabia humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el momento actual. Pretende hacer una analogía entre el concepto de causa predominante en la época y el tipo de tratamiento utilizado. Los griegos antiguos tenían la diosa Artemisa como sanadora de la rabia y ya utilizaban la cauterización de la herida. Los pueblos del siglo I conocían la capacidad infecciosa en la saliva de perros rabiosos, llamando a ese material de veneno virus (en latín. En la Edad Media, cuando prevalecía un concepto mágico y religioso de la salud, el gran protector era San Humberto. Con el Renacimiento surgen nuevamente muchos experimentos y avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad, que sentaron las bases para los importantes hallazgos en el futuro próximo. En esa época predominaba la teoría miasmática y del contagio. Pasteur fue un grande opositor de la espontaneidad de la rabia. A finales del siglo XIX, con los descubrimientos microbianos, Pasteur hizo la gran revolución científica en relación al tratamiento contra la rabia, que es la vacuna. Las vacunas pueden actualmente ser de tipo nervioso o no, variando también el numero de dosis recomendadas. Se han desarrollado muchos estudios sobre vacunas, siendo la más utilizada en América Latina del tipo Fuenzalida y Palacios, y la recomendada actualmente por la OMS es la de cultivo celular.

  7. Tratamiento contra la rabia humana: un poco de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Maria Cristina

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión histórica del tratamiento utilizado contra la rabia humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el momento actual. Pretende hacer una analogía entre el concepto de causa predominante en la época y el tipo de tratamiento utilizado. Los griegos antiguos tenían la diosa Artemisa como sanadora de la rabia y ya utilizaban la cauterización de la herida. Los pueblos del siglo I conocían la capacidad infecciosa en la saliva de perros rabiosos, llamando a ese material de veneno virus (en latín. En la Edad Media, cuando prevalecía un concepto mágico y religioso de la salud, el gran protector era San Humberto. Con el Renacimiento surgen nuevamente muchos experimentos y avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad, que sentaron las bases para los importantes hallazgos en el futuro próximo. En esa época predominaba la teoría miasmática y del contagio. Pasteur fue un grande opositor de la espontaneidad de la rabia. A finales del siglo XIX, con los descubrimientos microbianos, Pasteur hizo la gran revolución científica en relación al tratamiento contra la rabia, que es la vacuna. Las vacunas pueden actualmente ser de tipo nervioso o no, variando también el numero de dosis recomendadas. Se han desarrollado muchos estudios sobre vacunas, siendo la más utilizada en América Latina del tipo Fuenzalida y Palacios, y la recomendada actualmente por la OMS es la de cultivo celular.

  8. Performance and Internal Flow of Sirocco Fan Using Contra-Rotating Rotors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Fukutomi; T.Shigemitsu; T. Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    A sirocco fan using contra-rotating rotors in which an inner rotor is settled inside the sirocco fan rotor end each rotor rotates in an opposite direction was proposed for the purpose of getting the higher pressure and making the structure of a sirocco fan more compact. If the high discharge pressure is obtained with the adoption of the contra-rotating rotors, it could be used for various purposes. Pressure coefficient of a sirocco fan with contra-rotating rotors is 2.5 times as high as the conventional sirocco fan and the maximum efficiency point of contra-rotating rotors shifts to larger flow rate than a conventional sirocco fan. On the other hand, it was clarified from the flow measurement results that circumferential velocity component at the outlet of the outer rotor of contra-rotating rotors becomes larger than a conventional one. In the present paper, the performance of a conventional sirocco fan and a sirocco fan with contra-rotating rotors are shown and the internal flow field at the outlet of outer rotor of both cases is clarified. Then, the effect of different kind of contra-rotating rotors on the performance and internal flow field is investigated and the rotor design with higher performanco would be discussed.

  9. GOL CONTRA! MAS... CONTRA QUEM? A LINGÜÍSTICA DE CORPUS E OS EQUIVALENTES DE TRADUÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Almeida Seemann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo é mostrar como a Lingüística de Corpus pode ajudar o tradutor na busca por equivalentes tradutórios entre dois idiomas através de corpora comparáveis. Para exemplificar, procuramos equivalentes em espanhol para o termo “gol contra”, usado no Brasil com o sentido de o gol que um jogador de futebol faz contra o próprio time. Os corpora compostos de textos publicados em jornais do Brasil, da Espanha e da Argentina forneceram exemplos reais de uso, extraídos com o auxílio de ferramentas eletrônicas, e revelaram as formas como espanhóis e argentinos se referem ao “gol contra”.

  10. Effect of the gas absorbing agent on preservation of agaricus bisporus%气体吸收剂对双孢菇贮藏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜传来; 韩玲玲

    2011-01-01

    为保持双孢菇贮藏品质、延长货架期,研究气调包装对双孢菇保鲜效果的影响.采用不同浓度配比的气体吸收剂和不同厚度聚乙烯薄膜对双孢菇进行包装,置于4℃下贮藏,定期测定双孢菇的表面颜色,呼吸强度、失重率、硬度、PPO、POD活性的变化.结果表明:采用组成为1.44 g脱氧剂、0.5 g乙烯脱除荆,1.2 g二氧化碳脱除剂的气体吸收剂及厚度为0.05 mm的聚乙烯薄膜,对双孢菇贮藏中的褐变具有明显的抑制作用,能够有效降低双孢蘑菇呼吸强度,延长双孢菇的贮藏保鲜期.%In order to keep the quality and increase shelf life of Agaricus bisporus, the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on quality of Agaricus bisporus was studied. Agaricus bisporus were packaged in different initial gas absorbing concentration and different thickness of polyethylene film,then stored at 4 ℃ respectively, and surface color, respiration intensity, weight loss, hardness, PPO and POD's activity were determined regularly. The different content of gas absorbent and different thickness of polyethylene film were used to pack the fresh Agaricus bisporus, and then put up fresh-keeping tests with low-temperature. The results showed that, 1.44 g deoxidizer, 0.5 g ethylene scavengers, 1.2 g carbon dioxide scavengers, and 0. 05 mm polyethylene film had a clear inhibition on the browning of Agaricus bisporus, and could effectively reduce the respiration rate and prolong the storage life of Agaricus bisporus.

  11. 不同压块模式对双孢菇生产的影响%Effects of different briquetting modes on production of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿宇聪; 张涛; 刘宏斌; 翟丽梅; 杨波; 王洪媛

    2016-01-01

    In China, the technology ofAgaricus bisporus cultivation was so traditional that the production orAgaricus bisporus was not high. The technology ofAgaricus bisporus cultivation need to be promoted urgently, especially in Erhai River Basin of China. In early time, the production process ofAgaricus bisporus substrate was very simple. In our research, the briquetting method in substrate was developed to promote the utilization efficiency of edible mushrooms substrate. Three schemes were setup, scheme 1, traditional technology with 350 kg / m3Compaction, scheme 2,400 kg / m3 briquetting method and scheme 3,500 kg / m3briquetting method. The fruiting time, unit yield, conversion rate, cultivated area and total yield of Agaricus bisporus have been studied in this research, aim to provide theoretical basis for the practical application of the briquetting method. It is an important index to evaluate the quality of the substrate to affect the production efficiency of the Agaricus bisporus. The results showed that the fruiting time was 36 d by scheme 1, and it is 38 d by scheme 2 and 3. The distinction of two days would not affect theAgaricus bisporus production. The unit yield of scheme 1, 2 and 3 were 0.198, 0.205 and 0.279 kg / kg, respectively. The most obvious enhancement of unit yield was scheme 3 with the unit yield enhanced by 40.9%. The conversion rate ofAgaricus bisporus by scheme 1 was 30.2 %. The conversion rate of scheme 2 was reduced to 27.9%. Although there was a certain degree of improvement in the yield by scheme 2, the nutrients in the substrate were not fully utilized. The conversion rate ofAgaricus bisporus by scheme 3 was 28.6%, which was higher than that of scheme 2, but also lower than tradition method. If the conversion rate of the level can be further improved, further enhanced production will be achieved. It is demonstrated that the technology of briquetting method still has a certain potential in the improvement of the substrate utilization and

  12. Prevención contra las drogas Prevention against drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jiménez Herrera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar de manera general algunos aspectos relacionados al tema de la prevención contra las drogas. Metodología: Identificación y revisión de artículos de las bases de datos: EBRARY, E-Libro, EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct y Springer Link, con la intención de organizar la información encontrada en las secciones siguientes: contexto general, factores involucrados en el uso y abuso de las drogas, acciones - políticas - prevención contra las drogas y hacia dónde va la investigación. Resultados: Aunque existe una variedad de conceptos relacionados con las drogas, algunos de ellos siguen en discusión dados los múltiples factores involucrados en el proceso. En los últimos años han ocurrido pocos cambios en la oferta y la demanda, pero el consumo entre hombres y mujeres tiende a igualarse, mientras el consumo inicia a edades más tempranas. Se sabe que existen factores protectores y de riesgo que median el uso, abuso y dependencia de las drogas, pero los jóvenes representan el grupo más vulnerable a los efectos de las drogas. Se realizan esfuerzos en muchos sectores pero de una manera no homogénea ni armónica y aunque ha habido esfuerzos por lograr prevención, en especial en el escenario educativo, hay factores que dificultan esta labor. Se evidencia la necesidad de contar con más investigación que permita orientar las distintas acciones para sopesar los efectos dentro del complejo mundo de las drogas Conclusión: Ante el complejo fenómeno de las drogas, se requiere conocer los distintos componentes involucrados para que puedan ser abordados de manera integral. La revisión permitió realizar un acercamiento al tema de prevención contra las drogas.Objective: To explore of general way some aspects related to the subject of the prevention against drugs. Methodology: Identification and article revision of the data bases: EBRARY, E-Libro, EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct and Springer Link, with the intention to organize

  13. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Spray Drying Powders from Stropharia rugoso-annulata and Agaricus brunnescens Blanching Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant retention rate of spray drying powders from blanching liquids of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (BLS and Agaricus brunnescens (BLA. Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the powder were examined in order to better determine potential applications of powders. Carrier agents could improve the qualities of the spray drying BLS powders and BLA powders and &beta-Cyclodextrin (&beta-CD was more suitable as carrier agent than Maltodextrin (MD. The powder had higher flour yield and antioxidant retention rate while &beta-CD addition rate was 44.44 g/100 g (w/w.Proximate composition and total phenolics were performed. The powder was ranging from 5 and 30 μm in particle size with spherical particle morphology. BLA powders had higher antioxidant activity (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability than BLS powder.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian; Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich; Rompel, Annette

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] · 22H2O as a co-crystallization agent.

  15. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  16. Dynamics of cap opening in Agaricus bisporus and changes in spore numbers vs. cap opening and radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E.; Voeroes, Zs.; Farkas, J. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1981-01-01

    The spore count in Agaricus bisporus treated with radiation doses of 1.5 and 2.5 kGy was studied as a function of cap opening and radiation treatment (at 14-16 deg C and RH 80-90%). It was established that spore formation starts in the mushroom while the cap is still closed and the opening of the pileus starts when the spore number begins to increase. In treated mushrooms not only the cap remains closed but in lack of the development of gills the development of spores is also inhibited. Maturation retardation becomes apparent in the inhibition of the increase in number and of the darkening of the spores.

  17. Advances in structure-function relationships of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus - investigation on heat-induced conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioniţă, Elena; Aprodu, Iuliana; Stănciuc, Nicoleta; Râpeanu, Gabriela; Bahrim, Gabriela

    2014-08-01

    A combination of fluorescence spectroscopic measurements, inactivation kinetics and in silico prediction was used in the present study to investigate the heat induced behaviour of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. The phase diagram indicated the existence of at least two distinct species induced by the temperature increase up to 75°C. Regardless of calcium ion presence, the fluorescence intensity results suggest that tyrosinase tends to form aggregates after 10min at 75°C. The quenching experiments using acrylamide and iodide demonstrate a more flexible conformation of tyrosinase at higher temperature. Detailed insights into tyrosinase structure after performing molecular dynamics simulations, suggest important structural rearrangements of the protein with the temperature increase. The copper coordinating His(94) residue was predicted to be involved in salt bridge formation with Glu(98), therefore causing significant alteration of the substrate binding site with increasing temperature. These significant changes in tyrosinase structure at temperatures over 60°C might lead to enzyme inactivation.

  18. Comparison of the effect of two types of whole mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kamada, Takeo; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Han, Kyu-Ho; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-10-01

    The effects of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; white, WM; brown, BM) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats were investigated in terms of the physical characteristics of animals and by bacterial and HPLC analyses of cecal contents. Short-chain fatty acid levels were found to be significantly higher in the WM group than in the BM and the control (CN) groups; coliform bacteria levels in the BM group were significantly lower than those in the CN group, with the WM group inducing an apparent but insignificant decrease in coliforms. Anaerobe levels in the WM group were significantly higher than those in the CN group and, compared with the CN group, the BM and WM groups exhibited significantly increased feces weight and cecum weight, respectively. These results indicate that the mushroom powders, and in particular the WM powder, have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment in rats.

  19. The fungistatic activity of organic selenium and its application to the production of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of organic selenium against pathogenic molds and its use as a potential selenium source in the production of enriched mushrooms were examined. The effect of commercial selenized yeast on mycelia growth was examined using a method with mycelia disks and a well diffusion method. For mushroom enrichment, different concentrations of selenium were added to a growth substrate. The results presented in this paper suggest that the most suitable concentration of selenized yeast that inhibits the growth of the mycopathogenic molds is 70-100 mg/kg of selenium. With the addition of this concentration to the substrate, mushroom fruit bodies will uptake a high level of selenium, about 100 μg/g for Pleurotus spp., and 200 μg/g for Agaricus bisporus in dry weight of the mushroom. Thereby a double effect in the cultivation of mushrooms is achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 and br. III46001

  20. Improving selenium extraction by sequential enzymatic processes for Se-speciation of selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dernovics, M.; Stefanka, Z.; Fodor, P. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science, Szent Istvan University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-02-01

    Sample preparation methods based on the use of proteolytic and cell wall digesting enzymes for the speciation analysis of selenized mushroom were investigated. The sample (Agaricus bisporus; 160 {mu}g total Se per g sample) was grown on compost supplemented with selenized yeast. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the possible role of the cell wall digesting enzymes - Lysing enzyme and Driselase - in the improvement of extraction efficiency with and without inhibiting proteolysis during cell wall digestion. A 3-step procedure applying Lysing enzyme and pronase gave the highest extraction efficiency (89%); however, the best species recovery was achieved by a one-step proteolytic procedure. All the procedures of selenium speciation were controlled by independent ICP-AES analysis measuring the total amount of selenium. (orig.)

  1. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Jurak

    Full Text Available In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S to guaiacyl (G units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  2. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies.

  3. Una aproximación al concepto de crímenes contra la humanidad

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    José Manuel Díaz Soto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo explora el concepto de “crímenes contra la humanidad”, a partir de una revisión histórica y del análisis de los distintos instrumentos internacionales que han consagrado esta categoría normativa. De igual modo, pretende ilustrar al lector acerca de la teoría de los crímenes contra la humanidad formulada por el profesor de la Universidad de Georgetown David J. Luban, para quien el rasgo definidor de estos delitos es que atentan contra la naturaleza política del ser humano. Por último, se destaca la influencia del pensamiento de Luban en la reciente jurisprudencia de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Colombia acerca de los crímenes contra la humanidad.

  4. Regulation of three genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes of Trichoderma aggressivum during interaction with Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubaker, Kamal S; Sjaarda, Calvin; Castle, Alan J

    2013-06-01

    Members of the genus Trichoderma are very effective competitors of a variety of fungi. Cell-wall-degrading enzymes, including proteinases, glucanases, and chitinases, are commonly secreted as part of the competitive process. Trichoderma aggressivum is the causative agent of green mould disease of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The structures of 3 T. aggressivum genes, prb1 encoding a proteinase, ech42 encoding an endochitinase, and a β-glucanase gene, were determined. Promoter elements in the prb1 and ech42 genes suggested that transcription is regulated by carbon and nitrogen levels and by stress. Both genes had mycoparasitism-related elements indicating potential roles for the protein products in competition. The promoter of the β-glucanase gene contained CreA and AreA binding sites indicative of catabolite regulation but contained no mycoparasitism elements. Transcription of the 3 genes was measured in mixed cultures of T. aggressivum and A. bisporus. Two A. bisporus strains, U1, which is sensitive to green mould disease, and SB65, which shows some resistance, were used in co-cultivation tests to assess possible roles of the genes in disease production and severity. prb1 and ech42 were coordinately upregulated after 5 days, whereas β-glucanase transcription was upregulated from day 0 with both Agaricus strains. Upregulation was much less pronounced in mixed cultures of T. aggressivum with the resistant strain, SB65, than with the sensitive strain, U1. These observations suggested that the proteins encoded by these genes have roles in both nutrition and in severity of green mould disease.

  5. Papel de los anticuerpos en la protección contra micobacterium tuberculosis

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    Nesty Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Convencionalmente se asume que la defensa del hospedero contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis se basa en los mecanismos de inmunidad celular exclusivamente y se descarta el papel de los anticuerpos en la protección. En este trabajo se analizan evidencias recientes que retan este dogma y sugieren la importancia de considerar la manipulación de la respuesta inmune humoral como una alternativa en la investigación de vacunas contra la tuberculosis.

  6. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  7. Efectividad del tratamiento de la violencia contra la pareja en pacientes drogodependientes

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    Javier Fernández-Montalvo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la efectividad de los programas de tratamiento psicológico para drogodependientes, que presentan conductas violentas contra la pareja. Para ello, se revisan, en primer lugar, los estudios que valoran la influencia del tratamiento habitual sobre las adicciones y la reducción de las conductas violentas contra la pareja. En segundo lugar, se analizan los resultados de los programas de intervención conjunta que se han desarrollado hasta la fecha, en el ámbito internacional, en los centros de tratamiento para la adicción con drogodependientes que ejercen, además, violencia contra la pareja. Los resultados muestran, por una parte, que la intervención con pacientes adictos produce una disminución importante en la tasa de violencia contra la pareja asociada a la adicción. Por otra parte, los programas de intervención con adicciones constituyen un marco de gran utilidad para aplicar, de forma conjunta, tratamientos específicos para aquellos adictos con un problema asociado de violencia contra la pareja. Los resultados de estos programas de intervención muestran los mejores datos en la reducción de la tasa de violencia contra la pareja de los pacientes adictos. Se comentan las implicaciones de todo ello para la práctica clínica y para las investigaciones futuras.

  8. 双孢蘑菇酶促褐变特性及褐变的控制%Enzymatic Browning Characteristics and Control of Button Mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 王健; 朱继英; 赵亚

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively inhibit enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus,effects of pH values,temperature,substrate concentration and inhibitors on polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activity from Agaricus bisporus were studied.The results showed that the optimum pH value and temperature for PPO activity from Agaricus bisporus were 6.8 and 15-20℃ using pyrocatechol as substrate.The Michaelis constant of PPO was Km = 0.1072 mol/L.Computational imaging analysis showed that mixture of 0.30 mmol/L sodium sulfite,0.06% ascorbic acid and 0.05% acetic acid had effective inhibition on enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus.%为有效控制双孢蘑菇褐变,研究pH值、温度、底物浓度以及抑制剂对双孢蘑菇的多酚氧化酶(polyphenoloxidase,PPO)活性的影响。结果表明:以邻苯二酚为底物,双孢蘑菇PPO最适反应pH6.8,最适反应温度20℃,最适反应底物浓度为0.06mol/L,米氏常数Km为0.1072mol/L。采用计算机图像处理技术对双孢蘑菇褐变程度进行定量检测,得出对双孢蘑菇贮藏保鲜效果较好的褐变抑制剂及其最佳配比为0.30mmol/L半胱氨酸、0.06%抗坏血酸、0.05%乙酸。

  9. The effect of process parameters and microstructural changes on a new convenience food - quick-frozen paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Wen; Chang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2015-03-01

    The technology of quick-freezing paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was studied and optimized. The best microwave pretreatment condition for 1 cm slices, regarding color protection, was 5.4 W/g, for 55, 55-60 and 60 s for mushrooms with 3, 4 and 5 cm diameter caps respectively. For a batch of paste (668.2-1034.6 g), the process parameters considered were oil content (46.6-63.4 g), water content (381-562.6 g) and flour content (166-334 g) with a constant additional content of 30 g starch, 9 g baking powder, 2.6 g carrageenan, 30 g salt and 3 g pepper. These parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design. The optimal levels of the major paste components were 300 g flour, 432.5 g water and 50 g oil. The freezing time and sensory acceptability for paste-coated Agaricus bisporus(PCAB) under the optimized conditions were 7.49 min and 6.2 respectively. The freezing curves of PCAB were established at different temperatures and the freezing rates were calculated to find the freezing characteristics. In addition, the cell structure of PCAB, frozen at -75 °C, the lowest freezing temperature, and studied using transmission electron microscopy, was similar in quality to that of fresh Agaricus bisporus. The results suggested that Agaricus bisporus can be quick-frozen with a paste coating to produce an acceptable and nutritious convenience food.

  10. 响应面法优化姬松茸液体发酵培养基中红糖和酵母膏浓度%Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of the Concentration of Brown Sugar and Yeast Extract for Mycelial Biomass and Exopolysaccharide Yield of Agaricus blazei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范雷法; 潘慧娟; Soccol CR; Pandey A

    2005-01-01

    运用响应面分析法优化姬松茸液体发酵培养基中红糖和酵母膏浓度.结果表明,红糖浓度为20.24g/L、酵母膏浓度为2.055g/L时,菌丝体生物量最高,达2.279g/L;红糖浓度为20.8g/L、酵母膏浓度为2.23g/L时,胞外多糖产量最高,达0.749g/L.

  11. Selection of an Emulational Culture Formula for Agaricus blazei Murrill and Analysis of Amino Acid Constituents of Its Fruit Body%仿生态栽培姬松茸的配方筛选及其氨基酸分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海东; 林永生; 翁伯琦; 陈敏健; 江枝和

    2010-01-01

    以稻草、五节芒和圆叶决明及羊粪为栽培姬松茸的培养料进行不同配方处理的仿生态栽培.结果表明,15个配方中以A3(即20%稻草+30%五节芒+50%羊粪)的子实体产量最高,其次为配方B(即50%6五节芒+50%羊粪)和配方B1(40%五节芒+10%圆叶决明+50%羊粪).进一步比较用这3个配方栽培姬松茸时子实体中的氨基酸组成、含量及蛋白质的营养价值.发现配方B1栽培姬松茸时,这些成分的含量均优于其他2个配方,这一结果对姬松茸的栽培模式有重要意义.

  12. The Influence of Different Concentrations of Agaricus blazei Murill Polysaccharides on the Immune Activity of Macrophage RAW264.7%巴氏蘑菇多糖对巨噬细胞RAW264.7免疫活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云少君; 李晨光; 冯翠萍; 常明昌; 孟俊龙; 刘靖宇

    2015-01-01

    探讨不同浓度巴氏蘑菇多糖(ABPS)对巨噬细胞RAW264.7免疫活性的影响.以ABPS作用巨噬细胞RAW264.7 12,24 h和36 h,采用MTT法检测巨噬细胞的增殖.以ABPS及脂多糖(LPS)作用巨噬细胞RAW264.7 24 h,分别收集细胞培养上清和细胞,提取全细胞蛋白,检测iNOS含量.细胞培养上清用来检测NO生成量.结果表明:ABPS对巨噬细胞RAW264.7作用12,24 h和36 h后,与空白对照组相比,一定浓度的ABPS均可促进巨噬细胞RAW264.7的增殖,差异极显著(P<0.01).不同浓度的ABPS和LPS作用巨噬细胞RAW264.7 24 h后,除ABPS质量浓度为250 μg/mL时,iNOS生成量与阴性对照组无显著性差异外,其他浓度下iNOS及NO生成量均极显著高于阴性对照组(P<0.01).LPS作用后iNOS和NO的生成量极显著高于ABPS组(P<0.01),其中ABPS质量浓度为1 mg/mL时,NO的生成量显著低于LPS组(P<0.05).在一定浓度范围内,iNOS及NO生成量与ABPS浓度存在剂量效应.当ABPS质量浓度为1 mg/mL时,二者生成量最高.ABPS能够促进巨噬细胞RAW264.7的增殖及其产生iNOS和NO,对其免疫活性起正向调节作用.

  13. Pros y contras de la creación del Hospital contra el Cáncer en Costa Rica

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    Grettel Carolina Alfaro Campo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La relevancia que representa para el país la creación del hospital oncológico es controversial, porque se ha recibido amplia cobertura de los noticieros, donde se han hecho muy importantes denuncias, y parte de las poblaciones estudiadas para este trabajo, están en contra de este proyecto, 25 % de los médicos no le encuentra el beneficio directo. En cuanto a quien debería manejar dicho hospital, ambas poblaciones (medicas y civiles concordaron que la CCSS es el organismo que debe encargarse del manejo. Al ICCC ( Instituto Costarricense Contra el Cáncer se le ha relacionado solamente con la construcción del edificio del hospital que atienda el cáncer, pero la ley 7765 lo establece como órgano encargado de la investigación, capacitación, prevención y tratamiento de esta enfermedad, por lo que es necesario llevar a cabo un análisis financiero de costos que dé a conocer cuáles serían los beneficios y qué cambios implicaría la creación de un hospital oncológico, pero para que las cosas funcionen en orden, la transparencia y la comunicación se vuelven imprescindibles. A pesar de todo, es probable que la creación de este centro especializado en cáncer implique una diferencia significativa en la situación de salud del paciente con cáncer en nuestro país.The relevance that represents to the country the creation of the oncological hospital is controversial, because it has received a wide coverage by the news, where important denounces have been made, and part of the populations studied for this essay are against this project, 25 % of the medical doctors do not find a direct benefit. As to who has to lead the project, both populations (medical and civilian agree that the CCSS has to lead it. The ICCC (Costa Rican Institute Against Cancer has been associated with the construction of the facilities of the hospital that give attendance, but the law 7765 establishes it like the organism in charge of the investigation, capacitating

  14. Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However

  15. Crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus bisporus submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura = In vitro mycelium growth of five Agaricus bisporus strains submitted to different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01 de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultura sólidos à base de composto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições de quatro diâmetros das colônias, a cada 48h, durante 12 dias de incubação, no escuro, a 20 e 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que: o crescimento micelial de A. bisporus é influenciado pela temperatura de incubação; a temperatura de 25°C foi mais favorável para o crescimento micelial de todas as linhagens de A. bisporus; na temperatura de 20°C, o melhor crescimento foi obtido com as linhagens ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01; na temperatura de 25°C, a linhagem ABI-01/01 apresentou crescimento significativamente maior que todas as demais.The in vitro mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus strains ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 was evaluated in solidculture media made up of compost. Evaluations were performed by means of measurements of four diameters of the colonies, every 48 hours, during 12 days of incubation in darkness under 20 and 25ºC. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, using the Tukey test to compare averages. Based on the obtained results, it was verified that: mycelium growth of A. bisporus is influenced by the temperature of incubation; the temperature of 25°C was more favorable to the mycelium growth of all A. bisporus strains; under the temperature of 20°C, the best growth was obtained with strainsABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 and, under the temperature of 25°C, strain ABI-01/01 showed significantly higher growth than all other strains.

  16. Desarrollo de vacunas contra el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1: Relevancia de la inmunidad celular contra subtipos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Han pasado casi 30 años de la detección de los primeros casos de infección con HIV-1 y aún no se ha conseguido desarrollar una vacuna efectiva y segura. A pesar del impacto positivo sobre la pandemia que se ha conseguido gracias a los avances en la terapia antirretroviral (TARV, el HIV/sida sigue constituyendo un grave problema para la salud pública, especialmente en los países en desarrollo, donde es difícil el acceso al tratamiento. En el mundo, 33 millones de personas viven con el virus del sida, mientras que en la Argentina se calcula que habría unos 120 000 infectados. Uno de los desafíos para lograr una vacuna contra el HIV es la variabilidad viral. El grupo M, responsable de la pandemia, se encuentra dividido en 10 subtipos y varios sub-subtipos, además de las 48 formas recombinantes circulantes y más de cien formas recombinantes únicas. La epidemia de HIV en nuestro país es tan compleja como en el resto del mundo, con la co-circulación principalmente de virus pertenecientes al subtipo B y recombinantes BF (CRF12_BF y derivadas. A pesar de la cantidad de trabajos dedicados a la caracterización de la respuesta inmune y al desarrollo de vacunas, no queda claro cuál es el impacto de la variabilidad en la elección del antígeno. Trabajos realizados en nuestro laboratorio demuestran el papel que juega la inmunidad celular con respecto a las variantes recombinantes BF, tanto en humanos como en modelos animales. Estos resultados son de importancia en el desarrollo de futuras vacunas para nuestra región.

  17. Maus tratos contra crianças e adolescents Malos tratos contra niños y adolescentes Maltreatmens against children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Os maus-tratos contra a criança e o adolescente têm sido reconhecidos como um fenômeno crescente no mundo, mas cujo conhecimento ainda está em processo de construção em função de sua complexidade. O estudo apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica, cujo objetivo foi conhecer e divulgar os dados epidemiológicos acerca da violência praticada contra menores, bem como discutir o conhecimento da magnitude desses eventos, os fatores relacionados e as consequências para as vítimas. A literatura aponta para a abrangência e magnitude da violência praticada contra crianças e adolescentes e enfatiza a importância de se conhecer a natureza e a realidade acerca destes eventos a fim de se formar um diagnóstico que auxilie na elaboração e implantação de estratégias de prevenção e intervenção.Los malos tratos contra niños y adolescentes están recibiendo cada vez más atención debido a su creciente e inquietante papel en la morbimortalidad en diferentes partes del mundo. El estudio tuvo como objetivo presentar una revisión bibliográfica de los datos epidemiologicos acerca de la violencia contra niños y adolescentes, discutir la magnitud, factores relacionados e consecuencias para la víctimas. La literatura apunta para la magnitud de la violencia contra niños y adolescentes e enfatizan, aún, la importancia de conocer la naturaleza y la realidad acerca de los eventos a fin de formar un diagnóstico que dé auxilio en la elaboración e implantación de estrategias específicas de prevención e intervención.The maltreatments against children and adolescents are admitted as a crescent phenomenon in world, but its knowledge are in building process due to its complexity. This study show a revising the literature with aims know and publicise epidemiological data about the violence against children and adolescents, discuss the knowledge about magnitude of this violence, the related factors and the consequences for victims. The literature

  18. Avaliação in vivo da qualidade protéica do champignon do Brasil (Agaricusbrasiliensis Wasser et al.) In vivo protein quality evaluation of champignon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Simeone Henriques; Maria Lúcia Ferreira Simeone; Maria Angela Lopes de Almeida Amazonas

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O trabalho aqui descrito trata da avaliação de uma dieta experimental contendo Champingnon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis) como fonte de proteína em um modelo experimental de ratos. MÉTODOS: Para este propósito, foram selecionados 24 ratos Wistar machos, recém desmamados (21 dias) divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais cada, que foram alimentados com uma dieta padrão de caseína, ou com uma dieta experimental de proteína de Agaricus brasiliensis ambas contendo 10% de proteína e isoener...

  19. Internal Flow of Contra-Rotating Small Hydroturbine at Off- Design Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIGEMITSU, Toru; TAKESHIMA, Yasutoshi; OGAWA, Yuya; FUKUTOMI, Junichiro

    2016-11-01

    Small hydropower generation is one of important alternative energy, and enormous potential lie in the small hydropower. However, efficiency of small hydroturbines is lower than that of large one. Then, there are demands for small hydroturbines to keep high performance in wide flow rate range. Therefore, we adopted contra-rotating rotors, which can be expected to achieve high performance. In this research, performance of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine with 60mm casing diameter was investigated by an experiment and numerical analysis. Efficiency of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine was high in pico-hydroturbine and high efficiency could be kept in wide flow rate range, however the performance of a rear rotor decreased significantly in partial flow rates. Then, internal flow condition, which was difficult to measure experimentally, was investigated by the numerical flow analysis. Then, a relation between the performance and internal flow condition was considered by the numerical analysis result.

  20. Vacinas contra o Papilomavirus humano Vaccines against human Papillomavirus

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    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Infecção pelo HPV é mais comum entre indivíduos jovens e sexualmente ativos e é tão prevalente que 75 a 80% da população será infectada durante sua vida. A maioria das lesões cede espontaneamente ao ponto de não ser detectada nem com os métodos mais sensíveis. Preocupam as infecções persistentes com os HPV oncogênicos, que aumentam o risco da neoplasia intraepitelial e do câncer. Duas formas de prevenção foram propostas: o rastreamento das lesões precursoras e a imunização contra o HPV, para evitá-las. Embora a incidência do câncer genital venha diminuindo devido aos métodos de rastreamento, seu custo é elevado e os resultados anormais provocam significantes distúrbios emocionais. Logo, a prevenção das doenças relacionadas ao vírus deveria ser disponível sob a forma de vacinação. Na década passada, iniciaram-se os testes clínicos com várias vacinas que tinham como alvo os tipos comuns do HPV. As vacinas profiláticas evitam a infecção pelo HPV e suas doenças associadas e as terapêuticas induzem a regressão das lesões pré-cancerosas e a remissão do câncer invasivo. As primeiras são compostas pela proteína capsídeo L1 do HPV que se auto-reproduz em partículas virus-like (VLP quando expressa em sistemas recombinantes, induzindo forte resposta humoral com anticorpos neutralizadores. Determinam 100% de proteção contra a infecção pelos tipos específicos do HPV e impedem o aparecimento de neoplasias intraepiteliais de alto grau até pelo menos 5 anos após a imunização. A eficácia das vacinas feitas com as proteínas E6 e E7 também vem sendo pesquisada em modelos animais. As vacinas vêm mostrando maior efetividade quando administradas antes do início da atividade sexual e as campanhas de vacinação deverão ter como alvo as mulheres adolescentes e as pré-adolescentes. Espera-se, com o uso disseminado da vacina, que 70% dos cânceres cervicais sejam evitados, bem como a proporção das

  1. The effects of Agaricus sylvaticus fungi dietary supplementation on the metabolism and blood pressure of patients with colorectal cancer during post surgical phase Efectos de la suplementación dietética con hongos Agaricus sylvaticus en el metabolismo y la presión arterial en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal en la fase postoperatoria

    OpenAIRE

    R. Costa Fortes; M.ª R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic, biochemical and enzymatic alterations are common in patients with cancer. Medicinal fungi has been used as adjuvants in cancer therapy due to its immunomodulatory and nutritional effects. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic and blood pressure effects on patients with colorectal cancer after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Methods: The methodology used was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial c...

  2. ¿Vinculadas al narco? Mujeres presas por delitos contra la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Carrillo Hernández

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la manera en que la ofensiva del Estado mexicano contra el narcotráfico incidió en el orden de género de procuración de justicia. Esto se observó en el incremento de encarcelamientos de mujeres por delitos contra la salud al ser consideradas agentes significativos de la cadena delictiva del narcotráfico. El resultado fue el endurecimiento de las penas imputadas y la negación de los beneficios de preliberación que establece la ley. Estas mujeres han sido juzgadas ba...

  3. Guerra contra las drogas, consumidores de marihuana y legalización

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Parra, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    El artículo analiza, a partir del caso colombiano, las implicaciones políticas de la presencia pública de las manifestaciones colectivas a favor de la legalización de la marihuana en el marco actual de discusión sobre la pertinencia de la guerra contra las drogas ilegales. La conjetura central del texto es que esas manifestaciones colectivas expresan una forma de acción ciudadana. Para sustentar la argumentación, el artículo aborda tres aspectos: la guerra contra las drogas y s...

  4. Intervención interdisciplinar en la adolecencia contra la violencia de género

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    [ES] Desde que en la Conferencia Mundial de la Mujer (México, 1975), se reconoció por primera vez la gravedad de la violencia contra las mujeres, todas las conferencias internacionales han propuesto medidas para que los diferentes estados impulsen políticas preventivas e integrales contra la violencia de género. Este tipo de violencia tiene su raíz en el entramado cultural de nuestras sociedades. Los esfuerzos para su erradicación deben orientarse a construir una sociedad igualita...

  5. Pensando la violencia que ejercen los hombres contra sus parejas: problemas y cuestionamientos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Ramírez Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Este artículo se propone problematizar algunos aspectos sobre la violencia doméstica masculina contra la pareja. En primer término se presentan a reflexión algunos datos de encuestas sobre la violencia doméstica masculina contra la pareja, en las que se incluye a los hombres como unidades de análisis. A partir de estos datos se introducen algunos puntos sobre la percepción estereotipada de los géneros. En segundo lugar se hace una breve anotación sobre las orientaciones que se utilizan en psi...

  6. Aceptabilidad de la vacuna contra el virus papiloma humano en padres de adolescentes, en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner,Carolina; Piñeros, Marion; Cortés, Claudia; Jaime Ardila, Jaime Ardila

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo La vacuna contra el VPH es una nueva tecnología disponible para el control del cáncer de cuello uterino. Se espera, que en el menor tiempo posible esta vacuna pueda tener cobertura universal. Este artículo presenta la aceptabilidad que tiene los padres de adolescentes en Colombia hacia la vacuna contra el VPH y hace una aproximación a sus determinantes. Métodos Estudio cualitativo en cuatro regiones en Colombia. Se realizaron 17 grupos focales con padres de niñas y niños entre 11 a 1...

  7. La violencia de género contra las mujeres en Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Janet Paredes Guerrero; Rodrigo Llanes Salazar; Nayelli Torres Salas; Alejandra Pamela España Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Se analizan los tipos de violencia: doméstica, institucional y feminicida, usando el concepto de “violencia de género contra las mujeres”, en combinación con las dimensiones de la violencia propuestas por Johan Galtung: interpersonal, estructural y cultural/simbólica, para demostrar que la violencia de género contra las mujeres en el estado de Yucatán, México, se ejerce no sólo en el hogar, sino también en las instituciones y en las representaciones colectivas, espacios en los que todavía se ...

  8. México: violencia criminal y "guerra contra el narcotráfico"

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Pereyra

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo analiza las relaciones de poder que condicionan en México la violencia actual empleada por los grupos ilegales de la droga y la guerra contra el narcotráfico declarada por el gobierno de Felipe Calderón. A partir del análisis de la coexistencia de dos modalidades del poder (soberanía y gubernamentalidad), se busca entender la lógica del poder del narcotráfico y de la lucha militarizada que el gobierno lleva a cabo contra las organizaciones de la droga. Se discuten también los ...

  9. Production of a protease inhibitor from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus and its statistical optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishvakarma, Reena; Mishra, Abha

    2017-01-31

    The production of a protease inhibitor from Agaricus bisporus through solid state fermentation was studied. The purpose was to produce protease inhibitor from natural, cheap and readily available carbon and nitrogen sources. Solid state fermentation enhanced the mycelia growth and also gave a higher yield of the product. Further, fungal growth and other production parameters were statistically optimized. The specificity of the inhibitor was tested and was effective against trypsin. Screening of significant factors (wheat bran, cyanobacterial biomass, initial pH, temperature, incubation period, and moisture content and inoculum size) was done using Plackett-Burman Design. Central Composite Design was used to determine the optimized values of the significant variables which were found to be temperature (27.5 °C), incubation time (156 hrs.), cyanobacterial biomass (1 g) and moisture content (50%) and gave a statistical yield of 980 PIU/g which was 25.6% higher than experimental yield (780 PIU/g). The inhibitor was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE cellulose chromatography (yield 43.89% and 0.21% respectively) and subjected to Reversed-phase HPLC to validate its identity. Since protease inhibitors act against proteases, finding ample therapeutic roles; the isolated protease inhibitor from A. bisporus can also be a probable medicinal agent after its further characterization.

  10. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing.

  11. Evidence for Outcrossing via the Buller Phenomenon in a Substrate Simultaneously Inoculated with Spores and Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We inoculated a standard substrate for A. bisporus cultivation simultaneously with homokaryotic mycelium from one parent and spores from a second parent. Culture trays produced numerous sporocarps that could theoretically have resulted from five different reproductive modes (pseudohomothallism, selfing or outcrossing via heterothallism, and selfing or outcrossing via the Buller phenomenon [i.e., between a homokaryon and a heterokaryon]). Most or all of the sporocarps resulted from outcrossing between the inoculated homokaryon and the inoculated heterokaryotic spores (or mycelia that grew from them). These data broaden our understanding of population dynamics under field conditions and provide an outcrossing method that could be used in commercial breeding programs. PMID:16597931

  12. Anxiolytic Effects of Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Ischemia-Induced Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Gao, Xiulan; Sun, Yan; Sun, Xiaojie; Wu, Yanmin; Liu, Ying; Yu, Haitao; Cui, Guangcheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the anxiolytic effects Agaricus brasiliensis extract (AbSE) on ischemia-induced anxiety using the plus-maze test and the social interaction test. The animals were treated orally with AbSE (4, 8, and 10 mg/kg/d, respectively) for 30 d, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced cerebral ischemia. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin in the cerebral cortex of rats, as well as oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels were analyzed, respectively. The rota-rod test was carried out to exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures related to anxiety disorders, and the catalepsy test was carried out to investigate whether AbSE induces catalepsy. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of AbSE presented anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test and the social interaction test. Furthermore, AbSE did not induce extrapyramidal symptoms in the catalepsy test. The mechanism underlying the anxiolytic effect of AbSE might be increased brain monoamine levels and plasma corticosterone levels and decreased oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

  13. Extraction of lycopene from tomato sauce with mushrooms (Agaricus brasiliensis), determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristiane Schüler; Miguel, Obdulio G; Eugênia, Balbi Maria; Penteado, Patrícia Teixeira Padilha Da Silva; Haracemiv, Sonia Maria Chaves

    2009-01-01

    Lycopene belongs to the subgroup of non-oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties that are comparatively more powerful than the majority of plasma carotenoids. When foodstuffs containing lycopene are processed, the cell wall breaks down during the thermal process--thus enabling the extraction of lycopene from chromoplasts, improving their bioavailability. Edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis stands out given its medicinal properties and antioxidant potential when used to treat heart diseases and to prevent cancer. Given the interest in lycopene-rich foods, the purpose of the present study was to determine the lycopene present in different types of tomato sauce with A. brasiliensis and/or its extract by high-performance liquid chromatography. The type of solvent (dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol) to remove water from the tomato sauce was tested before the extraction of carotenoids. Lycopene determination in tomato sauces, in tomatoes and in the A. brasiliensis extract was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography. Findings show that when tomato sauce and raw materials underwent heat treatment, the type of treatment did not interfere with carotenoid and lycopene bioavailability--indicating that those sauces have a significant concentration of carotenoids and, in particular, their content in the lycopene proportion compared with total carotenoids.

  14. Evaluation of agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Agaricus bisporus using a range of promoters linked to hygromycin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, C; Leach, K M; Elliott, T J; Challen, M P; Foster, G D; Bailey, A

    2006-02-01

    There is interest in establishing genetic modification technologies for the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus, both for improved crop characteristics and for molecular pharming. For these methods to be successful, it is necessary to establish a set of transformation systems that include robust and reliable vectors for gene manipulation. In this article, we report the evaluation of a series of promoters for driving expression of the Escherichia coli hph gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase. This was achieved using the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA and the A. bisporus gpdII and trp2 promoters. The Coprinus cinereus beta-tubulin promoter gave contrasting results depending on the size of promoter used, with a 393-bp region being effective, whereas the longer 453-bp fragment failed to yield any hygromycin-resistant transformants. The C. cinereus trp1 and the A. bisporus lcc1 promoters both failed to yield transformants. We also show that transformation efficiency may be improved by careful selection of both appropriate Agrobacterium strains, with AGL-1 yielding more than LBA1126 and by the choice of the binary vectors used to mobilize the DNA, with pCAMBIA vectors appearing to be more efficient than either pBIN19- or pGREEN-based systems.

  15. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Betti Mascaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1 induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received commercial chow; and diabetic group that received chow with A. sylvaticus. Weight, food, and water consumption were measured every two days. Blood glucose levels were measured twice a week. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the analysis of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea. The pancreas was processed for microscopic analysis. A. sylvaticus modulated the levels of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea to levels similar to those found in the controls and led to compensatory hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. A. sylvaticus is potentially beneficial in the control of type 1 diabetes, and it may also prevent pancreas damage.

  16. Cloning, expression, and characterization of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase from Agaricus bisporus 02, a thermotolerant mushroom strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Xin; Shen, Yue-Mao; Song, Si-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The pabS gene of Agaricus bisporus 02 encoding a putative PABA synthase was cloned, and then the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 under the control of the T7 promoter. The enzyme with an N-terminal GST tag or His tag, designated GST-AbADCS or His-AbADCS, was purified with glutathione Sepharose 4B or Ni Sepharose 6 Fast Flow. The enzyme was an aminodeoxychorismate synthase, and it was necessary to add with an aminodeoxychorismate lyase for synthesizing PABA. AbADCS has maximum activity at a temperature of approximately 25°C and pH 8.0. Magnesium or manganese ions were necessary for the enzymatic activity. The Michaelis-Menten constant for chorismate was 0.12 mM, and 2.55 mM for glutamine. H2O2 did distinct damage on the activity of the enzyme, which could be slightly recovered by Hsp20. Sulfydryl reagents could remarkably promote its activity, suggesting that cysteine residues are essential for catalytic function.

  17. Transcription analysis of pyranose dehydrogenase from the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus and characterization of the recombinantly expressed enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonaus, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a litter degrading basidiomycete commonly found in humic-rich environments. It is used as model organism and cultivated in large scale for food industry. Due to its ecological niche it produces a variety of enzymes for detoxification and degradation of humified plant litter. One of these, pyranose dehydrogenase, is thought to play a role in detoxification and lignocellulose degradation. It is a member of the glucose-methanol-choline family of flavin-dependent enzymes and oxidizes a wide range of sugars with concomitant reduction of electron acceptors like quinones. In this work, transcription of pdh in A. bisporus was investigated with real-time PCR revealing influence of the carbon source on pdh expression levels. The gene was isolated and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme showed a higher affinity towards disaccharides compared to other tested pyranose dehydrogenases from related Agariceae. Homology modeling and sequence alignments indicated that two loops of high sequence variability at substrate access site could play an important role in modulating these substrate specificities.

  18. Nutritional value and amino acids composition of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus at different stages of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the nutritional value and amino acid composition of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was carried out with the Somycel 653 strain cultivated on a synthetic compost containing rye straw, broiler chicken manure and gypsum. In 4 developmental stages of the whole fruit-bodies and the caps and stipes the following were determined: dry matter, vitamin C, nitrates, total nitrogen, crude protein (N × 4.38 and amino acid composition. It was observed that in all stages of development the levels of total N and crude protein are significantly higher in the caps than in the stipes. From the amino acid composition it appears that the caps of stage 4 contain the highest amounts of essential and total amino acids as compared with caps, stipes and whole sporophores found in any developmental stage. This is correlated with the opening of the mushrooms in stage 4. It was observed that the nitrates level tends, to be higher in the cap than in the stipe.

  19. Efficient immobilization of mushroom tyrosinase utilizing whole cells from Agaricus bisporus and its application for degradation of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Markus; Boll, Stefan; Kossuch, Jan; Bielecki, Julia; Uhl, Stefan; Kleiner, Beatrice; Wichmann, Rolf

    2014-06-15

    A simple and efficient procedure for preparation and immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme was developed utilizing whole cells from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, without the need for enzyme purification. Tyrosinase activity in the cell preparation remained constant during storage at 21 °C for at least six months. The cells were entrapped in chitosan and alginate matrix capsules and characterized with respect to their resulting tyrosinase activity. A modification of the alginate with colloidal silica enhanced the activity due to retention of both cells and tyrosinase from fractured cells, which otherwise leached from matrix capsules. The observed activity was similar to the activity that was obtained with immobilized isolated tyrosinase in the same material. Mushroom cells in water were susceptible to rapid inactivation, whereas the immobilized cells maintained 73% of their initial activity after 30 days of storage in water. Application in repeated batch experiments resulted in almost 100% conversion of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) for 11 days, under stirring conditions, and 50-60% conversion after 20 days, without stirring under continuous usage. The results represent the longest yet reported application of immobilized tyrosinase for degradation of BPA in environmental water samples.

  20. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity.

  1. Effects of Some Beneficial Bacteria in Casing Soil on Growth and Yield of Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.

  2. Identification of Resistance to Wet Bubble Disease and Genetic Diversity in Wild and Cultivated Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of wet bubble disease (WBD caused by Mycogone perniciosa are increasing across the world and seriously affecting the yield of Agaricus bisporus. However, highly WBD-resistant strains are rare. Here, we tested 28 A. bisporus strains for WBD resistance by inoculating M. perniciosa spore suspension on casing soil, and assessed genetic diversity of these strains using 17 new simple sequence repeat (SSR markers developed in this study. We found that 10 wild strains originating from the Tibetan Plateau in China were highly WBD-resistant strains, and 13 cultivated strains from six countries were highly susceptible strains. A total of 88 alleles were detected in these 28 strains, and the observed number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8. Cluster and genetic structure analysis results revealed the wild resources from China have a relatively high level of genetic diversity and occur at low level of gene flow and introgression with cultivated strains. Moreover, the wild strains from China potentially have the consensus ancestral genotypes different from the cultivated strains and evolved independently. Therefore, the highly WBD-resistant wild strains from China and newly developed SSR markers could be used as novel sources for WBD-resistant breeding and quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping of WBD-resistant gene of A. bisporus.

  3. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE COGUMELOS (Agaricus bisporus DESIDRATADOS SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE SECAGEM E ARMAZENAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza JORGE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Cogumelos desidratados (Agaricus bisporus foram submetidos à avaliação sensorial visando a avaliar os efeitos de três pré-tratamentos (branqueamento a vapor, sulfitação e um controle, duas temperaturas de secagem (60ºC e 80ºC, duas temperaturas de armazenagem (5ºC e 25º C por um tempo de armazenagem de até 60 dias. Os atributos sensoriais da cor, sabor e textura foram avaliados por uma equipe treinada constituída por sete provadores, a zero, 30 e 60 dias de armazenagem. Também foi conduzido um teste de aceitação por uma equipe não treinada, constituída de 25 provadores. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de 60ºC foi a mais adequada para a secagem de cogumelos e a sulfitação, o pré-tratamento que melhor preservou as propriedades sensoriais do produto desidratado. O produto apresentou uma boa qualidade para o consumo, quando submetido a uma avaliação sensorial, com 60 dias de armazenagem, independentemente das temperaturas de armazenagem estudadas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cogumelos desidratados; análise sensorial; armazenagem.

  4. Lectin from Agaricus Bisporus Suppresses Akt Phosphorylation and Arrests Cell Cycle Progression in Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Cheung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells have been implicated in the development of retinal diseases. Lectin from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (ABL was found to inhibit growth of RPE cells. To elucidate the mechanism through which ABL inhibits RPE cell proliferation, we investigated the changes in cell proliferation-related signaling pathways and cell cycle distribution patterns. Primary human RPE cells were grown with or without the lectin (ABL supplement (20ug or 90ug/ml for three days. Phosphorylation statuses of Akt, Jnk and p38 as well as p53 expression level were investigated by Western blotting. Cellular distributions in various cell cycle phases were investigated using flow cytometry. After ABL treatment (90ug/ml, Akt was found to be hypo-phosphorylated while the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated-Jnk and phosphorylated-p38 were not altered. The amount of cells present at S phase was reduced. Our results showed that ABL hypo-phosphorylated Akt and this observation is in line with the finding that ABL could attenuate cell proliferation. As the level of p53 was not significantly altered by ABL, this suggested that the mechanism in which ABL arrested cell proliferation was independent of Akt-mediated MDM2 activation but was possibly mediated by altering G1 to S phase transition.

  5. Downregulation of Ethylene Production Increases Mycelial Growth and Primordia Formation in the Button Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaohui; Huang, Tao; Shen, Chaohui; Wang, Xiaoting; Qi, Yuancheng; Shen, Jinwen; Song, Andong; Qiu, Liyou; Ai, Yuncan

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis and function in Agaricus bisporus (the button mushroom) remain uncertain. The enzyme activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) were detectable in A. bisporus AS2796 and inhibited by α-aminooxyacetic acid and Co2+. We cloned and sequenced 2 ACS genes (Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2) and 1 ACO gene (Ab-ACO) from the mushroom strain. Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2 demonstrated low amino acid sequence similarity. Ab-ACO demonstrated an amino acid sequence completely identical to that of ACO1_AGABI from A. bisporus. Antisense ACO significantly reduced ACO gene expression level, ACO enzyme activity, and ethylene production in the mushroom transformants. The transformants grew faster than the wild-type strain in sterilized compost and normally formed primordia when cultivated in sterilized compost with the sterilized casing vermiculite, but the wild-type strain did not. Our results show that ethylene is synthesized in button mushrooms via the ACC pathway. Ethylene inhibited button mushroom mycelial growth and development.

  6. Developments in breeding of Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus: progress made and technical and legal hurdles to take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Baars, Johan J P; Gao, Wei; Visser, Richard G F

    2017-03-01

    True breeding of button mushrooms has hardly been done in the last decades, despite this species being one of the most cultivated mushrooms worldwide. Research done in the last 20 years has identified and characterised new germplasm and improved our understanding of the genetic base for some traits. A substantial collection of wild-collected strains is now available and partly characterised for a number of important traits such as disease resistance and yield. Most of the variations found in a number of important agronomic traits have a considerable heritability and are thus useful for breeding. Genetic marker technology has also developed considerably for this mushrooms in the last decade and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for important agronomic traits. This progress has, except for one example, not resulted so far into new commercially varieties. One of the reasons lies in the typical life cycle of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus which hampers breeding. Joint investment is needed to solve technical problems in breeding. Special attention is needed for the protection of new varieties. Due to its typical life cycle, it is very easy to generate so called "look-a-likes" from protected cultivars by screening fertile single spore cultures. A consensus has been reached within the mushroom (breeding) industry to consider this method as the generation of essentially derived varieties as defined in plant breeding.

  7. Induction of lcc2 expression and activity by Agaricus bisporus provides defence against Trichoderma aggressivum toxic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaarda, Calvin P; Abubaker, Kamal S; Castle, Alan J

    2015-11-01

    Laccases are used by fungi for several functions including defence responses to stresses associated with attack by other fungi. Laccase activity changes and the induction of two laccase genes, lcc1 and lcc2, in Agaricus bisporus were measured in response to toxic extracts of medium in which Trichoderma aggressivum, the cause of green mould disease, was grown. A strain of A. bisporus that shows resistance to the extracts showed higher basal levels and greater enzymatic activity after extract exposure than did a sensitive strain. Furthermore, pre-incubation of T. aggressivum extract with laccases reduced toxicity. Faster induction and greater numbers of lcc2 transcripts in response to the extract were noted in the resistant strain than in the sensitive strain. The timing and increase in lcc2 transcript abundance mirrored changes in total laccase activity. No correlation between resistance and lcc1 transcription was apparent. Transcript abundance in transformants with a siRNA construct homologous to both genes varied widely. A strong negative correlation between transcript abundance and sensitivity of the transformant to toxic extract was observed in plate assays. These results indicated that laccase activity and in particular that encoded by lcc2 contributes to toxin metabolism and by extension green mould disease resistance.

  8. The antibrowning agent sulfite inactivates Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase through covalent modification of the copper-B site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Gruppen, Harry; Sforza, Stefano; van Berkel, Willem J H; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2013-12-01

    Sulfite salts are widely used as antibrowning agents in food processing. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism by which sulfite prevents enzymatic browning has remained unknown. Here, we show that sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) irreversibly blocks the active site of tyrosinase from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, and that the competitive inhibitors tropolone and kojic acid protect the enzyme from NaHSO3 inactivation. LC-MS analysis of pepsin digests of NaHSO3 -treated tyrosinase revealed two peptides showing a neutral loss corresponding to the mass of SO3 upon MS(2) fragmentation. These peptides were found to be homologous peptides containing two of the three histidine residues that form the copper-B-binding site of mushroom tyrosinase isoform PPO3 and mushroom tyrosinase isoform PPO4, which were both present in the tyrosinase preparation used. Peptides showing this neutral loss behavior were not found in the untreated control. Comparison of the effects of NaHSO3 on apo-tyrosinase and holo-tyrosinase indicated that inactivation is facilitated by the active site copper ions. These data provide compelling evidence that inactivation of mushroom tyrosinase by NaHSO3 occurs through covalent modification of a single amino-acid residue, probably via addition of HSO3(-) to one of the copper-coordinating histidines in the copper-B site of the enzyme.

  9. Environmental regulation of reproductive phase change in Agaricus bisporus by 1-octen-3-ol, temperature and CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel C; Herman, Bram; Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Sreenivasaprasad, S; Burton, Kerry S

    2013-06-01

    Reproductive phase change from vegetative mycelium to the initiation of fruiting in Agaricus bisporus is regulated in large part by the sensing of environmental conditions. A model is proposed in which three separate environmental factors exert control at different stages of the reproductive developmental process change. The eight carbon volatile 1-octen-3-ol controls the early differentiation from vegetative hyphae to multicellular knots; temperature reduction is essential for the later differentiation of primodia; and carbon dioxide level exerts quantitative control on the number of fruiting bodies developed. Analysis of transcriptomic changes during the reproductive phase change was carried out with initiation-specific microarrays, and the newly published A. bisporus genome was used to analyse the promoter regions of differentially regulated genes. Our studies have shown there to be both early and late initiation responses relating to sensing of eight carbon volatiles and temperature respectively. A subset of 45 genes was transcriptionally regulated during the reproductive phase change which exhibited a range of functions including cell structure, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and sensing and signalling. Three gene clusters linking increased transcription with developmental stage were identified. Analysis of promoter regions revealed cluster-specific conserved motifs indicative of co-ordinated regulation of transcription.

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater against CCl₄-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiafu; Ou, Yixin; Yew, Tai Wai David; Liu, Jingna; Leng, Bo; Lin, Zhichao; Su, Yi; Zhuang, Yuanhong; Lin, Jiaofen; Li, Xiumin; Xue, Yu; Pan, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    During the industrial production of canned mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), a large quantity of wastewater is produced. In this study, the wastewater generated during the canning of mushroom was analyzed. From this wastewater, four polysaccharide components (Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001, and Abap1002) with hepatic-protective activity were isolated by ultrafiltration, DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-200 size-exclusion chromatography. Results of ultraviolet spectra analysis and molecular weight determination showed that Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001 and Abap1002 were uniform with average molecular weights of 336, 12.8, 330 and 15.8kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition analysis using gas chromatography (GC) showed that the four fractions were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the isolated fractions were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. Additionally, the potential hepatoprotective activities of these polysaccharides against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in mice were studied. Notably, Abnp1002 and Abap1002 could lower the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in serum in a dose dependent manner and reduce the hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, as well as inflammatory infiltration. These results indicate that these two polysaccharides had protective effects on acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4 in mice and suggest that the polysaccharides extracted from A. bisporus industrial wastewater might have potential in therapeutics of acute hepatic injury.

  11. Agaricus bisporus and its in vitro culture as a source of indole compounds released into artificial digestive juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Kała, Katarzyna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Krakowska, Agata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2016-05-15

    The popularity of Agaricus bisporus results not only from the quality of the flavors, but also from the content of many substances of therapeutic properties. This paper presents a study on RP-HPLC determination of the content of indole compounds released from the lyophilized biomass from in vitro cultures of A. bisporus into artificial digestive juices at 37°C. A. bisporus in vitro cultures were grown on media enriched with zinc salts. The release of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan and l-tryptophan was found in the greatest number of samples. The content of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan in the investigated samples ranged from 86.62 to 531 mg/100g d.w. The amount of l-tryptophan was determined within the range of 1.63-4.68 mg/100g d.w. and for melatonin 0.43-0.64 mg/100g d.w. It was demonstrated for the first time that in vitro cultures of A. bisporus release indole compounds in conditions simulating the human digestive tract.

  12. Identification of Resistance to Wet Bubble Disease and Genetic Diversity in Wild and Cultivated Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongping; Wang, Xinxin; Li, Dan; Liu, Yuan; Song, Bing; Zhang, Chunlan; Wang, Qi; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhang, Zhiwu; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of wet bubble disease (WBD) caused by Mycogone perniciosa are increasing across the world and seriously affecting the yield of Agaricus bisporus. However, highly WBD-resistant strains are rare. Here, we tested 28 A. bisporus strains for WBD resistance by inoculating M. perniciosa spore suspension on casing soil, and assessed genetic diversity of these strains using 17 new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed in this study. We found that 10 wild strains originating from the Tibetan Plateau in China were highly WBD-resistant strains, and 13 cultivated strains from six countries were highly susceptible strains. A total of 88 alleles were detected in these 28 strains, and the observed number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8. Cluster and genetic structure analysis results revealed the wild resources from China have a relatively high level of genetic diversity and occur at low level of gene flow and introgression with cultivated strains. Moreover, the wild strains from China potentially have the consensus ancestral genotypes different from the cultivated strains and evolved independently. Therefore, the highly WBD-resistant wild strains from China and newly developed SSR markers could be used as novel sources for WBD-resistant breeding and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of WBD-resistant gene of A. bisporus. PMID:27669211

  13. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp) proved the best application method to remove PAH, mainly BaP, and detoxify the multi-polluted soil.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich [Jacobs University, PO Box 750 561, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2014-01-23

    Polyphenol oxidase 4 (PPO4) from the natural source A. bisporus was crystallized in its latent precursor form (pro-tyrosinase; Ser2–Thr565) using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a crystallization additive. Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a co-crystallization agent.

  15. Sulfation of fucogalactan from Agaricus bisporus: Different patterns in the chemical structure and their effects on anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Ochoa, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    A fucogalactan from Agaricus bisporus was sulfated by two methodologies based on an optimized sulfation method. The direct action of chlorosulfonic acid and SO3-pyridine complex over the sulfation reaction and its effects on anticoagulant activity were evaluated. The products of chemical sulfations were two sulfated fucogalactans named E100 and ESL respectively. Clotting assays (APTT, PT and TT) showed that both sulfated polysaccharides have anticoagulant activity, and that ESL was more potent compared to E100. The FXa, T and FXIIa activities in the presence of the sulfated polysaccharides were determined. The better anticoagulant activity of ESL could be related to anti-FXIIa activity and also probably to its higher bioavailability. The HPSEC analysis showed similar Mw of 1.08×10(4)gmol(-1) and 1.00×10(4)gmol(-1) for E100 and ESL respectively. NMR and methylation analyses indicated a heterogeneous sulfation pattern for E100, whereas ESL showed conserved unsulfated (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp residues in the main-chain and a more homogeneous sulfation pattern. The DS values of ESL and E100 were 1.0 and 2.8 respectively, indicating that the sulfation pattern is more important for the anticoagulant activity than the amount of sulfate.

  16. Análisis del perfil proteínico y efecto de la temperatura sobre la digestabilidad de proteinas de Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    García del Río, Ana

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo fin de máster experimental, el hongo sometido ha estudio Agaricus bisporus, conocido comúnmente como champiñón. En el presente trabajo experimental se realizaron ensayos de digestibilidad in vitro con un fluido gástrico simulado de los extractos acuosos de la seta a tiempos variables y posteriormente se empleó electroforesis SDS-PAGE imitando las condiciones gástricas, para identificar los productos de la digestión. Con el fin de vigilar el grado de digestión con pepsin...

  17. Study on New Casing Soil Materials for Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.%双孢蘑菇新型覆土材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁滨; 张金文; 张志鸿; 柯丽娜; 林德锋

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the new casing soil materials for Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing. , to save peaty soil resources. [Method] Peaty soil was mixed with red loam according to different proportions and used the mixture to cultivate Agaricus bisporus ( Lange) Sing. , then investigated its mycelium growth status, yield and economic benefit. [ Result ] In the treatments adding to peaty soil, the time of mycelium climbing on the soil was early, harvesting time brought forward, and mycelium amount and yield both increased. Thereinto, that the ratio of peaty soil to red loam was 1: 2 appeared the best, compared to control, its yield increased 19.6% and its relatively net income increased 18.0% . [Conclusion] It is feasible of applying peaty soil as casing soil materials to cultivate Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing, in south Fujian and has good effects.%[目的]探索新型双孢蘑菇[Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing.]覆土材料,以节约泥炭土资源.[方法]将泥炭土与红壤土按不同比例混合后作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇,调查覆土后蘑菇菌丝生长情况、产量及经济效益.[结果]添加泥炭土的处理菌丝上土时间早、覆土层菌丝量增加、出菇时间提前、产量增加.其中泥炭土与红壤土使用比例为1∶2作为覆土材料表现最好,产量比对照高出19.6%,相对纯收入提高了18.0%.[结论]闽南地区应用泥炭土作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇是可行的,并有良好效果的.

  18. Antioxidant activity as indicator of UV radiation and other abiotic stress factors on Agaricus bisporus (Lange/Imbach and Sedum hybridum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of stress level might be facilitated also in plant and horticultural sciences, but currently mainly morphological parameters are in use. Antioxidant activity routinely measured in food-oriented researches and several studies indirectly indicated that stress factors can influence this parameter. Our aim was to assess the potential direct indicator role of antioxidant activity in stress conditions. We measured the effects of UVB and soil-delivered stress on Agaricus bisporus and Sedum hybridum. Our results indicate that UVB slightly decreases, while the inadequate soil conditions increase antioxidant activity; hence these measurements are suitable for determining the level of stress in different living samples.

  19. Field research concerning contra-flow as a measure for massive evacuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S.; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study concerns a practice test that aimed at investigating to what extent contra flow or reverse laning (Dutch: tegenverkeer) works well in the Netherlands and how participating car drivers evaluate it. Reverse laning may be a solution for a capacity problem in case all lanes of roads ar

  20. Aspectos relevantes del uso de Mycobacterium´habana´ como candidato vacunal contra la tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Valdés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La eficacia protectora de la actual vacuna (BCG contra la tuberculosis, para contrarrestar las formas pulmonares de esta enfermedad y su reactivación, resulta variable o poco eficiente, lo cual impone la búsqueda urgente de nuevas alternativas profilácticas contra esta enfermedad. Basados en las ventajas inmunogénicas que ofrece el uso de vacunas vivas, se han encaminado diferentes estrategias de este tipo empleando mutantes auxotróficos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis , BCG recombinante o micobacterias no tuberculosas. Existen evidencias experimentales acerca de la protección conferida tras la vacunación con cepas vivas, inactivadas o fracciones proteicas de Mycobacterium'habana' TMC-5135 contra la infección por Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Esta respuesta protectora parece ir aparejada de escasos signos de virulencia en los modelos animales ensayados, lo cual coloca a M.´habana´ dentro de los posibles candidatos vacunales contra la tuberculosis al ajustarse a la condición que impone una vacuna clásica de reproducir la infección y los eventos inmunes que le suceden lo más fielmente posible a como ocurren de manera natural, sin causar extensos daños en el receptor.

  1. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA AGENCY... Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7922). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on April... Area, the central and south Delta, and service areas of San Francisco Bay Area water agencies....

  2. Una oportunidad para la lucha contra la pobreza y la exclusión social

    OpenAIRE

    Allende Robredo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Análisis de las actuaciones de la UE ante la pobreza y la exclusión social y propuestas de la Red Europea contra la Pobreza y la Exclusión Social Analysis of EU actions against poverty and social exclusion and new proposals from European Network against Poverty and Social Exclusion

  3. Representações sociais da violência contra a mulher na perspectiva da enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Cezar Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A violência contra a mulher constitui grave problema de Saúde Pública; ocorre no mundo inteiro em todas as classes sociais. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer as representações sociais da violência contra a mulher na perspectiva de enfermeiras alunas de uma Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa/Portugal. Realizou-se pesquisa exploratória com respaldo das representações sociais, da qual participaram cento e cinquenta enfermeiras, sendo os dados coletados por meio de questionário. Para análise, utilizou-se o software DataVic 4.3. Resultados apontam que as representações sociais da violência contra a mulher estão restritas ao universo consensual pelo qual são produzidas, constituído, sobretudo, pela conversação informal e pela vida cotidiana. Apontam, também, que a violência não é entendida como um problema de saúde. Considera-se que o embasamento teórico sobre o tema e o envolvimento institucional dos Serviços de Saúde contribuirão para a inserção da violência contra a mulher na agenda da Saúde Pública.

  4. La imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Patrón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La ratificación del Convenio sobre la imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes de guerra y de los crímenes de lesa humanidad por parte de Uruguay, constituye un primer paso dirigido a limitar la impunidad de los partícipes en la comisión de estas infracciones internacionales. Para la consecución de esta misma finalidad, el Estado Uruguayo ha dado un segundo paso, consistente en la ratificación del Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional, lo que ha llevado a efecto casi un año después del anterior. Ambas decisiones demuestran la intención de Uruguay de comprometerse Internacionalmente con el fin de evitar la impunidad de los responsables de la comisión de determinadas figuras delictivas, especialmente los crímenes de guerra y los crímenes contra la humanidad, ya que en tomo a estas dos infracciones internacionales gravitan los convenios internacionales a los que nos acabamos de referir.Contenido: imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el pasado. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el presente. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el futuro. Conclusiones

  5. Violência contra o professor nas representações sociais de docentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Beltrão Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2014v32n1p333 Este artigo analisa as representações sociais de violência contra o professor no espaço de escolas públicas e privadas da Região Metropolitana do Recife, enfatizando as formas ou tipos de violência que afetam esse grupo profissional e o modo como os docentes lidam com o fenômeno. Tomou-se como referencial a Teoria das Representações Sociais, de Serge Moscovici, especialmente a Teoria do Núcleo Central, idealizada por Jean-Claude Abric. Participaram desta etapa da investigação 20 professores, sendo 10 de escolas públicas estaduais e 10 de escolas privadas. Foram realizadas entrevistas com esses professores através de pranchas indutoras, o material foi tratado a partir da Análise de Conteúdo. Os resultados do estudo indicam a dimensão prática das representações desses professores, ou seja, o modo como lidam com a violência contra si no interior da escola e sala de aula, expresso através das origens da violência contra o professor, das manifestações da violência contra ele e das atitudes de enfrentamento diante do fenômeno.

  6. Evaluación del Residuo del Cultivo de Agaricus bisporus como Alimento de Vacas Lecheras en Lactancia Media / Evaluation of the Agaricus bisporus Spent Compost as Feed of Dairy Cows in Mid Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Gómez Urrego

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el potencial del residuo del cultivo de la seta Agaricus bisporus como materia prima para la alimentación de vacas lecheras en segundo tercio de lactancia. Para esto, se sustituyó 10% del concentrado comercial por el residuo (sin turba y se evaluó su efecto en la producción, el balance nutricional de las vacas y el costo final del concentrado. El diseño experimental fue un cross-over o de intercambio con medidas repetidas en eltiempo. Cada periodo experimental tuvo una duración de 14 días. Se utilizaron dos grupos de animales, uno con 4 vacas Holstein y otro con 4 vacas cruzadas Holstein x BON. En promedio, las vacas tenían 117 ± 18,6 días en leche, 2,6 ± 0,9 partos, 529,5 ± 52,9 kg peso vivo y una producción de leche/día de 15,42 ± 2,6 L. El tratamiento experimental redujo los nutrientes digeribles totales de la dieta total en 2%. No hubo diferencias estadísticas en el balance nutricional de las vacas a causa del tratamiento experimental. Tampoco hubo diferencia estadística en cuanto a la producción de leche (14,4 L y calidad composicional (% de grasa:3,86; % de proteína: 3,5; relación grasa: proteína: 1,11. El análisis de costos mostró que al incluirse en el concentrado un 10% del residuo de A. bisporus (Champiñosa se obtenía una reducción en los costos de alimentación de $403 pesos colombianos/vaca/día. / Abstract. This study evaluated the potential of the growth bed of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus as a feed for mid lactation dairy cows. We replaced 10% of commercial concentrate with the residue (peat removed and assessed its effect on milk production, nutritional balance of the cows and final cost of the concentrate. The experimental design was a cross-over or change-over with repeated measurements. Each experimental period lasted 14 days. Two groups of animals, one with four Holstein cows and one with four crossbred Holstein x BON cows were used. On average, cows had 117

  7. The 135 kbp mitochondrial genome of Agaricus bisporus is the largest known eukaryotic reservoir of group I introns and plasmid-related sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Férandon, Cyril; Xu, Jianping; Barroso, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    At 135,005 nt, the mitochondrial genome in Agaricus bisporus represents the largest fungal mitochondrial genome sequenced to date. Its large size is mainly due to the presence of mobile genetic elements, including a total of 43 group I introns, three group II introns, and five DNA fragments that show sequence similarity to linear invertron-like plasmids. The introns are distributed in eight of the 15 protein coding genes. These introns contain a total of 61,092 nt (∼45.3% of the whole mitochondrial genome) and include representatives of most of the group I introns so far found in mitochondrial genomes of Basidiomycota. The plasmid-like sequences include 6730 nt total representing 5.0% of the genome. These sequences showed high-level similarities to two different mitochondrial plasmids reported for basidiomycete mushrooms: the autonomously replicating pEM in Agaricus bitorquis and the integrated linear plasmid sequences in Agrocybe aegerita and Moniliophthora perniciosa. Moreover, the plasmid-related sequences are located within or adjacent to two large (4559 nt) inverted repeats containing also two sets of mitochondrial tRNA genes. Our analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution of the A. bisporus mitochondrial genome.

  8. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hilden, Kristiina; Kues, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wosten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-04-27

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the button mushroom forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  9. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

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    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n of the heterokaryotic (n+n parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated.

  10. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Moinard, Magalie; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shouxian; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Zhao, Ruilin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n) of the heterokaryotic (n+n) parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated. PMID:27228131

  11. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 Gene: The Longest Mitochondrial Gene and the Largest Reservoir of Mitochondrial Group I Introns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Férandon, Cyril; Moukha, Serge; Callac, Philippe; Benedetto, Jean-Pierre; Castroviejo, Michel; Barroso, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp) are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II) according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a “Homing Endonuclease Gene” (heg) encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration (“homing”) and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain) is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt) and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote. PMID:21124976

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus on the hematology and immunology systems of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

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    Fabiana VALADARES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with cancer tend to develop hematological and immunological alterations during the disease process. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the immune and hematopoietic systems, promoting improvements in the prognosis and physiological response. In this trial it is aimed to evaluate changes in hematological and immunological parameters in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out. 46 patients (stadiums II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either: nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day or placebo. Patients received three cycles (n=26 and six cycles (n=20 of chemotherapy. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed. The results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2003 and R-version 2.11.1, significant results at p≤ 0.05. Results: The A. sylvaticus group showed an increase of hematocrits (p=0.04, red blood count (p=0.03, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p=0.001, leukocytes (p=0.03, monocytes (p=0.001, and total lymphocyte count (p=0.009 after three months. Those changes were not observed in the placebo group. After six months, patients receiving A. sylvaticus showed increased levels of red blood count (p=0.02, hemoglobin (p=0.02, hematocrits (p=0.02, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p=0.02, leukocytes (p=0.02; lymphocytes (p=0.02, neutrophils (p=0.02 and TLC (p=0.02. The placebo group showed a reduction in leukocytes (p=0.004, basophiles (p=0.005 and TLC (p=0.01. Conclusion: The results suggest the usefulness of dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

  13. Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.

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    Noriko Kanaya

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM, Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX mice (a model of postmenopausal women. OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6, were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.

  14. Cytotoxic effect of Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus β-D-glucans on HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Ruthes, Andrea Caroline; Cadena, Silvia Maria Suter Correia; Acco, Alexandra; Gorin, Philip Albert James; Iacomini, Marcello

    2013-07-01

    The cytotoxic activity of β-D-glucans isolated from Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus fruiting bodies was evaluated on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). NMR and methylation analysis suggest that these β-d-glucans were composed of a linear (1→6)-linked and a branched (1→3), (1→6)-linked backbone, respectively. They both decreased cell viability at concentrations of up to 100 μg mL(-1), as shown by MTT assay. The amount of LDH released and the analysis of cell morphology corroborated these values and also showed that the β-D-glucan of L. rufus was more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells than that of A. bisporus. The treatment of HepG2 cells with L. rufus and A. bisporus β-D-glucans at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1) for 24h promoted an increase of cytochrome c release and a decrease of ATP content, suggesting that these polysaccharides could promote cell death by apoptosis. Both β-D-glucans were tested against murine primary hepatocytes at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1). The results suggest that the L. rufus β-d-glucan was as cytotoxic for hepatocytes as for HepG2 cells, whereas the A. bisporus β-D-glucan, under the same conditions, was cytotoxic only for HepG2 cells, suggesting cell selectivity. These results open new possibilities for use of mushroom β-D-glucans in cancer therapy.

  15. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G; Ohm, Robin A; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L; Bailey, Andrew M; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hildén, Kristiina; Kües, Ursula; Labutti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lucas, Susan M; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W; Salamov, Asaf A; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wösten, Han A B; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C; Foster, Gary D; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S; Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis

    2012-10-23

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  16. Optimization of the Liquid Culture Medium Composition to Obtain the Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus Rich in Essential Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowska, Agata; Reczyński, Witold; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2016-09-01

    Agaricus bisporus species (J.E. Lange) Imbach one of the most popular Basidiomycota species was chosen for the research because of its dietary and medicinal value. The presented herein studies included determination of essential mineral accumulation level in the mycelium of A. bisporus, cultivated on liquid cultures in the medium supplemented with addition of the chosen metals' salts. Quantitative analyses of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Fe in liquid cultures made it possible to determine the relationship between accumulation of the selected mineral in A. bisporus mycelium and the culture conditions. Monitoring of the liquid cultures and determination of the elements' concentrations in mycelium of A. bisporus were performed using the flame technique of AAS method. Concentration of Zn in the mycelium, maintained in the medium with the addition of its salt, was in a very wide range from 95.9 to 4462.0 mg/g DW. In the analyzed A. bisporus mycelium, cultured in the medium enriched with copper salt, this metal concentration changed from 89.79 to 7491.50 mg/g DW; considering Mg in liquid cultured mycelium (medium with Mg addition), its concentration has changed from 0.32 to 10.55 mg/g DW. The medium enriched with iron salts has led to bioaccumulation of Fe in mycelia of A. bisporus. Determined Fe concentration was in the range from 0.62 to 161.28 mg/g DW. The proposed method of liquid A. bisporus culturing on medium enriched with the selected macro- and microelements in proper concentrations ratio have led to obtaining maximal growth of biomass, characterized by high efficiency of the mineral accumulation. As a result, a dietary component of increased nutritive value was obtained.

  17. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 gene: the longest mitochondrial gene and the largest reservoir of mitochondrial group i introns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Férandon

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a "Homing Endonuclease Gene" (heg encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration ("homing" and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote.

  18. Analysis of Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase N-glycosylation sites and performance of partially non-glycosylated enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonaus, Christoph; Maresch, Daniel; Schropp, Katharina; Ó Conghaile, Peter; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2017-04-01

    Pyranose Dehydrogenase 1 from the basidiomycete Agaricus meleagris (AmPDH1) is an oxidoreductase capable of oxidizing a broad variety of sugars. Due to this and its ability of dioxidation of substrates and no side production of hydrogen peroxide, it is studied for use in enzymatic bio-fuel cells. In-vitro deglycosylated AmPDH1 as well as knock-out mutants of the N-glycosylation sites N(75) and N(175), near the active site entrance, were previously shown to improve achievable current densities of graphite electrodes modified with AmPDH1 and an osmium redox polymer acting as a redox mediator, up to 10-fold. For a better understanding of the role of N-glycosylation of AmPDH1, a systematic set of N-glycosylation site mutants was investigated in this work, regarding expression efficiency, enzyme activity and stability. Furthermore, the site specific extend of N-glycosylation was compared between native and recombinant wild type AmPDH1. Knocking out the site N(252) prevented the attachment of significantly extended N-glycan structures as detected on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but did not significantly alter enzyme performance on modified electrodes. This suggests that not the molecule size but other factors like accessibility of the active site improved performance of deglycosylated AmPDH1/osmium redox polymer modified electrodes. A fourth N-glycosylation site of AmPDH1 could be confirmed by mass spectrometry at N(319), which appeared to be conserved in related fungal pyranose dehydrogenases but not in other members of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase structural family. This site was shown to be the only one that is essential for functional recombinant expression of the enzyme.

  19. Eletromiografia do bíceps braquial em contrações dinâmicas

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    Lucenildo Silva Cerqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A reprodutibilidade da atividade eletromiográfica de superfície (EMG é mais estudada em protocolos que envolvem contrações isométricas. Alguns fatores relacionados às contrações dinâmicas podem contribuir para a instabilidade do sinal mioelétrico e dificultar a reprodutibilidade da medida da EMG. OBJETIVO: Determinar a reprodutibilidade teste-reteste e quantificar o erro técnico da medida da frequência mediana (FM e da amplitude (root mean square, RMS da EMG, em contrações dinâmicas e estáticas. MÉTODOS: Dez sujeitos foram testados em dois dias, sendo a atividade EMG registrada na maior porção do bíceps braquial. No primeiro dia foi feito o teste de uma repetição máxima (1RM e de contração voluntária máxima (CVM. No segundo dia foram realizadas duas séries de 10 contrações dos flexores do cotovelo com 75% de 1RM, entremeadas por 1 h em repouso. Antes de cada série foi realizada uma CVM. RESULTADOS: Para a FM e RMS foi observado alto coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para o sinal do bíceps braquial (CCI = 0,90-0,98 para a FM; CCI = 0,89-0,94 para o RMS e de baixo para moderado coeficiente de variação (CV = 2,5-6,2% para a FM; CV = 14,6-16,3% para o RMS em ambos os testes. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre teste e reteste (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A FM e o RMS apresentam alta confiabilidade e baixo a moderado erro em contrações estáticas e dinâmicas, possibilitando o uso da EMG para investigação da fadiga e de desordens neuromusculares.

  20. La violencia de género contra las mujeres en Yucatán

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    Leticia Janet Paredes Guerrero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los tipos de violencia: doméstica, institucional y feminicida, usando el concepto de “violencia de género contra las mujeres”, en combinación con las dimensiones de la violencia propuestas por Johan Galtung: interpersonal, estructural y cultural/simbólica, para demostrar que la violencia de género contra las mujeres en el estado de Yucatán, México, se ejerce no sólo en el hogar, sino también en las instituciones y en las representaciones colectivas, espacios en los que todavía se concibe a la mujer como un símbolo objeto, lo cual condiciona la aparición de conductas de violencia extrema que potencialmente desembocan en feminicidio.

  1. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  2. La violencia contra la mujer y los derechos sexuales y reproductivos

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    Violeta Bermúdez Valdivia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo formula algunas reflexiones en torno a las intersecciones que existen entre la violencia contra la mujer y los derechos sexuales y reproductivos, desde un enfoque de derechos humanos. A tal efecto, analiza tres manifestaciones de violencia contra la mujer: la violencia sexual en el matrimonio, prácticas compulsivas de control reproductivo y la violación sexual como crimen de lesa humanidad. Todas ellas, implican una vulneración directa de sus derechos sexuales y reproductivos y proponen algunas experiencias positivas que pueden servir de pauta orientadora para el diseño de políticas públicas sobre la materia.

  3. La guerra contra el narcotráfico: ¿una guerra perdida?

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    Jorge Enrique Pérez Lara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre los problemas derivados del narcotráfico en México, por lo que se realiza un estudio de los resultados que ha tenido la guerra frontal emprendida por el presidente Calderón con base en datos proporcionados por instancias oficiales, como la Procuraduría General de la República, y organizaciones civiles, como México Unido Contra la Delincuencia, y en datos internacionales proporcionados por el Índice de Incidencia Delictiva. Todo ello con el propósito de analizar tanto los avances obtenidos contra el narcotráfico como la percepción ciudadana de la eficacia de la estrategia implementada.

  4. Perspectiva psicosocial en adolescentes acusados por delitos contra la salud y robo

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    José Guadalupe Salazar Estrada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo en este estudio es identificar condiciones de vida de los sujetos adolescentes acusados de cometer delitos contra la salud y robo, desde una perspectiva psicosocial. Se estudiaron un total de 122 expedientes, de los cuales el 50% son acusados y acusadas por delitos contra la salud, y el otro 50% por robo; el 70% de los hombres y el 68.2% de las mujeres han consumido un tipo drogas, un 66 % del total de la muestra presentó poca tolerancia a la frustración, el 60 % tiene un manejo inadecuado de la afectividad, con una diferencia significativa cuando se estudia por tipo de delito. Entre las diferencias encontradas, las condiciones psicológicas como la personalidad, están más asociadas a la delincuencia juvenil.

  5. Ciberativismo: a guerra da WikiLeaks contra os segredos de Estado

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    Carole Ferreira da Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1806-5023.2012v9n1p90 Resenha do livro WikiLeaks: a guerra de Julian Assange contra os Segredos de Estado (Editora Verus, 2011, 336 p., no qual os repórteres investigativos do The Guardian, David Leigh e Luke Harding, contam os bastidores do maior vazamento da história, que revelou ao mundo detalhes obscuros da diplomacia mundial e das guerras do Afeganistão e do Iraque. A partir da análise do livro-reportagem sobre a organização WikliLeaks, pretendemos refletir sobre os mecanismos de resistência e atuação contra-hegemônica no contexto das redes abertas pelas tecnologias digitais.

  6. Movilización social contra la violencia política: sus determinantes

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    J.M. Sabucedo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis de las principales causas de la movilización social que se llevó a cabo en España en julio de 1997 como protesta contra el acto criminal cometido por ETA contra Miguel Ángel Blanco, un concejal del Partido Popular. La movilización social se basó en dos elementos: las creencias previas que deslegitimaban la violencia y apelaban a la movilización ciudadana, y el papel de los medios masivos de comunicación y otros agentes sociales que convirtieron el acto criminal en un tema de gran significación cognitiva para los ciudadanos.

  7. Análisis de un movimiento social femenino contra el hambre y la miseria

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    Silvia Alejandra Navarro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretendió analizar la emergencia de un movimiento social femenino de defensa contra el hambre y la miseria a través de diferentes conceptos teóricos, particularmente tomados de autores como De Ipola, Jelin y Evers. El eje central del ensayo es la acción colectiva de un grupo de mujeres que abrieron un comedor comunitario para satisfacer las necesidades básicas alimentarias del barrio.

  8. Performance Test and Flow Measurement of Contra-Rotating Axial Flow Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akinori Furukawa; Toru Shigemitsu; Satoshi Watanabe

    2007-01-01

    An application of contra-rotating rotors has been proposed against a demand for developing higher specific speed axial flow pump. In the present paper, the advantage and disadvantage of using contra-rotating rotors are described in comparison with conventional type of rotor-stator, based on theoretical and experimental investigations. The advantages are as follows: (1) The pump is inherently designed as smaller sized and at lower rotational speed. (2) A stable head-characteristic curve for flow rate with negative slope appears. (3)As the rear rotor rotational speed is varied as independent control of front rotor, the wider range of high performance operation is obtained by rear rotor speed control in addition to front rotor speed control. The disadvantages are as follows: (1) The structure of double shaft system becomes complex. (2) The pump performance is inferior at over flow rate as the rear rotor loading is weakened. (3) The blade rows interaction from rear rotor to front rotor more strongly appears. Then the rear rotor design is a key to achieve higher pump performance. Some methods to overcome these disadvantages will be discussed in more details toward wider usage of contra-rotating axial flow pump in various industrial fields.

  9. 超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的研究%Study on the polysaccharides extraction of Agaricus bisporus using ultrasonic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振鹏; 袁亚宏; 岳田利; 杨昊博

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 Study was made on the optimum technology of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides extraction by using ultrasonic to lay the foundation for solving by-products reuse in the canning process.【Method】 Using Agaricus bisporus canning by-products as raw materials,single factor experiment and orthogonal test were adopted to analyze the effect of each factor in solid-liquid ratio,ultrasonic power,extraction time and temperature on the extraction percentage of the polysaccharides using ultrasonic,and the process parameters were optimized.【Result】 The results indicated that the optimum condition of extraction is as follows:liquid-solid ratio 40 mL/g,ultrasonic power 560 W,time 120 min and temperature 60 ℃.【Conclusion】 Under this optimum condition,the extraction percentage of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides reached 3.65%,which increased by 96.24% compared with the common technical yields.%【目的】对超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的工艺进行研究,为双孢菇罐头加工过程中废弃物的综合利用提供支持。【方法】以盐渍双孢菇罐头废弃物为原料,通过单因素及正交试验探讨了液料比、超声波功率、超声波处理时间及处理温度对双孢菇多糖提取率的影响,并对超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的工艺参数进行了优化。【结果】优化得到超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的最佳工艺参数为:超声波功率560W,超声波处理时间120min,超声波处理温度60℃,液料比40mL/g。【结论】在优化的最佳工艺条件下,双孢菇多糖的提取率为3.65%,较无超声波促进作用下普通工艺的多糖提取率提高了96.24%。

  10. Determination of Heavy Metal and Radioactivity in Agaricus campestris Mushroom Collected from Kahramanmaraş and Erzurum Proviences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, radioactivity and heavy metals accumulations in Agaricus campestris mushroom collected from Kahramanmaraş and Erzurum provinces was determined. HPGe gamma detector was used for the determination of radioactivity concentrations. Heavy metal content was measured using a ICP-MS. As radioactive element; natural (238U, 232Th 40K and artificial radionuclide (137Cs concentrations were determined. The values of the committed effective dose were calculated. Same measurements were made in soils. Absorbed dose and excess lifetime cancer risk were calculated. Amount of Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb206, Pb207 and Pb208 as heavy metals of mushrooms were determined. 238U, 232Th, 40K activity concentrations of mushroom collected from Erzurum was determined as 12.1 ± 0.8, 11.7 ± 0.9, 497.7 ± 17.8 Bq/kg, respectively and 137Cs was not detected by system. 232Th and 40K activity concentrations of mushroom collected from Kahramanmaraş was determined as 13.4 ± 0.5, 134.9 ± 6.3 Bq/kg, respectively, 238U and 137Cs was not detected by system similarly. The value of the committed effective dose collected from Erzurum and Kahramanmaraş were calculated as 75 and 29 μSv respectively and these values were found lower than 290 μSv accepted as world average. Absorbed dose and risk of lifetime cancer for Erzurum was determined as 37.39 nGy/h, 16.5 x 10-5; absorbed dose and excess lifetime cancer risk for Kahramanmaraş was determined as 30.92 nGy/h, 13.3 x 10-5 respectively. Amount of daily intake for each heavy metal was calculated. Radionuclide activity concentrations and accumulations of heavy metal were not founded threaten level to healthy, except from arsenic As (0.025 and 0.039 mg/kg in mushroom collected from both provinces. They were found a bit higher than upper limit (0.015 mg/kg in report which is prepared World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO jointly.

  11. Long-distance translocation of protein during morphogenesis of the fruiting body in the filamentous fungus, Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Woolston

    Full Text Available Commercial cultivation of the mushroom fungus, Agaricus bisporus, utilizes a substrate consisting of a lower layer of compost and upper layer of peat. Typically, the two layers are seeded with individual mycelial inoculants representing a single genotype of A. bisporus. Studies aimed at examining the potential of this fungal species as a heterologous protein expression system have revealed unexpected contributions of the mycelial inoculants in the morphogenesis of the fruiting body. These contributions were elucidated using a dual-inoculant method whereby the two layers were differientially inoculated with transgenic β-glucuronidase (GUS and wild-type (WT lines. Surprisingly, use of a transgenic GUS line in the lower substrate and a WT line in the upper substrate yielded fruiting bodies expressing GUS activity while lacking the GUS transgene. Results of PCR and RT-PCR analyses for the GUS transgene and RNA transcript, respectively, suggested translocation of the GUS protein from the transgenic mycelium colonizing the lower layer into the fruiting body that developed exclusively from WT mycelium colonizing the upper layer. Effective translocation of the GUS protein depended on the use of a transgenic line in the lower layer in which the GUS gene was controlled by a vegetative mycelium-active promoter (laccase 2 and β-actin, rather than a fruiting body-active promoter (hydrophobin A. GUS-expressing fruiting bodies lacking the GUS gene had a bonafide WT genotype, confirmed by the absence of stably inherited GUS and hygromycin phosphotransferase selectable marker activities in their derived basidiospores and mycelial tissue cultures. Differientially inoculating the two substrate layers with individual lines carrying the GUS gene controlled by different tissue-preferred promoters resulted in up to a ∼3.5-fold increase in GUS activity over that obtained with a single inoculant. Our findings support the existence of a previously undescribed

  12. Deciphering the ability of Agaricus bisporus var. burnettii to produce mushrooms at high temperature (25 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Navarro, Pilar; Spataro, Cathy; Ferrer, Nathalie; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-12-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is cultivated almost worldwide. Its cultivation is standardized and a temperature of 16-19 °C is needed during the fruiting period. The development of A. bisporus cultivars able to fruit at higher temperature (FHT) represents a promising alternative to reduce energy costs during cultivation in hot countries as well as in temperate countries during the hot season. A. bisporus var. burnettii is able to fruit at 25 °C. Understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie such a thermo-tolerance is a prerequisite to further development of breeding strains. The foundation of the FHT ability of the var. burnettii was dissected using a combination of candidate gene approaches and genetic tools. Transcript profiling of A. bisporus var. burnettii at two developmental stages (primordium P and sporophore SP) under two fruit-producing temperature conditions (17 °C and 25 °C) were established by cDNA-AFLP. The expression patterns were more similar within the same stage at the two different temperatures rather than between stages under the same temperature. Only one transcript-derived fragment (TDF) sequence differentially expressed between temperatures was recovered but it could not be further characterized. Twenty-nine TDF sequences differentially expressed between development stages were obtained. The phenotypic assessment of an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus×A. bisporus var. burnettii progeny demonstrated the complex inheritance of the FHT trait. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the number of fruit bodies yielded at 25 °C were found on LG II and LG VI. Two functional candidate genes known to be potentially involved in A. bisporus thermo-tolerance, a heat shock protein (HSP70) gene and a gene coding for a para-aminobenzoic acid synthase (PABA), were found in the vicinity of the QTL on LG II. Several positional candidate genes have been also identified in the confidence interval of the QTL on LG VI and are

  13. Effect of Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extracts, Obtained by Pressurized Water Extraction, on the Expression of Cholesterol Homeostasis Related Genes by Low-Density Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Marín, Francisco Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Culinary-medicinal mushrooms are able to lower blood cholesterol levels in animal models by different mechanisms. They might impair the endogenous cholesterol synthesis and exogenous cholesterol absorption during digestion. Mushroom extracts, obtained using pressurized water extractions (PWE) from Agaricus bisporus basidiomes, supplemented or not supplemented with selenium, were applied to HepG2 cell cultures to study the expression of 19 genes related to cholesterol homeostasis by low-density arrays (LDA). Only the PWE fractions obtained at 25°C showed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity. Besides the enzymatic inhibition, PWE extracts may downregulate some of the key genes involved in the cholesterol homeostasis, such as the squalene synthase gene (FDFT1), since its mRNA expression falls by one third of its initial value. In summary, A. bisporus extracts may also modulate biological cholesterol levels by molecular mechanisms further than the enzymatic way previously reported.

  14. Accumulation of recalcitrant xylan in mushroom-compost is due to a lack of xylan substituent removing enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitris; Xing, Lia; van Zandvoort, Marc A M J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-11-05

    The ability of Agaricus bisporus to degrade xylan in wheat straw based compost during mushroom formation is unclear. In this paper, xylan was extracted from the compost with water, 1M and 4M alkali. Over the phases analyzed, the remaining xylan was increasingly substituted with (4-O-methyl-)glucuronic acid and arabinosyl residues, both one and two arabinosyl residues per xylosyl residue remained. In the 1M and 4M KOH soluble solids of spent compost, 33 and 49 out of 100 xylosyl residues, respectively, were substituted. The accumulation of glucuronic acid substituents matched with the analysis that the two A. bisporus genes encoding for α-glucuronidase activity (both GH115) were not expressed in the A. bisporus mycelium in the compost during fruiting. Also, in a maximum likelihood tree it was shown that it is not likely that A. bisporus possesses genes encoding for the activity to remove arabinose from xylosyl residues having two arabinosyl residues.

  15. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus increases expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase-1 and expression of glutathione peroxidase-2 in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Tebo; Howell, Kate; Dunshea, Frank R; Ng, Ken

    2014-03-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus on cytosolic gluthathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), gastrointestinal specific glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) and selenoprotein P (SeP) mRNA expression and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon was examined. Rats were fed for 5weeks with control diet (0.15μg Se/g feed) or Se-enriched diet fortified with selenised mushroom (1μg Se/g feed). The mRNA expression levels were found to be significantly (Pbisporus can positively increase GPx-1 and GPx-2 gene expression and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon.

  16. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction to obtain mycosterols from Agaricus bisporus L. by response surface methodology and comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Diz, Patrícia; Prieto, M A; Barros, Lillian; Rodrigues, Alírio; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-15

    Ergosterol, a molecule with high commercial value, is the most abundant mycosterol in Agaricus bisporus L. To replace common conventional extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet), the present study reports the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for ergosterol. After preliminary tests, the results showed that solvents, time and ultrasound power altered the extraction efficiency. Using response surface methodology, models were developed to investigate the favourable experimental conditions that maximize the extraction efficiency. All statistical criteria demonstrated the validity of the proposed models. Overall, ultrasound-assisted extraction with ethanol at 375 W during 15 min proved to be as efficient as the Soxhlet extraction, yielding 671.5 ± 0.5mg ergosterol/100 g dw. However, with n-hexane extracts with higher purity (mg ergosterol/g extract) were obtained. Finally, it was proposed for the removal of the saponification step, which simplifies the extraction process and makes it more feasible for its industrial transference.

  17. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC (FYM+SC, 3 : 1 and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC (FYM+VC, 3 : 1, employing partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Available data showed a significant variety of organisms that included Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas of the γ-proteobacteria, that were the most frequently encountered genera. This is the first preliminary report on the microbial diversity of casing soils and demonstrates the presence of Acinetobacter spp. that has not been previously described in casing material.

  18. Violência contra os idosos: análise documental Violencia contra los ancianos: análisis documental Violence against the aged: documental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacy Aurélia Vieira de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os dados de violência e maus-tratos contra os idosos por meio de documentos oficiais, em Fortaleza-CE. Estudo retrospectivo, documental realizada em uma instituição de referência do Ceará, oficializada em denúncias de violência contra idosos. A coleta de dados ocorreu no primeiro semestre de 2005. Dos 424 documentos analisados, 284(67% identificou-se como abandono dos idosos. Quanto ao agressor, 207(49% era filho da vítima. Dentre os casos de violências, 161 (38% foi negligência, seguido por apropriação indébita de aposentadoria, 114 (27%; agressão verbal, 79(19% e física 68(16%. Tais eventos foram registrados por meio de denúncias, principalmente, ao serviço Alô-Idoso, 306(77%. Pôde-se verificar a importância de serviços voltados para essa questão, porém torna-se fundamental que políticas públicas enfoquem o papel social do idoso e privilegiem o cuidado e a proteção dessa parcela populacional em suas famílias e instituições.Lo estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar los datos sobre violencia contra los ancianos en la contexto familiar. Se realizó un estudio documental retrospectivo en una institución de referencia de Ceará, con oficialización en reclamaciones de violencia contra los ancianos. Se coletaron los datos en enero a julio de 2005. Se compilaron 424 datos. Se constató que 284 (67%, caso de violencia ocurrieron a los ancianos de sexo femenino. Con relación a los agresores, 207 (49%, eran hijos de las víctimas. Entre los tipos de violencia, 161(38% son negligencia, 114 (27%, la apropiación indebida de lo jubilación; la agresión verbal, 79 (19%, y la agresión físico, 68 (16%. Se ha podido identificar la importancia de servicio a cerca de la cuestión, no obstante, se resulta fundamental que políticas públicas de ese porcentaje de la población proyecten la función social del anciano, a sí convalorar el cuidado y la protección de ese porcentaje poblacional en sus

  19. Evaluación y evidencia para la vacunación contra rotavirus y vacunación contra Streptococcus pneumonia en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Morales Vargas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron y compararon dos posibles intervenciones en salud pública para ser aplicadas en Costa Rica: a vacunación contra el rotavirus y b vacunación contra el Streptococcus pneumonia. Se utilizó la técnica de revisión de la literatura impresa y electrónica usando como marco de referencia para la evaluación las recomendaciones de la International Network of Agencies of Health Care Technology Assessment -(INHATA y las recomendaciones de la OPS/OMS sobre evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias para países en desarrollo. Se utilizaron los criterios de seguridad, eficacia, efectividad, utilidad y costo-beneficio de ambas intervenciones, así como su impacto organizacional, ético y social. Se escogieron como grupos en riesgo las personas menores de 5 años y los mayores de 65 años. Se emplearon datos económicos publicados por otros autores sobre costos sanitarios y los precios de mercado para las vacunas. Considerando los aspectos anteriores, así como la calidad y amplitud de la literatura sobre ambas intervenciones, se concluye que la intervención contra el rotavirus podría ser una intervención de mayor impacto en cuanto a número de casos evitables en Costa Rica, por lo que se recomienda realizar estudios nacionales de Fase III para evaluar su efectividad. Si bien la intervención contra el Streptococcus pneumonia (C/B =2,4 es una intervención más favorable económicamente que la del rotavirus (C/B =2,7 en términos de costo/beneficio en el mediano y largo plazo, esta conclusión se revertiría si sólo se consideran los costos anuales luego del primer año. Resultados de la evaluación global, utilizando los criterios anteriores, propuesta por el autor, favorece la intervención ante el rotavirus.Two posible health interventions were evaluated and compared for application in Costa Rica: a vaccination against Rotavirus, and b vaccination against Streptococcus pneumonia. Analysis of existing printed and electronic literature was

  20. Two-component signal transduction in Agaricus bisporus: a comparative genomic analysis with other basidiomycetes through the web-based tool BASID2CS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín, José L; García-Yoldi, Alberto; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A

    2013-06-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are signal transduction mechanisms present in many eukaryotes, including fungi that play essential roles in the regulation of several cellular functions and responses. In this study, we carry out a genomic analysis of the TCS proteins in two varieties of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The genomes of both A. bisporus varieties contain eight genes coding for TCS proteins, which include four hybrid Histidine Kinases (HKs), a single histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) protein and three Response Regulators (RRs). Comparison of the TCS proteins among A. bisporus and the sequenced basidiomycetes showed a conserved core complement of five TCS proteins including the Tco1/Nik1 hybrid HK, HPt protein and Ssk1, Skn7 and Rim15-like RRs. In addition, Dual-HKs, unusual hybrid HKs with 2 HK and 2 RR domains, are absent in A. bisporus and are limited to various species of basidiomycetes. Differential expression analysis showed no significant up- or down-regulation of the Agaricus TCS genes in the conditions/tissue analyzed with the exception of the Skn7-like RR gene (Agabi_varbisH97_2|198669) that is significantly up-regulated on compost compared to cultured mycelia. Furthermore, the pipeline web server BASID2CS (http://bioinformatics.unavarra.es:1000/B2CS/BASID2CS.htm) has been specifically designed for the identification, classification and functional annotation of putative TCS proteins from any predicted proteome of basidiomycetes using a combination of several bioinformatic approaches.

  1. Effects of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar-Tonthat, The Can; Espeland, Erin; Caesar, Anthony J; Sainju, Upendra M; Lartey, Robert T; Gaskin, John F

    2013-07-01

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but little is known about the effects of these fungi on soil aggregation and the microbial community structure, particularly the communities that can bind soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings in Eastern Montana that stimulate western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii): outside the ring (OUT), inside the ring (IN), and stimulated zone adjacent to the fungal fruiting bodies (SZ) to determine (1) soil aggregate proportion and stability, (2) the microbial community composition and the N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity associated with bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth, (3) the predominant culturable bacterial communities that can bind to soil adhering to wheatgrass roots, and (4) the stimulation of wheatgrass production. In bulk soil, macroaggregates (4.75-2.00 and 2.00-0.25 mm) and aggregate stability increased in SZ compared to IN and OUT. The high ratio of fungal to bacteria (fatty acid methyl ester) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in SZ compared to IN and OUT suggest high fungal biomass. A soil sedimentation assay performed on the predominant isolates from root-adhering soil indicated more soil-binding bacteria in SZ than IN and OUT; Pseudomonas fluorescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates predominated in SZ, whereas Bacillus spp. isolates predominated in IN and OUT. This study suggests that growth stimulation of wheatgrass in A. lilaceps fairy rings may be attributed to the activity of the fungus by enhancing soil aggregation of bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth and influencing the amount and functionality of specific predominant microbial communities in the wheatgrass root-adhering soil.

  2. Reforma ou contra-reforma na proteção social à saúde Reform or contra-reform in health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Elias

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Discutem-se as mudanças no sistema de saúde brasileiro em período recente da ótica das políticas sociais. A partir do enunciado da exclusão social como questão central a ser enfrentada pelas políticas sociais e da noção de contra-reforma em oposição à reforma virtuosa e necessária do Estado, analisam-se as políticas de saúde, privilegiando a denominada Reforma Sanitária e a implementação do SUS. O artigo sustenta a exigência de se promover a articulação das reformas do sistema de saúde com as políticas econômicas de modo a apontar para um novo padrão de desenvolvimento, com sólidas bases sociais e orientado ética e politicamente para a inclusão.Changes in the Brazilian health system are discussed from the point of view of social policies. Taking social exclusion as the central question to be faced by social policies and contra-reform as the opposite of the virtuous and necessary reform of the State, the article analyzes Brazilian health policies, chiefly regarding the so-called Sanitary Reform and the National Health Service (SUS. It is argued that the articulation between the reforms of the health system and economic policies should be promoted having in view a new development pattern, with strong social foundations and ethically and politically oriented towards social inclusion.

  3. AGARICUS BITORQUIS (QUEL.) SACCARDO’ İN MİSEL GELİŞİMİ VE YETİŞTİRİLMESİNE PROPOLİSİN ETKİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Perihan; Çelemli, Ömür Gençay; SORKUN, KADRİYE

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effects of bee product propolis onto the Agaricus bitorquis (Quel.) Saccardo which is known as summer mushroom that is resistant to high temperature were studied. Propolis, honey bees and the trees by the bark, buds and buds of plants collected, is a very strong sticky substance that has anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal effect. It has very rich aliphatic acid, amino acid, and aromatic acid, esters of aromatic acids, aromatic aldehyde, flavones, ketone and terpenoids ...

  4. 大蒜/肉桂精油复配 PE 膜对双孢菇的保鲜研究%Study on Agaricus Bisporus Fresh-keeping Effect by Garlic/Cinnamon Essential Oil Compound PE Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪军; 潘艳娟; 王建清

    2015-01-01

    将大蒜精油与肉桂精油以1:2的比例复配,分别吸取5、10、15、20μL复配精油添加到双孢菇PE膜包装袋中,根据双孢菇保鲜评价指标评价组合包装对双孢菇的保鲜效果. 试验结果表明:与单独PE膜包装相比,10μL大蒜/肉桂精油复配PE膜可有效保持双孢菇的感官、Vc含量和总酚含量,降低褐变度,对还原糖含量和失重率影响不大;可将双孢菇的保鲜期延长2d.%Mixed garlic essential oil and cinnamon essential oil in ratio of 1:2 , learn 5μL,10μL,15μL, 20μL compound essential oil respectively added to the PE film packaging bag of agaricus bisporus ,according to the double spore mushroom fresh-keeping evaluating indicator evaluate the combined packaging fresh-keeping effect of Agaricus bisporus.The test results show that:compared with single PE film packaging ,10μL garlic /cinnamon essential oil compound PE film can effectively maintain the agaricus bisporus senses ,Vc content and total phenolic content ,reduce the browning degree ,have little effect to the reducing sugar content and weight loss rate.Can extende the preservation period of agaricus bisporus for 2 days.

  5. Qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer colorretal em uso de suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus após seis meses de segmento: ensaio clínico aleatorizado e placebo-controlado Quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus: after six months of segment: randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Fortes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer gastrointestinal compromete a qualidade de vida devido às alterações fisiológicas, metabólicas e psicológicas. Fungos medicinais podem melhorar a qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus na qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória. METODOLOGIA: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. Amostra constituída por 56 pacientes (24 homens e 32 mulheres, estádios I, II e III, separados em grupos placebo e Agaricus sylvaticus (30mg/kg/dia, e acompanhados por um período de seis meses. Para avaliar os indicadores da qualidade de vida foram utilizados um formulário-padrão e uma anamnese dirigida-padrão. Os resultados foram analisados de forma qualitativa e descritiva, utilizando os programas Microsoft Excel 2003 e Epi Info 2004. RESULTADOS: Após seis meses de tratamento, observou-se, no grupo Agaricus sylvaticus, aumento da adesão à prática de atividade física, melhora da disposição e do humor, redução das queixas de dores e das alterações do sono como insônia e noites mal dormidas comparado com o grupo placebo. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a suplementação dietética com Agaricus sylvaticus pode melhorar a qualidade de vida de pacientes no pós-operatório de câncer colorretal.INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal cancer jeopardizes the quality of life through physiological, metabolic and psychological alterations. Medicinal fungus may boost the quality of life of patients with cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus in relation to the quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer during post-surgery phase. METHODOLOGY: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial carried out at the Federal District Hospital - Brazil, for

  6. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis Diversidade microbiana em composto a base de bagaço de cana preparado para produção de Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferreira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65ºC; 15 h each step. Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 10(8 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 10(8 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation.Os cogumelos comestíveis são apreciados pelas suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais e, por essa razão, possuem alto valor econômico. A produção de cogumelos depende da composição química dos substratos básicos, dos suplementos utilizados e da preparação do composto no qual o fungo será cultivado. Considerando-se que os custos de

  7. O que o reumatologista deve saber sobre a vacina contra febre amarela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Vanderley Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Os pacientes portadores de doenças reumáticas são mais suscetíveis à infecção, quer seja pela própria doença de base ou pelo tratamento empregado. É papel do reumatologista prevenir as infecções nesse grupo de pacientes e, dentre as estratégias empregadas, encontra-se a vacinação. No grupo das doenças infecciosas que podem ser prevenidas está a febre amarela. Sua vacina é segura e eficaz na população em geral, mas, assim como as vacinas contendo organismos vivos atenuados, deve ser evitada sempre que possível em portadores de doenças reumáticas em uso de medicamentos imunossupressores. Sendo a febre amarela endêmica em grande parte do Brasil, e estando a vacinação contra essa doença indicada para a população residente em extensa parte do território nacional (além dos viajantes para essas regiões, torna-se essencial que o reumatologista tenha conhecimento da doença, das indicações e contraindicações da vacina contra a febre amarela. Nosso artigo tem o objetivo de destacar os principais aspectos que o reumatologista precisa conhecer sobre a vacina contra a febre amarela, para decidir por sua indicação ou contraindicação após avaliação do risco-benefício em situações específicas.

  8. Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Elorriaga Guadalupe de los A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Precisar si existe asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología -Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR- y en el Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular y Asistencia Circulatoria, del Hospital General del CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, de agosto de 1998 a abril de 2000. Se determinaron anticuerpos IgG e IgM contra C. psittaci, C. trachomatis y C. pneumoniae mediante microinmunofluorescencia, en suero de 70 pacientes con ECV hospitalizados en el CMNR, mayores de 30 años, de uno u otro sexo, y se compararon con 140 sanos, pareados por edad y sexo. Se utilizaron muestras aleatorias simples, con un tamaño poblacional de 110, una prevalencia de 50% y un nivel de confianza de 99%. Para establecer la diferencia entre las proporciones de los títulos se utilizó ji cuadrada y se calculó la razón de momios. Resultados. El 94.3% (66/70 de los pacientes presentó IgG en contra de C. pneumoniae vs 37% (52/140 de los individuos sanos (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Existe una fuerte asociación entre anticuerpos IgG hacia C. pneumoniae y ECV.

  9. Is seeking bad mood cognitively demanding? Contra-hedonic orientation and working-memory capacity in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Schmiedek, Florian; Wagner, Gert G; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-06-01

    Hedonism, or wanting to feel good, is central to human motivation. At times, however, people also seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect, and this can be instrumental for the later attainment of their goals. Here, we investigate the assumption that such contra-hedonic orientation is cognitively more demanding than prohedonic orientation, above and beyond the effects of momentary affective experience. We provided 378 participants with mobile phones that they carried with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants at least 54 times to report their current affect-regulation orientation and to work on two trials of a cognitively demanding working memory task. As expected, contra-hedonic orientation was substantially less prevalent than prohedonic orientation. It was reported in 15% of the measurement occasions. Participants who reported on average more contra-hedonic orientation showed lower average working memory performance throughout the study interval. Further, controlling for the effects of accompanying affective experiences, momentary occurrences of contra-hedonic orientation were associated with temporary declines in working memory performance within individuals, and this could neither be explained by lacking task compliance nor by other characteristics of the individual or the situation. Prohedonic orientation showed a considerably smaller association with working memory performance. These findings are consistent with the view that contra-hedonic orientation is accompanied by momentarily more diminished cognitive resources than is prohedonic orientation.

  10. Ambassadors for the Kingdom of God or for America? Christian Nationalism, the Christian Right, and the Contra War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Frances Turek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses the concept of Christian nationalism to explore the religious dynamics of the Contra war and U.S.–Nicaraguan relations during Ronald Reagan’s presidency. Religious organizations and individuals played crucial roles on both sides in the war in Nicaragua and in the debates in the United States over support for the Contras. Evangelistic work strengthened transnational ties between Christians, but also raised the stakes of the war; supporters of the Sandinistas and Contras alike alleged a victory by their adversary imperiled the future of Christianity in Nicaragua. Christian nationalism thus manifested itself and intertwined in both the United States and Nicaragua. Examining how evangelicals and Catholics in the United States and Nicaragua, as well as the Reagan administration, the Contras, and the Sandinistas, used Christian nationalism to build support for their policy objectives sheds light on both the malleability and the power of identifying faith with the state. Having assessed Christian nationalism as a tool and a locus of conflict in the Contra war, the essay then steps back and considers the larger methodological implications of using Christian nationalism as a category of analysis in U.S. foreign relations history.

  11. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus Vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Eva; Larraga, Vicente; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis. Los vectores de la invención contienen secuencias codificantes de la proteína LACK, preferentemente insertadas en el locus de hemaglutinina del virus y bajo el control de un promotor que permite su expresión a lo largo del ciclo de infección del virus. Son vectores seguros, estables, que dan lugar a una potente respuesta inmune que confiere protección frente a la leishmaniasis,...

  12. Factores de empoderamiento y protección de las mujeres contra la violencia

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Casique

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza la relevancia de la disponibilidad de recursos económicos, sociales y educativos en la definición de los niveles de poder de decisión de las mexicanas en el hogar. También explora la vinculación entre la posesión de estos recursos y el riesgo de violencia de pareja contra la mujer. El análisis se basa en información proveniente de la Hendiré 2003.

  13. Nordic Walking, modalidad terapéutica contra la fatiga relativa al cáncer

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina González Castro

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia de que el ejercicio físico puede mejorar los síntomas de los pacientes y supervivientes de cáncer y en especial la fatiga relativa al cáncer (FRC). El Nordic Walking (NW) es una novedosa forma de ejercicio físico que presenta ventajas fisiológicas y psicológicas significativas respecto de la marcha normal. Este artículo propone el NW como tratamiento terapéutico alternativo contra la FRC. 

  14. Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    García-Elorriaga Guadalupe de los A; Calderón-Abbo Moisés; González-Bonilla César R

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Precisar si existe asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología -Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR)- y en el Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular y Asistencia Circulatoria, del Hospital General del CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), de agosto de 1998 a abril de 2000. Se d...

  15. Descolonizando las noticias. Un acercamiento a las narrativas de la violencia contra las mujeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental de este artículo es compartir una reflexión teórica y metodológica acerca de las narrativas mediáticas de la violencia contra las mujeres desde una perspectiva feminista descolonial. Este documento es el resultado del diálogo entre el trabajo empírico en el análisis de noticias y las corrientes teóricas que articulan feminismo y comunicación.

  16. Comunicado de la Plataforma contra el Préstamo de Pago. Mayo de 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarde, Micol

    2008-01-01

    El Día del Libro de 2007, la Plataforma contra el Préstamo de Pago en Bibliotecas decidió iniciar una campaña de recogida de firmas para que las personas que rechazaron el pago de un canon por el préstamo de libros en bibliotecas pudieron pedir a la Unión Europea la derogación de la Directiva 2006/115/CE (antes Directiva 92/100/CEE), que regula dicho canon.

  17. La violencia conyugal contra las mujeres en la ciudad de Pasto, 1890-1936

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Tapia de Villota, Martha Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Con las nuevas formas de hacer historia, se aborda el estudio del maltrato conyugal en contra de la mujer, con el único anhelo de contribuir al desarrollo social y cultural, pero fundamentalmente con el anhelo de hacer conocer aquella historia oculta de un grupo de la población tradicionalmente discriminado historia que hace poco ha empezado a escribirse por cuanto no se permitía y en ocasiones era intransigente. El escribir sobre este tema permite conocer como se desarrollaba la sociedad en ...

  18. El laberinto de las sombras: desaparecer en el marco de la guerra contra las drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Robledo Silvestre

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se propone un análisis de la desaparición de personas como un hecho sociohistórico que se ha transformado sustancialmente en las últimas dos décadas en México, tanto en la práctica como en el discurso, con el paso de un contexto de guerra sucia a un contexto de guerra contra las drogas. Las desapariciones, que antes se explicaban bajo el marco de la represión política, hoy ofrecen contornos menos claros sobre motivos y actores asociados al fenómeno. Este documento es fruto de...

  19. Terapia génica con citocinas contra cáncer cervicouterino

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales; Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2005-01-01

    La terapia génica es una excelente alternativa para el tratamiento de muchas enfermedades. La capacidad para manipular el DNA ha permitido dirigir la terapia génica para corregir la función de un gen alterado, aumentar la expresión de un gen o activar la respuesta inmune. Así, se puede proponer el uso del DNA como un medicamento capaz de controlar, corregir o curar una enfermedad. La terapia génica contra cáncer tiene un potencial enorme, y en la última década se han obtenido resultados muy a...

  20. El pronunciamiento de Huelva contra el General Espartero y el Sitio de Sevilla de 1843

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En el verano de 1843 se produjeron en Andalucía pronunciamientos contra la Regencia del general Espartero. En Huelva la Junta Central establecida intentó organizar y dirigir la insurrección. En julio de 1843 Sevilla se prepara para sufrir el asedio del general Van Halen y Huelva acude a ayudar a la capital bombardeada. Más de 600 bombas cayeron sobre la ciudad. Finalmente, se logra el fin de la Regencia y el establecimiento del reinado de Isabel II (1843-1868)...

  1. La contra revolucion imaginaria: novela y film en Mexico (1910-1965)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sebastiao Guilherme Albano da

    2010-01-01

    COSTA, S. G. A. La contra Revolucion imaginaria: novela y film en Mexico (1910-1965). Revista Mediterranea de Comunicacion, n. 1, p.71-97, 2010. Disponivel em:. Acesso em: 04 nov. 2010. Este estudio busca señalar la tipología discursiva propiciada por la Revolución Mexicana y sus políticas culturales, además de la apropiación de los medios de comunicación de los estímulos que la gesta propuso a otros artes. Aquí se describe algunas constantes narrativas de parte de las novelas y los films ...

  2. Vacunas terapéuticas recombinantes contra el cáncer del cuello uterino

    OpenAIRE

    BERUMEN JAIME; VILLEGAS NICOLÁS

    1997-01-01

    Durante el desarrollo del cáncer cervicouterino se inducen mecanismos para evadir el sistema inmune, como son la disminución de la expresión de moléculas de antígeno mayor de histocompatibilidad I y la secreción de citocinas por las células tumorales. Como consecuencia de ello, la estimulación de linfocitos T citotóxicos (LTC) y cooperadores (TC), de células asesinas naturales (AN) y macrófagos es muy deficiente. Para inducir una respuesta inmune efectiva contra el tumor, se requiere la estim...

  3. La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2000-01-01

    Este número del Innocenti Digest afronta el tema de la violencia doméstica, una de las formas de violencia contra mujeres y niñas más difundidas a nivel mundial, aunque suele permanecer relativamente oculta e ignorada. La violencia doméstica es un problema que afecta numerosos campos: la sanidad, la justicia, la economia, la educación, el desarollo y, sobre todo, los derechos humanos. El Digest examina las dimensiones y el carácter universal de la violencia doméstica, como asimismo la repercu...

  4. Rivalidades en las redes de poder de Manila: el golpe contra el gobernador Diego de Salcedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Picazo Muntaner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En la segunda mitad del siglo XVII Filipinas vivió un inusitado golpe de mano contra su gobernador y capitán general Diego de Salcedo, el cual fue detenido por la Inquisición de las islas y procesado. Proceso que fue el final de una confrontación como nunca se había vivido entre diferentes redes de poder y que acabó con la intervención de la Corte y la condena unánime de todos los participantes en aquellos acontecimientos. 

  5. La vacunación contra pertussis: Estado actual y perspectivas futuras

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    Celso Pérez-Bolaños

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La tosferina o pertussis es una enfermedad producida por la bacteria Gram negativa Bordetella pertussis y constituye actualmente un problema de salud a escala mundial, siendo la población infantil la más vulnerable dentro de los grupos de riesgo. Suele ser fatal en niños menores de un año, debido a que la tos paroxística característica bloquea las vías respiratorias, lo cual provoca la asfixia y la muerte. Adicionalmente, se observan eventos adversos o complicaciones serias de la enfermedad tales como neumonías bacterianas secundarias, epilepsias, encefalopatía, apnea e hipertensión pulmonar. En la actualidad se aplican programas extensivos de vacunación contra pertussis en todo el mundo, de modo que la enfermedad está considerada como relativamente bien controlada. Según informes de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, cerca del 82 % de toda la población infantil mundial recibió las tres dosis de la vacuna de pertussis en 2008. La vacunación global contra pertussis en ese año evitó cerca de 687 000 muertes por la enfermedad. Sin embargo, se ha observado que ocurre un resurgimiento de ella a escala mundial, así como una prevalencia en zonas del mundo donde la vacunación es pobre. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo presentar una revisión acerca de los problemas inherentes a la vacunación contra esta enfermedad en el contexto actual de su resurgimiento a escala universal, la forma de enfocarlos y resolverlos, para su aplicación en Cuba en caso necesario. La vacunación contra pertussis necesita de nuevos enfoques dirigidos a la eliminación de un flagelo que afecta primordialmente a la población infantil, que es el futuro de la humanidad. La solución del problema parece ser la búsqueda de nuevas vacunas más eficaces y la extensión de los esquemas de vacunación a la población de adolescentes y adultos que rodean a los infantes, así como a las mujeres en estado de gestación y a los recién nacidos.

  6. MEJORAMIENTO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE UNA VACUNA OLEOSA CONTRA ESTOMATITIS VESICULAR BIVALENTE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio calculó diferentes MI (Multiplicidad de Infección) para la producción de cultivos industriales de virus de Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) y evaluó el efecto de la cantidad de glicoproteína G en la inducción de respuesta de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra el virus de EV en cobayos inmunizados con una vacuna oleosa bivalente (Indiana (I) y New Jersey (NJ)). Al establecer el MI más eficiente se logró mejorar la cinética de infección de los cultivos industriales disminuyendo los...

  7. A compact, high efficiency contra-rotating generator suitable for wind turbines in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Mellor, P.H.; Wrobel, R.; Drury, D. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    This paper is concerned with the design, development and performance testing of a permanent magnet (PM) generator for wind turbine applications in urban areas. The radially interacting armature windings and magnet array are carried on direct drive, contra-rotating rotors, resulting in a high torque density and efficiency. This topology also provides improved physical and mechanical characteristics such as compactness, low starting torque, elimination of gearboxes, low maintenance, low noise and vibration, and the potential for modular construction. The design brief required a 50 kW continuous rated prototype generator, with a relative speed at the air-gap of 500 rpm. A test rig has been instrumented to give measurements of the mechanical input (torque and speed) and electrical output (voltage, current and power) of the generator, as well as temperature readings from inside the generator using a wireless telemetry device. Peak power output was found to be 48 kW at a contra-rotating speed of 500 rpm, close to the design target, with an efficiency of 94%. It is anticipated that the generator will find application in a wide range of wind turbine designs suited to the urban environment, e.g. types sited on the top of buildings, as there is growing interest in providing quiet, low cost, clean electricity at point of use. (author)

  8. Vacunas terapéuticas recombinantes contra el cáncer del cuello uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERUMEN JAIME

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el desarrollo del cáncer cervicouterino se inducen mecanismos para evadir el sistema inmune, como son la disminución de la expresión de moléculas de antígeno mayor de histocompatibilidad I y la secreción de citocinas por las células tumorales. Como consecuencia de ello, la estimulación de linfocitos T citotóxicos (LTC y cooperadores (TC, de células asesinas naturales (AN y macrófagos es muy deficiente. Para inducir una respuesta inmune efectiva contra el tumor, se requiere la estimulación simultánea de múltiples componentes del sistema inmune: por vía sistémica la estimulación de LTC y TC contra epítopos del virus del papiloma humano, y en un nivel local, la inducción de la secreción de citocinas por el tumor, para aumentar el procesamiento y la presentación de blancos tumorales, así como la estimulación de los linfocitos, AN y macrófagos que infiltran el tumor.

  9. VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA A MULHER POR PARCEIRO ÍNTIMO: (IN VISIBILIDADE DO PROBLEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ferreira Acosta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las razones que llevan a la violencia contra la mujer y describir los actos perpetrados por su pareja. Investigación documental, cualitativa realizada en el Servicio de Policía Especializada en Atención a Mujeres. Se analizaron 902 informes registrados entre Agosto/2009 y Diciembre/2011, cuyas víctimas tenían al menos dieciocho años. Se recolectaron los datos de las ocurrencias, describiendo literalmente, las historias de las víctimas y su tratamiento fue a través del análisis de contenido. Fue identificados como factores desencadenantes de la violencia: la supremacía masculina como generadora de sufrimiento y sumisión, los problemas derivados del uso de drogas, los problemas relacionados con los niños y la división de los bienes. La gravedad fue escalada por las consecuencias a la víctima y su familia. El personal de enfermería como parte de la red de apoyo, debe entender este fenómeno como un problema de salud y esforzarse por romper las barreras que impidan el servicio eficaz y eficiente, auxiliando en el fortalecimiento de la autonomía de las mujeres, incluyendo a los hombres en acciones de combate y prevención de la violencia contra las mujeres.

  10. Legislación y justicia contra blasfemos. (Cataluña, siglos XV-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelabertó Vilagrán, Martí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The repression against the sins of the language is a subject of intense attention from the law and courts of justice in Europe from the low Middle Ages. In Spain there were enacted severe civil and religious laws against the crime of blasphemy by an unequal application. In Catalonia the secular and ecclesiastical judges participated in the repressive politics favoring deterrence springs of moral coercion wit little recourse to physical coercion.La represión contra los pecados de la lengua es importante objeto de atención por parte de la legislación y los tribunales de justicia en Europa desde la Baja Edad Media. En España se promulgaron severas leyes civiles y religiosas contra el delito de blasfemia con una desigual aplicación. En Cataluña los jueces laicos y eclesiásticos participaron de la política represiva privilegiando los resortes disuasorios de la coacción moral sin apenas recurrir a la coerción física.

  11. Un regimen sanitatis contra la peste: el tratado del licenciado Vázquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Barroso, Efrén

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The regimina pestis or plague treatises are the main literary genre where late medieval doctors reflected their medical concern about plague and pestilences. These medical texts, in which some practical recommendations were given to people to avoid and/or cure the effects of epidemic disease of high letality, were developed since the outbreak of the epidemic in 1348. The text now presented is a treatise on plague written by the «licenciado Vázquez», a converso from the archbishopric of Toledo who was tried by the Inquisition at the beginning of the 16th Century.Los regimientos o tratados contra la peste o pestilencia son expresión del modo en que los médicos universitarios bajomedievales hicieron frente a la enfermedad epidémica de alta letalidad. Estos textos médicos, que consistían en un repertorio más o menos amplio de recomendaciones prácticas para prevenir y/o tratar dicha enfermedad, experimentaron un notable desarrollo a partir de la peste negra de 1348. El texto que se ofrece a continuación es un tratado inédito contra la peste escrito por el licenciado Vázquez, un judeoconverso toledano que fue procesado por el Tribunal de la Inquisición a principios del siglo XVI.

  12. Thomas Mann: um escritor contra o nazismo Thomas Mann: a writer against nazism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Dayan-Herzbrun

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O combate que Thomas Mann travou contra o nazismo a partir de 1922 é exemplar, pois é o de um escritor apaixonado pela liberdade e não o de um militante. Ele privilegia a ficção e o mito como meios de luta contra o fascínio exercido pelo nazismo e afirma a permanência de uma Alemanha cultural, cosmopolita, fonte de uma universalidade estranha a todos os particularismos étnicos. Goethe, com quem ele se identifica e no qual se projeta, é a figura de proa dessa Alemanha.Thomas Mann's attack, from 1922 onwards, against Nazism is exemplar in the sense that it was promoted by a writer committed to the defence of liberty and not by a militant. He underlines fiction and myth as ways of fighting against the charms of Nazism and proclaims the permanence of a cultural, cosmopolitan Germany, a source of a universality which is alien to all kinds of ethnic particularities. Goethe, someone he is identified with, is the prominent figure of this Germany.

  13. Potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o isolados de Fusarium sp., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anthony Hoffmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo – O uso discriminado de agrotóxicos acarreta em uma grande prejuízo a saúdes das pessoas e do meio ambiente. O uso de novos métodos de combate a pragas se faz necessário para o equilíbrio da cadeia produtiva. A utilização de microrganismos no combate a pragas se faz como uma boa alternativa. O trabalho objetivou-se em avaliar o potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o patógeno Fusarium sp. in vitro. Para isso foi utilizado os métodos de confronto direto, pareamento de culturas e de metabólitos voláteis. Os experimentos foram realizados na incubadora de empresas da Universidade Federal do Tocantins – UFT Campus de Gurupi, seguiram com três repetições. Foram testados 15 isolados do antagonista em confronto direto com o patógeno e os mesmos isolados e patógeno foram testados em metabólitos voláteis ambos utilizando o meio de cultura BDA. Todos os isolados apresentaram antagonismo in vitro contra o patógeno.

  14. Frequência de anticorpos contra Leptospira spp. e Trypanosoma cruzy em primatas neotropicais mantidos em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Faz um levantamento sorológico para anticorpos contra Leptospira spp e Trypanosoma cruzi em primatas neotropicais mantidos em cativeiro. Amostras de 94 primatas neotropicais adultos, machos e fêmeas de diferentes espécies pertencentes ao criatório do Centro Nacional de Primatas (CENP)-Ananindeua-PA, coletadas para a realização da Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM), na qual foram utilizadas 84 amostras sorológicas, em que 35 (41,67%) apresentaram anticorpos contra leptospira e 49 (58,...

  15. Efectividad de la vacuna VA-MENGOC-BC® contra cepas heterólogas de meningococo B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Ochoa-Azze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La efectividad de las vacunas de vesículas de membrana externa de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B ha sido cuestionada por algunos investigadores, limitándola a la cepa vacunal. VA-MENGOC-BC® es una vacuna antimeningocócica basada en dicha tecnología. Presentamos un metaanálisis de estudios realizados en diferentes contextos epidemiológicos, evaluando su efectividad contra cepas heterólogas de meningococo B en varios grupos de edades. Se demuestra que la vacuna es efectiva contra cepas homólogas, heterólogas y de diferentes complejos clonales.

  16. Fototerapia na doença enxerto contra hospedeiro Phototherapy in the graft versus host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Duarte

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A doença enxerto contra hospedeiro é um dos obstáculos ao sucesso do transplante de medula óssea, e o envolvimento cutâneo é freqüente. A fototerapia é utilizada devido à intensa atividade imunomoduladora local, sendo opção terapêutica adjuvante para as lesões cutâneas resistentes à terapia convencional. OBJETIVO: Realizar análise descritiva do tratamento da doença enxerto contra hospedeiro com fototerapia (Puva ou UVB de faixa estreita. MÉTODOS: Foram atendidos nove pacientes com manifestação cutânea da doença enxerto contra hospedeiro aguda ou crônica. Seis foram tratados com Puva, terapia de primeira escolha, e três com UVB de faixa estreita. As sessões foram realizadas três vezes por semana, e a resposta terapêutica avaliada após 12 sessões. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes com doença enxerto contra hospedeiro aguda mostraram melhora, com desaparecimento do eritema e do edema. Naqueles com doença crônica, observaram-se involução das lesões liquenóides e melhora da mobilidade daqueles com a forma esclerodermiforme. Dois pacientes apresentaram doença de evolução grave e foram a óbito. CONCLUSÃO: A fototerapia mostrou-se efetiva no tratamento das manifestações cutâneas da doença enxerto contra hospedeiro aguda e crônica. A Puva permite o controle da doença, podendo a UVB de faixa estreita ser opção para pacientes impossibilitados de usar medicação sistêmica.BACKGROUND: Graft versus host disease is one of the obstacles to successful bone marrow transplantation. It often affects the skin. Phototherapy has been used because of its strong local immunomodulatory activity and it is an option for adjuvant therapy for skin lesions of graft versus host disease resistant to conventional therapy. OBJECTIVE: To make a descriptive analysis of treating graft versus host disease with phototherapy (PUVA or narrowband UVB. Methods - Nine patients with cutaneous manifestation of acute or chronic

  17. 保鲜剂对双孢菇褐变的影响%Browning of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) affected by preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓宁; 胡花丽; 孙娅; 李志强; 李鹏霞

    2012-01-01

    To screen an ideal preservative, root-cut button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was soaked into water (control) , 0. 2 mmol/L ascorbic acid ( Vc ) , 0. 25 mmol/L citric acid, and 0. 5 % CaCl2 aqueous solution for 1 min respectively , and the browning degree, total phenol content and activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO) , peroxydase (POD) , catalase (CAT) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were detected. The browning of mushroom soaked into water was serious and rapid; total polyphenols content decreased, the activities of PPO increased first and then decreased, and the activities of POD, CAT and LOX rose rapidly. The three preservatives worked on the mushroom at various degrees. 0. 2 mmol/L ascorbic acid remarkably slowed down the drop of phenol contents, reduced PPO and POD activities, and increased CAT activity. It was an ideal preservative and browning inhibitor for Agaricus bisporus.%为筛选双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)理想的保鲜剂,在双孢菇去根30 min内分别置于0.2 mmol/L维生素C、0.25 mmol/L柠檬酸和0.5%CaCl2处理溶液中浸泡1 min,阴凉处沥干,聚乙烯薄膜包装,于温度0~2℃、相对湿度90%~95%条件下贮藏,0~14 d取样测定双孢菇褐变度、总酚含量以及多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和脂氧合酶(LOX)活性.结果表明:清水对照处理的双孢菇褐化迅速,褐变严重,总酚含量下降,PPO活性先上升后下降,POD、CAT和LOX活性呈上升趋势.与对照相比,0.2 mmol/L维生素C、0.25mmol/L柠檬酸和0.5% CaCl2浸泡处理对测定指标产生了不同程度的影响,其中0.2 mmol/L维生素C能够显著减缓双孢菇贮藏期间总酚含量的下降、降低PPO和POD的活性、提高CAT活性,保鲜处理效果最好,是双孢菇理想的保鲜剂及褐变抑制剂.

  18. Soporte social percibido en cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mauricio Puerto Pedraza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer se reconoce como un problema universal que afecta a las personas de cualquier edad, género, cultura y situación económica, además impone fuertes cargas financieras y sociales para la persona enferma al igual que su familia. El objetivo fue determinar el Soporte social percibido en enfermedad crónica en los cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, se entrevistaron 75 cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer a los cuales se les aplicó el instrumento "Soporte social percibido en enfermedad crónica". El análisis se realizó mediante estadística descriptiva y estratificación de la escala Soporte social percibido. Resultados: Los cuidadores familiares son en mayoría mujeres de estratos socioeconómicos 1 y 2, de escolaridad primaria incompleta el (37,3%, en relación al estado civil se informó estar casados o en unión libre (66,7%, de ocupación hogar (50,7%, con una mediana de 18 horas de cuidado. Los cuidadores familiares presentan una percepción media del soporte social percibido de (36%. Las subescalas del instrumento reportan puntajes medios en la interacción personal (42,7%, guía (40%, retroalimentación (41,3% ayuda tangible (28%, interacción social (45,3%. Discusión: Se hace necesario abordar el soporte social desde una perspectiva holística donde las interrelaciones de salud física, emocional, funcionamiento familiar y social respondan a las necesidades de los cuidadores familiares. Conclusiones: El soporte social es conocido por ser la fuerza más grande y poderosa que facilita el éxito cuando una persona y su cuidador se ven amenazadas por el cáncer. Cómo citar este artículo: Puerto HM. Soporte social percibido en cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer. Rev Cuid. 2017; 8(1:1407-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v8i1.345

  19. Notificações de violência sexual contra a mulher no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracyelle Alves Remigio Moreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentar o quadro de violência sexual contra a mulher no Brasil, com base nas notificações realizadas no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, que analisou informações referentes às notificações de violência sexual contra a mulher, no período de 2009 a 2013, considerando a unidade da federação, perfil das mulheres, características da ocorrência e encaminhamentos realizados pelo setor saúde. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva, sendo apresentados números absolutos e relativos derivados das notificações. Resultados: No Brasil, foram registradas 21.871 notificações no período estudado. Observaram-se maiores taxas de registros no ano de 2013 e na região Norte. Predominou o ciclo de vida de 10 a 19 anos (10.806/49,4%, as raças branca (8.894/40,7% e parda (8.535/39,0%, e a escolaridade ensino fundamental incompleto (5.444/24,9%. Os casos de violência sexual ocorreram com maior frequência na residência da mulher (13.259/60,6%, com agressor conhecido (5.649/25,8% e sem suspeita do uso de álcool (9.249/42,3%. A maior parte do atendimento no setor saúde foi de nível ambulatorial (15.842/72,6%, e os casos evoluíram para alta (16.879/77,2%. Conclusão: As notificações cresceram progressivamente no período estudado, e a violência sexual contra a mulher no país, registrada pelo setor saúde, atingiu, principalmente, adolescentes, no ambiente doméstico e com agressor conhecido.

  20. Gênero e violência contra a mulher na literatura de enfermagem: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Cardoso Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Na produção científica sobre desigualdades na relação homens e mulheres destacam-se estudos sobre violência contra a mulher e a premência do seu reconhecimento como problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: considerando o potencial da Enfermagem para um olhar ampliado desta temática, pretendeu-se conhecer o que está sendo veiculado sobre gênero e violência contra a mulher nas principais revistas de enfermagem brasileiras. Método: realizou-se revisão integrativa, de publicações online, entre 2000 e 2012. Dos 138 artigos selecionados, 25 tratavam gênero e violência contra a mulher como construtos sociais. Resultados: predominaram as abordagens qualitativas (60%, investigações empíricas (60%, acadêmicas (100%, autorias envolvendo enfermeira(os (96%, violências conjugal (32% e doméstica (20%. A violência contra a mulher à luz de gênero foi associada em apenas 32% das publicações. Conclusão: há necessidade de incremento de estudos em parceria com o serviço e a ampliação das discussões que envolvem dinâmicas de poder e de resistência, que constituem a base do conceito de gênero.

  1. La plataforma de afectados por la hipoteca y la lucha contra los desahucios en el Estado español

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero Miramar, José Luis; Amodio, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    La Plataforma de Afectados por la Hipoteca (PAH), dedicada a la lucha contra los desahucios, se ha convertido en uno de los principales movimientos sociales del Estado Español. Tratamos de explicar el por qué y el cómo de su aparición.

  2. Contra-públicos: Arte participativo como manifestación de un espacio público

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, E.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Las prácticas de artistas-activistas en el espacio público pueden ser entendidas como generadoras de un contra-público en el sentido de Hirschkind (2006) porque construyen un espacio para la participación política alternativa. El espacio público entonces no se debe entender como algo preexistente, a

  3. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  4. Contra el documento. Apuntes para una metodología de la Crítica de Arte

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Carrasco, Javier

    2002-01-01

    575 p. Ni la documentación escrita ni la oral son soportes fiables para el crítico de arte. Este debe enfrentarse al juicio con su casi exclusivo conocimiento y percepción; así la Crítica de Arte es una disciplina que se manifiesta implicitamente contra el documento

  5. Resultados de la Policía Nacional en la lucha contra el crimen, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervyn Norza Céspedes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo contiene la descripción de los resultados obtenidos por la Policía Nacional en el desarrollo de estrategias orientadas a garantizar la seguridad y la convivencia ciudadana en Colombia durante el 2011, entre los cuales están las capturas por todos los delitos consagrados en el Código Penal, el rescate de personas secuestradas, la desactivación de artefactos explosivos, la recuperación de vehículos y la incautación y recuperación de mercancía, entre otras actividades de repercusión nacional e internacional en la lucha contra el crimen.

  6. Fatores motivadores dos ilíctos contra o patrimônio

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Valdir Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar os fatores motivadores que influenciam a decisão de cometer ilícitos contra o patrimônio, após esgotados todos os recursos de prevenção, e a percepção do indivíduo que cometeu ilícito, no momento posterior à imposição da pena. Recorreu-se a Gary Becker ( 1968) e Erick Fromm (1976), para o desenvolvimento teórico da pesquisa que metodologicamente caracteriza-se como empírica, pela sua natureza de buscar fatos da realidade...

  7. Investigation on the wake evolution of contra-rotating propeller using RANS computation and SPIV measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Kwang-Jun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wake characteristics of Contra-Rotating Propeller (CRP were investigated using numerical simulation and flow measurement. The numerical simulation was carried out with a commercial CFD code based on a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations solver, and the flow measurement was performed with Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV system. The simulation results were validated through the comparison with the experiment results measured around the leading edge of rudder to investigate the effect of propeller operation under the conditions without propeller, with forward propeller alone, and with both forward and aft propellers. The evolution of CRP wake was analyzed through velocity and vorticity contours on three transverse planes and one longitudinal plane based on CFD results. The trajectories of propeller tip vortex core in the cases with and without aft propeller were also compared, and larger wake contraction with CRP was confirmed.

  8. La Guerra contra las Drogas en Colombia y México: estrategias fracasadas

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rosen, Jonathan; Zepeda Martínez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las estrategias y resultados de la guerra contra las drogas en Colombia y México, por medio de iniciativas como el Plan Colombia y la Iniciativa Mérida.Metodología: se recurre al método cualitativo con el fin de analizar los programas de cooperación antinarcóticos en las Américas, en especial entre Estados Unidos, Colombia y México. El análisis se concentra en laproducción y tráfico de drogas; organizaciones criminales o cárteles del narcotráfico y los niveles de violencia. ...

  9. La seguridad jurídica frente a sentencias definitivas. Tutela contra sentencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Quinche-Ramírez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito trabaja los temas de la seguridad jurídica y la tutela contra sentencias. Pretende mostrar dos cosas: en primer lugar, que el Estado de inseguridad jurídica que padece Colombia no tiene origen en las sentencias que profieren los jueces de tutela, sino en las prácticas normativas irregulares del Congreso y de la Presidencia de la República. En segundo lugar evidencia, desde las prácticas del Sistema Interamericano de Protección de los Derechos Humanos, del que Colombia forma parte y, que resulta conforme con la Convención Americana sobre Derechos Humanos, el examen judicial de las sentencias proferidas por los jueces locales.

  10. The politics of presidential illness. Ronald Reagan and the Iran-Contra Scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the likelihood that the Iran-Contra scandal was shaped heavily by the effects of Ronald Reagan's cancer surgery in summer, 1985. During the President's hospitalization and in the period soon after, he took several actions--which he apparently did not remember--that launched a policy that was unwise, counterproductive, and a failure. These damaged both his Administration and his standing in history. The 25th Amendment afforded Reagan the means by which his involvement in these events could easily have been avoided. However, the President and his aides determined that he would resume the powers and duties of the presidency only hours after undergoing extensive cancer surgery. This decision contributed materially to the most damaging episode of Reagan's eight-year presidency.

  11. An Integrative Biosensor Based on Contra-Directional Coupling Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xiao-Yu; YAO Di-Bi; ZHAO Ling-Yun; HUANG Yi-Dong; ZHANG Wei; PENG Jiang-De

    2008-01-01

    We propose an integrative biochemical sensor utilizing the dip in the transmission spectrum of a normal singleline defect photonic crystal(PC)waveguide,which has a contra-directional coupling with another PC waveguide.When the air holes in the PC slab are filled with a liquid analyte with different refractive indices,the dip has a wavelength shift.By detecting the output power variation at a certain fixed wavelength,a sensitivity of 1.2×10-4is feasible.This structure is easy for integration due to its plane waveguide structure and omissible pump source.In addition,high signal to noise ratio can be expected because signal transmits via a normal single-line defect PC waveguide instead of the PC hole area or analyte.

  12. VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA MULHERES: REFLEXÕES TEÓRICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Casique Casique; Antonia Regina Ferreira Furegato

    2006-01-01

    A violência manifesta-se de diferentes formas, em distintas circunstâncias e com diversos tipos de atos violentos dirigidos a crianças, mulheres, idosos e outros indefesos. Violência doméstica, violência de gênero e violência contra mulheres são termos utilizados para denominar este grave problema que degrada a integridade da mulher. A violência de gênero pode manifestar-se através de violência física, violência psicológica, violência sexual, violência econômica e violência no trabalho. A vio...

  13. Violencia contra las mujeres en tres ciudades de Colombia: Pasto, Cartagena y Cali. 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Londoño Toro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que evidencia la gravedad de la situación de violencia contra la mujer con un examen específico de este fenómeno en las relaciones de pareja. El aporte de las investigadoras radica en la documentación de los principales problemas referidos a la dinámica de las vulneraciones, tipologías de agresores, formas de violencia e incluso períodos en que se incrementan estos fenómenos a partir de las cifras de los Observatorios Regionales de Cali, Pasto y Cartagena (Colombia. Finaliza con unas propuestas relacionadas con el fortalecimiento de las políticas públicas, respuesta estatal e institucional y diseño de mecanismos de acceso a la justicia para las mujeres.

  14. Violência contra migrantes em trânsito pelo México

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Essa pesquisa se dá no contexto das migrações internacionais contemporâneas, especialmente da migração indocumentada para os Estados Unidos. O ponto de partida é a violência contra migrantes na travessia pelo México, e as perguntas centrais são: se o migrante sabe do risco que corre com a violência no trânsito, por quê continua indo para os Estados Unidos? Como atuam as redes sociais na reprodução dos fluxos migratórios? Qual o vínculo existente entre a política migratória e a violência? Por ...

  15. Hombres contra la violencia de género: replanteando la masculinidad en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    England, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es entender cómo los hombres activistas que participan en campañas contra la violencia de género en Guatemala interpretan las causas de este tipo de violencia, el papel que desempeña la masculinidad en su perpetuación, así como cuál es la mejor manera de comunicar estas ideas a otros hombres. La investigación se basó en entrevistas a ocho hombres involucrados en activismo de equidad de género en Guatemala y en la observación de talleres enfocados a propagar la igu...

  16. A cidade e a palavra: considerações sobre Sete contra Tebas

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, Beatriz de

    2010-01-01

    Nos versos iniciais da tragédia Sete contra Tebas, Etéocles reconhece a necessidade de pronunciar palavras adequadas como um de seus deveres enquanto dirigente e defensor da cidade de Tebas. A preocupação de Etéocles com o que deve ou não ser dito frente à iminência do ataque inimigo advém de uma percepção da linguagem como uma forma divina do mundo, o que fundamenta a crença entre os gregos de que palavra possui um nume que nela reside e que faz com que ela se cumpra, sendo, desse modo, prof...

  17. MEDICINA Y CRIMEN CONTRA LA HUMANIDAD. EL LEGADO DE LA DOCTORA ADÉLAÏDE HAUTVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA BEA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se aborda el testimonio de la doctora alsaciana, Adélaïde Hautval, sobre la pseudomedicina practicada en el Lager y sobre su negativa a colaborar en el crimen contra la humanidad. A través de su diario de la deportación y de las actas de un peculiar juicio a Auschwitz celebrado en Londres en 1964, nos adentramos en los dilemas ético-profesionales que tuvieron que afrontar los médicos prisioneros en aquel escenario y que, en su caso, dieron lugar a acciones de resistencia ante la barbarie, de desobediencia a sus superiores y de solidaridad con las víctimas capaces de iluminar la actitud a tomar ante los dispositivos biopolíticos contemporáneos.

  18. ¿Cómo informar de la Guerra contra el Terrorismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dinges

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El atentado contra las Torres Gemelas y el Pentágono dejó de ser un acto de terrorismo y llegó a ser un acto de guerra, pues su impacto fue igual o mayor que el incidente que comenzó la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Tenemos entonces un reto periodístico porque estamos frente a una guerra, no frente a reportajes sobre terrorismo como estábamos acostumbrados en el pasado y eso nos pone ante tres grandes desafíos: cómo descubrir la historia humana en la tragedia; cómo cubrir el Gobierno en su parte militar, diplomática y en la inteligencia, y cómo cubrir el Medio Oriente, porque hemos entendido muy mal lo que es esta parte del mundo.

  19. Fatores associados à violência contra mulheres profissionais do sexo de dez cidades brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sueli da Silva Lima

    Full Text Available Resumo: No Brasil, há um limitado número de estudos sobre violência contra mulheres profissionais do sexo, tema que vem instigando pesquisadores em todo o mundo, estimulados principalmente por possíveis associações desta com o HIV. Este trabalho objetiva estimar a prevalência de violência contra mulheres profissionais do sexo, segundo natureza e perpetrador, e identificar os fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com dados de 2.523 mulheres profissionais do sexo de dez cidades brasileiras, recrutadas pelo método respondent-driven sampling (RDS. Os resultados mostraram que a prevalência de violência verbal foi de 59,5%; violência física 38,1%; sexual 37,8%. Violência física por parceiro íntimo, 25,2%; por clientes, 11,7%. Dentre os fatores associados à violência física estão: idade < 30 anos (ORa = 2,27; IC95%: 1,56-3,29; uso de drogas (ORa = 2,02; IC95%: 1,54-2,65; valor do programa até R$ 29,00 (ORa = 1,51; IC95%: 1,07-2,13. Conclui-se que as mulheres profissionais do sexo brasileiras vivenciam uma carga desproporcional de violência. Identificar fatores de vulnerabilidade é fundamental para as intervenções que garantam direitos humanos e controle do HIV.

  20. A violência contra a mulher no discurso diplomático brasileiro

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    Izadora Xavier do Monte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as políticas brasileiras sobre violência contra a mulher em perspectiva com as discussões sobre o temano âmbito do Conselho de Direitos Humanos das Nações Unidas, pautadas pelo trabalho da relatora especial da ONU sobre causas e conseqüências da violência contra a mulher. O objetivo é demonstrar que existe um alinhamento entre o foco das políticas para as mulheres recentemente definidas do governo Dilma, o discurso diplomático brasileiro em direitos humanos e a perspectiva da relatora especial das Nações Unidas. Esse alinhamento é em parte tributário do fortalecimento das posições políticas da terceira onda feminista e abre espaço para uma aliança mutuamente benéfica entre atuação diplomática brasileira, no nível internacional, e avanço da agenda feminista, no nível doméstico.   The article discusses Brazilian policies against gender violence in perspective with the UN Human Rights Council discussion based on the work of the special rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. It aims at showing an alignment between policies for women recently defined by the government of Dilma Roussef, traditional Brazilian diplomatic discourse and the point of view of the special rapporteur. This alignment ows much to third wave feminism and allows for an alliance, mutually beneficial, though rare, between Brazilian diplomatic action, on the international level, and the advancement of a feminist agenda, on the national level.

  1. VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA GESTANTES EM DELEGACIAS ESPECIALIZADAS NO ATENDIMENTO À MULHER DE TERESINA-PI

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    Ariane Gomes dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia contra la mujer es definida como cualquier acción o conducta basada en violencia de género, que cause muerte, daño o sufrimiento físico, sexual o psicológico. El objetivo fue medir el fenómeno de la violencia doméstica contra las mujeres embarazadas mediante la denuncia de maltrato en Comisarías Especializadas en Atención a la Mujer, en Teresina- -PI. Investigación cuantitativa del tipo análisis documental, retrospectivo. Para recolectar datos se utilizó un formulario semiestructurado. La muestra estuvo conformada por 71 notificaciones policiales de mujeres embarazadas violadas en 2008 en dos Comisarías de la Mujer de Teresina-PI. Se observó que 42,3% de las embarazadas era ama de casa; 31,0% tenía entre 22 y 26 años de edad; los principales responsables por la violencia fueron sus compañeros (38,0%, maridos (18,3% y ex- -compañeros (18,3%; se destacaron los tipos de violencia física (32,5%, psicológica (31,7% y moral (30%. Se concluyó que la población de embarazadas que denunció a su pareja no fue significativa, probablemente por tornarse más manejables ante las promesas del compañero de no volver a agredirla.

  2. Análisis del fenómeno de la violencia contra los ancianos

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    Celín Pérez Nájera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre el impacto social de la violencia contra los ancianos, desde la óptica criminológica. En el trabajo se utilizó como método investigativo el enfoque dialéctico-materialista de la realidad, que facilitó el engranaje de toda la investigación en diferentes etapas. Las valoraciones generalizadoras y sistematizadoras se elaboraron desde los enfoques modelativo y sistémico-estructural. Luego de analizar la diversidad de conceptos de violencia, se estableció una definición desde una formación social e histórica; existen dos principios que distinguen sus características: uno que la concibe como un fenómeno de carácter social y el teórico-ecológico, que consiste en el empleo de la fuerza física, económica o política, e implica el abuso de poder cómo único método para resolver el conflicto. Así mismo, se examinó el comportamiento de la violencia contra los ancianos en diversos países: España, Estados Unidos, Perú, Brasil, Panamá, Argentina, Colombia, Chile y Cuba. En general, son alarmantes las cifras de incidencia del fenómeno. De igual forma, en Cuba crece la victimización sobre los ancianos. Se aprecia como manifestación fundamental la violencia psicológica o emocional. Aunque existen mecanismos de denuncia, falta de divulgación y sistematicidad de acciones, que permitan enfrentar la incidencia de este mal social, que afecta a dicho grupo de riesgo de la violencia.

  3. Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect A publicidade contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete

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    Francisco Leite

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect — This paper shares with the reader some conceptual ideas of counterintuitive advertising, observing its possible effects on the reevaluation and deconstruction of beliefs and social stereotypes in the cognitive make-up of the viewer. The ironic rebound effect is singled out among the probable reflexes, according to the theory propounded by Daniel M. Wegner. This theory is applied taking as an example Fiat's commercial "The Driver", which was part of an advertising campaign in Brazil called "Review your concepts" to introduce its new Palio 2002 car model. The authors are currently engaged in a laboratory experiment to measure the above described theory in a consistent manner. O propósito deste artigo é compartilhar com o leitor algumas noções conceituais de publicidade contra-intuitiva e observar seus possíveis efeitos na reavaliação, desconstrução de crenças e estereótipos sociais, na estrutura cognitiva do indivíduo receptor. Destaca-se entre os reflexos provavelmente gerados o irônico efeito ricochete, segundo a teoria desenvolvida por Daniel M. Wegner. A aplicação para se discutir o cruzamento da narrativa contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete será, neste primeiro momento, pela exemplificação do filme Motorista, peça integrante da campanha publicitária da Fiat do Brasil "Reveja seus conceitos", para o lançamento do automóvel Palio 2002. Um experimento laboratorial está sendo desenvolvido pelos autores para se mensurar de maneira consistente a apresentação teórico-conceitual exposta.

  4. La contra-reforma del Estado y el trabajo en salud en los servicios

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    Claudia MARCH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio objetiva contribuir para a análise da relação entre o Estado brasileiro e os trabalhadores de saúde em uma conjuntura de contra-reforma do Estado a partir de uma análise das proposições dos governos Fernando Henrique Cardoso e Luis Inácio Lula da Silva. Parto do pressuposto de que está em curso desde o primeiro governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso um processo de contra-reforma no setor saúde sutil, gradual e informal. Particularmente no que diz respeito à relação entre o Estado e os trabalhadores do setor público de saúde, durante os governos de Fernando Henrique Cardoso a proposição de Organizações Sociais (OS e a proposta de Emprego Público, dentre outras atingiram direitos dos trabalhadores. Durante o período, a precarização das relações de trabalho se generalizou na administração pública. Na seqüência, o governo Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, ainda que sob a retórica de combate à precarização do trabalho em saúde no setor público, apresenta ao Congresso Nacional a projeto de criação das Fundações Estatais de Direito Privado (FEDP para as políticas sociais, as quais possuem extrema semelhança com as OS, com destaque para a flexibilização dos direitos dos trabalhadores do serviço público.

  5. Anticuerpos séricos contra la enfermedad de Newcastle e Influenza Aviar en aves rapaces de Chile.

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    Daniel González-Acuña

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos contra los virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle (ENC e Influenza aviar (IA, para comprender la contribución de las aves silvestres en la transmisión de estos virus en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 63 aves pertenecientes a los órdenes Falconiformes y Strigiformes desde centros de rehabilitación de aves de las zonas central y sur de Chile. Se realizaron las pruebas de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación (IHA para detectar anticuerpos contra el virus ENC e inmunodifusión en gel agar (IDGA y ELISA para IA. Resultados. Se detectaron 14 aves positivas (22.2% para anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC. En cambio, no se registraron anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos para el virus de la IA. Conclusiones. La presencia de aves rapaces positivas en los centros de rescate a los anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC puede ser explicada por el consumo de carne de pollos que han sido vacunados contra ENC o consumo de aves que han adquirido directamente el virus vacunal a través de los distintos procedimientos de administración (aerosoles, bebederos de la vacuna o por el ingreso a los centros de rescate de aves rapaces migratorias, las que podrían facilitar la diseminación de la infección desde los países de origen, hecho que debe ser investigado.

  6. Violence against women: theoretical reflections Violencia contra mujeres: reflexiones teóricas Violência contra mulheres: reflexões teóricas

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    Leticia Casique Casique

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence appears in different forms and circumstances and involves distinct kinds of violent acts against children, women, elderly and other defenseless persons. This serious problem, which degrades women's integrity, is denoted by terms like domestic violence, gender violence and violence against women. Gender violence can appear as physical, psychological, sexual, economic violence, as well as violence at work. Violence against women committed by their intimate partners can be analyzed through the Ecological Model, which explains the close relation between individuals and their environment. Factors influencing people's behavior towards this violence should be analyzed with a view to establishing help programs.La violencia se manifiesta de diferentes formas, en distintas circunstancias y con diversos tipos de actos dirigidos a niños, mujeres, ancianos y otras personas indefensas. Violencia domestica, violencia de genero y violencia contra mujeres son términos utilizados para denominar este grave problema que degrada la integridad de la mujer. La violencia de género puede manifestarse a través de violencia física, violencia psicológica, violencia sexual, violencia económica y violencia en el trabajo. La violencia sufrida por la mujer por parte de su compañero íntimo puede ser analizada a través del Modelo Ecológico que explica la estrecha relación entre el individuo y su entorno. Se concluyo que es importante analizar los factores que influyen en el comportamiento de las personas frente a la violencia para establecer programas de ayuda.A violência manifesta-se de diferentes formas, em distintas circunstâncias e com diversos tipos de atos violentos dirigidos a crianças, mulheres, idosos e outros indefesos. Violência doméstica, violência de gênero e violência contra mulheres são termos utilizados para denominar este grave problema que degrada a integridade da mulher. A violência de gênero pode manifestar-se através de viol

  7. Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Yunta, Felipe; Crognale, Silvia; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Different applications of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS), a widespread agro-industrial waste, were investigated with respect to the remediation of a historically polluted soil with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). In one treatment, the waste was sterilized (SSAS) prior to its application in order to assess its ability to biostimulate, as an organic amendment, the resident soil microbiota and ensuing contaminant degradation. For the other treatments, two bioaugmentation approaches were investigated; the first involved the use of the waste itself and thus implied the application of A. bisporus and the inherent microbiota of the waste. In the second treatment, SAS was sterilized and inoculated again with the fungus to assess its ability to act as a fungal carrier. All these treatments were compared with natural attenuation in terms of their impact on soil heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacteria, fungal growth, biodiversity of soil microbiota and ability to affect PAH bioavailability and ensuing degradation and detoxification. Results clearly showed that historically PAH contaminated soil was not amenable to natural attenuation. Conversely, the addition of sterilized spent A. bisporus substrate to the soil stimulated resident soil bacteria with ensuing high removals of 3-ring PAH. Both augmentation treatments were more effective in removing highly condensed PAH, some of which known to possess a significant carcinogenic activity. Regardless of the mode of application, the present results strongly support the adequacy of SAS for environmental remediation purposes and open the way to an attractive recycling option of this waste.

  8. Evaluation of casing materials made from spent mushroom substrate and coconut fibre pith for use in production of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Pardo-Gonzalez, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    The agronomic performance of different proportions of mixtures of coconut fibre (CF) pith and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was studied for their use as casing material in mushroom cultivation. After chemical and biological characterisation of the casing substrates qualitative and quantitative production parameters were evaluated in a cycle of Agaricus production. An increase in the proportion of SMS reduced the number of carpophores and overall yield; while the first flush was delayed, mushroom size tended to increase and the mushrooms had a higher dry matter content and a better texture, although their colour was worse. Combinations of CF pith and SMS of 4:1 and 3:2 (v/v) gave biological efficiencies of 92.9 and 82.6 kg 100 kg-1 compost, respectively. These values compare well with that obtained from the commercial casings used as a control. The high electrical conductivity of the mixture containing the highest proportion of SMS would limit its use. However, the results indicate the viability of reusing SMS as an ingredient of casing material for mushroom cultivation. This alternative could be considered to partially replace the organic substrates normally used for mushroom cultivation, with the double advantage of decreasing cost and reducing the environmental impact of waste disposal. Additional key words: alternative casing, compost reuse, mushroom cultivation. (Author) 31 refs.

  9. Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells is not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

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    Ruud Wilbers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs affect T cells. Therefore we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation. The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells, however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydrate containing adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.

  10. Study on the process of vacuum cooled Agaricus bisporus%白蘑菇真空预冷工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶菲; 郜海燕; 张慜; 葛林梅

    2009-01-01

    The technology for vacuum cooled Agaricus bisporus was studied. The influence of temperature, water addition and pressure was discussed. Mathematical model for predicting the color and soluble solid was set up by central composite design and response surface analysis(RSA), and the extraction technology was optimized. The results show that optimum conditions of extraction are: the temperature of 5 ℃, water addition of 5% and the pressure of 250 Pa.%考察预冷温度、水分添加量、预冷压力等因素对白蘑菇的色差和可溶性固形物的影响,通过中心组设计和响应面分析考察因素间的交互作用,优化白蘑菇的预冷工艺.研究结果表明,白蘑菇最优的预冷工艺条件为:预冷温度为5℃、水分添加量5%和最终预冷压力250 Pa.

  11. STUDY ON THE PRODUCTION OF AGARICUS BISPORUS SEASONING BY ENZYME METHOD%酶法研制蘑菇调味汁工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云霞; 秦俊哲; 陈均志; 杨迎春

    2011-01-01

    以双孢蘑菇为主要原料,采用酶水解法研制出蘑菇特色调味汁.通过实验得到的最佳酶解条件为:温度50 ℃、pH 6、时间5 h、酶浓度15%.在此条件下所制得的蘑菇调味汁色泽棕红,口感鲜美,无苦涩等异味,无毒副产物形成,氨基态氮可达0.62%,是一种高级营养调味品.%This paper studied on the seasoning production by enzyme method, with the Agaricus bisporus as the mian raw materials and by the enzymatic of the mushrooms, to produced a compound mushroom juice beverage. The result suggest that the best technological conditions as follows: pH 6.0, temperature 50 ℃, reaction time 5 h and neutral protease 15%%. Under this conditions, the received seasoning is brown-red, and oscular sense is delicious and have no pecular smell and poisonous. The production amino acid nitrogen is 0.62 %.

  12. Effects of UV-C treatment and cold storage on ergosterol and vitamin D2 contents in different parts of white and brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Ruixiang; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting; Lei, Jing; Wang, Zhidong

    2016-11-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0kJ/m(2)) and cold storage on ergosterol and vitamin D2 content in different parts of white and brown button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated. UV-C treatment did not significantly affect ergosterol content in the caps and stems of the two mushrooms, but ergosterol content increased significantly during 14days cold storage. Vitamin D2 content in the caps and stems of two mushrooms significantly increased as UV-C dose increased, and 2.0kJ/m(2) UV-C showed the best result. During cold storage, vitamin D2 content in the caps of the two mushrooms decreased from day 1 to day 7, and then kept stable until day 14, but vitamin D2 content in the stems of brown mushrooms kept increasing for the whole 14days period. UV-C could increase vitamin D2 contents in both caps and stems of white and brown mushrooms without significantly affecting ergosterol content.

  13. The effect of fungal decay (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw lignin using pyrolysis-GC-MS in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Department of Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry (Postgraduate Institute), NRG, Drummond Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), was used in the molecular characterisation of lignin in wheat straw during its fungal degradation by Agaricus bisporus. The decayed wheat straw had a lower proportion of syringyl to guaiacyl derived moieties than its native counterpart. The ratio of methyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate to 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 6.4 following fungal degradation. Similarly the ratio of methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate to 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.6 in native wheat straw to 3.1 upon decay. The increase in both guaiacyl and syringyl acid to aldehyde ratios indicated that A. bisporus induces oxidative cleavage of lignin at the C{alpha}-C{beta} bonds. Both the threo- and erythro- isomers of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane decreased in intensity relative to other thermochemolysis products in degraded wheat straw. The increase in the ratio of methyl 3,4,-dimethoxybenzoate to the sum of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane (threo- and erythro- isomers) from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 10.9 in A. bisporus decayed wheat straw confirmed that the fungus had cleaved alkyl side chains. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of TMAH provides a sensitive method for tracking the oxidative degradation of lignin during the fungal decay of wheat straw.

  14. Agaricus bisporus powder improved cutaneous mucosal and serum immune parameters and up-regulated intestinal cytokines gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadian Zou, Hassan; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate immunomodulatory effects of Agaricus bisporus, white bottom mushroom powder (WBMP) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed on different levels of WBMP (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) for 8 weeks and at the end of feeding trial, skin mucus immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity), cytokines gene expression (TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) in intestine as well as serum non-specific immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50) were measured. The results showed significant dose dependent increase of skin mucus immune parameters in carps fed WBMP (P  0.05). In case of serum non-specific immune parameters, except lysozyme activity, other parameters (Ig total and ACH50) were significantly affected by dietary inclusion of WBMP (P  0.05). Furthermore, feeding on WBMP supplemented diet significantly improved growth performance (P < 0.05). These results indicated that WBMP can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture.

  15. Evaluation of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K “Agaricus Bisporus” Activity in Cultivated Edible Mushroom formed in Tehran Province- Iran

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    Vahid Changizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Natural and man made radioactive sources exist in our environment they can enter into our food chains. One of these is the soil-mushroom-human chain. High level doses of natural radiation can cause hazards to humans. Materials and Methods Samples of Agaricus bisporus cultivated edible mushroom in Tehran province- Iran were collected from 7 farms. Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs, 40K and 235U of the samples were measured by two HPGe detectors. Results Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs and 40K in the edible mushroom samples were equal to 0.06 ± 0.03 - 0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg-1 dry, 1.4 ± 0.7 Bq kg-1 dry, 0.1 ± 0.03- 0.3 ± 0.1 Bq kg-1dry and 920 ± 400 - 1370 ± 900 Bq kg-1dry , respectively. Conclusion As the measured concentrations of the radionuclides of interest are close or lower than MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity. Consumption of the mushrooms would impose no health consequences to the consumers.

  16. The intraspecific variability of mitochondrial genes of Agaricus bisporus reveals an extensive group I intron mobility combined with low nucleotide substitution rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh, Banafsheh; Saré, Idy Carras; Férandon, Cyril; Callac, Philippe; Farsi, Mohammad; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Barroso, Gérard

    2015-02-01

    Intraspecific mitochondrial variability was studied in ten strains of A. bisporus var. bisporus, in a strain representative of A. bisporus var. eurotetrasporus and in a strain of the closely related species Agaricus devoniensis. In A. bisporus, the cox1 gene is the richest in group I introns harboring homing endonuclease genes (heg). This study led to identify group I introns as the main source of cox1 gene polymorphism. Among the studied introns, two groups were distinguished according to the heg they contained. One group harbored heg maintained putatively functional. The other group was composed of eroded heg sequences that appeared to evolve toward their elimination. Low nucleotide substitution rates were found in both types of intronic sequences. This feature was also shared by all types of studied mitochondrial sequences, not only intronic but also genic and intergenic ones, when compared with nuclear sequences. Hence, the intraspecific evolution of A. bisporus mitochondrial genome appears characterized by both an important mobility (presence/absence) of large group I introns and by low nt substitution rates. This stringent conservation of mitochondrial sequences, when compared with their nuclear counterparts, appears irrespective of their apparent functionality and contrasts to what is widely accepted in fungal sequence evolution. This strengthens the usefulness of mtDNA sequences to get clues on intraspecific evolution.

  17. The influence of the strain, flush and size of carpophores on the yield and dry matter content of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach carpophores

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    Alina Kałużewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to obtain information about the yield quantity and quality of 16 cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus. The ‘Somycel 516’ strain gave the highest yield, whereas the yield from the ‘Sylvan 130’ strain was the lowest. The ‘Hauser A1.5’ was characterised by the highest content of dry matter in all the three yield flushes. An equally high content of dry matter was in the first and second flush of the ‘Italspawn F 50’ strain and in the second flash of the strain ‘Italspawn F 62’. ‘Sylvan S100’, ‘Italspawn F 56’, ‘Irlandzka 501’, ‘Amycel 104’ and ‘Le Lion X13’ were the strains with the lowest content of dry matter in all of the three yield flushes. The size of the carpophores had significant influence on the dry matter content. In the all three flushes, the carpophores with diameter 4.6–5.5 cm were characterized by the lowest dry matter content.

  18. Comparison of yield and dry matter content of carpophores of common mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach strains belonging to types U1, intermediate and U3

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    Krzysztof Sobieralski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the performed investigations was the comparison of yield and dry matter content of carpophores from selected strains of Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach belonging to three types. Differences within the yielding of different strains of several types, as well as following flushes of yielding were found. In type U1 the highest yield was obtained by ‘Le Lion X1’ (175 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate, in intermediate type - ‘Italspawn 56’ and ‘Sylvan 130’ (both 161 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate and in type U3 - ‘Italspawn F62’ and ‘Polmycel 23’ (194 and 192 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate. It was found that the dry matter content depended both on the strain and the flush. The highest dry matter content was determined within the third flush. The highest content of dry matter in carpophores was determined in the following strains of mushrooms: type U1 - ‘Italspawn F50’ (8.5%, intermediate type - ‘Hauser A1.5’ (9.2% and type U3 - ‘Italspawn F62’ (8.3%.

  19. Partial purification and characterization of polyphenoloxidase from culinary-medicinal Royal Sun mushroom (the Himematsutake), Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (Agaricomycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Akanuma, Akiko; Akanuma, Satoshi; Motoi, Masuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Ohno, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    The Royal Sun mushroom, the Himematsutake culinary-medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis has several polyphenoloxidase activities in a broad sense. Here we report the partial purification of tyrosinase-type polyphenoloxidase (PPO). PPO is purified from A. brasiliensis without browning using a two-phase partitioning with Triton X-114 and ammonium sulfate fractionation. Partially denaturing SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis) staining with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine was performed and the indicated molecular sizes were approximately 70 kDa and 45 kDa. The purified enzyme is in its latent state and can be activated maximally in the presence of 1.6 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This enzyme catalyzes two distinct reactions, monophenolase and diphenolase activity, and the monophenolase activity showed a lag time typical of polyphenoloxidase. The K(m) value for 4-tert-butylcatechol was quite similar in the presence and absence of SDS, but the apparent V(max) value was increased 2.0-fold by SDS. Mimosine was a typical competitive inhibitor with K(i) values of 138.2 microM and 281.0 microM n the presence and absence of SDS, respectively.

  20. Efecto in vitro e in vivo de los análogos alquilfosfolípidos (APLs) en el desarollo de nuevos compuestos contra Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Yepes Victoria, Edward

    2015-01-01

    [ES]El fármaco de elección para tratar la esquistosomosis es el praziquantel, aunque su falta de eficacia contra formas juveniles y la generación de resistencias sobre todo tras los tratamientos masivos que se realizan en áreas edémicas, nos sugiere, disponer de otros fármacos activos contra esta enfermedad. Los análogos Alquilfosfolípidos (APLs) son compuestos con acción antitumoral que han mostrado eficacia contra parasitosis, principalmente leishmaniosis y tripanosomosis. Por tanto, nuestr...

  1. Test on the Medieaments Against the Disease of Agaricus Bisporus Infected by Candida and Sauhanolngles%双孢蘑菇酵母菌病害药剂试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓慧

    2003-01-01

    假丝酵母菌(Candida sp.)、酵母菌(Saccharomyces sp.)是稻田栽培双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)中的一类新病原菌.描述了病原菌的形态特征、致病症状,作了实验室药敏试验.试验表明:克霉灵、灭菌威、甲醛等药剂可有效杀灭病原菌.

  2. Metaboličke osobitosti četveroglavog bedrenog mišića (m. quadriceps femoris) u ovaca pasmine Lička pramenka hranjenih uz dodatak plemenite pečurke (Agaricus bisporus).

    OpenAIRE

    Špiranec, Katarina; Popović, Maja; Živković, Mario; Špoljarić, Daniel; Vlahović, Ksenija; Brzica, Hrvoje; Mršić, Gordan; Mihelić, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je provjeriti prisutnost oksidativnih enzima u četveroglavom bedrenom mišiću (m. quadriceps femoris) ovaca pasmine Lička pramenka te procijeniti učinak u hranu dodanog pripravka plemenite pečurke Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) na histokemijske i morfološke karakteristike mišića. Četrnaest jednogodišnjih ovaca bilo je nasumično odabrano i podijeljeno u dvije skupine (kontrolna i pokusna skupina) s po sedam životinja. Pokus je bio proveden tijekom 6 tjedana hranjenja...

  3. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom protects against increase in gut permeability ex vivo and up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2 in hyperthermally-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

    2014-06-24

    Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress.

  4. A produção de contra-argumentos na escrita infantil Counterargument in children’s writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Leitão

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre a produção de textos argumentativos mostram que antecipar contra-argumentos e reagir a estes é uma das principais dificuldades na escrita deste tipo de texto. Este estudo investigou a habilidade de 157 crianças (segunda, quarta e sétima séries gerarem contra-argumentos nos textos que produziam. Observou-se que, embora contra-argumentos apareçam ocasionalmente nos escritos da segunda série, só a partir da quarta essa presença se torna sistemática. Progressos relacionados à idade e escolaridade foram também registrados quanto ao número de contra-argumentos examinados num mesmo texto. A estrutura global dos textos produzidos (narrativo vs. opinativo e o tema discutido não parecem ter afetado a produção de contra-argumentos pelas crianças, embora efeitos destes fatores tenham sido notados sobre o número de idéias usadas pelas mesmas para justificarem suas própria posições. Na discussão destes resultados examina-se o papel de fatores pragmáticos no desenvolvimento de contra-argumentos em textos escritos.Studies on argumentative text writing have shown that anticipating counterargument and reacting to them is one of the hardest demands of argumentative writing. The present study focused on second, fourth, and seventh graders’ ability to generate counterarguments in their writings. The results showed that, although counterarguments appear in some of the second graders’ writings, it is only after the fourth grade that their presence is systematically observed in children’s writing. Age- and schooling-related effects were also noted on the number of counterarguments examined per text. The global structure of the texts produced (a narrative vs. an opinion text did not affect the production of counterargument by children, although a main effect of such factors was noted on the number of ideas children used to justify their own views. The role of pragmatic factors in the development of counterargument in

  5. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  6. Publicidad Contra la Violencia: Un Estudio de Recepción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Elena Giraldo Villegas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha estado emitiendo en la televisión nacional de Colombia spots publicitarios generalmente conocidos como mensajes institucionales cuyos contenidos van en contra de las distintas formas de violencia, lo cual marca el inicio de campañas que incentivan la tolerancia y la convivencia pacífica. No obstante, es necesario conocer el resultado de esos mensajes, si han logrado su propósito, y si existe indiferencia ante la violencia real de los telespectadores. La emisión de estos spots pone de relieve la situación que el país ha vivido durante más de 50 años, sumido en la violencia guerrillera, paramilitar y de otras índoles, y se presume que estos mensajes deben propiciar una cultura ciudadana, una política de la inclusión con tolerancia, y facilitar escenarios de reconciliación familiar. El artículo se propone describir los diferentes impactos que generaron cuatro spots emitidos por Telecaribe, los cuales trataron de mostrar la violencia ejercida en niños-as, mujeres, ancianos-as y discapacitados, y en hombres adultos de las comunas 5 y 6 de la ciudad de Santa Marta.Palabras Clave: Publicidad contra la violencia; estudios de recepción; spots publicitarios; impacto; videos; constructivismo; cultura; cotidianidad; reconocimiento. Advertising violence: A Study of ReceptionAbstractRecently, publicity spots generally known as institutional messages with contents against the different forms of violence have been emitted in national television. This marks the beginning of campaigns that encourage tolerance and pacific coexistence. However, it’s necessary to know the result of those messages, if they have achieved their purpose, and if there is any indifference before the audience’s real violence. The broadcast of these spots highlights the country’s situation throughout more than 50 years of guerilla, paramilitary and other sources of violence; and it is presumed to propitiate tolerance culture, peace or civic culture

  7. Estado y nación durante el golpe contra Hugo Chávez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coronil, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two objetives. In the first place, it is a discussion of the development of the coup d’etat against Hugo Chávez during April 11th at 14th of 2002, focusing on the competing views of the opposition and supporters of the government in relation to three processes: the march against the violation of “meritocracia” in the oil industry (corporate criteria for selecting the managers of the state’s oil company, the massacre that took place on April 11th, and the act of proclamation of Pedro Carmona as president on April 12th. The essay examines in particular the choreography of these events and the changing conceptions of the nation and the state involved in these processes. Secondly, on the basis of this examination, the essay concludes with some theoretical observations concerning the state, its constitution, and the manner in which it exerts its hegemony.

    Este ensayo tiene dos objetivos. En primer lugar, es una discusión sobre el golpe de Estado contra Hugo Chávez que se desarrolló entre el 11 y el 14 de abril de 2002. Se enfoca en las contrapuestas visiones de la oposición y de los partidarios del gobierno en relación con tres procesos: la marcha en protesta contra la violación de la meritocracia petrolera, la masacre del 11 de abril y el acto de proclamación de Pedro Carmona como presidente el 12 de abril. Examina en particular la coreografia de estos eventos y la transformación de las concepciones de la nación y el Estado involucradas en estos procesos. En segundo lugar, sobre la base de esta examinación, el ensayo concluye con algunas observaciones teóricas sobre el Estado, su constitución y la forma como ejerce su hegemonía.

  8. VACUNACIÓN CONTRA EL VIRUS DEL PAPILOMA HUMANO Y AUTOINMUNIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel Anaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN
    El desarrollo de enfermedades autoinmunes es un tema de suma importancia cuando de vacunas se trata, dado el riesgo que pueden tener éstas de favorecer fenómenos de autoinmunidad en individuos susceptibles. La relación riesgo/beneficio de desarrollar enfermedades autoinmunes luego de la vacunación contra el virus del papiloma humano (VPH aún no se ha resuelto. Los datos disponibles son limitados para ofrecer conclusiones definitivas. Dado el aumento reciente de reporte de efectos adversos, se espera que estudios con suficiente tamaño muestral, en diversas poblaciones, confirmen la seguridad de la vacunación contra el VPH en niñas con enfermedades autoinmunes. Un análisis personalizado de cada paciente, que incluya la evaluación de autoinmunidad personal y familiar, podría ser sugerido, aunque no hay estudios que demuestren que sea costo-efectivo. Por lo tanto, la farmacovigilancia permanente de esta vacuna sigue siendo de suma importancia.

    Palabras clave: Virus del papiloma humano VPH, vacunación, autoinmunidad, efectos colaterales.

    VACCINATION AGAINST HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND AUTOIMMUNITY

    ABSTRACT
    Development of autoimmune diseases is a very important issue in relation to vaccines, because there is a risk that they might promote autoimmune phenomena in susceptible individuals. The risk: benefit ratio of developing autoimmune diseases after human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination has not yet been resolved. Data available are limited to provide definitive conclusions. Given the recent increase of adverse effect reports, studies with sufficient sample size are expected in various populations, aimed to confirm the safety of HPV vaccination in children with autoimmune diseases. A personalized analysis of each individual, including evaluation of personal and familial autoimmunity, may be suggested; however, there are no studies showing that this policy is cost

  9. Calidad de vida en cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mauricio Puerto Pedraza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Describir la calidad de vida de los cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer, en la Unidad de Oncología y Radioterapia del Hospital Universitario de Santander en Bucaramanga, durante el primer semestre del 2013. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal: Se evaluaron 75 cuidadores familiares. Se utilizó el instrumento que toma el concepto del modelo de Calidad de vida versión familiar propuesto por Betty Ferrell. Para el análisis se utilizó estadística descriptiva y la regla de estratificación de Dalhenius y Hodges. Resultados: Los cuidadores son en mayoría mujeres de estratos socioeconómicos 1 y 2, de escolaridad primaria incompleta el 37,3%, el estado civil el 66,7% informó estar casados o en unión libre, de ocupación hogar 50,7%, con una mediana de 18 horas de cuidado a la persona con cáncer. La Calidad de vida global infiere que los cuidadores presentan una percepción de la calidad de vida media en (41,3%. Para las dimensiones del instrumento se reportó: puntajes medios para la salud física en (48%, psicológica (42%, social (45,3% y espiritual (44%. Discusión y Conclusiones: Es posible que los cuidadores familiares no se identifiquen por sus labores asistenciales como un cuidador más y no perciban ninguna alteración en su calidad de vida, a pesar que tengan manifestaciones físicas relacionadas a la carga de asistencia y cuidado.  Cómo citar este artículo: Puerto HM. Calidad de vida en cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer. Rev Cuid. 2015; 6(2: 1029-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v6i2.154 

  10. Imunogenicidade da vacina brasileira contra hepatite B em adultos Inmunogenicidad de la vacuna brasilera contra hepatitis B en adultos Immunogenicity of the Brazilian hepatitis B vaccine in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cássio de Moraes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a imunogenicidade e segurança da vacina contra hepatite B, após o aumento na concentração do antígeno HBsAg para 25 μg, em comparação à vacina de referência. MÉTODOS: Ensaio com alocação aleatória e mascaramento simples, comparando a VrHB-IB (Instituto Butantan com a vacina de referência (Engerix B®, Glaxo Smith Kline. Os voluntários, entre 31 e 40 anos de idade (n=419, foram alocados aleatoriamente ao grupo experimental (n=216 ou ao grupo controle (n=203, e receberam três doses de vacina. A primeira dose foi administrada no momento do recrutamento, a segunda e terceira 30 e 180 dias depois respectivamente, entre 2004 e 2005. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas para análise sorológica antes da randomização, e após a segunda e terceira doses. Foi realizada a vigilância ativa de eventos adversos durante os cinco primeiros dias após a vacinação. As diferenças foram avaliadas pelos testes do qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Não se observaram eventos adversos graves. A soroporteção foi confirmada em 98,6% (213/216 dos voluntários do grupo experimental, em comparação a 95,6% (194/203 do grupo controle. Os títulos geométricos médios foram de 12.557 e 11.673, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A vacina brasileira foi considerada equivalente à vacina de referência e seu uso recomendado para adultos.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la inmunogenicidad y seguridad de la vacuna contra hepatitis B, posterior al aumento en la concentración del antígeno HBsAg para 25mg, en comparación a la vacuna de referencia. MÉTODOS: Ensayo con distribución aleatoria y enmascaramiento simple, comparando la VrHB-IB (Instituto Butantan con la vacuna de referencia (Engerix BÒ, Glaxo Smith Kline. Los voluntarios, entre 31 y 40 años de edad (n=419, fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en el grupo experimental (n=216 o en el grupo control (n=203, y recibieron tres dosis de la vacuna. La primera

  11. La ciencia jovial: un ejercicio del derroche frente a la “guerra santa” contra el animal

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Beatriz Cragnolini

    2012-01-01

    Para el artículo, la noción de ciencia jovial permite pensar otros modos de vinculación con el viviente animal, en la línea de una deconstrucción de los mecanismos apropiadores de la vida. Si la “guerra santa” contra el animal es, como muestra el texto, una “guerra contra el derroche”, una “ciencia generosa”, como la gaya ciencia, supone otro modo de encarar la relación con el viviente animal y con el animal que somos. En este sentido, se afirma que la “gaya ciencia” podría ser pensada, en un...

  12. La ciencia jovial: un ejercicio del derroche frente a la “guerra santa” contra el animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Beatriz Cragnolini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Para el artículo, la noción de ciencia jovial permite pensar otros modos de vinculación con el viviente animal, en la línea de una deconstrucción de los mecanismos apropiadores de la vida. Si la “guerra santa” contra el animal es, como muestra el texto, una “guerra contra el derroche”, una “ciencia generosa”, como la gaya ciencia, supone otro modo de encarar la relación con el viviente animal y con el animal que somos. En este sentido, se afirma que la “gaya ciencia” podría ser pensada, en un sentido político, como otra perspectiva para considerar las formas de ubicarnos en comunidad con todo lo viviente.

  13. Numerical analysis of head degrade law under cavitation condition of contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D.; Pan, Z. Y.

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the flow-head characteristic curve, the SST turbulence model, homogeneous multiphase model and Rayleigh-Plesset equation were applied to simulate the cavitation characteristics in contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump under different conditions based on ANSYS CFX software. The distribution of cavity, pressure coefficient of the blade at the design point under different cavitation conditions were obtained. The analysis results of flow field show that the vapour volume distribution on the impeller indicates that the vapour first appears at the leading edge of blade and then extends to the outlet of impeller with the reduction of Net Positive Suction Head Allowance (NPSHA). The present study illustrates that the main reason for the decline of the pump performance is the development of cavitation, and the simulation can truly reflect the cavitation performance of the contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump.

  14. Vacinação contra influenza e pneumococo na insuficiência cardíaca: uma recomendação pouco aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolney de Andrade Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC cursa com frequentes descompensações e admissões ao serviço de emergência. Vacinação contra Influenza (INF e Pneumococo (PNM são recomendadas nas diretrizes, entretanto, as infecções respiratórias são a terceira causa de hospitalização na IC. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência da vacinação contra INF e PNM em pacientes com IC na rede pública. MÉTODOS: Em estudo observacional realizado em Teresópolis, região serrana fluminense, foram utilizadas três estratégias: (I estudo das requisições para vacina contra INF e/ou PNM na Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, entre 2004 e 2006; (II inquérito direto a 61 pacientes com IC atendidos na atenção básica sobre sua situação vacinal contra INF e PNM; (III inquérito direto sobre situação vacinal contra INF e PNM a 81 pacientes com IC crônica descompensada atendidos na única emergência aberta à rede pública. RESULTADOS: Na estratégia I, a vacinação contra INF e/ou PNM foi de 15,3% daqueles com indicações por doenças cardiovasculares e respiratórias. A mediana do tempo entre a indicação e a vacinação foi de 32 dias. Na estratégia II, o percentual de vacinados contra INF, com idade > 60 anos, foi de 23,1%, e de 24,6% contra PMN em todas as idades. Na estratégia III, o percentual de pacientes vacinados contra INF foi de 35,8% e contra PNM foi de 2,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de vacinação contra INF e PNM em pacientes com IC é muito baixa e ainda menor naqueles descompensados atendidos em serviço de emergência.

  15. CONTRA: Improving the performance of dynamic investigations in natural abundance organic solids by mirror-symmetric constant-time CODEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Detlef; Pascui, Ovidiu; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Belton, Peter; Schmidt, Asher; deAzevedo, Eduardo Ribeiro

    2008-03-01

    We present a minor but essential modification to the CODEX 1D-MAS exchange experiment. The new CONTRA method, which requires minor changes of the original sequence only, has advantages over the previously introduced S-CODEX, since it is less sensitive to artefacts caused by finite pulse lengths. The performance of this variant, including the finite pulse effect, was confirmed by SIMPSON calculations and demonstrated on a number of dynamic systems.

  16. Produção e caracterização de anticorpos policlonais contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de anticorpos policlonais contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola e sua caracterização pelo método Elisa indireto. Os resultados apontaram a qualidade dos anticorpos policlonais produzidos, os quais mostraram-se altamente reativos e específicos para o patovar com potencial para ser empregado no diagnóstico da doença e em programas de certificação.

  17. LA VIOLENCIA CONTRA LAS MUJERES EN LAS PRODUCCIONES DE LA COMISIÓN Y LA CORTE INTERAMERICANA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Clérico

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available l trabajo identifica y analiza los estándares que surgen de las producciones de la CIDH y de la Corte IDH respecto de: la definición de violencia contra las mujeres/de género; la calificación de los actos u omisiones que implican violaciones a los derechos humanos y como expresión de la desigualdad de poder; las obligaciones estatales y medidas reparatorias para erradicar la violencia de género. El análisis identifica avances en la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en las producciones del SIDH; sin embargo, asimismo devela que aún es restringida la concepción de violencia contra las mujeres aplicada por la Corte IDH al estar aún muy centrada en la violencia sexual y no ampliarse a otros aspectos; también alerta que el énfasis puesto en la medida reparatoria de acceso a la justicia opaca pensar en otras acciones adecuadas para la erradicación de la violencia contra las mujeres.

  18. Meios de comunicação impressos, representações sociais e violência contra idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rúbia de Albuquerque Saraiva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se apreender as representações sociais da violência e dos maus-tratos contra os idosos divulgadas pela mídia impressa paulista e paraibana. Foi realizada uma pesquisa documental com 126 notícias dos jornais Folha de S. Paulo e O Norte (Paraíba, cujos textos foram analisados pelas classificações hierárquicas descendente e ascendente processadas pelo software Alceste. As representações sociais sobre a violência contra os idosos apresentaram-se polarizadas entre os dois jornais: no paraibano destacaram-se as temáticas dos direitos e das políticas públicas, e no paulista, emergiu a concepção de violência, em relação aos idosos, como vítimas, e em relação aos seus agressores, como uma questão policial. Infere-se que a produção e difusão de conhecimentos por intermédio dos jornais desvelam nas representações sociais hegemônicas da sociedade certa pressão sobre os sujeitos sociais, demandando intervenções psicossociais em diversos segmentos desta sociedade, principalmente em se tratando de um fenômeno extremamente complexo como o é a violência contra idosos.

  19. Study on Disposing Technology of Substrate of Agaricus bisporus Using Wheat Straw%小麦秸秆栽培双孢蘑菇培养料处理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学文; 解文强; 周廷斌; 吴志会

    2013-01-01

    Taking Agaricus Bisporus AS2796 as the test material, compared with outdoor fermentation, the effects of different disposing technology of substrate of Agaricus Bisporus on the growth of hypha, the budding rate and the fresh mushroom production were studied.The results showed that the substrate was ferment 22 d, then sustained stable heat treatment 1 h with 100 ℃ water vapour, compared with outdoor fermentation , the fermentation time was shortened by 13 d, the growth of hypha was increased by 2.6 mm/d, the arising time of button ahead of 4.7 d and the total output was increased by 81.1%.%以双孢蘑菇AS2796为试材,以培养料常规室外一次性发酵为对照,研究了培养料不同处理方法对双孢蘑菇菌丝生长、现蕾速度以及产量的影响。结果表明:培养料先发酵22 d后再用100℃蒸汽处理1 h的培养料处理技术,与对照相比,发酵时间缩短13 d,菌丝长速提高2.6 mm/d,出菇时间提早4.7 d,产量增加81.1%。

  20. Avaliação in vivo da qualidade protéica do champignon do Brasil (Agaricusbrasiliensis Wasser et al. In vivo protein quality evaluation of champignon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone Henriques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O trabalho aqui descrito trata da avaliação de uma dieta experimental contendo Champingnon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis como fonte de proteína em um modelo experimental de ratos. MÉTODOS: Para este propósito, foram selecionados 24 ratos Wistar machos, recém desmamados (21 dias divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais cada, que foram alimentados com uma dieta padrão de caseína, ou com uma dieta experimental de proteína de Agaricus brasiliensis ambas contendo 10% de proteína e isoenergéticas ou ainda, com uma dieta com muito baixo teor de proteína. O ensaio biológico foi realizado em 28 dias, ao longo dos quais se determinou a concentração de nitrogênio na urina e nas fezes, além dos cálculos do Quociente de Eficiência Alimentar (ganho de peso dividido pelo consumo de dieta, do Quociente de Eficiência Protéica (ganho de peso dividido pelo consumo de proteína, da Razão Protéica Líquida (ganho de peso corrigido dividido pelo consumo de proteína e da Digestibilidade Verdadeira. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram que quando o Champignon do Brasil foi utilizado como fonte exclusiva de proteína na dieta, os índices de qualidade protéica apresentaram-se baixos (Quociente de Eficiência Alimentar=0,08, Quociente de Eficiência Protéica=0,92 e Razão Protéica Líquida=3,00, quando comparados com a dieta padrão caseína (Quociente de Eficiência Alimentar=0,30, Quociente de Eficiência Protéica=3,05 e Razão Protéica Líquida=4,21. Os índices obtidos para o grupo Agaricus mostraram-se comparáveis àqueles apresentados por alguns tipos de proteína vegetal e podem ser explicados por sua limitação em aminoácidos essenciais, notadamente a lisina e a leucina, respectivamente primeiro e segundo aminoácido limitante. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados apontam para a utilização da proteína do Agaricus brasiliensis como uma boa fonte para complementação protéica, quando combinada com outras culturas vegetais comuns na

  1. 真空预冷减缓双孢菇细胞壁物质的降解%Vacuum cooling retards degradation of cell wall matter in Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶菲; 郜海燕; 葛林梅; 穆宏磊; 陈杭君

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid cooling technique extensively used for cooling some agricultural and food products. The vacuum cooling technology is now gradually applied to the precooling treatment of agricultural products due to the advantages of quick cooling, easy operation, no constraint of packing containers, and energy savings. Consumption of Agaricus bisporus has increased substantially because of its delicacy, flavor and nutritional value. Agaricus bisporus is an excellent source of several essential amino acids, vitamins (B2, niacin, and folates), and minerals (potassium, phosphorus, zinc, and copper). Agaricus bisporus has a short shelf life of 3-4 days compared to most vegetables at ambient temperatures because it has no cuticle to protect it from physical or microbial attack or water loss. Loss of quality is caused by morphological changes due to maturation, discoloration, changes in texture and flavor, and losses of nutrients. Textural changes of fruits are accompanied by loss of neutral sugars, solubilization and depolymerization of the polysaccharides of the cell wall, and rearrangements of their associations, as the result of the combined action of several cell wall-modifying enzymes, acting in both pectic and hemicellulosic fractions. Recent studies on the structure of the plant cell wall have disclosed a large number and type of biochemical linkages between the components. Such linkages are potential targets for enzymatic action and draw attention to the putative involvement of several members of enzymes able to act and modify its structure in a developmental and coordinated way. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vacuum cooling treatment on cell wall compositional changes and ultrastructure in fresh mushrooms during 15 d of post-harvest storage at 4℃. In this study, we investigated the change of cellulose content, cellulose activity, propectin content, WSP content, and the PG activity of Agaricus bisporus before and after

  2. RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) REVEALED THE HETEROKARYON OF AGARICUS ARVENSIS PRODUCED BY MATING REACTIONS%随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)在野蘑菇杂交育种中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春; 张丽梅

    2001-01-01

    野蘑菇(Agaricus arvensis Schaeff ex.Fr.)是蘑菇属(Agaricus)又一种近年来广泛栽培的食用菌.由于它的菌丝细胞具有多核,无锁状联合,以及人们对它的繁殖模式和生活史认识的不足,给杂交育种工作造成了较多困难.运用随机扩增多态DNA遗传标记技术,结合拮抗试验和核相分析,对自育的单孢菌株之间的杂交试验进行分析研究.结果表明:两个相互亲合的同核体菌株被配对培养时,交配反应出现,并形成异核体的后代.可能野蘑菇具有双重的交配繁殖系统--同宗配合和异宗配合.在食用菌杂交育种研究中,机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)是一种非常有效和方便的检验杂合子的方法.

  3. La educación social contra la exclusión: la interculturalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Bedmar Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las circunstancias sociales que generan la exclusión, ocasionada por la grandes desigualdades que se dan, tanto entre los países ricos y pobres como dentro de una inisnia sociedad, entre sus diferentes clases. Una de sus consecuencias es el fénomeno de la inmigración hacia el Primer Mundo, en busca de unas condiciones de vida favorables. Se trata del papel que desempeña la Educación Social como medio de integración, para luchar contra la doble exclusión a que se ven sometidos los inmigrantes en los países de acogida, donde se generan problemas de convivencia entre la población, que muestra actitudes xenofobas y falta de respeto a otras culturas, por lo que necesita ser educada socialmente, para generar actitudes de solidaridad, tolerancia y convivencia. Se muestran experiencias de educación intercultural que fomentan la solidaridad y el respeto mutuo, al mismo tiempo que facilitan la integración social de los inmigrantes, con programas integrates que fomentan ademas el empleo, la salud, la vivienda, el asesoramiento jurídico, etc. donde actúan coordinadamente centros de educación de adultos y ONG.

  4. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  5. Contra-thermodynamic behavior in intermolecular hydrogen transfer of alkylperoxy radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaendtner, Jim; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2007-09-17

    Quantum chemical investigation of bimolecular hydrogen transfer involving alkylperoxy radicals, a key reaction family in the free-radical oxidation of hydrocarbons, was performed to establish structure-reactivity relationships. Eight different reactions were investigated featuring four different alkane substrates (methane, ethane, propane and isobutane) and two different alkylperoxy radicals (methylperoxy and iso-propylperoxy). Including forward and reverse pairs, sixteen different activation energies and enthalpies of reaction were used to formulate structure-reactivity relationships to describe this chemistry. We observed that the enthalpy of formation of loosely bound intermediate states has a strong inverse correlation with the overall heat of reaction and that this results in unique contra-thermodynamic behavior such that more exothermic reactions have higher activation barriers. A new structure-reactivity relationship was proposed that fits the calculated data extremely well: E(A)=E(o)+alphaDeltaH(rxn) where alpha=-0.10 for DeltaH(rxn)0 and E(o)=3.05 kcal mol(-1).

  6. Los nuevos escenarios para la cooperación en la lucha contra el terrorismo internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorasio, Denise

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El terrorismo constituye una de las amenazas mas serias para la democracia, para el libre ejercicio de los derechos del hombre y para el desarrollo económico y social. Los acontecimientos del 11 de septiembre mostraron que el terrorismo es una amenaza real a nivel mundial y que cualquier país podía ser afectado por ataques terroristas. Es un verdadero reto para el mundo y para Europa. La Unión Europea se fijó como objetivo en el tratado de la UE «ofrecer a los ciudadanos un alto grado de seguridad dentro de un espolio de libertad, seguridad y justicia elaborando una acción en común entre los Estados miembros en los ámbitos de la cooperación policial y judicial en materia penal...». Este objetivo ha de lograrse mediante la prevención y la lucha contra la delincuencia, organizada o no, en particular el terrorismo a través de una mayor cooperación entre las fuerzas policiales, las autoridades aduaneras y otras autoridades competentes de los Estados miembros, como entre les autoridades judiciales y, también, por la aproximación, cuando proceda, de las normas de los Estados miembro en materia penal.

  7. Violência contra a mulher e políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blay Eva Alterman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available DIFERENTEMENTE dos inúmeros estudos existentes, de excelente qualidade, esta pesquisa busca investigar não apenas a chamada violência doméstica mas os vários tipos de homicídio - tentativa ou consumação - de mulheres, de todas as faixas etárias. Ela investigou e procurou comparar como este crime era tratado: 1. pela mídia (especialmente jornais de 1991 e de 2000; pelo rádio e televisão; 2. nos Boletins de Ocorrência das Delegacias de Policia da capital de São Paulo (do ano de 1998; 3. nos Processos Judiciais, através de uma amostra representativa dos cinco Tribunais do Júri da Capital de São Paulo (de 1997. Desejava saber como a mídia tão resistente a principio se comportava na passagem do século XXI face à violência contra a mulher, o que os BOs registravam e como eram julgados os assassinos/as de mulheres. Os complexos resultados obtidos revelaram mudanças em alguns segmentos e um concomitante mecanismo que retroalimenta a antiga violência nas relações sociais de gênero. Concluindo propõe-se a implantação de uma política transversal de gênero para enfrentar a violência.

  8. ARGUMENTOS CONTRA LA TORTURA Y LOS TRATOS CRUELES, INHUMANOS Y DEGRADANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Machado Pelloni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación persigue trasladar situaciones tratadas por la jurisprudencia de la Corte Europea de Derechos Humanos en lo que hace a la prohibición de tortura, tratos crueles, inhumanos y degradantes, al ámbito regional del MERCOSUR, especialmente desde Argentina y Brasil. En tal sentido, luego de ubicar disposiciones internacionales y puntos básicos en el tema, se persiguen respuestas sobre tres focos de atención: la teoría de la pena, la ejecución penitenciaria y la investigación. Desde aquí se introducen los análisis más recientes y más permeables contra una regla que se juzga absoluta y se los critica. La esfera política y jurídica, como la internas y externa son estudiadas en el objetivo de alcanzar en el presente y en el futuro, igual rechazo que en el pasado.

  9. Predictores Psicosociales de Delitos contra la Seguridad Vial: Un Estudio con Internos de un Centro Penitenciario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Herraiz Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Penitenciario de Hombres de Barcelona ha habido un aumento creciente de ingresos por delitos contra la seguridad vial. El objetivo de esta investigación es obtener un perfil psicológico en una muestra de 115 internos, analizar cuáles son los predictores en la conducción agresiva, y finalmente contrastar la posible existencia de diferentes tipologías, en función de la ausencia o presencia de otros delitos, con o sin componentes agresivos. Los resultados muestran que las causas o estados que causan irritación, los antecedentes familiares de conducción agresiva y la presencia de trastornos psiquiátricos son predictores de la conducta agresiva en la conducción, así como la agresividad física es también un predictor de los accidentes. No hay diferencias en internos que también presentan otras tipologías delictivas.

  10. Violência sexual contra adolescentes em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyana Conceição Lemes Justino

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a situação da violência sexual contra adolescentes. Métodos Estudo transversal com análise espacial, abrangendo 172 fichas de notificação, de janeiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2013, em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul. Para a análise espacial, os dados foram agrupados por bairro. A análise estatística dos dados foi descritiva. Resultados Os adolescentes em situação de violência foram majoritariamente meninas (94,8% e de cor branca (37,8%. Predominou a violência intrafamiliar (51,7% e com um perpetrador (66,9%. A gravidez (8,7% foi uma das consequências. Os casos tiveram distribuição homogênea no município, sem padrão espacial preferencial e sem distinção de estrato social. Conclusões Apesar da subnotificação de casos de violência sexual, a frequência e as consequências individuais e coletivas desta são suficientemente graves para torná-la uma questão de saúde pública.

  11. Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arroyo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. Se presenta un estudio de alternativas no tradicionales, para el control del ataque fungoso a las semillas de pejibaye durante el proceso de germinación. Se evaluó el efecto de 13 agentes protectores: Vitavax + Benomil, Bayletón, NaCl, Cloro, Kilol, Alcohol, H2O2, Aserrín, H2O, Gasolina, Diesel, Kerosene y Chile picante. De las sustancias probadas, la inmersión en kerosene y gasolina, mostraron un comportamiento tan efectivo como los fungicidas triadimefom (Bayletón y la mezcla de carboxin + benomyl. Esto debido al efecto fungicida y su posterior evaporación, no interfiriendo con la respiración, como fue el caso del aceite diesel. Se encontró además que el peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2, tuvo un efecto acelerador de la germinación, pero no actuó como buen fungicida. El kilol, mostró un efecto fungicida prometedor a concentración superior a los 10 cc/l de agua

  12. Habilidades sociais: fator de proteção contra transtornos alimentares em adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Giron Uzunian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi revisar a literatura a cerca da relação entre transtornos alimentares e habilidades sociais em adolescentes. Pesquisou-se as bases de dados Medline, SciELO e Lilacs, cruzando os descritores “transtornos alimentares”, “anorexia nervosa”, “bulimia nervosa” e “comportamento alimentar”, com os descritores “psicologia social” e “isolamento social”, e com as palavras chave “competência social”, “habilidade social” e “relação interpessoal”. Incluiu-se estudos com adolescentes, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol, e publicações realizadas entre os anos de 2007 a 2012. A busca resultou em 63 artigos, sendo incluídos 50 nesta revisão. A maioria dos estudos foi conduzido no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos. Do total, 43 eram artigos originais. Os estudos visavam compreender como o estado emocional poderia influenciar no estabelecimento dos transtornos alimentares, assim como as relações interpessoais e a relação entre os pares. Os artigos também discutiram a influência da mídia e da sociedade neste processo. A partir da análise dos estudos, observou-se que quanto maior o repertório de habilidades sociais dos adolescentes, maior será o fator de proteção contra o desenvolvimento de transtornos alimentares.

  13. Nordic Walking, modalidad terapéutica contra la fatiga relativa al cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina González Castro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Existe evidencia de que el ejercicio físico puede mejorar los síntomas de los pacientes y supervivientes de cáncer y en especial la fatiga relativa al cáncer (FRC. El Nordic Walking (NW es una novedosa forma de ejercicio físico que presenta ventajas fisiológicas y psicológicas significativas respecto de la marcha normal. Este artículo propone el NW como tratamiento terapéutico alternativo contra la FRC. 

  14. Campesinos contra campesinos: conflictos agrarios y lucha por la tierra en Comoapan, Veracruz (1925-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Jiménez Marce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es mostrar las gestiones que los campesinos de Comoapan, Veracruz, una congregación dependiente en ese momento de San Andrés Tuxtla, hicieron ante las autoridades agrarias para tratar de que les dotara de las fértiles tierras que se dedicaban al cultivo del tabaco, situación que generó un enfrentamiento contra la familia Carrión, misma que era una de las principales productoras de la hoja en la región de los Tuxtlas. Para conservar sus tierras, los Carrión apoyaron la formación de una agrupación campesina, conformada por sus peones y campesinos que no tenían derecho a obtener tierra ejidal, y que se convirtió en antagonista de la que pedía las tierras. Se busca entender los complejos procesos que se vivieron en Comoapan y las interrelaciones que se establecieron entre ejidatarios y no ejidatarios, a fin de mostrar que el reparto agrario no constituyó un proceso carente de problemáticas.

  15. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de exudados foliares de tabaco contra dos bacterias fitopatógenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Karina Capdesuñer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: In vitro antibacterial effect of tobacco leaf exudates against two bacterial plant pathogensTítulo corto: Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de exudados foliares de tabacoResumen: Los productos naturales son una alternativa para el control de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades en los cultivos. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar diferentes solventes para la obtención de extractos crudos a partir de exudados foliares de líneas de tabaco, y el efecto in vitro de estos extractos contra dos bacterias fitopatógenas: Xanthomonas campestris (Xc y Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc. Se evaluaron solventes con polaridades entre 3.1 y 6.2 (diclorometano,  n-butanol,  acetato de etilo,  metanol y  etanol 90 %. El etanol 90 % se seleccionó como mejor solvente y como sustituto del diclorometano por su mayor rendimiento. Los extractos etanólicos crudos se obtuvieron a partir de exudados foliares de diez líneas de tabaco seleccionadas.  La diversidad de la composición química de los extractos etanólicos se reveló por cromatografía en capa delgada. La actividad antibacteriana se evaluó por el método de difusión en agar con discos de papel de filtro y la medición del diámetro del halo de inhibición. Se observó inhibición para todos los extractos contra Xc destacándose los correspondientes a las líneas Nic 1061 “TI 1738” y Nic 1016 “Incekara” hasta 5 µg de extracto crudo seco /disco, con un mayor rendimiento para la línea Nic 1061. El extracto de la línea Nic 1015 fue el único con actividad contra Pc hasta 5 µg de extracto crudo seco  por disco. Estos resultados sugieren un uso potencial de los extractos crudos de las líneas Nic 1061 y Nic 1015 “TI 1341” como un agente efectivo para la protección de cultivos contra estas bacterias.Palabras clave: fitopatógenos, Nicotiana tabacum, protección de cultivos, solventes, superficie foliar.Abstract: Natural products are an alternative to control

  16. Las residencias frustradas. El juez Domingo de Irazusta contra el cabildo de Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mar\\u00EDa Lorandi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo plantea los problemas derivados de una tenaz resistencia emprendida por el Cabildo de Salta entre 1724 y 1734, para impedir que el Juez Don Domingo de Irazusta y Orozco tomase las residencias del gobernador Urízar y de sus sucesores y de todos los funcionarios que acompañaron esas gestiones. El conflicto se ventila en la Audiencia de Charcas, en Lima y en el Consejo de Indias. El Cabildo acusa al juez de haber provocado facciones en la ciudad, de ser enemigo capital de la mayoría de sus miembros y aducen que no pueden pagar las multas que les impone el Juez a causa de los ingentes gastos que deben afrontar por la guerra contra las tribus del Chaco. La trama del conflicto revela los enconos existentes entre los grupos que dominan el Cabildo de Salta, y sobre todo el rechazo a acatar la nueva política borbónica, que intentaba ejercer un control más estrecho sobre la vida institucional de sus colonias. Los cabildos reflejan los intereses locales y la fuerte competencia establecida con el poder metropolitano.

  17. La lucha contra la poliomielitis: una alianza médico-social, Buenos Aires, 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Edelvis Testa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el surgimiento de una de las organizaciones voluntarias de asistencia social que tuvo una activa participación en la atención sanitaria de la poliomielitis en Argentina: la Asociación para la Lucha contra la Parálisis Infantil. Esta institución fue conformada en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, en 1943, por un grupo de mujeres de sectores sociales altos y medios. En un contexto de incertidumbre biomédica la entidad movilizó recursos materiales y simbólicos para dar respuesta al problema de la rehabilitación de las afecciones físicas permanentes que la enfermedad provocaba en sus víctimas. Utilizando como fuente las memorias institucionales de la organización, se muestra cómo médicos y filántropas constituyeron una alianza médico-social y desarrollaron el interés fundamental de practicar una modalidad de tratamiento –en un contexto donde todo estaba por hacerse- sostenidos en un andamiaje que amalgamaba ideas cristianas con innovaciones de la medicina y la rehabilitación.

  18. El papel de la prensa norteamericana en la Guerra contra Irak

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    Fernando Escobar Giraldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La objetividad periodística resultó herida de gravedad en la guerra contra Irak. Estados Unidos planeó su guerra desde todos los frentes y uno de ellos fue el informativo. Ante la presión de los grandes medios de comunicación, el gobierno aceptó, contrario a lo que sucedió en la guerra del Golfo Pérsico, que un grupo de periodistas acompañara a las tropas, pero sometidos a ciertas reglas con las cuales, aparentemente, no se coartaba la libertad de expresión, pero sí había ciertas condiciones que a la larga limitaban la cobertura. El pueblo norteamericano terminó viendo una guerra diferente a la que se observó en otros países, una guerra de un solo bando, en la que primó el patriotismo frente a la verdad de la información.

  19. La Guerra contra las Drogas y la Cooperación internacional: el caso de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Rosen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la política exterior de los Estados Unidos (EE.UU. hacia Colombia con respecto al narcotráfico. El análisis se centra no solo en la Guerra contra las Drogas en Colombia sino también en los intereses de los EE.UU. en este país y en la región. La posición de Washington frente a este problema revela la política exterior de los EE.UU. hacia otros países en la región sobre el narcotráfico y el crimen organizado. Este trabajo analiza la cooperación entre los EE.UU. y Colombia en los esquemas señalados. Al final se hace un balance tanto del tipo de cooperación entre EE.UU. y Colombia, como a los resultados al tipo de cooperación.

  20. Production of Agaricus bisporus on substrates pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum and supplemented at casing with protein-rich supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello-Castillo, M M; Sánchez, J E; Royse, D J

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on substrates pre-colonized by Scytalidiumthermophilum (St), a thermophilic fungus known to enhance yields of Ab and increase selectivity of the substrate. The radial extension rate (RER) of the mycelium of three strains of St and their influence on the growth of a brown strain of Ab were evaluated. We also determined the time required for colonization of pangola grass by St in a compost pile and the influence of three protein-rich supplements on yield of Ab on pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) colonized by St. RER of St ranged from 10.1mm/d on grass to 18.9 mm/d on potato dextrose yeast extract agar, with significant differences among substrates and among strains. Ab grew faster on substrate colonized for 1, 2, or 3 days by St (RER of 3.31, 3.29, 3.23 mm/d, respectively) compared to non-colonized substrate (1.85 mm/d). Ab was cultivated on substrate samples selected daily from the St-inoculated pile, with biological efficiencies (BE) ranging from 4% (day 0) to 73.9% (day 2). Protein-rich supplements (soybean, black beans and cowpeas) added at casing significantly stimulated mushroom yield on St-colonized substrate compared to the non-supplemented control. BE varied from 26.1% on substrate non-supplemented to 73.1% on compost supplemented with ground soybean. There were no significant differences in mushroom yield observed among supplements evaluated.

  1. Impact on Vitamin D2, Vitamin D4 and Agaritine in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms after Artificial and Natural Solar UV Light Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Paul; Valverde, Juan; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-09-01

    Commercial mushroom production can expose mushrooms post-harvest to UV light for purposes of vitamin D2 enrichment by converting the naturally occurring provitamin D2 (ergosterol). The objectives of the present study were to artificially simulate solar UV-B doses occurring naturally in Central Europe and to investigate vitamin D2 and vitamin D4 production in sliced Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms) and to analyse and compare the agaritine content of naturally and artificially UV-irradiated mushrooms. Agaritine was measured for safety aspects even though there is no rationale for a link between UV light exposure and agaritine content. The artificial UV-B dose of 0.53 J/cm(2) raised the vitamin D2 content to significantly (P < 0.001) higher levels of 67.1 ± 9.9 μg/g dry weight (DW) than sun exposure (3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry DW). We observed a positive correlation between vitamin D4 and vitamin D2 production (r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.001) after artificial UV irradiation, with vitamin D4 levels ranging from 0 to 20.9 μg/g DW. The agaritine content varied widely but remained within normal ranges in all samples. Irrespective of the irradiation source, agaritine dropped dramatically in conjunction with all UV-B doses both artificial and natural solar, probably due to its known instability. The biological action of vitamin D from UV-exposed mushrooms reflects the activity of these two major vitamin D analogues (D2, D4). Vitamin D4 should be analysed and agaritine disregarded in future studies of UV-exposed mushrooms.

  2. Homens, gênero e violência contra a mulher Men, gender and violence against women

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    Daniel Costa Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o compromisso do Estado brasileiro de coibir e prevenir a violência contra a mulher, firmado em várias conferências internacionais e tendo em vista a promulgação da Lei 11.340/06 - a Lei Maria da Penha -, este artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma reflexão sobre a incorporação dos homens e da perspectiva de gênero nos esforços de prevenção e atenção à violência contra as mulheres. Apesar do crescente interesse da literatura científica e da intervenção em saúde com o envolvimento dos homens, em especial, no campo dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos, comparativamente, reflexões e intervenções com homens autores de violência contra a mulher têm recebido bem menos atenção de órgãos governamentais, não-governamentais e pela academia. O artigo apresenta alguns conceitos e dados sobre a violência contra as mulheres e descreve um panorama sobre a conexão entre gênero, saúde e masculinidades; analisa trabalhos que abordam os temas homens e violência contra as mulheres e apresenta algumas ações voltadas à prevenção dessa forma de violência junto à população masculina; e por fim tece algumas considerações finais sobre o tema.Considering the commitment made by the Brazilian Government to restrain and prevent violence against women, signed in various international conferences, and in view of the promulgation of the Law 11.340/06 - Lei Maria da Penha -, this article intends to develop a reflection on the incorporation of men and of the gender perspective in efforts to prevent and attend to violence against women. Despite the increasing interest of scientific literature and health intervention in the involvement of men, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive rights, comparatively, reflections and interventions directed at men who have committed violence against women have received far less attention from governmental and non-governmental institutions, and from the academy. The article

  3. Vacina contra o papilomavirus humano. O que é preciso saber? Human papillomavirus vaccines. What we must know?

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    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As vacinas contra o Papilomavirus Humano (HPV já estão disponíveis para consumo. Temos dois tipos: a bivalente, que determina imunidade contra os tipos oncogênicos 16 e 18, os mais relacionados com os carcinomas anogenitais e da orofaringe, a quadrivalente, que além desses, imuniza contra os tipos 6 e 11, que provocam as verrugas anogenitais. Estão mais indicadas para mulheres dos 10 aos 25 anos, antes do início da vida sexual ou naquelas que não tiveram contato com os tipos virais envolvidos. As vacinas não têm efeito em quem já possui lesões provocadas pelos tipos virais imunizáveis. Podem ser usadas nas imunodeprimidas por qualquer causa, naquelas que estão amamentando, mas são contra-indicadas durante a gravidez. O uso em homens, guardando as mesmas indicações, foi liberado pelo FDA (Food and Drugs Administration norte-americano, porém ainda não pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, o correspondente brasileiro. Para aqueles que já estão contaminados pelos tipos virais envolvidos, resta esperar pela vacina terapêutica que permanece em avaliação com ensaios clínicos.Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV are already available for use. There are two of them: bivalent, that provokes immunity against oncogenic types 16 and 18, the most involved in anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas, and the quadrivalent, that includes these types and the non-oncogenic types 6 and 11, responsible for most of anogenital warts. They are indicated for women from 10 to 25 years old, before sexual life beginning or to those that did not have been infected with HPV types of the vaccines. These vaccines have no therapeutic effects against pre-existing HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. They can be used in immunosuppressed persons, in those who are breast feeding, but are contra-indicated during pregnancy. Their use in males, with the same indications, is already approved by the north-american FDA (Food and

  4. Vacinas contra varicela e vacina quádrupla viral Varicella vaccines and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine

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    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada sobre os estudos de eficácia, eventos adversos e esquema vacinal da vacina contra varicela e a nova apresentação combinada com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica utilizando a base de dados MEDLINE e LILACS no período de 1999 a 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina contra varicela tem uma eficácia entre 70 a 90% contra a infecção e 95 a 98% de proteção contra as formas graves. É uma vacina bem tolerada e pouco reatogênica. Após o seu licenciamento, foram comprovados apenas três casos de transmissão do vírus vacinal de pessoas previamente saudáveis para contatos domiciliares, que desenvolveram doença leve. Apesar das evidências de que a proteção conferida pela vacina pode diminuir com o passar dos anos, ainda não é possível afirmar que seja necessário, no momento, a aplicação de uma segunda dose, tendo em vista a exposição ao vírus selvagem. Após a vacinação universal, as chances de estímulo natural deverão diminuir, e muito provavelmente será necessário a aplicação de doses de reforço. Recentemente foi licenciada a vacina quádrupla viral, um produto combinado com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba, rubéola e varicela com elevadas taxas de soroconversão. CONCLUSÃO:A vacina contra varicela é recomendada pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP para as crianças a partir de 1 ano de idade. Esperamos que, em breve, a vacina quádrupla viral esteja disponível no Brasil, pois o uso de vacinas combinadas possibilita uma maior cobertura vacinal.OBJECTIVES: To present an up-to-date review of studies investigating the efficacy, adverse events and vaccination regimens of the varicella vaccine and the new presentation combined with the vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella. SOURCES OF DATA: Bibliographic review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases covering the period 1999 to 2006 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The varicella

  5. Potential reproduction of invasive Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton: pro and contra evidences

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    Attila Mozsár

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis × silver carp H. molitrix had been introduced into Lake Balaton (Hungary from 1972 to increase fishery yields and as a biological control of algal blooms. Although the stocking was stopped by 1983, the biomass of Asian carps is still high in the lake, constituting about one-third of the total fish biomass. Our analyses revealed that the present Asian carp stock cannot have originated directly from the last official stockings. The origin of the present stock is undefined, and there are two potential explanations for the source of recruitment. First, it is possible that Asian carps escape from the nearby fishery ponds and get into Lake Balaton periodically. The second explanation is that Asian carps spawn in the lake. However, preceding studies suggested that Asian carps are not able to reproduce in lacustrine environments. In this study, our aim was to contrast the pro and contra evidences of natural Asian carp reproduction in Lake Balaton. We studied the reproductive parameters and genetic pools of 58 Asian carps, sampled between March−November 2011 and 2013. Mature vitellogenic oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles were found in the posterior segments of gonads. This suggests that a fraction of mature eggs was released from the ovaries during the year, but does not necessary imply successful reproduction. Considerable seasonal variations in gonado-somatic indexes (GSI were observed, fluctuating between 6−28% in 2011 and 12−29% in 2013. However, the within-year dynamics of GSI changes suggest that fish do not release significant amounts of milt during the potential spawning period. Rather, the resorption of nutrients allocated to eggs seems probable during autumn. Genetic analyses showed remarkable deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within the stock, which indicates that Asian carps do not constitute a closed, self-sustaining population in Lake Balaton.

  6. RESISTÊNCIA DE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE BAMBU TRATADAS CONTRA FUNGOS XILÓFAGOS

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    Rogy Frigeri Tiburtino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de bambus das espécies Bambusa vulgaris e Dendrocalamus giganteus após serem expostos a três métodos de tratamentos químicos preservativos, contra a ação dos fungos Postia placenta e Polyporus fumosus. Os métodos de tratamento empregados foram o de transpiração (diafragma íntegro e rompido, imersão prolongada e Boucherie modificado. As hastes de bambu foram transformadas em colmos de 2,0 m de comprimento e tratadas em solução de 1 ou 3% de ingredientes ativos (i.a. de um produto comercial à base de cobre, cromo e boro (CCB. Nos métodos por transpiração e imersão prolongada, os colmos foram expostos nas soluções por períodos de 5, 10 ou 15 dias, enquanto no método de Boucherie modificado não houve segregação do tratamento entre tempos de tratamento. Para avaliar a eficiência dos tratamentos, foram empregados os fungos Postia placenta e Polyporus fumosus. A partir dos resultados, observou-se que, em média, em ambas as espécies de bambu tratadas e métodos empregados, a perda de massa das amostras de bambu, depois de submetidas ao ataque dos fungos, foi baixa, tendo variado de 2,44 a 14,26%.

  7. Resistindo ao desenvolvimento neocolonial: a luta do povo de Andalgalá contra projetos megamineiros

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    Maria Ceci Misoczky

    Full Text Available A América Latina vem experimentando uma nova era de declarada fé dos governos no mito do desenvolvimento, em articulação com a expansão de políticas extrativistas exportadoras em um contexto de renovada dependência. A face mais dramática do extrativismo na região tem sido a crescente presença de corporações mineiras transnacionais apoiadas por governos nacionais e regionais e por instituições internacionais financeiras e de apoio ao desenvolvimento, e intensamente resistidas por movimentos sociais populares. Neste artigo apresentamos o caso de Andalgalá (uma pequena cidade na Província de Catamarca, na Argentina e as lutas do povo contra corporações mineiras transnacionais e seus aliados. Na tradição da Filosofia da Libertação e do método ana-dialético de Dussel, nos engajamos com o que tem sido denominado "comunidades argentinas do NÃO", expressando sua oposição a formas neocoloniais de desenvolvimento e gestão. Neste artigo estamos especificamente interessados em compreender como dois dispositivos gerencialistas usados pelas corporações mineiras, responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC e pactos de governança, impactam a luta do povo. Acima de tudo, este artigo oferece instantâneos de batalhas na linha de frente do extrativismo. Esperamos ter dado voz àquelas pessoas que normalmente não são ouvidas, criando um espaço para suas visões sobre um tipo diferente de desenvolvimento.

  8. EXPRESIÓN DE DOS GENES CANDIDATOS A RESISTENCIA CONTRA LA BACTERIOSIS VASCULAR EN YUCA

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    LOPEZ CAMILO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae es el cuarto cultivo en importancia a nivel mundial como fuente de calorías para la población humana y cuya producción se ve afectada por la bacteriosis vascular, enfermedad ocasionada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. La resistencia a enfermedades en plantas depende de la presencia de genes de resistencia (R, los cuales reconocen a los patógenos y simultáneamente permiten desencadenar la respuesta de defensa. A pesar de recientes esfuerzos encaminados a la identificación de genes R en yuca, aún no se ha logrado clonar el primer gen R en este cultivo. En el presente trabajo se estudió el perfil de expresión de dos Genes Candidatos a Resistencia (RGCs asociados a QTLs de defensa contra la bacteriosis vascular en yuca. A partir de la técnica transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR se evaluó la expresión de los genes RXam1 y RXam2 en tallos y hojas de las variedades resistentes SG107-35 y MBRA685 de yuca, después de ser inoculadas con la cepa CIO151 de Xam. Se observó que RXam1 es inducido a partir de los cinco días post-inoculación tanto en tallos como hojas de las dos variedades, mientras que RXam2 es expresado de manera constitutiva en la variedad MBRA685.

  9. Los programas de mejora de la ciudad informal, herramientas de lucha contra la pobreza

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    Colavidas, Felipe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a discussion of the chief approachesand objectives of new policies for improving precariousLatin American barrios implemented by multilateral,national and/or municipal organizations. With a census of25 million extremely precarious living quarters, theseneighbourhoods have a combined population of 125million. A precise estimate of the investment required toimprove, enlarge and/or refurbish this sub-standardhousing amounts to US$170 billion. In this vein, therelevance and specific contribution of three programmes(“Chile Barrio”, “Favela Barrio” and “Obras con SaldoPedagógico” are critically reviewed from the standpointof their utility as tools for combating poverty.Se presentan los principales enfoques y objetivos de lasnuevas políticas de mejora de barrios precarios enLatinoamérica emprendidas por organismos multilaterales,nacionales y/o municipales. Barrios, en los que secontabilizan más de 25 millones de soluciones habitacionalesextremadamente precarias, en las que se alojan unos 125millones de habitantes. Se ha estimado de forma precisa, quela inversión necesaria para el mejoramiento, ampliacióny/o dotación de estas infraviviendas supondría unos 170.000millones de $USA. Igualmente, se presenta una síntesiscrítica de tres programas (Chile Barrio, Favela Barrio yObras con Saldo Pedagógico, desde la óptica de supertinencia y aportes concretos como herramientas para lalucha contra la pobreza.

  10. La lucha contra el cierre de Altos Hornos del Mediterráneo de Sagunto (Valencia

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    Enrique González de Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La lucha de los trabajadores de Altos Hornos del Mediterráneo (AHM de Sagunto (Valencia contra el cierre de la cabecera entre los años 1983 y 1984 constituyó un hito en toda regla. El Gobierno del PSOE propuso una reconversión industrial en la que los principales afectados serían los trabajadores del sector. Las formas de organización con que se dotó el pueblo de Sagunto inmediatamente posibilitaron que la participación fuera muy amplia y extensa, lo que presionó, a su vez, a los directivos de la siderurgia, al Gobierno, a los sindicatos y a los partidos de izquierda, siendo una constante a lo largo de todo el conflicto. Las innumerables huelgas, concentraciones, marchas a Valencia y a la capital de España mostraron la enorme disposición de la clase trabajadora por defender los puestos de trabajo. Sin embargo, aquella demostración no echó atrás los planes previstos.The struggle of workers in the Altos Hornos del Mediterráneo (AHM Sagunto (Valencia against the closure of the head between 1983 and 1984 was a landmark in the whole rule. The PSOE Government’s proposed industrial restructuring in which the main victims were workers. The town of Sagunto took such organization measures that people participation was very broad and extensive, and, consequently, management of iron and steel industry, government, trade unions and left-wing political parties were pressurized. It was a constant throughout the conflict. The numerous strikes, rallies and marches to Valencia and the Spanish capital showed the enormous willingness of the working class to defend jobs. However, that demonstration didn’t stop the plans.

  11. Influence of manufacturing procedure on stability of Unguentum contra perniones preparations

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    Bošković Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Application of various technological procedures for the manufacture of officinal preparation ointment against chilblains (Unguentum contra perniones produce essential variations in the quality and stability of the final product. Changing the sequence of admixing active substances into the ointment base indicated the presence of incompatibility between the active substances, as well as between the active substances and the ointment base components. The aim was to examine the influence of various technological manufacturing procedures on quality and stability of the preparation. Methods. Changes in the samples of ointments and aqueous solutions of active substances were analyzed microscopically. Results. Microscopic analysis of hydrosoluble active substance solutions demonstrated destruction of ichthammol, induced by an acidic medium due to the dissolution of tannin and resorcinol, which is well known from the literature. It also demonstrated the destruction of tannin and resorcinol in aqueous solution, which had not been described in the literature. Application of the prescribed procedure for the manufacturing of ointment against chilblains, conceals the incompatibility reactions due to a slow dissolution of the tannin suspended in the officinal ointment base Unguentum cera lanae. Admixture of an ready-made aqueous solution of tannin caused an instant contact between ichthammol and the acidic medium, which caused the destruction or the complete absence of the formation of emulsion droplets. The problem of incompatibility reactions between lanolin alcohols in the ointment base and ichthammol and resorcinol, as well as the reaction between Peruvian balsam and sulfur from the ichthammol sulfate ion was observed. Numerous incompatibility reactions of ointment against chilblains, components indicated that it was necessary to introduce alterations in both the qualitative and quantitative composition of the preparation. Conclusion. Excipient

  12. Efectos del entrenamiento contra resistencias o resistance training en diversas patologías

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    Raúl Domínguez

    Full Text Available La fuerza influye directamente en el estado de salud y en la capacidad de fitness, motivo por el que el entrenamiento contra resistencias o resistance training (RT se incluye dentro de aquellos programas de ejercicio encaminados a mejorar la salud y calidad de vida. Debido a que muchas enfermedades cursan con alteración de la masa y funcionalidad muscular y a que el RT es la principal modalidad de ejercicio encaminada a mejorar la función muscular, el objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica ha sido exponer las evidencias actuales sobre las adaptaciones del RT, así como su posible aplicación en patologías como la obesidad, diabetes, dislipemia, hipertensión, cáncer, Parkinson, esclerosis múltiple o fibromialgia. El RT en estas enfermedades puede aumentar los niveles de masa muscular, disminuyendo los niveles de masa grasa, los niveles de ácidos grasos en sangre y la glucemia, incrementando la sensibilidad a la insulina, y disminuyendo los niveles de citokinas inflamatorias. El RT, además, mejora el gasto cardiaco y la funcionalidad endotelial, regulando la tensión arterial e incrementando el consumo de oxígeno. Las ganancias de fuerza muscular mejoran la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida, especialmente en población con una afectación neuromuscular grave, como pudieran ser los enfermos de esclerosis múltiple, fibromialgia o Parkinson. Por ello, el RT debe ser incorporado como parte del tratamiento en las personas que presentan determinado tipo de patologías.

  13. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow between shrouded contra-rotating disks

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    Shu-Xian Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent flow between shrouded contra-rotating disks was numerically studied with a two-layer turbulence model and a modified Launder–Sharma low-Reynolds number k-ε model. The dissipation rate decrease caused by solid body rotation was considered in the second model. The comparisons of the effectiveness between these two turbulence models for capturing the critical radius of flow structure transition and reproducing the flow velocity measurements data were presented. For the flow between shrouded disks rotating at the same speed but in opposite senses, that is, the angular velocity ratio of the two disks equals to −1, the Stewartson-type flow structure is found in the cavity. For the flow with one disk rotating more slowly than the other, Stewartson-type flow coexists with Batchelor-type flow, that is, Batchelor-type flow occurs radially outward of the stagnation point where two opposing boundary layer flows meet, and Stewartson-type flow occurs radially inward. The stagnation points near the slower disk move radially outward as the angular velocity ratio decreases toward −1. Theory of rotating fluids with the presence of centrifugal and Coriolis forces stemming from the disk rotation is employed to manifest the flow structure transition mechanisms as the rotation ratio of the disks is varied. The source of the earlier transition to turbulent flow in counter-rotating disk cavity compared with rotor-stator disk cavity is also explained through the research of instability of the flowing free shear layer formed by the counter secondary circulations. With the aid of the numerical results obtained from the two turbulence models, it is found that a more turbulent flow in the core can destroy the Batchelor-type flow and creates a larger Stewartson-type flow region.

  14. A POLÍTICA DE CONTRA-REFORMA AGRÁRIA DO BANCO MUNDIAL NO CEARÁ

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    Alexandra Maria de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available renda capitalizada da terra por proprietários de terras rentistas. Os assentamentos enquanto Este artigo analisa a política de crédito fundiário no Ceará praticada pelos governos estadual e federal, em parceria com o Banco Mundial, a partir de 1996. A forma pela qual o Estado foi levado a dar início e desenvolver a “reforma agrária de mercado” no Ceará, recoloca problemas importantes, tais como: a questão da reforma agrária e o acesso à terra pelos sem terra, e o problema da estrutura fundiária no Ceará e no Nordeste. A reflexão sobre a contra-reforma agrária do Banco Mundial passa pela discussão acerca da concepção do desenvolvimento territorial contraditório (desigual e combinado no interior da Geografia Agrária. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida a partir de estudo realizado em oito assentamentos criados em decorrência dos projetos São José e Cédula da Terra. A implementação da “reforma agrária de mercado” no Ceará traz consigo o re-significado da apropriação da frações do território conquistado, constituíram, por sua vez, em uma forma de propriedade diferente da propriedade privada capitalista.

  15. Vacina acelular contra pertússis para adolescentes Acellular pertussis vaccine for adolescents

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    Aroldo P. de Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A utilização da vacina de células inteiras contra coqueluche levou a uma redução significativa na incidência da enfermidade na criança. Essa mudança no perfil epidemiológico resultou em aumento no número de casos em adolescentes e adultos, conseqüente à perda da imunidade conferida pela doença ou por vacina após cerca de 10 anos, e em lactentes não imunizados ou incompletamente imunizados. O licenciamento da vacina tríplice bacteriana contra difteria, tétano e coqueluche acelular, com formulação específica para maiores de 10 anos de idade (dTpa, apontou para a possibilidade do controle da coqueluche na população das faixas etárias mais acometidas nos últimos anos. FONTE DE DADOS: As informações foram coletadas na base de dados MEDLINE. A pesquisa foi limitada ao período compreendido entre janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Estão licenciadas em alguns países duas vacinas dTpa para a faixa etária maior de 10 anos de idade, uma delas contendo cinco componentes imunogênicos da Bordetella pertussis: toxina pertússis, hemaglutinina filamentosa, fimbrias 2 e 3 e pertactina, e a outra contendo três componentes: pertactina, hemaglutinina filamentosa e toxina pertússis inativada, sendo esta a única apresentação licenciada até o momento no Brasil. Embora a composição das duas vacinas seja diferente, os estudos mostram que a imunogenicidade e a eficácia são semelhantes. Entretanto, alguns autores enfatizam que existem dificuldades para a realização de uma avaliação mais precisa da resposta imunológica à vacina e sua duração. Vários países já recomendam de rotina o uso da vacina dTpa para adolescentes. O Canadá ampliou a população alvo até 54 anos de idade. A orientação é de que esse grupo receba uma dose da vacina como reforço do esquema básico de imunização. Isso é fundamentado em resultados de estudos que mostram que a duração da imunidade induzida pela

  16. The meaning of the rubella vaccine for pregnant women El significado de la vacuna contra la rubeola para las mujeres gestantes O significado da vacina contra rubéola para as mulheres grávidas

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    Lúcia Maria Tonzar Ristori Ozaki

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at describing the meaning of the rubella vaccine to women who were discovered pregnant after having received the measles-rubella vaccine during the 2001 campaign against rubella, and who lived in 10 cities within the region of DIR XX from São João da Boa Vista. The theory of Social Representation was used as a reference framework for the research, and data were collected through the Collective Subject Discourse technique, involving 18 women who either were pregnant or became pregnant within 30 days after having received the vaccine. Through their discourse, it was possible to unveil the diversity of meanings the rubella vaccine has when dispensed during pregnancy, characterized as a threat to their and their children's physical integrity and to their conjugal relationship. The meanings constitute an important source of information that allows health professionals and administrators to reflect, so they can reconsider their role as health promoters.Se trató de describir el significado de la vacuna contra la rubeola para las mujeres que se enteraron del embarazo después de recibir la vacuna dupla viral, debido a la campaña contra la rubeola-2001, en la DIR XX de São João da Boa Vista. Fue adoptada como referencia la Teoría de la Representaciones Sociales. La colección de datos fue realizada a través de la técnica de Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo con 18 gestantes y mujeres embarazadas hasta 30 días después de la aplicación de la vacuna, consideradas suceptibles a la rubeola, habitantes de 10 municipios de la región. Considerando los discursos de las mujeres, fue posible detectar los diferentes resultados de la vacuna contra la rubeola cuando es aplicada durante la gestación, representada como amenaza a su integridad, a la de su hijo y a su relación conyugal. Esos significados se constituyen en importante fuente de información que brinda a los profesionales de la salud y gestores una reflexión sobre desempe

  17. 双孢菇深层发酵培养基的响应面优化%Optimization of submerged fermentation medium of Agaricus bisporus for extracellular polysaccharide production by response surface analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛勇; 毛健; 李华钟; 孟祥勇

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carbon sources,nitrogen source and mineral salt on extracellular polysaccharide production by submerged fermentation medium of Agaricus bisporus had been studied. On the base of single factors experiments,response surface analysis was applied to optimize the submerged fermentation medium of Agaricus bisporus for extracellular polysaccharide production. The quadratic regression analysis was applied to get the optimal level of main factors,and optimal quality concentrations of the variables were obtained as follows:glucose 35.7g/L,KH2PO4 2.1g/L and peptone 3.1g/L. Under these optimal conditions,the predicted and experimental production of extracellular polysaccharide was high up to 1.86g/L and 1.87g/L,respectively.%研究了碳源、氮源、无机盐对双孢菇胞外多糖产量的影响.在单因素实验的基础上,采用响应面实验设计对双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)深层发酵生产胞外多糖的培养基进行了优化,并建立了葡萄糖、KH2PO4、蛋白胨变化的二次回归方程,探讨了各因子对胞外多糖产量的影响.最终确定适宜的培养基条件为葡萄糖35.7g/L,KH2PO42.1g/L,蛋白胨3.1g/L;在此条件下可得到胞外多糖的最大产量,预测值为1.86g/L,对实验结果进行验证,得到胞外多糖的产量为1.87g/L.

  18. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  19. The 1.6 A crystal structure of pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris rationalizes substrate specificity and reveals a flavin intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Chye Tan

    Full Text Available Pyranose dehydrogenases (PDHs are extracellular flavin-dependent oxidoreductases secreted by litter-decomposing fungi with a role in natural recycling of plant matter. All major monosaccharides in lignocellulose are oxidized by PDH at comparable yields and efficiencies. Oxidation takes place as single-oxidation or sequential double-oxidation reactions of the carbohydrates, resulting in sugar derivatives oxidized primarily at C2, C3 or C2/3 with the concomitant reduction of the flavin. A suitable electron acceptor then reoxidizes the reduced flavin. Whereas oxygen is a poor electron acceptor for PDH, several alternative acceptors, e.g., quinone compounds, naturally present during lignocellulose degradation, can be used. We have determined the 1.6-Å crystal structure of PDH from Agaricus meleagris. Interestingly, the flavin ring in PDH is modified by a covalent mono- or di-atomic species at the C(4a position. Under normal conditions, PDH is not oxidized by oxygen; however, the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O activates oxygen by a mechanism that proceeds via a covalent flavin C(4a-hydroperoxide intermediate. Although the flavin C(4a adduct is common in monooxygenases, it is unusual for flavoprotein oxidases, and it has been proposed that formation of the intermediate would be unfavorable in these oxidases. Thus, the flavin adduct in PDH not only shows that the adduct can be favorably accommodated in the active site, but also provides important details regarding the structural, spatial and physicochemical requirements for formation of this flavin intermediate in related oxidases. Extensive in silico modeling of carbohydrates in the PDH active site allowed us to rationalize the previously reported patterns of substrate specificity and regioselectivity. To evaluate the regioselectivity of D-glucose oxidation, reduction experiments were performed using fluorinated glucose. PDH was rapidly reduced by 3-fluorinated glucose, which has the C2

  20. Encefalitis asociada a anticuerpos contra los receptores NMDA: Reconocimiento de un nuevo síndrome neuropsiquiátrico.

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla, Fredy J.; McMasters, Matthew D.; Kobet, Christopher A.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Los síndromes paraneoplásicos se caracterizan por la presencia de signos y síntomas que ocurren lejos del sitio deltumor o de sus metástasis. Muchos de estos síndromes son mediados por hormonas, citoquinas, u otras sustanciassecretadas por células tumorales, así como por una respuesta inmune contra el tumor. La presencia de anticuerposgenerados para combatir el tumor puede resultar en un síndrome neurológico si las células del sistema nervioso sonafectadas. Las primeras descripciones de tales...

  1. Anticuerpos séricos contra la enfermedad de Newcastle e Influenza Aviar en aves rapaces de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel González-Acuña; Álvaro Gaete; Lucila Moreno; Karen Ardiles; Fabiola Cerda-Leal; Christian Mathieu; René Ortega

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos contra los virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle (ENC) e Influenza aviar (IA), para comprender la contribución de las aves silvestres en la transmisión de estos virus en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 63 aves pertenecientes a los órdenes Falconiformes y Strigiformes desde centros de rehabilitación de aves de las zonas central y sur de Chile. Se realizaron las pruebas de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación (IHA) p...

  2. El delito de tortura y su relación con otros atentados contra la integridad moral

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Torres, María José

    2013-01-01

    1. OBJETIVOS La elección de la tortura como tema de investigación tiene por objetivo probar que, en la lucha contra el terrorismo internacional, se ha devuelto a la actualidad esta institución, abriendo de nuevo el debate jurídico y político sobre su utilidad en el proceso penal del siglo XXI, ahora, desde postulados funcionalistas como los defendidos por JAKOBS en la teoría del “Derecho penal del enemigo”. 2. MÉTODO Se ha utilizado un método dogmático en el estudio del Derecho po...

  3. Haz que tu bebé nazca protegido contra la tosferina (Born with Protection against Whooping Cough)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-13

    Este podcast provee información acerca de la tosferina, una enfermedad que puede ser mortal para los bebés, y la recomendación de los CDC de que todas las mujeres reciban la vacuna Tdap durante el tercer trimestre de cada embarazo para que su bebé nazca con protección contra esta grave enfermedad.  Created: 4/13/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  4. Desarrollo de vacunas basadas en bacterias lácticas para inducir inmunidad en mucosas contra VIH

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se desarrolló un nuevo sistema de expresión de la proteína gp120 del VIH basado en bacterias lácticas, induciendo inmunidad humoral. Nuestros datos indican que la administración oral de L. lactis modificada para expresar la gp120 induce anticuerpos sistémicos y locales (a nivel de mucosas) específicos, así como también estimulan la producción de linfocitos específicos contra el VIH y se asocia a un incremento en la expresión de CD4 y de Mac en...

  5. La eficacia de la legislación contra el crimen organizado: Brasil y España

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La moderna delincuencia se caracteriza por su transnacionalidad, esta nueva criminalidad que actúa con base en un modelo "empresarial" presenta múltiples problemas jurídicos ya que para combatir eficazmente contra el crimen deben flexibilizarse varios principios fundamentales del Derecho. Analizar los problemas a que se enfrenta el sistema penal no es una tarea sencilla ya que adolece de ciertas deficiencias, sobre todo en la parte dogmática. El objetivo de este estudio es aportar el poder de...

  6. Producción y evaluación serológica de una bacterina contra la leptospirosis bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Sánchez C; Benito Gutiérrez; Cindy Fernández; Janeth Arias P

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo. Producir una bacterina contra leptospirosis bovina. Materiales y métodos. La producción de la bacterina se realizó a partir de cultivos de L. pomona, L. grippotyphosa, L. hardjobovis, L. hardjoprajitno, L. icterohaemorrhagiae y L. canicola con concentraciones entre 1x108 y 1x1010 células/ml. Las leptospiras se inactivaron con formol y se adsorbieron en hidróxido de aluminio para formular la vacuna. La concentración final de cada serovar fue de 1x108 Leptospiras/ml. Para realizar la ...

  7. La Asociación Europea contra la Poliomielitis y los programas europeos de vacunación

    OpenAIRE

    Porras,María Isabel; Báguena, José; Ballester, Rosa; de las Heras, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    La búsqueda de una respuesta europea al problema planteado por los brotes epidémicos de poliomielitis en las décadas centrales del siglo XX, desembocó en la creación de un organismo nuevo, la Asociación Europea contra la Poliomielitis en 1951. Los mecanismos de funcionamiento interno y las conexiones internacionales de dicha Asociación fueron subsidiarios de un determinado contexto socio-político que propiciaba este tipo de consorcios. Como muestra este trabajo, su labor en los dieciocho años...

  8. ORGANIZANDO LA ESPERANZA: UTOPÍAS CONCRETAS PLURIVERSALES CONTRA Y MÁS ALLÁ DE LA FORMA VALOR

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: ¿Cuál es la forma que adopta la utopía hoy? Mediante el establecimiento de una afinidad electiva entre autonomía y el principio de esperanza de Bloch, la autora de este trabajo define autonomía como 'el arte de organizar la esperanza'. Esa es una utopía concreta que desafía los parámetros de legibilidad de la realidad dada: niega, crea, entra en contradicción con, contra, y más allá del Estado, y produce un 'excedente' intraducible en el lenguaje capitalista, patriarcal y colonial. E...

  9. Sobriedade e embriaguez: a luta dos soldados de Cristo contra as festas dos tupinambás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Azevedo Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a luta dos missionários cristãos, em especial os jesuítas, contra as festas e as bebidas alcoólicas dos tupinambás. Eles perceberam que, nestas festas, a cultura tupinambá, principal obstáculo à evangelização, se renovava e se reafirmava constantemente. O artigo também explora as principais estratégias usadas pelos europeus para alcançar o objetivo de extinguir as festas dos índios.

  10. Trombosis cerebral en presencia de un inhibidor especifico contra el factor xii de la coagulación

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Betancur, Octavio; López de Goenaga, Inés

    2011-01-01

    El presente informe determina la especificidad de un inhibidor de la coagulación dirigido contra el factor XII, activador intrínseco de la fibrinólisis plasmática, en un paciente con un evento oclusivo vascular cerebral agudo de tipo trombótico, sobre un transfondo de múltiples infartos cerebrales antiguos. Se excluyó la presencia de anticoagulante lúpico mediante la prueba de neutralización de plaquetas. Como resultado de la inhibición del factor XII, se demostró la ausencia de actividad fib...

  11. Profissionais de saúde e violência intrafamiliar contra a criança e adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cristina Brandt; Sarti, Cynthia Andersen [UNIFESP; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Compreender o modo como os profissionais de saúde abordam as situações envolvidas na violência intrafamiliar contra a criança e o adolescente. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa de natureza qualitativo, na modalidade de estudo de caso, realizado com 30 profissionais de saúde. RESULTADOS: Os profissionais mostraram-se preocupados com a falta de resolução dos problemas. Revelaram que as medidas empreendidas priorizam a punição em lugar do atendimento e que a estrutura de trabalho não lhes permitia exp...

  12. Desarrollo de marcadores funcionales ligados a la resistencia genética contra la roya del café

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Guerrero, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación se orientó al desarrollo de marcadores moleculares funcionales TRAP (por Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) en Coffea arabica L. El trabajo implicó la caracterización fenotípica, la búsqueda de polimorfismo y el posterior mapeo de la resistencia contra la roya anaranjada (Hemileia vastatrix) sobre una población de 80 plantas F2 del cruzamiento entre un genotipo susceptible (var. Caturra) y uno resistente (DI.200). La evaluación fenotípica se llevó a cabo en...

  13. VIOLENCIA CONTRA LAS MUJERES EN LOS MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN. UN ESTUDIO EN LOS INFORMATIVOS DE TVE

    OpenAIRE

    Felicidad Loscertales Abril; Eduardo Fernández Jiménez; Zulaima Higazi Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis de 55 noticias de violencia contra las mujeres, seleccionadas del conjunto total de las noticias emitidas en el primer semestre de 2005 en los informativos de las dos cadenas de la televisión pública española. Aplicando la técnica del Análisis de Contenido, se hatrabajado sobre una doble base: por una parte la estructura que presentan las noticias y, por otra, el contenido del que tratan estas noticias. Con respecto a l...

  14. Mago contra falsario: un duelo de insultos entre Calvino y Servet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausiet, María

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial of the Spanish theologian and physician Miguel Servet, charged with heresy and blasphemy by the Council of Geneva in 1553, led to a long and abstruse debate between two apparently irreconcilable standpoints. In an attempt to clarify the terms of discussion on such crucial areas as the Trinity, divine immanence and the immortality of the soul, Calvin and Servet embarked on a three-day written debate (15-17 September 1553. In what ultimately became a genuine «duel to the death», what stands out, over and above the actual argumentation, is their use of insults as rhetorical weapons. Given that both adversaries were equally convinced that they were defending the «true faith», most of their attacks were aimed at demonstrating the false nature of their opponent. Thus, according to Servet, Calvin was nothing but an impostor (a latter-day «Simon Magus», while Calvin branded the Spaniard a slanderer and «falsifier».

    El proceso contra el teólogo y médico español Miguel Servet, acusado por el consistorio de Ginebra de hereje y blasfemo en 1553, dio lugar a un largo y abstruso debate teológico entre dos posturas aparentemente irreconciliables. Con la intención de clarificar los términos de la discusión acerca de temas tan cruciales como la Trinidad e inmanencia divinas, o la inmortalidad del alma, Calvino y Servet acordaron mantener una discusión por escrito en latín que duró tres días (15-17 septiembre de 1553. En el contexto de un enfrentamiento que acabó convirtiéndose en un auténtico «duelo a muerte», si algo destaca por encima de cualquier argumentación es la utilización del insulto como arma retórica. Teniendo en cuenta que ambos contendientes estaban convencidos de defender la «verdadera fe», la mayoría de las descalificaciones expresaban la idea de falsedad del contrario. De este modo, según Servet, Calvino no era sino un impostor (un nuevo «Simon Magus», mientras que éste tildó al español de

  15. COP 21: Acuerdo contra el cambio climático en Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Bulege Gutiérrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La Cumbre de París cierra un acuerdo histórico contra el cambio climático. Era la señal que muchos esperaban desde que los responsables de la mayoría de países del mundo comenzaron a discutir sobre el cambio climático hace más de dos décadas. Del mismo modo, era la señal que muchos inversores, atrapados ahora entre las dudas, querían oír para saber hacia dónde dirigir su dinero (1. El presidente francés, Fancois Hollande, manifiesta que se trata del “primer acuerdo universal de la historia de las negociaciones climáticas” y de la mejor oportunidad para “cambiar el mundo” (2, y el presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, considera que es la decisión más ambiciosa de la historia, porque “establece el marco sostenible que el mundo necesita para resolver la crisis climática” (3. Este acuerdo, definido también como convención internacional y que entrará en vigor a partir de 2020, tiene por objeto, conforme con su artículo 2, reforzar la respuesta mundial a la amenaza del cambio climático, en el contexto del desarrollo sostenible y de los esfuerzos por erradicar la pobreza, y para ello plantea: a mantener el aumento de la temperatura media mundial muy por debajo de 2 °C con respecto a los niveles preindustriales, y proseguir los esfuerzos para limitar ese aumento de la temperatura a 1,5 °C con respecto a los niveles preindustriales, reconociendo que ello reduciría considerablemente los riesgos y los efectos del cambio climático; b aumentar la capacidad de adaptación a los efectos adversos del cambio climático y promover la resiliencia al clima y un desarrollo con bajas emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, de un modo que no comprometa la producción de alimentos; y c elevar las corrientes financieras a un nivel compatible con una trayectoria que conduzca a un desarrollo resiliente al clima y con bajas emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  16. Indicações da vacina contra o papilomavirus humano Indications for human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto Manzione Nadal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que 20% da população adulta esteja contaminada pelo Papilomavírus humano (HPV e que anualmente surjam 500 mil novos casos de câncer da cérvix uterina, 70% deles em países em desenvolvimento, além de inúmeros casos de carcinoma anal, quase todos relacionados ao vírus em questão. Esses dados indicam a necessidade de reforçar a prevenção desses tumores e suas lesões precursoras, e as vacinas oferecem essa oportunidade. Dispomos de produtos que imunizam contra os tipos virais 16 e 18, mais freqüentes nos carcinomas, e 6 e 11, relacionados às verrugas anogenitais. Estão indicados em mulheres dos 11 aos 25 anos de idade desde que não tenham contato prévio com a infecção viral. Conferem imunidade superior à da imunização naturalmente adquirida, embora o tempo de duração dessa imunidade não está bem estabelecido. Por enquanto, não é indicada para homens. A vacinação não afasta a necessidade dos exames periódicos para rastreamento do câncer anogenital.Many studies estimate that 20% of people are infected by human papillomavirus (HPV worldwide, and 500.000 new cases of cervical carcinoma appear yearly, 70% in developing countries, almost all associated to this virus, as so several cases of anal carcinoma. These data indicate the necessity of reinforced screening for anogenital carcinomas and their precursors, and vaccines offer this opportunity. Nowadays, there is vaccination against viral types 16/18, the most associated to neoplasia, and 6/11 that provoke condylomas. Vaccines are indicated to women among 11 and 25 years old since they did not have previous contact with HPV. Vaccines induce immunization superior to that naturally acquired, although, its duration period is not well established. They are not yet indicated to males. Vaccination does not exclude necessity for periodical screening tests for anogenital cancer.

  17. Anticorpos contra LDL-ox e síndrome coronariana aguda Anticuerpos contra LDL-ox y síndrome coronario agudo Antibodies against OxLDL and acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Brito Medeiros

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A oxidação da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-ox induz à formação de epítopos imunogênicos na molécula. A presença de autoanticorpos contra a LDL-ox tem sido demonstrada no soro de pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Contudo, o papel desses autoanticorpos na fisiopatologia das síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA e o seu significado clínico permanecem indefinidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre autoanticorpos contra a LDL-ox e SCA. MÉTODOS: Os títulos de imunoglobulina G autoanticorpos contra a LDL-ox por cobre (antiLDL-ox e contra o peptídeo sintético D derivado da apolipoproteína B (antipeptD foram determinados por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA em 90 pacientes, nas primeiras 12h de SCA (casos e em 90 pacientes com DAC crônica (controles. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os títulos de antiLDL-ox foram significativamente mais elevados (p = 0,017 nos casos (0,40 ± 0,22, do que nos controles (0,33 ± 0,23. Por outro lado, os títulos de antipeptD foram significativamente menores (p FUNDAMENTO: La oxidación de la lipoproteína de baja densidad (LDL-ox induce a la formación de epítopos inmunogénicos en la molécula. La presencia de autoanticuerpos contra la LDL-ox ha sido demostrada en el suero de pacientes con enfermedad arterial coronaria (EAC. No obstante eso, el papel de esos autoanticuerpos en la fisiopatología de los síndromes coronarios agudos (SCA y su significado clínico permanecen indefinidos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre autoanticuerpos contra la LDL-ox y SCA. MÉTODOS: Los títulos de inmunoglobulina G autoanticuerpos contra la LDL-ox por cobre (antiLDL-ox y contra el péptido sintético D derivado de la apolipoproteína B (antipeptD fueron determinados por ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA en 90 pacientes, en las primeras 12h de SCA (casos y en 90 pacientes con EAC crónica (controles. RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron que los títulos de antiLDL-ox fueron

  18. Study on the Fermentation Technology of Aimple Oxygen Ventilation of Agaricus bisporus Substrate%双孢蘑菇培养料简易通气增氧发酵技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文捷; 贾培松; 管建华; 郝敬; 罗影; 努尔孜亚·亚力买买提; 魏鹏; 赛力克·阿克孜木别克

    2016-01-01

    Objective]In order to provide technical support for improving production and efficiency of Agaricus bisporus,the fermentation technology of simple oxygen ventilation of Agaricus bisporus substrate were developed to improve the technical level of fermentation of the small scale farming cultivation.[Method]De-vices of simple oxygen ventilation and double plastic film covering were used to treat the Agaricus bisporus sub-strate.[Result]The fermentation technology of simple oxygen ventilation could reduce the area of anaerobic fermentation,maintain the temperature and humidity of substrate pile,promote the growth of actinomycetes, ensure the homogeneity and stability of fermentation and improve the effect of fermentation,shorten the fer-mentation time of 3 to 5 days and increase the area of actinomycetes of 6 1%.[Conclusion]Simple ventilation oxygen fermentation technology has the advantages of simple operation,low cost,which effectively improved the fermentation quality and efficiency of the double spore mushroom culture medium and it is so suitable for the small scale farming cultivation of Agaricus bisporus that it must have a good application potential.%【目的】开发双孢蘑菇培养料简易通气增氧发酵技术,以提高双孢蘑菇小规模农法栽培培养料发酵水平,为双孢蘑菇增产增效提供技术支撑。【方法】采用简易通气发酵装备,辅之以全覆盖双层塑料膜,对双孢蘑菇培养料进行发酵处理,检测和分析培养料发酵效果。【结果】简易通气增氧发酵技术缩小了料堆厌氧区面积,提高了料堆保温保湿性,促进了放线菌生长,保障了发酵的均一性和稳定性,提高了培养料发酵效果,与常规方法相比可以缩短发酵时间3~5 d,放线菌层面积提高60.19%。【结论】简易通气增氧发酵技术操作简便、成本低廉,并有效提高了双孢蘑菇培养料发酵质量和效率,适宜双孢蘑菇小规模农法栽培

  19. An expanded genetic linkage map of an intervarietal Agaricus bisporus var. bisporusxA. bisporus var. burnettii hybrid based on AFLP, SSR and CAPS markers sheds light on the recombination behaviour of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Spataro, Cathy; Cathalot, Vincent; Monllor, Sarah; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2010-03-01

    A genetic linkage map for the edible basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus was constructed from 118 haploid homokaryons derived from an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus x A. bisporus var. burnettii hybrid. Two hundred and thirty-one AFLP, 21 SSR, 68 CAPS markers together with the MAT, BSN, PPC1 loci and one allozyme locus (ADH) were evenly spread over 13 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosomes of A. bisporus. The map covers 1156cM, with an average marker spacing of 3.9cM and encompasses nearly the whole genome. The average number of crossovers per chromosome per individual is 0.86. Normal recombination over the entire genome occurs in the heterothallic variety, burnettii, contrary to the homothallic variety, bisporus, which showed adaptive genome-wide suppressed recombination. This first comprehensive genetic linkage map for A. bisporus provides foundations for quantitative trait analyses and breeding programme monitoring, as well as genome organisation studies.

  20. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple time-of-flight with MS(E) technology used for qualitative analysis of non-volatile oxidation markers in sliced packed mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-02-05

    61 different non-volatile compounds were determined in Agaricus Bisporus sliced mushrooms using UHPLC/Q-TOF with MS(E) technology. Both positive and negative electrospray ionization were applied. Chemical profile of three parts of mushroom was created: cap, gills and stipe. The analysed mushrooms were oxidized to identify the non-volatile markers in their parts. MarkerLynx(®) was proposed as a powerful tool to distinguish mushrooms purchased in different countries (Spain and Portugal) by determining their non-volatile markers. Some metabolites were identified. Surprisingly a mix of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) was detected in cap and gills of mushrooms. Whole mushrooms were considered as vegetable resistant to migration from packaging compounds. Additionally migration tests were performed to determine the source of migrating compounds.