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Sample records for ag-fe system japanese

  1. Epitaxial Cu(001) films grown on a Cr/Ag/Fe/GaAs(001) buffer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a procedure to prepare single-crystalline, high-purity Cu(001) films (templates) suitable as substrates for subsequent epitaxial thin-film growth. The template films were grown in a dedicated molecular-beam epitaxy system on a Cr/Ag/Fe/GaAs(001) buffer layer system. Low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction were applied to determine the surface orientation and the epitaxial relationship between all layers of the stack. Post-annealing at moderate temperatures enhances the quality of the film as shown by low-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopy confirm that no atoms of the buffer layers diffuse into the Cu film during the initial preparation and the post-annealing treatment. The completed Cu(001) template system can be exposed to air and afterwards refurbished by Ar+-ion bombardment and annealing, enabling the transfer between vacuum systems. The procedure provides suitable conductive thin film templates for studies of epitaxial thin films, e.g. on the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Co and Ni based films and multilayers. - Highlights: • Preparation of epitaxial Cu(001) template films on an insulating substrate • Characterization of template structure, orientation, cleanness, and roughness • Template films can be exposed to air and refurbished in different vacuum system. • Template films are suitable for further thin film growth at up to 570 K

  2. Comp ositionally Graded Microstructure for Ag-Fe Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandan Srivastava∗; K. V. L. Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Ag-Fe nanoparticles with a highly Ag rich average composition were synthesized by the sono-chemical route. Silver-iron system exhibits a wide miscibility gap in the bulk materials. Interestingly, a graded compositional profile along the nanoparticle radius was observed. Regions at and near the surface of the nanoparticle contained both Ag and Fe atoms. The composition got relatively deficient Fe towards the center of the particle with particle core made up of pure Ag. Alloying of Ag and Fe is confirmed by the absence of diffraction signal corresponding to pure Fe phase and presence of a paramagnetic phase in nanoparticles containing a diamagnetic (Ag) and ferromagnetic (Fe) elements.

  3. Structure of Ag, Fe and Ge microclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structures of Ag, Fe and Ge microclusters were determined using EXAFS. The measurements were performed over a wide range of clusters sizes. The clusters were prepared using the gas aggregation technique and isolated in solid argon at 4.2 K. The measurements were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at beam line X-18B. A strong contraction of the interatomic distances was observed for Ag dimers and multimers. Silver clusters larger than 12 A mean diameter show a small contraction of the nn distance and a structure consistent with an fcc lattice. By contrast clusters smaller than 12 A show the presence of a small expansion and a strong reduction or absence of nnn in the EXAFS signal. This points towards a different crystallographic structure for Ag microclusters with diameter less than 12 A. In iron clusters we observe a gradual reduction of the nn distance as the cluster size decreases. The interatomic distance for iron dimers was determined to be 1.94 A, in good agreement with earlier measurements. The iron microclusters show a bcc structure down to a mean diameter of 9 A. Iron clusters with 9 A mean diameter show a structure inconsistent with a bcc lattice. The new structure is consistent with an fcc or hcp lattice. The measurements on Ge clusters show the presence of only nearest neighbors. There was clear evidence of temporal annealing as determined by variations in the near edge structure of the K-absorption edge. Absorption edge measurements were also performed for free Ge clusters travelling perpendicular to the direction of the synchrotron radiation beam. The measurements performed on the free clusters were consistent with those obtained for matrix isolated clusters. (orig.)

  4. Fabrication of Ag, FeNi, Cu Thin Film for Magnetic Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been fabricated a Ag, FeNi, Cu thin film by sputtering method. The thin film material is deposited on the glass substrate heated from 100 oC to 400 oC having dimensions of 2.5 x 1 cm2. The sputtering time of Ag, FeNi and Cu materials are 10 minutes respectively operating voltage is 2.5 kV and electrode distance 2.5 cm. The FeNi material is alloy having ratio 70% : 30%, that is the best composition formed by previous observer. On the glass substrate, there are four layers such as: the first is FeNi, second Cu, third FeNi, and the fourth, Ag. During the sputtering process the power was 40 Watts (2 kV, 20 mA). The thin film Ag, FeNi, CuFeNi was varied for variation of sputtering to get the optimum conditions of parameter process. From the sputtering result, it was produced thin films having resistivity Ro in range of 5 to 48 Ohm (magnetron operating varied magnetic field). To measure resistance influenced the external magnetic field the thin film yields was put on the external magnetic field included four points probe system. The result showed that there was some changes of the resistances (Ro - R)/ Ro % between 10 to 14 % with error 7 - 10 %. (author)

  5. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…

  6. Thermal spikes in Ag/Fe and Cu/Fe ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam mixing has been studied since 1980, and since then a lot of experimental and theoretical work has been done and knowledge has been gathered. Nevertheless, there are still many fundamental aspects that need to be clarified and with that aim many experiments need to be performed. Copper and iron are miscible in the liquid state, while silver and iron are not. However, both systems are thermally immiscible in the solid state. In order to have an insight into the importance of mixing within thermal spikes during ion beam irradiation, we deposited Cu/Fe and Ag/Fe bilayers onto Si substrates and irradiated them at room temperature with 2 MeV Cu and 2.5 MeV Au ions. A combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the atomic transport at the interface and the morphology changes of the samples. From the element profiles at the interface we conclude a mixing efficiency, which is indeed larger than the prediction of the ballistic model in the Cu/Fe system and smaller in the Ag/Fe system. Since ballistic mixing is expected in any case, we argue that demixing and phase separation in the Ag/Fe system occur in the thermal spike phase of the cascade as a consequence of the positive heat of mixing. Further mixing does occur in the thermal spike in the Cu/Fe system and they remain mixed even at the solid state because of the high cooling rate. In addition, ion irradiation induces a large surface roughening of the Ag and Cu top layers as proven by AFM. This effect is important for the correct interpretation of the results. Furthermore, this recrystallization affects also the interface, producing a rough interface, that appears in the RBS spectra as an atomic 'diffusion' at the interface

  7. The Japanese Education System is a Failure, Say Some Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1997-01-01

    A Japanese editorial in an English-language daily harshly criticized Japanese education's failure to enhance students' spirit of independence; develop critical and artistic thinking skills; and promote social awareness and an international viewpoint. The United States finished fourth out of 60 in the (unpublicized) International Math Olympiad.…

  8. Synthesis and crystal structure of the quaternary compound AgFe{sub 2}GaTe{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Gerzon E., E-mail: gerzon@ula.ve [Laboratorio de Cristalografía, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Quintero, Eugenio; Tovar, Rafael; Grima-Gallardo, Pedro; Quintero, Miguel [Centro de Estudio de Semiconductores, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • New quaternary compound. • Synthesis from solid state reaction. • Crystal structure. • Rietveld refinement. - Abstract: The crystal structure of the quaternary compound AgFe{sub 2}GaTe{sub 4}, belonging to the system I–II{sub 2}–III–VI{sub 4}, was characterized by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data. The powder pattern was composed by 84.5% of the principal phase AgFe{sub 2}GaTe{sub 4} and 15.5% of the secondary phase FeTe. This material crystallizes with stannite structure in the tetragonal space group I-42m (N° 121), Z = 2, unit cell parameters a = 6.3409(2) Å, c = 12.0233(4) Å, V = 483.42(3) Å{sup 3}, and is isostructural with CuFe{sub 2}InSe{sub 4}.

  9. Structural changes in Ag, Fe, Mn, and Ge microclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the structures of Ag, Fe, Mn, and Ge microclusters determined using EXAFS. The measurements were performed over a wide range of clusters sizes. The clusters were prepared using the gas aggregation technique and isolated in solid argon at 4.2 K. A strong contraction of the interatomic distances was observed for Ag dimers and multimers. Silver clusters larger than 17 Angstrom mean diameter show a small contraction of the nn distance and structure consistent with an fcc lattice. By contrast smaller clusters show the presence of a small expansion and a strong reduction or absence of nnn in the EXAFS signal. This points towards a different crystallographic structure for Ag microclusters

  10. USABILITY TESTING OF JAPANESE CAPTIONS SEGMENTATION SYSTEM TO SCAFFOLD BEGINNERS TO COMPREHEND JAPANESE VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A major learning difficulty of Japanese foreign language (JFL learners is the complex composition of two syllabaries, hiragana and katakana, and kanji characters adopted from logographic Chinese ones. As the number of Japanese language learners increases, computer-assisted Japanese language education gradually gains more attention. This study aimed to adopt a Japanese word segmentation system to help JFL learners overcome literacy problems. This study adopted MeCab, a Japanese morphological analyzer and part-of-speech (POS tagger, to segment Japanese texts into separate morphemes by adding spaces and to attach POS tags to each morpheme for beginners. The participants were asked to participate in three experimental activities involvingwatching two Japanese videos with general or segmented Japanese captions and complete the Nielsen’s Attributes of Usability (NAU survey and the After Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ to evaluate the usability of the learning activities. The results of the system evaluation showed that the videos with the segmented captions could increase the participants’ learning motivation and willingness to adopt the word segmentation system to learn Japanese.

  11. Formation of AgFeO2, α-FeOOH, and Ag2O from mixed Fe(NO3)3-AgNO3 solutions at high pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2013-07-01

    Precipitation of ternary oxide silver ferrite (AgFeO2), iron oxyhydroxide goethite (α-FeOOH) and silver(I) oxide (Ag2O) from mixed Fe(NO3)3-AgNO3 solutions in a whole [Ag+]:[Fe3+] concentration ratio range at high pH was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauer, FT-IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopies and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Strong alkalis organic tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) or inorganic NaOH were used as precipitating agents. Monodispersed lath-like α-FeOOH particles were formed from a pure Fe(NO3)3 solution. The presence of Ag+ ions influenced the formation of the delafossite-type ternary oxide AgFeO2 beside α-FeOOH. The positions of XRD and Mössbauer lines did not suggest any significant incorporation of Ag+ ions into the α-FeOOH structure. AgFeO2 was formed in the precipitation system with the equimolar initial [Ag+]:[Fe3+] concentration ratio. The size and shape of AgFeO2 particles, as well as their structural polytype (2H or 3R), were dependent on reaction temperature, aging time and alkali used. In systems with an excess of Ag+ ions mixtures of AgFeO2 and Ag2O were formed. Single phase Ag2O precipitated from a pure AgNO3 solution.

  12. Japanese Marketing As An Interaction System

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, N CG

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of Japanese marketing are best explained by a framework in which Japanese marketers interact, with customers, competitors and company members to achieve innovation, partnership and market position. The processes and mechanisms which the Japanese use lead to strengths in both strategy formulation and marketing practice.

  13. Japanese educational system and competitiveness in children (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the aspects of Japanese child development, Japanese family education, and preschool educational system were discussed. Approximately, 93 percent of the children attend at least 2 years of pre-elementary education (2001). At the foundation of Japanese children's self-discipline there are several practices: (a) Children help shape classroom rules and norms, (b) build their identification with authority, (c) reflect on their behavior, (d) and such reflection may build an enduring ...

  14. Combinatorial magnetron sputtering of AgFeO2 thin films with the delafossite structure

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Fang; Nyberg, Tomas; Thersleff, Thomas; Andersson, Annam.; Jansson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the strength of the combinatorial approach to rapidly and effectively identify suitable process parameters for the synthesis of AgFeO2 filmswith layered delafossite structure. (00l)- textured delafossite AgFeO2 thin films have been successfully deposited for the first time without post-annealing by magnetron sputtering from elemental silver and iron targets in a reactive Ar-O-2 atmosphere. Gradient filmswith a wide composition range were depo...

  15. Japanese Learning Support Systems: Hinoki Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we introduce the Hinoki project, which set out to develop web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL systems for Japanese language learners more than a decade ago. Utilizing Natural Language Processing technologies and other linguistic resources, the project has come to encompass three systems, two corpora and many other resources. Beginning with the reading assistance system Asunaro, we describe the construction of Asunaro's multilingual dictionary and it's dependency grammar-based approach to reading assistance. The second system, Natsume, is a writing assistance system that uses large-scale corpora to provide an easy to use collocation search feature that is interesting for it's inclusion of the concept of genre. The final system, Nutmeg, is an extension of Natsume and the Natane learner corpus. It provides automatic correction of learners errors in compositions by using Natsume for its large corpus and genre-aware collocation data and Natane for its data on learner errors.-----V poročilu predstavljamo projekt Hinoki, ki je bil zastavljen pred več kot desetimi leti za izdelavo spletnih sistemov za računalniško podprto učenje japonščine kot tujega jezika. Z uporabo jezikovnih tehnologij in drugih jezikovnih virov so bili v okviru projekta razviti trije sistemi, dva korpusa in veliko drugih virov. V nadaljevanju predstavljamo sistem Asunaro za podporo branju, izgradnjo njegovega večjezičnega slovarja in pristop k podpori branju, ki sloni na odvisnostni slovnici; sistem za podporo pisanju Natsume s preprostim vmesnikom za iskanje žanrsko določenih kolokacij v obsežnih korpusih; ter sistem Nutmeg za samodejno popravljanje napak. Nutmeg je nadgradnja sistema Natsume in učnega korpusa Natane, ponuja samodejno popravljanje napak med samim pisanjem z uporabo žanrsko določenih kolokacijskih informacij iz obsežnih korpusov preko sistema Natsume in informacij o napakah piscev, ki se učijo japonščine kot tujega

  16. Can the Japanese Change Their Education System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Roger, Ed.; Phillips, David, Ed.

    The nine papers included in this book are: "The Why, What and How of Educational Reform in Japan" (Roger Goodman); "Why Reform Japanese Education?" (William K. Cummings); "Destruction and Reconstruction: A Comparative Analysis of the Education Reform in Japan and Germany under the U.S. Military Occupation After World War Two" (Masako Shibata);…

  17. Facile synthesis of nano silver ferrite (AgFeO{sub 2}) modified with chitosan applied for biothiol separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Assuit University, Assuit 71515 (Egypt); Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hwu@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Doctoral Degree Program of Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University and Academia Sinica, Kaohsiung 804,Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Silver iron oxide nanoparticles (AgFeO{sub 2} NPs) with narrow size distribution have been synthesized, characterized and was applied for biothiols separation. AgFeO{sub 2} and AgFeO{sub 2} modified chitosan (AgFeO{sub 2}@CTS NPs) were synthesized using a hydrothermal method and then characterized by electron microscopy (transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Different biological thiols (dithiothreitol, glutathione, thiabendazole, and sulfamethizole) were investigated and characterized using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI–MS) and surface assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI–MS). The new material displays dual functionality; 1) for separation and 2) can be served as the matrices for SALDI–MS. Data showed a clear background in the case of nanomaterials compared to conventional matrices (mefenamic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) for MALDI–MS). - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of AgFeO{sub 2} and AgFeO{sub 2}@chitosan has been reported • Surface modification of AgFeO{sub 2} with chitosan was presented • Applications for biothiols were investigated using mass spectrometry • Novel application as surface for SALDI-MS were successfully reported.

  18. An Empirical Analysis of the Recycling System of Waste Products in the Japanese Economy (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Shimizu; Mikio Suga; Takashi Saito; Masahide Hayashida; Toshiyuki Tanabe; Kazuyoshi Nakata

    2004-01-01

    1. Purpose The purpose of this study is to design the system of recycling based society which "the Basic Law for Establishing the Recycling- based Society" aims, and construct an econometric model of Japanese economy in which resource recycling processes or activities are explicitly introduced. Furthermore, we will propose some simulations of promoting recycling of iron scrap, glass bottle, aluminum ingot, waste paper and PET resin. 2. Background There are quality gaps between products made f...

  19. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposites synthesized using starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaseminezhad, Seyedeh Masumeh; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2016-06-25

    Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a facile and cost-effective method using starch. Starch acts as both a biocompatible capping agent for Fe3O4 nanoparticles and a reducing agent for the reduction of silver ions in an alkaline medium. Samples were characterized using several analytical techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometer revealed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic. The Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposites demonstrated a high-antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli as evaluated by means of minimum inhibitory concentration. The characteristics and antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites were significantly influenced by the concentration of silver nitrate and pH. PMID:27083838

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Ag/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} electromagnetic shielding particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shichuan; Zhou, Zunning, E-mail: zzn@bit.edu.cn; Zhang, Tonglai; Jiang, Guotao; Su, Ruyi

    2014-05-01

    Ag/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-composites are synthesized by electroless silver plating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscope, magnetic measurement equipment and vector network analyzer. They show the silver layer coated on the surface of the particles successfully, and which can enhance the dielectricity and permeability properties of the ferromagnetic particles. The dielectric loss values of the composites are more than 1.0 in the almost whole test frequency range and the imaginary part of permeability of Ag/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is higher than real part in 2–5 GHz. The value of H{sub c} is increased to 165.2 Oe due to the extended relaxation time of magnetic domain deflection of the magnetic powders which covered by silver layer. And the calculated microwave loss is more than 20 dB in the whole frequency range. As a result, the Ag/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-composites are expected to be used as electromagnetic shielding particle material in multiband smoke agent. - Highlights: • Due to the decoration of silver nano-particles, the inorganic magnetic composite particle shows excellent dielectric loss in the almost whole test frequency range and good magnetic loss at 2 GHz to 5 GHz, especially the particle also has infrared reflection characteristic. • The well-performed obstacle Ag/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles will be expected to be used as electromagnetic shielding particles in multiband smoke agent to improve the IR and electromagnetic interference performance of the smoke screen.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Ag/Fe3O4 electromagnetic shielding particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ag/Fe3O4 nano-composites are synthesized by electroless silver plating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscope, magnetic measurement equipment and vector network analyzer. They show the silver layer coated on the surface of the particles successfully, and which can enhance the dielectricity and permeability properties of the ferromagnetic particles. The dielectric loss values of the composites are more than 1.0 in the almost whole test frequency range and the imaginary part of permeability of Ag/Fe3O4 is higher than real part in 2–5 GHz. The value of Hc is increased to 165.2 Oe due to the extended relaxation time of magnetic domain deflection of the magnetic powders which covered by silver layer. And the calculated microwave loss is more than 20 dB in the whole frequency range. As a result, the Ag/Fe3O4 nano-composites are expected to be used as electromagnetic shielding particle material in multiband smoke agent. - Highlights: • Due to the decoration of silver nano-particles, the inorganic magnetic composite particle shows excellent dielectric loss in the almost whole test frequency range and good magnetic loss at 2 GHz to 5 GHz, especially the particle also has infrared reflection characteristic. • The well-performed obstacle Ag/Fe3O4 particles will be expected to be used as electromagnetic shielding particles in multiband smoke agent to improve the IR and electromagnetic interference performance of the smoke screen

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Ag/Fe3O4 electromagnetic shielding particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shichuan; Zhou, Zunning; Zhang, Tonglai; Jiang, Guotao; Su, Ruyi

    2014-05-01

    Ag/Fe3O4 nano-composites are synthesized by electroless silver plating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscope, magnetic measurement equipment and vector network analyzer. They show the silver layer coated on the surface of the particles successfully, and which can enhance the dielectricity and permeability properties of the ferromagnetic particles. The dielectric loss values of the composites are more than 1.0 in the almost whole test frequency range and the imaginary part of permeability of Ag/Fe3O4 is higher than real part in 2-5 GHz. The value of Hc is increased to 165.2 Oe due to the extended relaxation time of magnetic domain deflection of the magnetic powders which covered by silver layer. And the calculated microwave loss is more than 20 dB in the whole frequency range. As a result, the Ag/Fe3O4 nano-composites are expected to be used as electromagnetic shielding particle material in multiband smoke agent.

  3. Bifunctional Ag/Fe/N/C Catalysts for Enhancing Oxygen Reduction via Cathodic Biofilm Inhibition in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Chan, Yingzi; Jiang, Baojiang; Wang, Lei; Zou, Jinlong; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2016-03-23

    Limitation of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (SC-MFCs) is considered an important hurdle in achieving their practical application. The cathodic catalysts faced with a liquid phase are easily primed with the electrolyte, which provides more surface area for bacterial overgrowth, resulting in the difficulty in transporting protons to active sites. Ag/Fe/N/C composites prepared from Ag and Fe-chelated melamine are used as antibacterial ORR catalysts for SC-MFCs. The structure-activity correlations for Ag/Fe/N/C are investigated by tuning the carbonization temperature (600-900 °C) to clarify how the active-constituents of Ag/Fe and N-species influence the antibacterial and ORR activities. A maximum power density of 1791 mW m(-2) is obtained by Ag/Fe/N/C (630 °C), which is far higher than that of Pt/C (1192 mW m(-2)), only having a decline of 16.14% after 90 days of running. The Fe-bonded N and the cooperation of pyridinic N and pyrrolic N in Ag/Fe/N/C contribute equally to the highly catalytic activity toward ORR. The ·OH or O2(-) species originating from the catalysis of O2 can suppress the biofilm growth on Ag/Fe/N/C cathodes. The synergistic effects between the Ag/Fe heterojunction and N-species substantially contribute to the high power output and Coulombic efficiency of Ag/Fe/N/C catalysts. These new antibacterial ORR catalysts show promise for application in MFCs. PMID:26938657

  4. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: risk factors suggested from Japanese published cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Y; Kanal, E; Thomsen, H S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the published cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in Japan. The Japanese medical literature database and MedLine were searched using the keywords NSF and nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (January 2000 to March 2009). Reports in peer-reviewed journals...

  5. Transferability of Japanese Management Systems Overseas: A theoretical jungle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Bruijn, de Erik J.; Boer, de Sirp; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Trimble, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, transferability of Japanese management systems (JMSs) abroad has become an increasing focus of research. However, the conclusions emerging from studies in this field have been conflicting. The main reasons for discordance have been the use of vague definitions of terms and varying m

  6. The Japanese Economic System under the Global Crisis: Change and Continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Mizobata

    2009-01-01

    The current Japanese economy has continued to grow, albeit at a low rate, through the drastic changes in the Japanese economic system. The global crisis has seriously affected the Japanese economy, despite it causing only slight damage to the banking sector. The current global economic crisis will have far-reaching consequences on the economic system and structure. In this study, the economic characteristics following the bubble economy and the sustainability of the Japanese economic system a...

  7. Development of structured employment systems in Japanese department stores in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, M.M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The study is undertaken with an intent to understand the development of structured employment systems within Japanese retail companies overseas. A majority of existing studies on Japanese international management focus on national origins as a major source of the core-periphery distinction within Japanese companies overseas. In addition, the structured employment systems model incorporates skills, profession, hierarchy, employment status and gender as well. The four Japanese companies employ ...

  8. Quality assurance and evaluation system in japanese higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mami Yamaguchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we aim to contribute to the debate over accountability and assessment of higher education (HE by introducing the Japanese system. We first discuss the circumstances and issues surrounding Japanese HE and then examine the historical development of the quality assurance and evaluation system. Since the 1990s, with the implementation of policies that focused on liberalization, deregulation and increased institutional autonomy, the role of the government has shifted from setting strict regulations and quality standards to organizing an evaluation system for assessing the learning outcomes and improving accountability of the HE institutions. Finally, we suggest how Japan may take hints from Brazil in organizing an evaluation system on a national level that can more efficiently support and assess HE institutions

  9. Japanese Invasion Baffled Radically the Modernization of China's Judicial System

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Qiu; Keke Liu

    2009-01-01

    It is the critical time for China to generate and develop the modern judicial system when Japan invaded. Japanese aggression interrupted China’s recovering its legal right and the process to promote the modern judicial system. The invasion brought a great loss to the judicial resources. The relatively stable colonial rule, as well as the war itself, was harmful. Both stood on the way of China's judicial modernization.

  10. Magnetic hyperthermia in brick-like Ag@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brollo, M. E. F.; Orozco-Henao, J. M.; López-Ruiz, R.; Muraca, D.; Dias, C. S. B.; Pirota, K. R.; Knobel, M.

    2016-01-01

    Heating efficiency of multifunctional Ag@Fe3O4 brick-like nanoparticles under alternating magnetic field was investigated by means of specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements, and compared with equivalent measurements for plain magnetite and dimer heteroparticles. The samples were synthesized by thermal decomposition reactions and present narrow size polydispersity and high degree of crystallinity. The SAR values are analyzed using the superparamagnetic theory, in which the basic morphology, size and dispersion of sizes play key roles. The results suggest that these novel brick-like nanoparticles are good candidates for hyperthermia applications, displaying heating efficiencies comparable with the most efficient plain nanoparticles.

  11. Preparation of Cu, Ag, Fe and Al nanoparticles by the exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sen; Joyee Ghosh; Alqudami Abdullah; Prashant Kumar; Vandana

    2003-10-01

    We describe a novel process for the production of nanoparticles of Cu, Ag, Fe and Al which involves exploding their respective wires, triggered by large current densities in the wires. The particles are characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Particle sizes in the range 20-100nm were obtained employing this technique. The XRD results reveal that the nanoparticles continue to retain lattice periodicity at reduced particle sizes, displaying in some cases evidence of lattice strain and preferential orientation. In the case of Fe, Mossbauer spectroscopy reveals loss of ferromagnetism as a result of the reduced size of the particles.

  12. Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira

    2013-07-01

    The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan. PMID:25049870

  13. Product Architecture as a Coordination System (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OKUNO (FUJIWARA) Masahiro; Watanabe, Yasunori

    2006-01-01

    Baldwin and Clark (2000) brought the substantial attention to the concept of product architecture. This concept, particularly the concept of module architecture, defines a product system as a "coordination system," taking the viewpoint that a product system is an object that is used by human users or developed by human developers. In this paper, product architecture is defined as a design concept for a product system that calls for complex part-to-part coordination in order to fulfill the use...

  14. Rapid degradation of hexachlorobenzene by micron Ag/Fe bimetal particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqin Nie; Jianguo Liu; Xianwei Zeng; Dongbei Yue

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of the rapid degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by micron-size silver (Ag)/iron (Fe) particles was investigated.Ag/Fe particles with different ratios (0,0.05%,0.09%,0.20%,and 0.45%) were prepared by electroless silver plating on 300 mesh Fe powder,and were used to degrade HCB at different pH values and temperatures.The dechlorination ability of Fe greatly increased with small Ag addition,whereas too much added Ag would cover the Fe surface and reduce the effective reaction surface,thereby decreasing the extent of dechlorination.The optimal Ag/Fe ratio was 0.09%.Tafel polarization curves showed that HCB was rapidly degraded at neutral or acidic pH,whereas low pH levels severely intensified H2 production,which consumed the reducing electrons needed for the HCB degradation.HCB degradation was more sensitive to temperature than pH.The rate constant of HCB dechlorination was 0.452 min-1 at 85℃,50 times higher than that at 31℃.HCB was degraded in a successive dechlorination pathway,yielding the main products 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene within 2 hr.

  15. Rapid degradation of hexachlorobenzene by micron Ag/Fe bimetal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaoqin; Liu, Jianguo; Zeng, Xianwei; Yue, Dongbei

    2013-03-01

    The feasibility of the rapid degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by micron-size silver (Ag)/iron (Fe) particles was investigated. Ag/Fe particles with different ratios (0, 0.05%, 0.09%, 0.20%, and 0.45%) were prepared by electroless silver plating on 300 mesh Fe powder, and were used to degrade HCB at different pH values and temperatures. The dechlorination ability of Fe greatly increased with small Ag addition, whereas too much added Ag would cover the Fe surface and reduce the effective reaction surface, thereby decreasing the extent of dechlorination. The optimal Ag/Fe ratio was 0.09%. Tafel polarization curves showed that HCB was rapidly degraded at neutral or acidic pH, whereas low pH levels severely intensified H2 production, which consumed the reducing electrons needed for the HCB degradation. HCB degradation was more sensitive to temperature than pH. The rate constant of HCB dechlorination was 0.452 min- at 85 degrees C, 50 times higher than that at 31 degrees C. HCB was degraded in a successive dechlorination pathway, yielding the main products 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene within 2 hr. PMID:23923419

  16. Structure and magnetic properties of AgFeP2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AgFeP2O7 has been synthesized by flux crystallization and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (sp. gr. P21/c, a=7.3298(2), b=7.9702(2), c=9.5653(2) A, β=111.842(1)o, V=518.68(2) A3) and FTIR-spectroscopy. The structure is composed of isolated iron octahedra and phosphate tetrahedra interconnected into 3D network with hexagonal channels, where silver counter-ions are located. The magnetic behavior of the compound approaches the Curie-Weiss equation with a Weiss constant θ=-165.9 K indicating strong antiferromagnetic interaction between iron(III) ions. - Graphical abstract: AgFeP2O7 synthesized by flux crystallization is composed of isolated iron octahedra and phosphate tetrahedra interconnected into 3D network with hexagonal channels, where silver counter-ions are located. The compound approaches the Curie-Weiss equation with a Weiss constant θ=-165.9 K exhibiting antiferromagnetic interactions due to magnetically isolated high-spin iron(III).

  17. Optimization of control area ventilation systems for Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plant has been required to reduce the cost for the purpose of making the low-cost energy since several years ago in Japan. The Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning system in the nuclear power plant has been also required to reduce its cost. On the other hand the ventilation system should add the improvable function according to the advanced plant design. In response to these different requirements, the ventilation criteria and the design of the ventilation system have been evaluated and optimized in Japanese PWR Plant design. This paper presents the findings of the authors' study

  18. Reading Tutor, A Reading Support System for Japanese Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko KAWAMURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives an overview of the tools and materials included in the Japanese language reading tutorial system Reading Tutor and the multilingual lexicographical project Reading Tutor Web Dictionary, and discusses their possible uses both for Japanese language instruction and to support autonomous language learning. The paper further presents one particular use of these tools and resources for the development of learning materials for foreign candidates to the Japanese certified care worker national examination, and concludes with suggestions for effective guidance geared at fostering autonomous vocabulary learning.-----Članek predstavlja orodja in gradiva v sistemu za podporo branju v japonščini Reading Tutor in v večjezičnem slovarskem projektu Reading Tutor Web Dictionary ter njihovo možno uporabo tako za poučevanje japonščine kot tudi za podporo samostojnemu jezikovnemu učenju. Nadalje predstavlja konkreten primer uporabe teh orodij in virov za izdelavo učnega gradiva za tuje kandidate, ki se pripravljajo na japonski državni izpit za zdravstvene delavce. V zaključku predlaga nekaj pedagoških pristopov za učinkovito podporo samostojnemu učenju besedišča.

  19. Study of Japanese electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the Japanese MLU magnetic-levitation (maglev) system. The development of the MLU system is reviewed, and the dynamic circuit model then is introduced and applied to the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system. Three different types of figure-eight-shaped null-flux suspension systems are discussed in detail: (1) the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system without cross-connection; (2) the combined suspension and guidance system; and (3) the combined propulsion, levitation, and guidance system. The electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems developed in Japan seem to be very promising and could result in a commercial application in the near future.

  20. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: risk factors suggested from Japanese published cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Y; Kanal, E; Thomsen, H S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the published cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in Japan. The Japanese medical literature database and MedLine were searched using the keywords NSF and nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (January 2000 to March 2009). Reports in peer-reviewed journals...... and meeting abstracts were included, and cases with biopsy confirmation were selected. 14 biopsy-verified NSF cases were found. In seven of eight patients reported after the association between gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) and NSF was proposed, GBCA administration was documented: five received only...

  1. The Japanese system of learning from events and related feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average annual reactor scram rate of Japan's 47 LWRs in 1994 was 0.06 times per reactor-year, and the average annual incidents and failures (hereafter called 'events') occurrence rate was 0.4 cases per reactor-year. One of the most important factors contributing to such an excellent operating performance is the perfect feedback of lessons learned from each of the events, circulated to all plants as Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) administrative guidance. Another important contributing factor is intensive preventive maintenance. This feedback process has become more effective because it is followed by a second process which is carried out by utilities. The second process includes modifications of equipment to prevent any potential failure which can be foreseen from past events in domestic or foreign plants. In order to evaluate the effects of these processes on the mitigation of ageing. Japanese events which include degradation of components were selected, and the relationship between their occurrence date and the elapsed years since the first commercial operation of the relevant plant was analysed. The result of this analysis showed no notable symptoms of plant ageing even when more than 20 years had elapsed. This indicates that the Japanese system of learning from events and the related feedback also works as a side effects in preventing ageing phenomena of plants. (author). 4 figs

  2. The dilemma for Japanese students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students.......The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students....

  3. Information Systems for the Museum of Japanese History, Archaeology and Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terui, Takehiko

    General idea and outline of museums of Japanese history, archaeology and folklore are introduced, and the relationship between exhibits and information in them is described. Then the information systems of these museums are explained in some detail. As an example, the author describes the information systems for the museum of Japanese history, archaeology and folklore by comparing the computer system with the traditional manual system. Japanese language processing and image handling derived from the systems are also described. Significance and problems of nationwide information network linking these museums each other, and problems of staffs in the information sections are mentioned.

  4. Improved annunciator system for Japanese PWRs: Functions and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved annunciator system has been developed for Japanese PWRs. The major achievement is the development of alarm suppression functions which resolve the alarm avalanche, one of the critical human factors problems in nuclear power plant control room design. The system dynamically categorizes an alarm into one of three information groups, using simple physical and/or logical rules independent of any prescribed transient/accident scenarios: In order of priority, they are 'alarm information', 'caution information', and 'normal status information'. In this system, items categorized as 'caution' or 'normal status' are considered 'suppressed'. A full scale prototype system consisting of alarm facias and CRT message text displays was developed and implemented on a full scale replica control board. With the use of a real-time plant simulator and the participation of utility operators, a dynamic validation test was conducted. It emerged that (i) the suppression rate is well in excess of 80% after safety injection and also in the event of loss of an electrical source (i.e. blackout), and (ii) the number of 'alarm information' warnings displayed in a short period of time is always kept very low, leading to significant improvements of operator performance in (iii) secondary malfunction detection time, (iv) the frequency of alarm utilization, and (v) the frequency of successful operational responses. Applications to actual power plants are discussed. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Nuclear whistleblower protection system in U.S. and its implication to Japanese regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear whistleblower protection system in U.S.A consists of two programs: 1) allegation program and 2) whistleblower protection system. The former is explained by basic act, definition of allegation, anonymous allegation, direct allegation to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission), number of allegation from 1997 to 2001, procedure and period of investigation and notice of allegation to licensees. The latter is explained by basis act, outline of the system, enforcement by NRC and DOL (Department of Labor), number of discrimination compliant and anxiety of licensees. The system is good conditions in U.S.A depend on 1) prevent of illegal act and increase, 2) preparation of procedure and its transparency and 3) enforcement system. However, a hostile act to licensees is found in the whistleblower protection system. There are many problems in Japanese regulatory system. The improvement points of Japanese system are proposed. (S.Y.)

  6. Medical School Hotline: The Evolution of the Japanese Medical Education System: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the “Galapagos Islands” for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tok...

  7. Japanese contribution of ITER PF systems design during CDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the brief summary of major part of Japanese contributions to the poloidal field coil systems design during conceptual design activity (CDA). The followings are studied; layout of poloidal field coil system, effects of plasma triangularity and current profile, alternative configurations such as semi-double null and single null divertor plasmas apart from the reference double null plasma, magnetic line tracing study for the detailed examination of the divertor plasmas, repulsive force on the center solenoid for the volt-second saving operation scenario, general criteria of vertical stability by passive structure, stability performance of two types of passive structure, saddle loop type and twin loop type, in-vessel coil current and voltage evaluation required for active control of plasma verrical position, TOLFEX method for the identification of plasma shape and position for the control of ITER plasma, control of horizontal plasma position during breakdown, slow control algorithm for the plasma shape, means to reduce the effective divertor peak heat load, separatrix sweeping both by SC coils and in-vessel coils, feasibility to generate the ergodic magnetic layer by in-vessel coils for the vertical position control, simulation of plasma dynamic behavior after the thermal quench by TSC code. Many of the results are not fully complete, while should be sufficient o demonstrate the feasibility of the CDA design. (J.P.N.)

  8. Target system of IFMIF/EVEDA in Japanese activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, M.; Fukada, S.; Furukawa, T.; Hirakawa, Y.; Horiike, H.; Kanemura, T.; Kondo, H.; Miyashita, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sigiura, H.; Suzuki, A.; Terai, T.; Tsuji, Y.; Ushimaru, H.; Watanabe, K.; Yagi, J.

    2011-10-01

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been started. As Japanese activities for the target system, the EVEDA Lithium (Li) Test Loop to simulate hydraulic and impurity conditions of the IFMIF Li loop is under design. The feasibility of the thermo-mechanical structure of the target assembly and the replaceable back-plate made of F82H and 316L stainless steel is a key research subject. Toward final validation at the EVEDA loop, diagnostics systems applicable to the high-speed free-surface Li flow and hot traps to control nitrogen and hydrogen in Li loop have been investigated. In the remote handling subject of target assemblies and the replaceable back-plates activated by irradiation up to 50 dpa/y, lip welds on 316L-316L by laser and dissimilar metal welds on F82H-316L are necessary. Water experiments and hydraulic/thermo-mechanical analyses of the back-plate are underway.

  9. System Architecture Dynamics The case of Japanese Car Navigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Munehiko Itoh

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify how the integration of software and hardware is related to product systems and product development organization in the growing electronic equipment market in the IT age. As a framework for analyzing the effect of integration, we will examine the influence of software on product functions, product development organization and product innovation by introducing the concept of system architecture, which represents the nature of a system, and is defined as a combinat...

  10. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshafadzila Mohammad Naim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300°C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm–424 nm and 426 nm–464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.

  11. Stability and predictability in younger crystalline rock system: Japanese Islands case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese Islands consist of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks ranging in age from Paleozoic to Cenozoic. Among these, Carboniferous to Paleogene rocks occupy about 60% of the total area of the Japanese Islands. It should be noted that Quaternary volcanic rocks occupy only about 9% of the total area, although Quaternary volcanoes occur throughout the Japanese Islands. Long-term stability and predictability in the rock system are discussed in terms of volcanic activity, active faulting, and plate motion. Volcanic activity in the Japanese Islands is intimately related to subduction of the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The volcanic front related to the Pacific and the Philippine Sea plates has been essentially fixed since about 6 Ma. The main active faults, which are distributed sporadically throughout the Japanese Islands, number about 150 and have been extensively investigated. The modes of the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate have been essentially invariable since 10 Ma and 6 Ma, respectively. These lines of evidence imply that volcanism and tectonism in the Japanese Islands will scarcely change for hundreds of thousands of years into the future. It is clear that many places suitable for geological disposal will be present in this rock system. (author)

  12. Comparative Analysis of Educational Systems of American and Japanese Schools: Views and Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Craig C.

    2008-01-01

    Knowing the great impact education has on a nation, the author decided to investigate the education systems in America and Japan. The aim of the study was to answer how educational systems or practices in Japan and America differ, and how Japanese practices might improve those of American educators and administrators. Besides many similarities,…

  13. Comparative analysis of Japanese Just-in-Time Purchasing and Traditional Indian Purchasing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Singh,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Just-in –Time purchasing strategy is being recognized as a corner stone of the Japanese success story. Just-in –Time Purchasing has received an increasing amount of attention throughout the world due to its potential for quality improvement and cost saving. Today many reputed Indian industries have also switched to the Japanese JIT Purchasing concept to improve their product quality and productivity. This paper discusses the major activities of JIT Purchasing and provides a comparative analysis of differences between the JIT urchasing and traditional Indian purchasing systems. In this article the problems encountered in JIT Purchasing implementation and its benefits, the companies benefited in India and other countries are also discussed.

  14. A conceptual model for the international transfer of Japanese management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Bruijn, de Erik J.; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Trimble, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The transferability of Japanese management systems (JMSs) abroad has been studied intensively since the 1980s. However, the conclusions regarding this study field are mixed. Such confusion is caused by the vague definition of terms and the different methods employed by researchers to measure the tra

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa;

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone...

  16. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoue, Shiro; Nakano, Tadashi; Fuse, Nobuo; Iwase, Aiko; Matsumoto, Shun; Yoshikawa, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. Methods In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs

  17. Effect of Changing Governance System: Result of Western Style Management Adoption to Japanese Culture of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohichiro Hotta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.

  18. Development of an advanced man-machine system for Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Man Machine System for Japanese PWR plants (MMS - PWR) is a prototype system of the operator supporting system that has been developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Mitsubishi Electric Co. and Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc. for five years from 1987 to 1991, under the financial support of MITI (the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japanese government). The aim of this system development is to further increase operation reliability and operability of PWR plants. For this purpose the knowledge engineering and the up-to-date computer technologies have been introduced into the design of a prototype system that can offer the information, infer and judge according to operator's thinking process in grasping the plant status and the operations. Also the system has been verified. A prototype system has the following supporting functions: (1) Operator Supporting Function for Normal Operation: Flexible operator supporting function for re-start-up and load following operation that will be needed for Japanese PWR plants in the future. (2) Operator Supporting Function for Abnormalities and Accidents: Early detection and identification of abnormality or accident of the plant, and guidance to appropriate countermeasures. (3) Operator Supporting Function for Maintenance: Supporting function for evaluation of the influence of maintenance on plant components, as well as for the isolation and restoration procedures during plant operation. (4) Optimum Operation Surveillance Function: Intelligence man machine interface that enables operators to understand various plant data precisely and offers the proper answers of what they need to know. (author). 6 figs, 2 refs

  19. The Modern Samurai: Martial Studies & the Modernization of the Japanese School System

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves, Frank Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis investigates the development and modernization of one of Japan s oldest moral systems known as bushido (the way of the warrior) and its incorporation into the Japanese school system during the modern prewar period. Also discussed is the transformation and westernization of modern budo (martial arts) in Japan as it was developed to facilitate the dissemination of bushido education in schools. The findings of this research will uncover the internal struggles between lib...

  20. Increasing Use of Electronic Trading Systems and Its Implications on Japanese Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Market Policies Group

    2001-01-01

    With the advances in IT technology, more and more transactions are shifting to electronic platforms even in financial markets. Electronic trading systems were first adopted in the United States, and have subsequently spread to Europe and Japan. More and more products are traded electronically, including government securities as well as equity and foreign exchange. This paper examines recent developments in electronic trading systems and their implications on the Japanese government securities...

  1. [Microeconomics of introduction of a PET system based on the revised Japanese National Insurance reimbursement system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kosuda, Shigeru; Kusano, Shoichi; Nagata, Masayoshi

    2003-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate an annual balance before-hand when an institution installs a PET system because the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system set the cost of a FDG PET study as 75,000 yen. A break-even point was calculated in an 8-hour or a 24-hour operation of a PET system, based on the total costs reported. The break-even points were as follows: 13.4, 17.7, 22.1 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The break-even points were 19.9, 25.5, 31.2 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in a full PET system operation of 24 hours. The results indicate no profit would accrue in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The annual profit and break-even point for the total cost including the initial investment would be respectively 530 million yen and 2.8 years in a 24-hour operation with 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system. PMID:14733110

  2. Microeconomics of introduction of a PET system based on the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is crucial to evaluate an annual balance beforehand when an institution installs a PET system because the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system set the cost of a FDG PET study as 75,000 yen. A break-even point was calculated in an 8-hour or a 24-hour operation of a PET system, based on the total costs reported. The break-even points were as follows: 13.4, 17.7, 22.1 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The break-even points were 19.9, 25.5, 31.2 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in a full PET system operation of 24 hours. The results indicate no profit would accrue in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The annual profit and break-even point for the total cost including the initial investment would be respectively 530 million yen and 2.8 years in a 24-hour operation with 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system. (author)

  3. NT-25EARLY JAPANESE EXPERIENCE WITH NovoTTF-100A SYSTEM FOR RECURRENT GBM

    OpenAIRE

    Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Nitta, Masayuki; Okumura, Tatsunori; Tabei, Yusuke; MARUYAMA, Takashi; Kaneko, Sadao; Suzuki, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: NovoTTF-100A System is an FDA-approved treatment for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) and is defined as a device of high unmet medical need in Japan. Subsequently, the device has been made available on a restricted case basis for compassionate use in Japan. Here we report initial experience with 10 patients treated at Tokyo Women's Medical University, Kashiwaba Neurosurgical Hospital and Japanese Red Cross Medical Center. METHODS: Using retrospective chart review, we analyzed patient ...

  4. Effectiveness of ISO 9001 System Implementation in Japanese Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoaki Shimada; Nobuki Okamoto

    2009-01-01

    ISO (International Organization for Standardization) management systems are represented by ISO 9001:2000. Since the establishment of the ISO 9000 series in 1984, many manufacturers in Japan that perform international transactions have adopted the ISO management systems, and now, companies in various industries, including those in the service sector, have implemented ISO management systems. The ISO 9001 system specifies operational procedures that reflect business policy, organizational charac...

  5. Overview and Analysis of the Japanese and US Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jofre, Sergio

    stresses the dynamics of innovation in connection with evolving environments, economies and societies. The analysis indicates that in the history of both systems there is a clear trend to learn from common success and failures. Therefore, the disparities between the systems observed in previous decades are...... transition. Main drivers behind the adaptation process are globalization of economies and sustainable development. Despite historical and cultural disparities, the innovation systems of these countries are evolving towards a common strategy based on the concept of “innovation ecosystems”. This concept...... now less evident. The transition process in both systems is guided by concerted national actions. However, the transition in Japan, currently in a more advanced stage, shows a greater systemic approach guided by comprehensive plans and roadmaps for medium and long-term strategies. As an important...

  6. A Novel White LED Lighting System for Appreciation of Japanese Antique Ink Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Tsunemasa; Kono, Michitaka

    We have demonstrated a special plan exhibition for appreciation of Japanese antique ink painting of “The trip to Sesshu”, which used the novel warm white light-emitting diode (LED) lighting system having the average color rendering index (Ra) = 96 and special color rendering indices R9 (95) and R15 (98). A viewer is seen with an original hue and can feel a delicate three-dimensional impression. Comparing with a conventional triple A fluorescent lamp system, the developed white LED system can provide the superior illuminance properties and extremely low electric power consumption.

  7. Knowledge-based operator guidance system for Japanese PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A knowledge-based operator support system for nuclear power plant operation is under development. The main theme of the study is the incorporation of operator's cognitive structure as the framework of the knowledge representation and inference control mechanisms. Based upon information collected from interviews, and experiments using a real-time simulator, an operator's model related to diagnostic tasks was developed. A knowledge-based system incorporating the proposed model demonstrated highly efficient problem solving capabilities and the dynamic fitness to operator's perceptual feeling, thereby suggesting the potential importance and practical benefit of such a study

  8. Association of TNFAIP3 Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Kawasaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region at 6q23 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in European-American populations. In this study, we investigated whether SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region are associated with SLE also in a Japanese population. A case-control association study was performed on the SNPs rs13192841, rs2230926, and rs6922466 in 318 Japanese SLE patients and 444 healthy controls. Association of rs2230926 G allele with SLE was replicated in Japanese (allelic association P=.033, odds ratio [OR] 1.47, recessive model P=.023, OR 8.52. The association was preferentially observed in the SLE patients with nephritis. When the TNFAIP3 mRNA levels of the HapMap samples were examined using GENEVAR database, the presence of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 G allele was associated with lower mRNA expression of TNFAIP3 (P=.013. These results indicated that TNFAIP3 is a susceptibility gene to SLE both in the Caucasian and Asian populations.

  9. Japanese internet system for calculation of route doses (JISCARD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JISCARD was developed in 2005 by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan. The present report explains how to use the system to calculate exposure doses to be received by aircraft crew or passengers making a flight by international regular routes connecting Japan and the principle 35 cities of the world. Entering home page of NIRS, the user is requested to select the starting and arriving airports on graphical interface, the traveling date (year, month) which should be within 2001 - 2011, and the internet tool. The calculation is based on the code CARI-6, developed by FAA (the Federal Aviation Administration), and takes into consideration altitude effect as well as an 11-year cycle of the solar activity. (S. Ohno)

  10. Corrosion experiments and materials developed for the Japanese HLM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Yuji, E-mail: kurata.yuji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-08-31

    The static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) were conducted from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C to understand corrosion behavior and develop corrosion resistant materials for heavy liquid metal systems. While increase of Cr content in steels enhances corrosion resistance in LBE, the effect approaches a constant value above 12 wt% of Cr. Corrosion depth in LBE increases with increasing temperature and corrosion attack becomes severe above 550 deg. C even under the condition of high oxygen concentration. Nickel dissolution and Pb-Bi penetration occur in 316SS and JPCA above 550 deg. C under the condition of high oxygen concentration. When oxygen concentration decreases below the level of Fe oxide formation, corrosion attack on these steels also becomes violent due to dissolution of various elements and grain boundary corrosion. Whereas additions of 1.5 wt% Si to T91 and 2.5 wt% Si to 316SS improve corrosion resistance, the effect is insufficient taking fluctuation of oxygen concentration in LBE into consideration. Furthermore, addition of 1.5 wt% Si to T91 causes rise in DBTT. A new coating method using Al, Ti and Fe powders produces corrosion resistant coating layers on 316SS. The coating layers containing 6-8 wt% Al exhibit good corrosion resistance at 550 deg. C for 3000 h in LBE containing 10{sup -6}-10{sup -4} wt% of oxygen.

  11. Improving a Japanese-Spanish Machine Translation System Using Wikipedia Medical Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Ramirez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality, length and coverage of a parallel corp us are fundamental features in the performance of a Statistical Machine Translation Sy stem (SMT. For some pair of languages there is a considerable lack of resources suitable for Natural Language Processing tasks. This paper introduces a technique for extracting medical information from the Wikipedia page. Using a medical ontological dictionary and then we evaluate on a Japanese-Spanish SMT system. The study shows an increment in the BLEU sc ore.

  12. Creating A More Coordinated Agro-Food System for Non-GM Grains - A Case Study of Japanese Mandatory Labeling System

    OpenAIRE

    Tachikawa, Masashi; Inoue, Sotaro; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    n August 1999, the Japanese government decided to introduce mandatory labeling for genetically modified (GM) food starting from April 2001. Under the labeling system, certain types of processed food such as oil and sweeteners from corn are exempted from labeling, since scientific verification tests detecting GMO ingredient cannot be applied persuasively. The result of the introduction of labeling system was contrary to the initial expectation of the Japanese government. That is, the shift fro...

  13. Teacher Effectiveness Examined as a System: Interpretive Structural Modeling and Facilitation Sessions with U.S. and Japanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Alexia

    2009-01-01

    This study challenges narrow definitions of teacher effectiveness and uses a systems approach to investigate teacher effectiveness as a multi-dimensional, holistic phenomenon. The methods of Nominal Group Technique and Interpretive Structural Modeling were used to assist U.S. and Japanese students separately construct influence structures during…

  14. The examination system for Japanese WOL and DMW PD qualification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the 1st Performance Demonstration (PD) qualification examination started in March of 2006 and was operated by the Performance Demonstration (PD) center of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). The first application of Japanese PD system is crack depth sizing on stainless steel piping welds. PD center is planning to start weld overlay (WOL) PD examination as a second step, and dissimilar weld (DMW) PD examination as third step. In particular, WOL PD examination includes crack detection and length / depth sizing because it is necessary to detect the crack tip on detection and length sizing test. In the detection test, it is difficult to judge miss call or false call. Therefore ASME code and NDIS0603 introduced the idea of 'Grading Unit'. This paper reports the readiness of WOL-PD and DMW-PD test and explains grading unit and acceptance criteria. (author)

  15. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  16. Cooperation between Japanese and Cambodian Dietitians in Setting up a Hospital Diet Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Koung Ry; Saito, Shino; Kusama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia faces a considerably high percentage of the stunted under 5 (Unicef, 2014). Despite the National Nutrition Strategy Launched by the Ministry of Health in cooperation with development partners, nutrition improvement projects have not always been effective. It is generally said these issues are addressed in many other developing nations, and the literature largely documented that successful nutrition programmes are community-based programmes because of their sustainability and the intensive communications between health workers and beneficiaries. Learning from the past experiences, the Foundation for International Development/Relief organized a project team with a Cambodian dietitian and an experienced Japanese dietitian to implement a hospital diet programme for children from April 2006 to March 2014 in the National Pediatric Hospital (NPH) in Cambodia. The project has two objectives: establishing a hospital diet management system, and developing the capacity of NPH staff. Hospital food menus were created paying particular attention to Cambodian culture, eating habits and accessibility to the ingredients for the purpose of continuous supply. We have also put emphasis on the communication between dietitians and family members of the children to let them understand the importance of a nutritious diet. After 8 y of project implementation, the hospital diet management system was established providing 7 types of menu with nutritious diets. The final evaluation of the project showed that NPH staff have the intention to continue hospital food supply with their acquired knowledge and capacity. In practice, a Cambodian dietitian currently takes the initiative for a continuous nutritional diet in NPH. The key to this success is the collaboration between Japanese dietitians with experience and Cambodian dietitians with knowledge of Cambodian eating habits. Taking our experience into account, it is highly recommended to educate Cambodian dietitians, as they are

  17. Kooperatives Lernen lernen? Zur Diskussion uber das Bildungswesen in Japan (Learning Cooperative Learning? On the Discussion of the Japanese Educational System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Volker

    1998-01-01

    Suggests a reconsideration of the criticism of Japanese competition against the background of the Japanese educational system's highly developed learning culture. Considers some of the basic aspects of group-oriented communal learning in school, while also cautioning against a "monocausal" culturalism. (Author/CMK)

  18. Recent Clinical Characteristics of Labors Using Three Japanese Systems of Midwife-Led Primary Delivery Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the recent clinical characteristics of labor using 3 systems of Japanese midwife-led primary delivery care, as follows: (1) those intending to give birth at home managed by midwives who do not belong to our hospital, (2) those planning to give birth in our hospital managed by the same midwives, and (3) those planning to give birth managed by midwives who belong to our hospital. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Results. There were no significant differences in the obstetric or neonatal outcomes among the 3 groups. The rate of transfers during labor with the system involving midwives belonging to our hospital was higher than those with the other 2 systems. In addition, the timing of transfers in the system with the midwives belonging to our hospital was earlier than with the other 2 systems. Among the 3 groups, there were no significant differences in the rate of the main 2 indications for transfers: fetal heart rate abnormality and failure to progress. Conclusion. There were no significant differences in perinatal outcomes among the 3 systems; however, there were some differences in the status of transfers to obstetric shared care. PMID:27034827

  19. Strategic Control Systems for Quality: An Empirical Comparison of the Japanese and U.S. Electronics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley J Daniel; Wolf D Reitsperger

    1994-01-01

    Management control systems should be designed to complement the strategies pursued. Few empirical studies, however, have focused on management control systems for quality control and zero-defect strategies. This study compares quality strategies and their relationship with management control systems in the Japanese and U.S. electronics industry.The results indicate that the quality strategies of U.S. manufacturing managers reflect adherence to zero-defect philosophies more than those of the J...

  20. We Have It too: A Strategy Which Helps to Grasp the Japanese Writing System for Students from Outside of the Chinese Character Cultural Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej BEKEŠ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For beginner learners with non-Chinese character background complexities of Japanese writing system often represent an insurmountable obstacle. Yet closer look at different types of writing systems reveals that differences between them are more of a degree than of a kind. Present paper, based on this perception, argues for the employment of strategies based on a transfer of analogies between alphabet based writing systems such as English, to Japanese writing system. This would help beginner learners overcome cognitive and affective blockade, when beginning to learn Japanese writing.

  1. Both Autonomy and Quality Control are Indispensable to make a Success of the Plural External Evaluation System for Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnami, Masateru

    This paper points out the problem of the plural external evaluation system for Japanese universities. Japanese evaluation system is internationally the peculiar case that both of chartering in government and accreditation in government and non-government agencies exist in parallel. It is the biggest problem that the accreditation agencies secure both the autonomy and quality control and the appropriate cooperation with chartering goes well. This paper also reviews, as the experience in the world and Japan, the activity in the INQAAHE and the JUAA 2003 Version, which aims at the quality assurance of internationally viable higher education and foresees the new accreditation system recognized by government after 2004. From these experiences, it is prospected to develop the plural external evaluation system in future.

  2. Ultrastructural and histochemical properties of the olfactory system in the japanese jungle crow, Corvus macrorhynchos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Nashimoto, Mai; Kanayama, Shunsaku; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2011-08-01

    Although it has been commonly believed that birds are more dependent on the vision and audition than the olfaction, recent studies indicate that the olfaction of birds is related to the reproductive, homing, and predatory behaviors. In an attempt to reveal the dependence on the olfactory system in crows, we examined the olfactory system of the Japanese jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) by histological, ultrastructural, and lectin histochemical methods. The olfactory epithelium (OE) of the crow occupied remarkably a small area of the nasal cavity (NC) and had the histological and ultrastructural features like other birds. The olfactory bulb (OB) of the crow was remarkably small and did not possess the olfactory ventricle. The left and right halves of the OB were fused in many cases. In the lectin histochemistry, soybean agglutinin (SBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) stained a small number of the receptor cells (RCs) in the OE and the olfactory nerve layer (ONL) and glomerular layer (GL) on the dorsocaudal region of the OB. Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) stained several RCs in the OE and the ONL and GL on the ventral region of the OB. These results suggest that 1) the crow has less-developed olfactory system than other birds, and 2) the dedicated olfactory receptor cells project their axons to the specific regions of the OB in the crow. PMID:21478653

  3. Japanese BWR utilities joint research on fatigue monitoring system of RPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the plant life extension (PLEX) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the future, Japanese BWR electric utilities are carrying out the research project on the fatigue monitoring system based on the actual plant operating data. Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is one of the most critical components of BWR when utilities think about PLEX. RPV is designed by the detail stress analysis using the method such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Design stress analysis is performed in accordance with design basis thermal cycles for design life of 40 years and it sometimes reports considerably high fatigue usage factors at such portions of RPV as stud bolt, feedwater nozzle and support skirt. However, because of the conservatism on the design analysis and in view of operational experiences, actual service life of NPPs is expected to be much longer than the design life. For PLEX, it is important to understand the excessive conservatism in the design analysis and the realistic fatigue usage factor (UF) based on the actual plant operating data in order to assess the remaining life time of RPV. To get the realistic UF, the stress analysis requires not only the actual operating process data but also the realistic thermal boundary conditions such as heat transfer coefficient. And stress analysis method must be simple in order to compute a vast number of stresses during plant life time in a short time. Therefore, Japanese BWR utilities jointly with BWR manufacturers established programs (1) to acquire plant operating data on-line for specific parameters used in stress analysis, (2) to evaluate margins in the design using measured plant data and best estimate boundary conditions for stress analysis, and (3) to establish simplified stress analysis method for fatigue evaluation. This paper describes the achievements of this research and the research activities in the future. In the program (1), on-line plant data acquisition system, named OPEDAS, has been developed and installed

  4. A KDEL Retrieval System for ER-Golgi Transport of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert YL Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has emerged that RNA viruses utilize the host secretory pathway for processing and trafficking mature viral particles and for exiting the infected cells. Upon completing the complex assembly process, the viral particles take advantage of the cellular secretory trafficking machinery for their intracellular trafficking toward the Golgi organelle and budding or export of virions. In this study, we showed that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV-induced extracellular GRP78 contains no KDEL motif using an anti-KDEL-specific antibody. Overexpression of the KDEL-truncated GRP78 in the GPR78 knocked down cells significantly reduced JEV infectivity, suggesting that the KDEL motif is required for GRP78 function in the release of JE viral particles. In addition, we demonstrated the KDELR protein, an ER-Golgi retrieval system component, is associated with viral envelope proteins and is engaged in the subcellular localization of viral particles in Golgi. More importantly, accumulation of intracellular virions was observed in the KDELR knocked down cells, indicating that the KDELR protein mediated the intracellular trafficking of JE viral particles. Altogether, we demonstrated that intracellular trafficking of JE assembled viral particles was mediated by the host ER-Golgi retrieval system prior to exit by the secretory pathway.

  5. Studies on computer-aided diagnosis systems for chest radiographs and mammograms (in Japanese)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for chest radiographs and mammograms. Preprocessing and imaging processing methods for each CAD system include dynamic range compression and region segmentation technique. A new pattern recognition technique combines genetic algorithms with template matching methods to detect lung nodules. A genetic algorithm was employed to select the optimal shape of simulated nodular shadows to be compared with real lesions on digitized chest images. Detection performance was evaluated using 332 chest radiographs from the database of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. Our average true-positive rate was 72.8% with an average of 11 false-positive findings per image. A new detection method using high resolution digital images with 0.05 mm sampling is also proposed for the mammogram CAD system to detect very small microcalcifications. An automated classification method uses feature extraction based on fractal dimension analysis of masses. Using over 200 cases to evaluate the detection of mammographic masses and calcifications, the detection rate of masses and microcalcifications were 87% and 96% with 1.5 and 1.8 false-positive findings, respectively. The classification performance on benign vs malignant lesions, the Az values that were defined by the areas under the ROC curves derived from classification schemes of masses and microcalcifications were 0.84 and 0.89. To demonstrate the practicality of these CAD systems in a computer-network environment, we propose to use the mammogram CAD system via the Internet and WWW. A common gateway interface and server-client approach for the CAD system via the Internet will permit display of the CAD results on ordinary computers

  6. The modular design method for digital control systems in Japanese BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital technology is being applied to control systems in nuclear power plants. Especially in Japanese BWRs, control systems are being digitized both in constructing plant and in retrofit of operating plants. Digital technology has many advantages compared with analog technology. However, its high performance and flexibility may result in too complicated software structure, which will cause long design time and long testing time and increase cost. In introduction of digital technology, it is most important to restrict unnecessary flexibility of software. The function of control systems can be divided in standard part and variable part. Standard function may be common to every plant while variable function should be designed for each plant. Even in current design, standard design is preserved to be reused in next application. However, this design approach is not always effective because standard function may be changed by customer and nothing is considered for variable part even if it is large. To keep reliability and reduce cost by software reuse, Toshiba adopts modular design of control software, where standard part is designed as a set of standard functional modules and variable function is designed as a complex of standard functional modules and plant unique modules. Toshiba firstly applied modular design method to fuel handling machine control system. In this application the design work has been reduced to 30 percent by reusing of functional module which was first developed in former applications. This remarkable reduction of design work has enhanced reliability with less cost. In addition, software, has been produced and tested according to the functional module. These qualified software modules will be applied to next system and will realize highest reliability and least cost. Toshiba is now planning the application of this modular design method for every digital control system. (author)

  7. Shock to the system: How catastrophic events and institutional relationships impact Japanese energy policymaking, resilience, and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklarew, Jennifer F.

    External shocks do not always generate energy system transformation. This dissertation examines how government relationships with electric utilities and the public impact whether shocks catalyze energy system change. The study analyzes Japanese energy policymaking from the oil crises through the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Findings reveal that policymakers' cooperation with and clout over electric utilities and the public can enable shocks to transform energy systems. When electric utilities wield clout, public trust in and influence on the government determine the existing system's resilience and the potential for a new system to emerge. Understanding this effect informs energy policy design and innovation.

  8. Evaluation of restraint system concepts for the Japanese Experiment Module flight demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Backemeyer, Lynn A.

    1995-01-01

    The current International Space Station configuration includes a Japanese Experiment Module which relies on a large manipulator and a smaller dexterous manipulator to operate outside the pressurized environment of the experiment module. The module's flight demonstration is a payload that will be mounted in the aft flight deck on STS-87 to evaluate a prototype of the dexterous manipulator. Since the payload operations entail two 8-hour scenarios on consecutive days, adequate operator restraint at the workstation will be critical to the perceived success or failure of the payload. Simulations in reduced gravity environment on the KC-135A were the only way to evaluate the restraint systems and workstation configuration. Two astronaut and two non-astronaut operators evaluated the Advanced Lower Body Extremities Restraint Test and a foot loop restraint system by performing representative tasks at the workstation in each of the two restraint systems; at the end of each flight they gave their impressions of each system and the workstation. Results indicated that access to the workstation switch panels was difficult and manipulation of the hand controllers forced operators too low for optimal viewing of the aft flight deck monitors. The workstation panel should be angled for better visibility, and infrequently used switches should be on the aft flight deck panel. Pitch angle and placement of the hand controllers should optimize the operator's eye position with respect to the monitors. The lower body restraint was preferred over the foot loops because it allowed operators to maintain a more relaxed posture during long-duration tasks, its height adjustability allowed better viewing of aft flight deck monitors, and it provided better restraint for reacting forces imparted on the operator at the workstation. The foot loops provide adequate restraint for the flight demonstration tasks identified. Since results will impact the design of the workstation, both restraints should be

  9. Highly efficient and recyclable triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants and reduction of hexavalent chromium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yunxia; Xu, Sichao; Wang, Shuan; Ding, Hualin; Pan, Shusheng; Wang, Guozhong; Li, Guanghai; Zhao, Huijun

    2014-04-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2 (P25), pure TiO2 microspheres, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and annealed Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites, the as-obtained amorphous triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 hierarchical nanospheres exhibit a markedly enhanced visible light or sunlight photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of methylene blue and photoreduction of hexavalent chromium ions in wastewater. The outstanding photocatalytic activities of the plasmonic photocatalyst are mainly due to the enhanced light harvesting, reduced transport paths for both mass and charge transport, reduced recombination probability of photogenerated electrons/holes, near field electromagnetic enhancement and efficient scattering from the plasmonic nanostructure, increased surface-to-volume ratio and active sites in three dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructures, and improved photo/chemical stability. More importantly, the hierarchical nanostructured Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts could be easily collected and separated by applying an external magnetic field and reused at least five times without any appreciable reduction in photocatalytic efficiency. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, make these multifunctional nanostructures promising candidates to remediate aquatic contaminants and meet the demands of future environmental issues.Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2

  10. Japanese Hieroglossia

    OpenAIRE

    Corvol, Pierre; Robert, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    At a very early stage, Japanese civilization asserted itself in a relationship of “linguistic competition” with Chinese, in both the religious, the literary, and the intellectual spheres. This cultural symbiosis linked to the shaping of a language, that Jean-Noël Robert has called hieroglossia, was the primary source of the speech that Yasunari Kawabata delivered upon receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1968: By drawing on Japanese Buddhist poetry, he placed himself in the Zen traditio...

  11. JaSlo: Integration of a Japanese-Slovene Bilingual Dictionary with a Corpus Search System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a set of integrated on-line language resources targeted at Japanese language learners, primarily those whose mother tongue is Slovene. The resources consist of the on-line Japanese-Slovene learners’ dictionary jaSlo and two corpora, a 1 million word Japanese-Slovene parallel corpus and a 300 million word corpus of web pages, where each word and sentence is marked by its difficulty level; this corpus is furthermore available as a set of five distinct corpora, each one containing sentences of the particular level. The corpora are available for exploration through NoSketch Engine, the open source version of the commercial state-of-the-art corpus analysis software Sketch Engine. The dictionary is available for Web searching, and dictionary entries have direct links to examples from the corpora, thus offering a wider picture of a possible translations in concrete contextualised examples, and b monolingual Japanese usage examples of different difficulty levels to support language learning.

  12. Heterometallic [AgFe3S4] ferredoxin variants: synthesis, characterization, and the first crystal structure of an engineered heterometallic iron–sulfur protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martic, Maja; Simon, Ida Noemi; Haahr, Lærke Tvedebrink;

    2013-01-01

    (II) heterometallic [MFe3S4] ferredoxins. The trend in reduction potentials for the variants containing the [AgFe3S4] cluster is wild type ≤ D14C

  13. Benchmarking Reactor Systems Studies by Comparison of EU and Japanese System Code Results for Different DEMO Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent systems studies work within the Broader Approach framework has focussed on benchmarking the EU systems code PROCESS against the Japanese code TPC for conceptual DEMO designs. This paper describes benchmarking work for a conservative, pulsed DEMO and an advanced, steady-state, high-bootstrap fraction DEMO. The resulting former machine is an R0 = 10 m, a = 2.5 m, βN 0 = 8 m, a = 2.7 m), with βN = 3.0, enhanced confinement, and high bootstrap fraction fBS = 0.8. These options were chosen to test the codes across a wide range of parameter space. While generally in good agreement, some of the code outputs differ. In particular, differences have been identified in the impurity radiation models and flux swing calculations. The global effects of these differences are described and approaches to identifying the best models, including future experiments, are discussed. Results of varying some of the assumptions underlying the modelling are also presented, demonstrating the sensitivity of the solutions to technological limitations and providing guidance for where further research could be focussed. (author)

  14. Japanese Quail as a Model System for Studying the Neuroendocrine Control of Reproductive and Social Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    BALL, GREGORY F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; referred to simply as quail in this article) readily exhibit sexual behavior and related social behaviors in captive conditions and have therefore proven valuable for studies of how early social experience can shape adult mate preference and sexual behavior. Quail have also been used in sexual conditioning studies illustrating how natural stimuli predict successful reproduction via Pavlovian processes. In addition, they have proven to be a good model to stud...

  15. "Global Risk Sharing: Toward a stronger Financial System"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Kobayashi; Jeffrey Bohn; Risa Sai

    2007-01-01

    Recent surge of large real estate lending in Japan suggests the creation of a new series of lumpy credit risk exposures entering Japanese bank portfolios. It is necessary to transform these types of large, concentrated exposures into more manageable pieces of risk. The development of syndication and securitization markets provide an antidote to this creeping risk of crisis as concentrations deepen. Without the mechanisms for distributing and managing risk, Japan will forever lag the rest of t...

  16. Studies for Improving Productive Efficiency and Immune System Response of Aged Female Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed in animal house Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas. The objective of this study was to overcome decrease productive efficiency and immune system response as a result of advanced of female Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) and multiple the production period of females studying the effect of three methods of force rest and their effect on physiological and endocrinological changes associated with each of procedure used. Three hundred birds were used, 240 female and 120 males (50 weeks of age). Females were at 44% hen day (HD) egg production. The birds randomly divided into four groups, 60 females and 30 males in each treatment which divided into three replicate of 20 females and 10 males in each. The first group was fed a layer diet, plus 2% zinc oxide (20,000 ppm) for 14 days. The second group was fed a commercial layer diet containing 8 mg / birds / day tamoxifen for 14 days. The third group was force molted by the California method (fed withdrawal by removing the diet 10 days then feed for 7 days corn). The fourth group fed the layer diet and served as the control. The results obtained showed significant increase in body weight, egg production, egg weight, shell weight, hatchability percent, fertility percent, embryonic mortality percent, hatching weight percent mortality percent, carcass relative weight, kidney relative weight, intestine relative weight, intestine length, proventriculus relative weight, ovary relative weight, oviduct relative weight, oviduct length, femur breaking strength, tibia breaking strength, packed cell volume, globulin, phosphorus concentration, triglyceride, estrogen hormone, aldosterone hormone and significant decrease in heart relative weight, albumin to globulin ratio, GOT, testosterone hormone, T3, T4, Heamaglutination inhibition test in treated groups than control group. While gizzard relative weight, femur relative weight, tibia relative weight, femur ash, tibia ash

  17. International Transfer of Kaizen: Japanese Manufacturers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, K.

    2012-01-01

    Kaizen, the synonym for continuous improvement, is an essential component of Japanese management system. Kaizen programs have long been employed with great success in Japanese companies. Due to their origin in Japanese organisations, and their embeddedness in Japanese context, applicability of kaize

  18. Evaluation of induced molting methods on the livability and reproductive system regression of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RSC Teixeira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the alternative method of zinc oxide and fasting to induce molt in Japanese quails. A total number of 190 48-week-old quails was used. They were at end of laying cycle, and presented low egg production. Quails molted by zinc oxide (Z were fed a diet containing 25,000 ppm of zinc oxide, and received water ad libitum. Quails treated by fasting (F received no feed and a day of water restriction. The treatment period was determined by the experimental level of body weight loss (BWL. Birds were submitted to different levels of BWL in order to analyze reproductive system regression (ovary + oviduct, and livability. The following groups were established according to their BWL: Control (untreated quails; F25 (25% BWL by F; F35 (35% BWL by F; Z25 (25% BWL by Z, and Z35 (35% BWL by Z. Z25, Z35, and F35 presented no significant differences in reproductive system weights after molting; however, their weights were lower than F. Z, Z, and F presented the following livability: 97.5, 72.5, and 90%. Japanese quails treated by the alternative method of zinc oxide, presenting body weight loss of 25%, showed low mortality rate, and adequate regression of the reproductive organs.

  19. Pathomorphological changes in the alimentary system of Japanese quails naturally infected with Eimeria tsunodai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesek Michał

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate pathomorphological changes in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and caecum of Japanese quails naturally infected with Eimeria tsunodai. Samples of the intestines were collected from 6-week-old cockerels and hens before laying and from laying quails aged 12, 24, and 48 weeks. The tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, PAS method according to McManus, and Ziehl-Neelsen method. Morphometric and morphological analyses of coccidia revealed that Eimeria tsunodai was responsible for the infection. Different developmental stages of the coccidia were observed almost exclusively in the caecum, and they led to the complete damage of caecal mucosa. The main changes observed in the caecum involved mucosal damage, atrophy of the folds and crypts, and mucosal desquamation. No significant inflammation changes were detected. The degree of damage to caecal mucosa increased with age and the greatest damage was noted at the age of 48 weeks. Eimeria tsunodai infections occur in Japanese quails during the entire laying period. Different developmental stages of coccidia are responsible for total damage to caecal mucosa.

  20. Residential PV system users' perception of profitability, reliability, and failure risk: An empirical survey in a local Japanese municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although previous studies have addressed the reliability of residential PV systems in order to improve the dissemination of the systems among individual users and societies, few have examined users' perception of their own PV systems, which might contain solutions to firmly establish the system into society. First, the present paper examined the extent to which residential PV system users understand specification, reliability, and failure risk of their own systems. Second, causal factors affecting users' satisfaction with PV systems were examined. By analyzing data collected in Kakegawa City, this paper revealed that users did not appropriately understand the basic specifications of their residential PV systems, and in particular, the fact that the systems sometimes failed and therefore needed proper maintenance. Furthermore, a strong causal relationship between users' expectations of financial return from the system and their level of satisfaction was confirmed empirically. These results suggested that excessive focus on profitability and relatively low interest in the systems' reliability and failure risk should be addressed more to avoid problems that could potentially hamper the establishment of this technology into society. - Highlights: → We examined PV users' perception of its specification, reliability, and failure risk. → Data for analysis were collected by questionnaire survey in a Japanese local municipality. → We revealed users did not appropriately understand the basic specifications. → A strong causal relationship between users' expectations of financial return and their level of satisfaction was confirmed empirically.

  1. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  2. Knowledge Flows in the Global Innovation System: Do U.S. Firms Share More Scientific Knowledge than their Japanese Rivals?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer W Spencer

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, I test the common assumption that Japanese firms strive to appropriate knowledge from the global scientific community while sharing little in return. I found no support for this conventional perspective in the flat panel display industry. U.S. firms shared no more knowledge with their global scientific community than Japanese firms. Similarly, Japanese firms appropriated no more knowledge from the global community than their U.S. counterparts.© 2000 JIBS. Journal of Internation...

  3. Re-work: a new Japanese support system for reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Shuji

    2016-09-01

    Re-work is a new treatment technique that follows the conventional Japanese approach, which includes rest and pharmacotherapy. The aim of re-work is to prevent repeated sick leave by helping individuals reflect on the reasons behind the sick leave and improve stress-related coping skills. Re-work participants prepare in an environment similar to their workplaces at a medical institution or a specialised public facility for several months before returning to work. As re-work is undertaken via group work, this has benefits beyond those which can be achieved by an individual alone. The reinstatement effects of re-work are now starting to be verified. Issues of interest for re-work include its unified concept-based programme, and the need to further verify its clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness. PMID:26677732

  4. Japanese Quality Assurance System Regarding the Provision of Material Accounting Reports and the Safeguards Relevant Information to the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provision of the safeguards relevant reports and information in accordance with the comprehensive safeguards agreement (CSA) and the additional protocol (AP) is the basis for the IAEA safeguards. The government of Japan (Japan Safeguards Office, JSGO) has believed that the correct reports contribute to effective and efficient safeguards therefore the domestic quality assurance system for the reporting to the IAEA was already established at the time of the accession of the CSA in 1977. It consists of Code 10 interpretation (including the seminars for operators in Japan), SSAC's checks for syntax error, code and internal consistency (computer based consistency check between facilities) and the discussion with the IAEA on the facilities' measurement system for bulk-handling facilities, which contributes to the more accurate reports from operators. This spirit has been maintained for the entry into force of the AP. For example, questions and amplification from the IAEA will be taken into account the review of the AP declaration before sending to the IAEA and the open source information such as news article and scientific literature in Japanese is collected and translated into English, and the translated information is provided to the IAEA as the supplementary information, which may contribute to broadening the IAEA information source and to their comprehensive evaluation. The other safeguards relevant information, such as the mail-box information for SNRI at LEU fuel fabrication plants, is also checked by the JSGO's QC software before posting. The software was developed by JSGO and it checks data format, batch IDs, birth/death date, shipper/receiver information and material description code. This paper explains the history of the development of the Japanese quality assurance system regarding the reports and the safeguards relevant information to the IAEA. (author)

  5. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoue S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiro Mizoue,1 Tadashi Nakano,2 Nobuo Fuse,3 Aiko Iwase,4 Shun Matsumoto,5 Keiji Yoshikawa6 On behalf of the IOP CHANGE Study Group7 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Integrative Genomics, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Miyagi, Japan; 4Tajimi Iwase Eye Clinic, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 6Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7IOP CHecked and Assessed in Normal tension Glaucoma by Exceptional Glaucomatologists Study Group, Japan Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG patients. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs <20 mmHg were enrolled after three consecutive time measurements taken at screening and baseline visits. Travoprost with sofZia® was instilled once daily. Lowering effect on IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and adverse events were examined at week 4, 8, and 12 after drug instillation. Results: One-hundred and three of the 107 enrolled patients (baseline IOP =15.2±2.0 mmHg [mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The mean IOP value as well as percent reduction was significantly reduced at each visit after travoprost with sofZia® initiation (P<0.0001. The conjunctival hyperemia score was 1 or less throughout the study, though it increased significantly over time. No significant change was observed in superficial punctate keratopathy. The cumulative incidence of side effects such as eyelash changes, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper lid was 47.6%, 27.2%, and 16.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Travoprost preserved with sofZia® effectively lowered the IOP of Japanese NTG patients. It was

  6. Current status of Japanese research and development activity and program plan on failed fuel detection and location systems for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of research and development on failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) implemented since 1968 in Japan is summarized and reviewed from the viewpoint of availability to reflect to the design and operation of JOYO and MONJU. These include basic experiments of fission product behavior, component development and testing, feasibility study of detection system response, and comparison of several kinds of location methods. The discussion will extend to the role of FFDL in the other surveillance instruments to secure safety and availability of LMFBR plant. Major concerns in Japan are concentrated on the development tasks of location systems, especially on gas tagging and in- and ex-vessel sipping. Another interest is recently directed to revaluation of the fission product behavior in the primary cooling system and monitor sensitivity to analyze response of FFDL system. Future programs are presented, which is proceeding and under consideration to be performed in JOYO MK-II in order to improve and certify the design of FFDL system for the Japanese fast reactors. An international cooperation in the should be remarked future is considered to be quite important and necessary fully to respond to the development of FFDL system, for LMFBR. A practical proposal to approach this objective will be made. (author)

  7. Follow-up study of the regional quota system of Japanese medical schools and prefecture scholarship programmes: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Junko; Tazuma, Susumu; Inoue, Kazuo; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Iguchi, Seitaro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Given the shortage of physicians, particularly in rural areas, the Japanese government has rapidly expanded the number of medical school students by adding chiikiwaku (regional quotas) since 2008. Quota entrants now account for 17% of all medical school entrants. Quota entrants are usually local high school graduates who receive a scholarship from the prefecture government. In exchange, they temporarily practise in that prefecture, including its rural areas, after graduation. Many prefectures also have scholarship programmes for non-quota students in exchange for postgraduate in-prefecture practice. The objective of this cohort study, conducted by the Japanese Council for Community-based Medical Education, is to evaluate the outcomes of the quota admission system and prefecture scholarship programmes nationwide. Methods and analysis There are 3 groups of study participants: quota without scholarship, quota with scholarship and non-quota with scholarship. Under the support of government ministries and the Association of Japan Medical Colleges, and participation of all prefectures and medical schools, passing rate of the National Physician License Examination, scholarship buy-out rate, geographic distribution and specialties distribution of each group are analysed. Participants who voluntarily participated are followed by linking their baseline information to data in the government's biennial Physician Census. Results to date have shown that, despite medical schools' concerns about academic quality, the passing rate of the National Physician License Examination in each group was higher than that of all medical school graduates. Ethics and dissemination The Ethics Committee for Epidemiological Research of Hiroshima University and the Research Ethics Committee of Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences permitted this study. No individually identifiable results will be presented in conferences or published in journals. The aggregated

  8. Evaluating e-resources for Japanese language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Srdanović, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare electronic resources for the Japanese language in terms of their usability for Japanese language learners. The paper focuses on a computer assisted language learning (CALL) system developed to support learners in reading Japanese language texts, the JapaneseLanguage Reading Tutorial System "Reading Tutor", and the e-dictionaryserver "WWWDJDIC" with its extended functions. Each system was introduced and used in the classroom for various teacher-...

  9. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  10. Some agenda of Japanese nuclear third party liability system arising from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and proposal for the system reformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the impact of damage owing to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, the argument of review on Japanese nuclear third party liability system is carried out. As the Fukushima Disaster raised serious legal problems on Japanese nuclear third party liability system that the JCO critical accident did not present, fundamental reformation of the system may be carried out. This paper clarified and analyzed legal problems that Fukushima Disaster raised. In addition, in order to alleviate the problems, this paper showed two options to reform the nuclear compensation system. Our conclusions are summarized as follows. (1) The compensation of the Fukushima Disaster raised the following problems. 1. Regardless of whether the operator has the legally liable for the damage, the necessity of quick victim relief and compensation forced the operator to compensate the damage. 2. Because the damage occurred in broad area and in long term, and cause identification and the calculation of damage amount are difficult, private settlements become so hard that the number of civil litigations increased dramatically. (2) The problems mentioned above are due to the following current legal shortcomings. 1. The victims are not relieved enough unless making bear the operator compensation liability, because Japanese nuclear third party liability system is based on ordinary rules of civil tort liability. 2. The procedure for immunity of operator's nuclear third party liability is not stipulated. 3. The authority of the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation is restricted and cannot discourage damage suits. (3) To overcome the problems, this report showed proposal for system reformation as follows. 1. In order to relieve the victims regardless of whether the operator is liable for the nuclear damages, it is necessary to legislate a Nuclear Disaster Relief Act to relief victims from the viewpoint of governmental aid. 2. It is necessary to introduce the

  11. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  12. Reliability and validity of ADHD diagnostic criteria in the Assessment System for Individuals with ADHD (ASIA): a Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background With reports of a high prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, publication of ADHD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, and the urgent need for a relevant diagnostic instrument conforming to DSM-5, we developed the Assessment System for Individuals with ADHD (ASIA), a Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview. We report here the reliability and validity of ASIA ADHD diagnostic criteria. Methods ASIA ADHD criterion A corresponds to DSM-5 ADHD criterion ...

  13. Reliability and validity of ADHD diagnostic criteria in the Assessment System for Individuals with ADHD (ASIA): A Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With reports of a high prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, publication of ADHD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, and the urgent need for a relevant diagnostic instrument conforming to DSM-5, we developed the Assessment System for Individuals with ADHD (ASIA), a Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview. We report here the reliability and validity of ASIA ADHD diagnostic criteria. Methods: ASIA ADHD criterion A corresponds to DSM-5 ADHD criterio...

  14. Effects of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen on growth performance and immune system of Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Sakine; Rahimi, Shaeban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Tahmasebi, Golamhosein; Khaleghi Miran, Seyed Naser

    2016-01-01

    Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen in comparison with virginiamycin (as growth promoter antibiotic) as regards the performance and immune system of Japanese quail were assessed. We used 256 mixed-sex quail chicks in a completely randomized design by eight treatments, including control, ethanolic extract of propolis 1000 (PE1) and 5000 (PE2) mg kg(-1), pollen powder 1000 (PO1) and 5000 (PO2) mg kg(-1), royal jelly 100 mg kg(-1) (RJ), honey 22 g L(-1) of drinking water (H) and virginiamycin 150 mg kg(-1) (V), and four replicates of eight birds in each replication for 42 days. There was significant differences for weight gain (WG), feed intakes (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) between experimental groups. In addition, WG in V treatment (18.82%), H and PO2 treatments (16.87%) and RJ treatment (12.00%) were significantly higher than to control group (p group while group PE2 exhibited a significant decrease for 1 to 42 day (p groups (p blood cells (p groups (p < 0.01). PMID:27226882

  15. A genome-wide association study identified AFF1 as a susceptibility locus for systemic lupus eyrthematosus in Japanese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Okada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease that causes multiple organ damage. Although recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS have contributed to discovery of SLE susceptibility genes, few studies has been performed in Asian populations. Here, we report a GWAS for SLE examining 891 SLE cases and 3,384 controls and multi-stage replication studies examining 1,387 SLE cases and 28,564 controls in Japanese subjects. Considering that expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs have been implicated in genetic risks for autoimmune diseases, we integrated an eQTL study into the results of the GWAS. We observed enrichments of cis-eQTL positive loci among the known SLE susceptibility loci (30.8% compared to the genome-wide SNPs (6.9%. In addition, we identified a novel association of a variant in the AF4/FMR2 family, member 1 (AFF1 gene at 4q21 with SLE susceptibility (rs340630; P = 8.3×10(-9, odds ratio = 1.21. The risk A allele of rs340630 demonstrated a cis-eQTL effect on the AFF1 transcript with enhanced expression levels (P<0.05. As AFF1 transcripts were prominently expressed in CD4(+ and CD19(+ peripheral blood lymphocytes, up-regulation of AFF1 may cause the abnormality in these lymphocytes, leading to disease onset.

  16. Assessing paternity in japanese quails (Coturnix japonica using microsatellite markers - inferences for its mating system and reproductive success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers were analyzed in Japanese quails, Coturnix japonica, using different methodologies (PAGE and automated genotyping, in order to evaluate their use in paternity testing. Ten animal triplets composed by a female and two males were used to mate and generate an offspring. Paternity was determined in five-day-old embryos, and the data generated by fluorescent labeled and tailored primers in PCR and further automated genotyping were robust. Three microsatellite markers were polymorphic (Na = 5-8, H E = 0.75 and no loci were found to deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or showed any evidence of linkage disequilibrium (p > 0.05. A slight heterozygote deficiency and some incompatibilities between the female known parent and its offspring that involved homozygous genotypes were observed at GUJ0001 locus and may indicate the presence of null alleles. Although a reduced set of microsatellite primers were applied, it was possible to determine the paternity of 96.87% of the embryos, using combined data of three loci. The approach was useful for parentage inferring in a captive population of C. japonica and the results evidenced a potential polyandric mating system in the species, in which no advantage mechanism of last-male sperm precedence seems to occur.

  17. "Electronic Procurement networks and Parts Transaction Systems: A Case of the Automobile Industry"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Je-Wheon Oh; Takahiro Fujimoto

    2001-01-01

    Inter-firm information systems in the automobile industry have evolved from firm-specific networks to industrial standard networks and further to internet. This paper examines how electronic parts procurement systems in the automobile industry affected its patterns of inter-firm transactions through empirical studies on information networks, transaction systems, and architectural characteristics of automobile parts. We argue that choice of a certain parts transaction system tends to affect ch...

  18. READINGS IN JAPANESE HISTORY. PART I, SELECTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAGIWA, JOSEPH K.

    INCLUDED AMONG THE 18 SELECTIONS IN THIS READER FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS OF JAPANESE ARE SUCH ARTICLES AND EXCERPTS FROM BOOKS AS "THE TAIKA REFORMS" BY SAKAMOTO TAROO (1935) AND "THE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF INCOME BY KOKU AND FEUDALISM" BY NAKAMURA KICIJI (1960). THESE TEXTS ARE REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS THEY APPEARED IN JAPANESE-LANGUAGE PUBLICATIONS…

  19. Moral Development of Japanese Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…

  20. An in vitro recombination-based reverse genetic system for rapid mutagenesis of structural genes of the Japanese encephalitis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruikun; Du; Manli; Wang; Zhihong; Hu; Hualin; Wang; Fei; Deng

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV) is one of the most common pathogens of severe viral encephalitis, which is a severe threat to human health. Despite instability of the JEV genome in bacteria, many strategies have been developed to establish molecular clone systems of JEV, providing convenient tools for studying the virus life cycle and virus–host interactions. In this study, we adapted an In-Fusion enzyme-based in vitro recombination method to construct a reverse genetic system of JEV, thereby providing a rapid approach to introduce mutations into the structural genes. A truncated genome without the structural genes was constructed as the backbone, and the complementary segment containing the structural genes was recombined in vitro, which was then transfected directly into virus-permissive cells. The progeny of the infectious virus was successfully detected in the supernatant of the transfected cells, and showed an identical phenotype to its parental virus. To provide a proof-of-principle, the 12 conserved cysteine residues in the envelope(E) protein of JEV were respectively mutated using this approach, and all mutations resulted in a complete failure to generate infectious virus. However, a leucine-tophenylanine mutation at amino acid 107 of the E protein did not interfere with the production of the infectious virus. These results suggested that all 12 cysteines in the E protein are essential for the JEV life cycle. In summary, a novel reverse genetic system of JEV was established for rapidly introducing mutations into structural genes, which will serve as a useful tool for functional studies.

  1. Japanese Higher Education Policy in Korea (1910—1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of Japanese nationalistic thought on the administrative systems and structures of colonial and modern higher education in Korea, as well as to analyze Japanese higher educational policy in Korea during the colonial period (1910-1945). It begins with an examination of Shinto, a syncretistic Japanese state religion and the ideological basis of national education. The author investigates Japanese educational policy and administration during th...

  2. Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)

  3. Japanese Ways of Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 康広

    2011-01-01

    "While Western psychotherapists confront and discuss issues thoroughly, their Japanese counterparts simply wait for patients to spontaneously open up. Japanese psychotherapists may therefore seem relatively passive, yet we are nevertheless wholeheartedly committed in the constellation. The East-West difference may be attributed to differing relationships with nature. Japanese do not see themselves as distinct from nature. Eschewing causal thinking, that is without laying blame, we Japanese ac...

  4. THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE STUDENT

    OpenAIRE

    アラニヤ, R.J.; Robert John, Alagna

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a study of the Japanese language student. It will examine Japanese student classroom behavior, student psychology, the foreign teacher's Japanese enlish conversation classroom environment, and cultural and educational imperatives and constraints of the contemporary Japanese enlish as a Foreign/Second Language Education Classroom. Further, it will discuss the impact these conditions have on the Foreign enlish teacher, teaching materials, and pedagogy in Japan. This paper conclude...

  5. Development of a knowledge based operator support system for Japanese PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A knowledge based operator support system incorporating operator's cognitive models as frameworks for diagnosis and decision making (i.e. procedure selection) is now under development. The system consists of six subsystems: (1) a diagnosis system identifying a cause/causes of anomalous symptoms, (2) a decision maker selecting optimal operational actions as guidance, (3) a plant status evaluator providing objective plant status information, (4) a predictor providing predictive information used by the decision maker, (5) an interface controller enabling bi-directional communications (i.e. dialogues) with operators, (6) a system controller managing interactions between other subsystems. The operator can hold a dialogue with the system using four modes with a total of six sub-menus: 'Explanation' (Process of Diagnosis' and 'Process of Decision Making'), 'Evaluation' ('Diagnosis'), 'Hypothetical' ('Operation'), and 'Guidance' ('Step by Step' and 'Document'). It has been validated in a dynamic test using a real time plant simulator that a smoother interface can be established by the operator models, thereby suggesting the effectiveness of incorporating the operator's cognitive processes. Further studies are planned to develop a system for practical use. Among major technical issues of the studies are (1) the selection and combination of various items of information generated by the system, (2) integration with detailed interface displays, and (3) the selection of an appropriate interface device for the dialogue. (author). Poster presentation. 3 refs, 4 figs

  6. Qualification, certification and training systems of a Japanese nuclear power plant supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training and indoctrination of personnel are very important for performing quality assurance activities in nuclear power plants. The paper presents policies, procedures and practices with regard to a training system for site construction workers, a training system for plant operation personnel at a special facility, and services and activities for operating plants. The training system for site workers and technicians offers basic training for all workers, and special training and qualification for field welders, cable-termination workers and non-destructive examination personnel. In addition to the qualification system for field welders applied by the regulatory body, a privat-company qualification system exists. Also, a training centre for BWR operators has been established. This facility has a simulator duplicating the main control room of an actual plant and a computer-assisted instruction system. Standard training courses, short-term basic courses, re-training courses, group training courses and special training courses are held at the training centre. Finally, the services and activities performed by Toshiba Corporation for operating plants are described. These activities of the plant supplier aim at keeping up and further enhancing the safety and reliability of operating plants and mainly consist of: (1) collection and evaluation of plant operation data, with re-evaluation and improvement of systems and components; (2) development of new maintenance techniques; (3) development of measures for reducing annual outage periods; and (4) plant emergency preparedness. (author)

  7. Rice Tariffs and Their Impact on the Japanese Market (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KEIDA Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how the volume of rice imports would be affected if the Japanese government were to reduce tariffs on rice by looking at the current state of the Simultaneous Buy-and-Sell (SBS) system for rice imports. The Japanese government is required to import 770,000 tons of rice per year to maintain minimum access. However, a large portion of minimum access rice is not used for domestic consumption—only 100,000 tons of SBS rice is used for human consumption. Under the SBS syst...

  8. Do Management Systems Foster Social Capital? Empirical Evidence from Japanese Surf Clam Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Tegawa, Mihoko; Uchida, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    We empirically examine the social effect of management systems. We focus on a particular management practice employed in self-governed coastal fisheries in Japan—revenue sharing arrangement. We hypothesize that management systems affect cooperative relationships and information network in a community; broadly termed as social capital. We quantified social capital using controlled economic experiments with fisherman subjects as well as surveys. Using wild cluster bootstrap for small sample inf...

  9. A history of Japanese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David E

    2004-01-01

    One of the first books to show Westerners the nature of Japanese mathematics, this survey highlights the leading features in the development of the wasan, the Japanese system of mathematics. Topics include the use of the soroban, or abacus; the application of sangi, or counting rods, to algebra; the discoveries of the 17th-century sage Seki Kowa; the yenri, or circle principle; the work of 18th-century geometer Ajima Chokuyen; and Wada Nei's contributions to the understanding of hypotrochoids. Unabridged republication of the classic 1914 edition. 74 figures. Index.

  10. Development of an automated detection system for microcalcifications lesion in mammography (in Japanese)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated detection system for clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms was developed for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. We developed new detection filters of microcalcifications based on the gradient-vector image analysis. The 'triple-ring filter' extracts the region in a pattern similar to that of a microcalcification shadow. Then the 'variable-ring filter' recalculates two vector-feature values (vector-direction and vector-magnitude feature values) and determines the gray-level threshold values adaptively. These filters significantly improved the diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of microcalcifications in comparison with our previously developed scheme based on image contrast analysis. It was proved by an F (free-response) ROC examination: the true positive fraction of our new system was always 10% or more higher than our previous system while the number of false positives per image remained constant. We also developed a ''contrast-correction technique'' to correct the effects of the background content (mammary gland tissue) around the microcalcification and film contrast characteristic on its image contrast. This scheme improved the diagnostic performance for detecting the microcalcifications, and its technology was applied to the image data of two facilities where the imaging characteristic in terms of contrast was different. The diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of clustered microcalcifications in our database of 165 mammograms was 94.3% with 0.63 false positives per image, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method. In addition, we also propose to use an artificial neural network to detect the microcalcifications in the first step instead of the triple-ring filter method: this may make it possible to develop a CAD system with an even higher detection performance level

  11. Development of a prediction system for anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury in Japanese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushiroda, Taisei; Yanai, Hideki; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Sasaki, Yuka; Okumura, Masao; Ogata, Hideo; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common adverse drug reaction in patients receiving antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment. Among the anti-TB agents, isoniazid (INH) is the primary drug that causes hepatotoxicity in TB patients with DILI. Previous reports in several populations have consistently demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene, which is responsible for INH hepatic metabolism, and a risk of DILI in TB patients. In this study, the genetic and baseline clinical data from 366 Japanese patients with TB (73 patients with DILI and 293 without DILI) were used to develop a system to predict DILI risk due to anti-TB agents. The distribution of the NAT2 acetylator status among the TB patients with DILI was 31 (42.5%), 29 (39.7%), and 13 (17.8%) for rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylators, respectively. A significant association was observed between NAT2 slow acetylators and DILI risk (odds ratio 4.32, 95% confidence interval 1.93–9.66, P value=5.56×10−4). A logistic regression model based on age and NAT2 genotype revealed that the area under the curve for the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.717. The findings demonstrated that slow NAT2 acetylator status is a significant predictor of the risk of DILI by anti-TB agents, and a personalized anti-TB treatment approach may aid in making treatment decisions and reducing the incidence of DILI. PMID:27340556

  12. Development of a prediction system for anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushiroda, Taisei; Yanai, Hideki; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Sasaki, Yuka; Okumura, Masao; Ogata, Hideo; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common adverse drug reaction in patients receiving antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment. Among the anti-TB agents, isoniazid (INH) is the primary drug that causes hepatotoxicity in TB patients with DILI. Previous reports in several populations have consistently demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene, which is responsible for INH hepatic metabolism, and a risk of DILI in TB patients. In this study, the genetic and baseline clinical data from 366 Japanese patients with TB (73 patients with DILI and 293 without DILI) were used to develop a system to predict DILI risk due to anti-TB agents. The distribution of the NAT2 acetylator status among the TB patients with DILI was 31 (42.5%), 29 (39.7%), and 13 (17.8%) for rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylators, respectively. A significant association was observed between NAT2 slow acetylators and DILI risk (odds ratio 4.32, 95% confidence interval 1.93-9.66, P value=5.56×10(-4)). A logistic regression model based on age and NAT2 genotype revealed that the area under the curve for the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.717. The findings demonstrated that slow NAT2 acetylator status is a significant predictor of the risk of DILI by anti-TB agents, and a personalized anti-TB treatment approach may aid in making treatment decisions and reducing the incidence of DILI. PMID:27340556

  13. Effects of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen on growth performance and immune system of Japanese quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Sakine; Rahimi, Shaeban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Tahmasebi, Golamhosein; Khaleghi Miran, Seyed Naser

    2016-01-01

    Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen in comparison with virginiamycin (as growth promoter antibiotic) as regards the performance and immune system of Japanese quail were assessed. We used 256 mixed-sex quail chicks in a completely randomized design by eight treatments, including control, ethanolic extract of propolis 1000 (PE1) and 5000 (PE2) mg kg-1, pollen powder 1000 (PO1) and 5000 (PO2) mg kg-1, royal jelly 100 mg kg-1 (RJ), honey 22 g L-1 of drinking water (H) and virginiamycin 150 mg kg-1 (V), and four replicates of eight birds in each replication for 42 days. There was significant differences for weight gain (WG), feed intakes (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) between experimental groups. In addition, WG in V treatment (18.82%), H and PO2 treatments (16.87%) and RJ treatment (12.00%) were significantly higher than to control group (p < 0.01). Significantly higher values of FCR were recorded in control group while group PE2 exhibited a significant decrease for 1 to 42 day (p < 0.05). The results of effect of bee products on antibodies titer showed an increase in the Newcastle disease (ND) titer when compared with control and virginiamycin groups (p < 0.01). There was significant difference in antibody production against avian influenza (AI) and sheep red blood cells (p < 0.01). Significant differences were observed in heterophils to lymphocytes ratio among PE1, PE2, PO1 and PO2 with V and control groups (p < 0.01).

  14. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  15. Construction and Application of an Innovation Search System in Geographical Space (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Souma, Wataru; Fujita, Yuji; NAITO Yusuke; NISHIDA Masatoshi; JIBU Mari

    2013-01-01

    Science and technology policy in Japan has not been working well so far. This problem comes from the inefficient management of the "creation of value" and "creation of knowledge." To overcome this problem, developing a system that supports the draw-up policy is necessary. For this purpose, we have been developing an innovation search engine called the "Japan Knowledge Map" in the geographic space. In this paper, we explain this search engine and introduce some examples of its application. In ...

  16. Dissemination of Regenerative Medicine - A comparison of the regulatory systems between Japan and Korea - (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KURATA Kenji; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Although Japan has surpassed Korea in terms of R&D activities in the area of regenerative medicine, Korea has been more successful in its commercialization. As one of the key reasons for this, the 'posture' of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) in Japan is often criticized. Rather than dwelling on the abstract, this paper chooses to focus on the set up and operation of actual systems that take into consideration the promotion of regenerative medicine in Japan. Analysis and ...

  17. Status of the Japanese development study of hydrogen production system using HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), which is a graphite moderated, helium cooled reactor, is particularly attractive due to capability of producing high temperature helium gas and its inherent safety characteristics. Especially hydrogen production using HTGR heat is expected to be one of the most promising applications to solve the current environmental issues of CO2 emission. The research and development (R and D) was initiated in Germany or other countries in the past, but the development studies were suspended or ceased due to several reasons except Japan. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has proceeded with extensive R and D of the steam reforming system and thermal water splitting lodine-Sulfur (IS) process for the development of hydrogen production system using HTGR heat. This paper overviews the status of the research and development on nuclear heat utilization using HTGR at JAERI and discusses the technical subjects, focusing on the hydrogen production system coupling to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

  18. Changes in Japanese corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Alin NISTOR

    2009-01-01

    Corporate governance systems vary around the world. These differences result from different legal systems, systems of corporate finance and corporate ownership as well as divergent norms around the firm’s responsibilities to its various stakeholders. These different systems of corporate governance came into direct contact in Japan. The paper makes an analysis of the past changes of Japanese corporate governance due to the modifications in the ownership of the companies.

  19. International Competition: The Japanese Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    The Japanese success in international competition has attracted much attention. To date, little of this attention has addressed the role of marketing in the Japanese success. This note focuses on the Japanese approach to strategic market planning and its role in contributing to the competitive strength of Japanese enterprise.The author identifies the major elements of the Japanese approach and concludes that there is nothing new in Japanese marketing. The Japanese advantage is not in secret o...

  20. Worldwide Lineages of Clinical Pneumococci in a Japanese Teaching Hospital Identified by DiversiLab System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, Kiyoshi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Sakata, Ryuji; Iwata, Morihiro; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Chang, Bin; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones are representatives of worldwide-spreading pathogens. DiversiLab system, a repetitive PCR system, has been proposed as a less labor-and time-intensive genotyping platform alternative to conventional methods. However, the utility and analysis parameters of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineages was not established. To evaluate and optimize the performance of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide pneumococcal lineages, we examined 245 consecutive isolates of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae from all age-group patients at a teaching hospital in Japan. The capsular swelling reaction of all isolates yielded 24 different serotypes. Intensive visual observation (VO) of DiversiLab band pattern difference divided all isolates into 73 clusters. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of representative 73 isolates from each VO cluster yielded 51 different STs. Among them, PMEN-related lineages accounted for 63% (46/73). Although the serotype of PMEN-related isolates was identical to that of the original PMEN clone in 70% (32/46), CC156-related PMEN lineages, namely Greece(6B)-22 and Colombia(23F)-26, harbored various capsular types discordant to the original PMEN clones. Regarding automated analysis, genotyping by extended Jaccard (XJ) with a 75% similarity index cutoff (SIC) showed the highest correlation with serotyping (adjusted Rand's coefficient, 0.528). Elevating the SIC for XJ to 85% increased the discriminatory power sufficient for distinguishing two major PMEN-related isolates of Taiwan(19F)-14 and Netherlands(3)-31. These results demonstrated a potential utility of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineage of pneumococcus. An optimized parameters of automated analysis should be useful especially for comparison for reference strains by "identification" function of DiversiLab. PMID:27107736

  1. MRI in Japanese encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Misra, U.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Kalita, J. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Salwani, V. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gupta, R.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gujral, R. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-03-01

    We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. MRI was carried out on a 1.5 T system within 10-60 days of onset. In all the patients MRI revealed bilateral thalamic lesions, haemorrhagic in five. Signal changes were present in the cerebrum in four patients, the midbrain and cerebellum in three each, the pons in two and the basal ganglia in one. The lesions were haemorrhagic in three of the four patients with lesions in the cortex, two of the three with lesions in the midbrain and cerebellum, but the pontine lesions were haemorrhagic in both patients. Spinal cord involvement was seen in one of the three patients who underwent MRI. In two patients MRI was repeated 3 years after the onset, showing marked reduction in abnormal signal; and all the lesions gave low signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Bilateral thalamic involvement, especially haemorrhagic, may be considered characteristic of Japanese encephalitis, especially in endemic areas. (orig.)

  2. Japanese Companies' Investments in China (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    SHIBOTA Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    This research paper provides an overview of Japan-China economic relations focusing primarily on Japanese companies' direct investments in China. First, I will outline the chronological development of investment relations between Japan and China over the past 20 years. Historically, there have been three boom periods for Japanese investments in China: the first boom from 1985 through 1987, the second from 1991 through 1995, and the third from 2000 through 2005. I will summarize the characteri...

  3. Development of Japanese Patent Stock and Citation-Weighted Patent Stock-An Application of HJT Model to Japanese Patent Data- (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Yamada

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops patent stock and citation-weighted patent stock using Japanese patent data. In constructing database, I refer to the method of the correction of truncation bias by Hall, Jaffe and Trajtenberg(2000,2001). However, due to the differences in patent systems between Japan and the United States, I cannot simply apply the method to Japanese data. I had to adjust the method suitable for Japanese patent system. In addition, I estimate the Cobb-Douglas production function including ...

  4. Kyai and Japanese Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Yasuko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the second world war in Southeast Asia, the Japanese army tried to gain the support and cooperation of the people it occupies. In this case the policy becomes very important political Islam in Indonesia, and one prominent characteristic of Japanese politics is concerned with the role of Islamic clerics. But when he landed in Indonesia, the Japanese military has not formulated political Islam is to be implemented. Then immediately stated that the Japanese military government respect the religious population.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i3.772

  5. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the vaccine, what should I do? What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially severe disease. ... cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts of ...

  6. Integrating Modular Products beyond Industrial Boundary - Analysis of the integration process of a PC system and NC system (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    SHIBATA Tomoatsu; KODAMA Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Module integration refers to a process in which two product systems, each having been established as a complete module architecture through a different technological trajectory, are integrated into a new product concept. Is such integration possible? If so, how can it be done? This paper illustrates the possibility of such integration by examining the evolution process of a personal computer (PC) system and numerical control (NC) system. Based on this case study, we have verified to what exte...

  7. Japanese management in the XXI century: analysis and problems of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkus, V.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the fundamental principles of the Japanese management system, including the main aspects of the philosophy of kaizen and kanban. Also study socio-cultural problems of the Japanese management system.

  8. The Mutual Reference Behavior in Japanese Public

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi Saito

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the mutual reference behavior of local governments in Japan. The Japanese public education system was decentralized in the previous decade. For example, actual fixed number of classes was relaxed in 2001 and 2003. This relaxation of regulations caused an increase in the expenditure of local governments on Japanese public education. After national regulation relaxed under the condition of children decline, local governments tended to reference the decision making of other l...

  9. Shareholder value creation in Japanese banking

    OpenAIRE

    Radić, Nemanja

    2015-01-01

    This paper advances the study of Fiordelisi and Molyneux (2010) by examining the shareholder value efficiency and its determinants for a large sample of Japanese banks between 1999 and 2011. A new, specifically tailored measure of the Economic Value Added approach, based on the shadow price of equity, is developed in order to account for specific characteristics of the Japanese banking system. This new “shareholder value measure” is then used in a dynamic panel data model as a linear function...

  10. Japanese Media in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  11. Japanese Companies Operating in South Vietnam (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    SEKI Mitsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted in Vietnam in late 2003 and forms part of a research project aimed at clarifying the current situation in Vietnam as the country enters a new stage in its development by interpreting the impact made by Japanese companies operating there. The first phase of the research focuses on Japanese companies with a certain amount of experience in Vietnam that operate around Ho Chi Minh City in the southern part of the country, including machinery an...

  12. Financing Behavior of Japanese Firms (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Sakai

    2009-01-01

    This paper tests the trade-off theory against the pecking-order theory of corporate financing behavior on a panel data set of publicly traded Japanese firms for 1964 to 2005. Comparing the explanatory powers for both the trade-off and the pecking-order models, we find the following. First, for the financing behavior of Japanese firms, the pecking-order model has much greater explanatory power than the trade-off model, while both models are still statistically significant. Second, running the ...

  13. Disruption of the thyroid system by the thyroid-disrupting compound Aroclor 1254 in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Dong

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3 gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus following 25- and 50-day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies.

  14. Japanese Discourse and the Process of Centering

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M; Côté, S; Walker, Marilyn; Iida, Masayo; Cote, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    This paper has three aims: (1) to generalize a computational account of the discourse process called {\\sc centering}, (2) to apply this account to discourse processing in Japanese so that it can be used in computational systems for machine translation or language understanding, and (3) to provide some insights on the effect of syntactic factors in Japanese on discourse interpretation. We argue that while discourse interpretation is an inferential process, syntactic cues constrain this process, and demonstrate this argument with respect to the interpretation of {\\sc zeros}, unexpressed arguments of the verb, in Japanese. The syntactic cues in Japanese discourse that we investigate are the morphological markers for grammatical {\\sc topic}, the postposition investigate the role of speaker's {\\sc empathy}, which is the viewpoint from which an event is described. This is syntactically indicated through the use of verbal compounding, i.e. the auxiliary use of verbs such as {\\it kureta, kita}. Our results are based ...

  15. Japanese Word Sketches: Advances and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present results of an evaluation of Japanese word sketches and address in detail issues that were observed by the evaluators. A word sketch presents a list of salient collocates of a word, organized by the grammatical relations holding between the word and its collocate. The word sketch functionality is incorporated into the Sketch Engine corpus query system and has been created for more than twenty languages so far, including Japanese. The issues that have been discovered in the evaluation of word sketches in Japanese are to be addressed for further enhancement of the word sketch functionality. Other tools and resources which are combined for use and influence the performance of the word sketches should also be looked over. We divide the issues into the following: 1 the lemmatizer and tagger in use, 2 the sketch grammar that is specifically written for Japanese, and 3 the corpus and statistical methods.

  16. The Japanese approach to financing LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese approach approach to financing LNG project has been what could be called a combined purchase and finance system which has been arranged mainly at the initiative of japan's Sogo Shosh (general trading companies) with the support of japanese governmental financial agencies and a purchase commitment from japanese utilities. In the QATARGAS project, despite it being the first greenfield LNG project in decade since North West Shelf Australia LNG project, financing for the LNG plant phase has been successfully arranged through Japanese financing. The structuring of the financial facilities for the QATARGAS project seems to have lessons for future development of the next generation of greenfield LNG projects. Discharge of the parties' liability, proper sharing of the risk burden and reconfirmation of the spirit of mutual understanding and trust among the parties concerned are key factors for the success of any new LNG project in the future. (Author)

  17. Japanese Marketing. Fundamentally Different

    OpenAIRE

    Höskuldur Hrafn Guttormsson 1990

    2016-01-01

    Japan has always had a unique image in the eyes of many westerners and especially when it comes to its unique and whacky commercials. This study is motivated by the question; “Do the Japanese have a fundamentally different way of marketing compared to the western world?” It aims to advance our understanding of how and why Japanese marketing differs from typical western marketing by focusing on the history of Japan, conventional marketing practices of Japanese companies and the differences bet...

  18. Stakeholder involvement - a japanese perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional societal and cultural background of Japanese in general indicates the intrinsic difficulty in involving the public as stakeholders in the process of any type of decision making in policy matters. It is characterized by the long-taught virtue of harmonization and obedience to others. In addition, characteristic system of Japanese traditional industrial society, such as lifetime employment, seniority-based wage system, and enterprise-based labour union, encourages the loyalty to the employer/company, but not to the public. The public or ordinary citizens would seldom come out as stakeholders and express their true feelings or real opinions, even though younger generation is notably getting out from such a trend. On the other hand, it is a common practice in Japanese society for any business or administrative transactions to try to obtain 'consensus' among relevant parties concerned (stakeholders) by negotiations behind the curtain prior to the formal discussion. In this sense, 'stakeholders involvement' is accepted and practised as a matter of course, but mostly for actions between parties of equivalently influential status levels or between 'directly relevant' parties such as those between the different government agencies, between regulators and industries. The concept of 'Involving the public in decision making as stakeholders' is not yet fully understood nor accepted in Japan both by regulators and by the public so far as the issue of radiation protection is concerned. These situations are explained with some examples. (author)

  19. Investigation of a 2K superfluid liquid helium refrigerator system and research of superconducting RF cavities. Report from the short visiting and research program aboard supported by the Japanese education ministry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author visited at Jefferson Lab for two months from July 5 '99 to September 2 by the short visit and research program financed by the Japanese Education Ministry for the investigation the CEBAF 2K refrigerator system and research superconducting RF cavities. Here, the result will be presented. (author)

  20. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  1. How the Japanese work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry. PMID:9929991

  2. Occidental and Japanese Art

    OpenAIRE

    Kevvai, Kadi; Bauer, Liis; Minssieux, Milene; Quist Møller, Felix; Kovalevska, Aleksandra; Harbsmeier, Jesper Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This project aims to investigate the influence of Japanese ukiyo-e woodblock prints on Impressionistic art. The paper is divided into three sections: first a historical background on the most famous artists behind woodblock prints and their appearance in the West. We shall also elaborate on the Impressionists who were strongly influenced by them. The second section will hold comparative analyses that try to identify the Impressionists’ inspiration by Japanese ukiyo-e and Zen Buddhism. The ana...

  3. Japanese Management & SMEs application

    OpenAIRE

    Rins Tena, Benet

    2010-01-01

    This project's main objective is to study and develop management methods employed for more than half a century by the Japanese in terms of production management, human resources and everything related to the company stuff, placing them as leaders in the global market indeed in all sectors in terms of efficiency, reliability, quality and safety at work. As a starting point a theoretical analysis of the history, culture and behaviour throughout Japanese history to understand why the concept of ...

  4. Teaching Japanese Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Shamoon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese popular culture has arrived on American college campuses as never before. Student interest in Japanese manga (comic books, anime (animated films and television shows, and video games drives much of the enrollment in Japanese courses and Japanese majors and minors. In response to student interest, as well as the establishment of popular culture as a topic of serious academic scholarship, the demand for courses on Japanese popular culture has never been higher. Yet the number of scholars specializing in the study of popular culture is still relatively small. This can potentially create problems, as faculty teach outside their expertise, and perhaps face an uncomfortable situation in which the students know more about the topic than the professor. In this article, I will offer some suggestions and advice for faculty creating a popular culture course for the first time, based on my experiences teaching undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame. The course I developed reflects my background in Japanese literature and film, and is but one example of many possible approaches to the topic. The sample syllabus and list of resources at the end of this article provide citations for all text and media sources mentioned.

  5. Hospital- and Laboratory-Based Investigations of Hospitalized Children with Central Nervous System-Related Symptoms To Assess Japanese Encephalitis Virus Etiology in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kabilan, Lalitha; Ramesh, S; Srinivasan, S; Thenmozhi, V.; S. Muthukumaravel; Rajendran, R

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative investigation of hospitalized encephalitic children in south India, between July 2002 and February 2003, has indicated that Japanese encephalitis was confirmed in 27.3% of these children. In developing countries, assessment of actual Japanese encephalitis disease burden requires strengthening of diagnostic laboratory capacities at hospitals.

  6. WSPEEDI (worldwide version of SPEEDI): A computer code system for the prediction of radiological impacts on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code system has been developed for near real-time dose assessment during radiological emergencies. The system WSPEEDI, the worldwide version of SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) aims at predicting the radiological impact on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries. WSPEEDI consists of a mass-consistent wind model WSYNOP for large-scale wind fields and a particle random walk model GEARN for atmospheric dispersion and dry and wet deposition of radioactivity. The models are integrated into a computer code system together with a system control software, worldwide geographic database, meteorological data processor and graphic software. The performance of the models has been evaluated using the Chernobyl case with reliable source terms, well-established meteorological data and a comprehensive monitoring database. Furthermore, the response of the system has been examined by near real-time simulations of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), carried out over about 2,000 km area in Europe. (author)

  7. Association of HLA-G 3' Untranslated Region Polymorphisms with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population: A Case-Control Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Yuki; Kawasaki, Aya; Oka, Shomi; Kondo, Yuya; Ito, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Isao; Kusaoi, Makio; Amano, Hirofumi; Suda, Akiko; Setoguchi, Keigo; Nagai, Tatsuo; Shimada, Kota; Sugii, Shoji; Okamoto, Akira; Chiba, Noriyuki; Suematsu, Eiichi; Ohno, Shigeru; Katayama, Masao; Kono, Hajime; Hirohata, Shunsei; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Sumida, Takayuki; Nagaoka, Shouhei; Tohma, Shigeto; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    HLA-G plays a role in fetal-maternal tolerance as well as immunoregulation, and has been suggested to be involved in autoimmune diseases and cancers. HLA-G encodes two potentially functional polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region, 14bp insertion/deletion (14bp indel, rs371194629) and a single nucleotide polymorphism rs1063320, previously reported to affect HLA-G expression level or splicing isoform and to be associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the results of SLE association studies are inconsistent, probably due to the small sample size of each study and lack of consideration of linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA-class II haplotypes in each population. In this study, we performed association studies of these polymorphisms on 843 patients with SLE and 778 healthy controls in a Japanese population, in many of whom HLA-DRB1 alleles have been genotyped at the four-digit level. LD was detected between DRB1*13:02, protective against multiple autoimmune diseases in the Japanese, and the rs1063320 G (D' = 0.86, r2 = 0.02) and with 14bp del (D' = 0.62, r2 = 0.01), but not between SLE-susceptible DRB1*15:01 and HLA-G. Although significant association with overall SLE was not detected, 14bp ins allele was significantly associated with SLE with the age of onset RNP antibody and anti-Sm antibody positive SLE, which was dependent on negative LD with DRB1*13:02. eQTL analysis showed reduced HLA-G mRNA level in 14bp ins/ins individuals. In conclusion, our observations showed that HLA-G 14bp ins allele represents a genetic contribution on early-onset SLE independent of DRB1. PMID:27331404

  8. Summary of experience and practice in Japanese nuclear desalination plants at the interface between nuclear and desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widely prevalent large scale desalination of seawater is accomplished by two primary methods: Distillation and reverse osmosis (RO). In any case, an external energy supply source is mandatory for the operation of the desalination plants. Reverse Osmosis is more energy efficient than distillation. The energy input for RO is usually supplied by electric power, whereas thermal energy is extracted from an electric power plant for the distillation processes (dual purpose plant). There are no impediments in using nuclear power plants to supply energy to desalination plants in an integral site. However, it is essential to eliminate the possibility of penetration of radioactive contamination into produced water. Besides, the investigation of possible back-up facilities is detrimental to meet the demand of electric power and water. In accordance with the Japanese regulations, a nuclear power plant cannot be operated if any amount of radioactive contamination resulted from the failure of fuel is detected in the cooling water. In our experience, we have found that no special provisions and no additional selection criteria are needed to install the desalination plants within the nuclear power plants, except for the carbon steel shell utilized for the RO module. (author)

  9. Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Japanese Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Krukowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that determine the Japanese approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR to facilitate future empirical research in the Polish conditions. Methodology: To conduct the research, the available literature concerning CSR, managerial behaviour and stakeholder relations in Japan was studied. The research was conducted onsite in Japan after consultation with local experts, both Japanese and foreigners, specialized in Japanese management and the economy. Findings: The Japanese approach to CSR is strongly determined by their religious, philosophical, cultural, historical, economic and legal factors. It is proof of the concept of CSR contextuality, which provokes questions about the nature of the business relations of Japanese companies with their foreign counterparts and their style of management while investing abroad. Research limitations: The methodology was only supposed to gain a general view of the factors infl uencing CSR in Japan. Studying more detailed issues with the use of empirical data was complicated because of the short time available for the research (6 weeks and the relatively low level of transparency of the Japanese companies. Value: The study helped in understanding managerial decisions and Japanese business behaviour in the context of corporate responsibility and the ethics of its everyday operations. It was the fi rst research thoroughly analyzing many of the determinants of CSR in Japan, which may be valuable for any counterparts cooperating with the Japanese companies and foreign researchers analyzing Japanese management systems.

  10. Alterations of Spinal Cord in Japanese B Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kishikawa, Masao

    1993-01-01

    The cytopathologic changes of Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) are basically similar to those of other forms of arbovirus encephalitis. Because the entire central nervous system including the spinal cord is involved to varying degrees, the nomenclature of JBE should actually be Japanese B panencephalomyelitis.

  11. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  12. Japanese Higher Education Policy in Korea (1910—1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of Japanese nationalistic thought on the administrative systems and structures of colonial and modern higher education in Korea, as well as to analyze Japanese higher educational policy in Korea during the colonial period (1910-1945. It begins with an examination of Shinto, a syncretistic Japanese state religion and the ideological basis of national education. The author investigates Japanese educational policy and administration during the colonial period, including the establishment of a colonial imperial university in Korea. He also reviews the administrative systems and organizational structures in imperial and colonial universities. Both beneficial and negative impacts of the Japanese colonial education system on current Korean higher education conclude the analysis.

  13. Challenges for Japanese refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the importance of Japan in the Asian petroleum market and traces Japan's economic growth since the 1960s, the impact of the oil price shocks, and Japanese energy and oil demand. Overviews of Japans refining industry and oil trade are presented with details given of refining capacity and major refiners, and growing environmental awareness and environmental programmes are considered. Plots of Japanese petroleum product demand (1985-2000) and the average sizes and number of refineries (1980-2000) are shown

  14. Japanese VLBI Network

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, A; Harada, K; Nagayama, T; Suematsu, K; Sugiyama, K; Habe, A; Honma, M; Kawaguchi, N; Kobayashi, H; Koyama, Y; Murata, Y; Omodaka, T; Sorai, K; Sudou, H; Takaba, H; Takashima, K; Wakamatsu, K; Doi, Akihiro; Fujisawa, Kenta; Harada, Keiichiro; Nagayama, Takumi; Suematsu, Kousuke; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Habe, Asao; Honma, Mareki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Murata, Yasuhiro; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Sudou, Hiroshi; Takaba, Hiroshi; Takashima, Kazuhiro; Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    We present the basic features and the activities of Japanese VLBI network (JVN), a newly-established VLBI network with baselines ranging from 50 to 2560 km spreading across the Japanese islands, and capable of observing at 6.7, 8.4, and 22 GHz. We show a number of results of JVN observations: 8.4-GHz continuum images of a Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) source and radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), the spatial and velocity structures of water masers in NML Cygni as well as methanol masers in Cep A, and demonstrative observations with the bigradient phase referencing.

  15. Using network analysis to explore if professional opinions on Japanese encephalitis risk factors in Nepal reflect a socio-ecological system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Kent; El Kurdi, Syliva; Joshi, Durgadatt; Stephen, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia and a significant public health problem in Nepal. Its epidemiology is influenced by factors affecting its amplifying hosts (pigs), vectors (mosquitoes), and dead-end hosts (including people). While most control efforts target reduced susceptibility to infection either by vaccination of people or pigs or by reduced exposure to mosquitoes; the economic reality of Nepal makes it challenging to implement standard JE control measures. An ecohealth approach has been nominated as a way to assist in finding and prioritizing locally relevant strategies for JE control that may be viable, feasible, and acceptable. We sought to understand if Nepalese experts responsible for JE management conceived of its epidemiology in terms of a socio-ecological system to determine if they would consider ecohealth approaches. Network analysis suggested that they did not conceive JE risk as a product of a socio-ecological system. Traditional proximal risk factors of pigs, mosquitoes, and vaccination predominated experts' conception of JE risk. People seeking to encourage an ecohealth approach or social change models to JE management in Nepal may benefit from adopting social marketing concepts to encourage and empower local experts to examine JE from a socio-ecological perspective. PMID:24052266

  16. Financing Japanese nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial climate and needs of the electric utilities in Japan are reviewed. Nuclear investment and fund raising by Japanese electric power companies over the period 1976 to 1979 (with some projections to 1982) are given. Power generation costs for April 1979 and October 1980 are compared. Non-nuclear as well as nuclear costs are considered. (U.K.)

  17. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  18. Association of HLA-G 3’ Untranslated Region Polymorphisms with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population: A Case-Control Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Yuki; Kawasaki, Aya; Oka, Shomi; Kondo, Yuya; Ito, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Isao; Kusaoi, Makio; Amano, Hirofumi; Suda, Akiko; Setoguchi, Keigo; Nagai, Tatsuo; Shimada, Kota; Sugii, Shoji; Okamoto, Akira; Chiba, Noriyuki; Suematsu, Eiichi; Ohno, Shigeru; Katayama, Masao; Kono, Hajime; Hirohata, Shunsei; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Sumida, Takayuki; Nagaoka, Shouhei; Tohma, Shigeto; Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    HLA-G plays a role in fetal-maternal tolerance as well as immunoregulation, and has been suggested to be involved in autoimmune diseases and cancers. HLA-G encodes two potentially functional polymorphisms in the 3’ untranslated region, 14bp insertion/deletion (14bp indel, rs371194629) and a single nucleotide polymorphism rs1063320, previously reported to affect HLA-G expression level or splicing isoform and to be associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the results of SLE association studies are inconsistent, probably due to the small sample size of each study and lack of consideration of linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA-class II haplotypes in each population. In this study, we performed association studies of these polymorphisms on 843 patients with SLE and 778 healthy controls in a Japanese population, in many of whom HLA-DRB1 alleles have been genotyped at the four-digit level. LD was detected between DRB1*13:02, protective against multiple autoimmune diseases in the Japanese, and the rs1063320 G (D’ = 0.86, r2 = 0.02) and with 14bp del (D’ = 0.62, r2 = 0.01), but not between SLE-susceptible DRB1*15:01 and HLA-G. Although significant association with overall SLE was not detected, 14bp ins allele was significantly associated with SLE with the age of onset <20 years, when compared with healthy controls (P = 0.0067, PFDR = 0.039, OR 1.44, additive model) or with SLE patients with the age of onset ≥20 (P = 0.033, PFDR = 0.0495, OR 2.09, additive model). This association remained significant after conditioning on DRB1*13:02 or DRB1*15:01. On the other hand, significant association was detected between rs1063320 C and anti-RNP antibody and anti-Sm antibody positive SLE, which was dependent on negative LD with DRB1*13:02. eQTL analysis showed reduced HLA-G mRNA level in 14bp ins/ins individuals. In conclusion, our observations showed that HLA-G 14bp ins allele represents a genetic contribution on early-onset SLE

  19. Japanese Visit CERN's Jardin d'Enfants

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    On 1 November twenty four Japanese teachers from the Association of Private Kindergartens in Osaka visited CERN’s Jardin d’Enfants to exchange experience and learn more about the Swiss educational system. The delegation was lead by Mrs. Nobuko Shirae, President of the Association, and Mr. Takeshi Kakimoto from the Japan Travel Bureau.

  20. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Trials of Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lili; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the Japanese response in terms of innovation capacity and entrepreneurship enhancement under the ever-changing economic environment. Particular focus would go to the interactions among government, industry and universities in the national innovation system at a macro level, and entrepreneurship education at the institutional…

  1. CT findings of Japanese encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Hiroshi; Toyomasu, Teruo; Fukada, Makiko; Nakashima, Kenichi; Kaji, Masaro; Kobayashi, Kenji

    1984-04-01

    In this study, CT findings of eight patients with Japanese encephalitis were analyzed. In principle, CT scans were done at the acute stage, within 3 weeks of the onset, and at the convalescent stage, after from 1 month to 1 year. The results may be divided into three groups: normal scans, low-density lesions, and ventricular abnormalities. 1) Normal scans: CT findings in Cases 1 and 5, showed no abnormalities, although patient 5 had clinically severe encephalitis. 2) Low-density lesions: In Case 3, a slight low-density area was observed in the bilateral thalami only at the acute stage. CT scans in Case 4, obtained 2 and 4 months after the onset, exhibited low-density areas in the bilateral thalami, the left basal ganglia, and the left substantia nigra. In Case 7, diffuse low-density areas in the white matter were found 3 months after the onset. 3) Ventricular abnormalities: CT in Case 2 revealed a moderate dilatation of the ventricular system, which probably suggests normal-pressure hydrocephalus. In 2 other cases, a narrowing or dilatation of the lateral ventricle was observed. The CT findings regarding Japanese encephalitis were discussed in comparison with those of other viral encephalitides, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis.

  2. An Empirical Examination of the Mechanisms Mediating between High-Performance Work Systems and the Performance of Japanese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P.; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human…

  3. 日本社会保障制度中残疾人概念简析%Analysis on the Concept of Disabled Person in Japanese Social Security System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    出和晓子

    2012-01-01

      日本对“残疾人”内涵的理解既借鉴和遵从了国际社会通行的理念,例如联合国通过的《残疾人权利宣言》等国际规则,同时也有其独特的理解,并通过制定《残疾人基本法》和其他配套法律,将一般意义上的残疾人范围进行了扩展。这一立法上的变化是日本受到了“回归常态化”理念的影响,日本政府改变了以往由行政机关提供社会福祉服务的方式,引进了由援助对象自行选择服务,并与提供服务的机构直接订立契约的新型制度。本文主要对日本有关残疾人概念的界定及其演变进行概括性介绍,包括以下内容,日本对社会保障、残疾人等概念的界定;现行制度下的残疾人基本类型与残疾人基本状况;有关残疾人制度理念的变化。%  In Japanese sociological study and social security system, the general understanding about the connotation of “disabled person” is used as a reference from the common idea of international society, such as international rules of "Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" and "International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" which were adopted by the United Nations. Meanwhile, some unique understandings are added in Japan. The range of a disabled person in a general meaning was expanded through the establishment of "The basic Act for people with disabilities" and other corresponding laws. Such legislative changes are considered to have been affected by the idea of “normalization”. The Japanese government has changed the social welfare services provided by the executive authorities in the past, and has begun to introduce a new type system which supports the candidates to choose services by themselves and signs contracts with service providing organizations directly. This paper mainly introduced the definition of “disabled person” and its changing in Japan; the content mainly the

  4. Japanese: Baltic Sea Region film co-production; Japanese views

    OpenAIRE

    Niskanen, Eija; Kakeo, Yoshio; Petkovic, Silvana; Severns, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Japan is the second-largest movie market in the world, after the United States. For this and other reasons, there is interest from other countries in co-operating with Japanese filmmakers. This report covers the contemporary Japanese film production and distribution scene, detailing the special features and structure of the industry, as well as providing case studies of international film co-production. Special focus lies on the views of Japanese film professionals toward the possibility of f...

  5. Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    Zen Buddhist ideas and practices in many ways are unique within the study of religion, and artists, poets and Buddhists practitioners worldwide have found inspiration from this tradition. Until recent years, representations of Zen Buddhism have focussed almost entirely on philosophical, historical...... religiosity and how different kinds of Zen Buddhists (monks, nuns, priest, lay people) interact and define themselves within the religious organization. Living Zen portrays a living Zen Buddhism being both uniquely interesting and interestingly typical for common Buddhist and Japanese religiosity...

  6. The Japanese economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The Japanese economic behavior is modeled. GDP evolution is represented as a sum two components: economic tend and fluctuations. The trend is an inverse function of GDP per capita with a constant numerator. The growth rate fluctuations are numerically equal to two thirds of the relative change in the number of eighteen-year-olds. Inflation is represented by a linear function of labor force change rate. The models provide an accurate description for the poor economic performance and deflation ...

  7. Japanese Encephalitis Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Yoshito

    1995-01-01

    On the ecological basis of vector mosquitoes of Japanese encephalitis, measures of their control were examined from viewpoint of their practicability. It was concluded that chemical control is not of practical value, biological control is of limited effectiveness, and environmental control by source reduction is impossible. Instead, it was recommended to improve human living style so as to reduce the frequency of man/mosquito contact.

  8. Japanese consumer behaviour - general view

    OpenAIRE

    Iliuta Costel Negricea

    2007-01-01

    Human Society evolution determines adaptation to the modalities through which the organization is able to know the market. The contact between organizations and consumer is made by the marketing activity, imposing a mutual long term relationship for both parties. The Japanese market had realized many changes in the last few years and in the same time the consumer behavior. To understand the Japanese behavior, their motivations needs you have to take into consideration the Japanese tradition, ...

  9. SENSEVAL-2 Japanese Translation Task

    OpenAIRE

    Kurohashi, Sadao; Uchimoto, Kiyotaka

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Senseval-2 Japanese translation task. In this task, word senses are defined according to distinct translations in a given target language. A translation memory (TM) was constructed which contains, for each Japanese head word, a list of typical Japanese expressions and their English translations. For each test word instance, participants were required to submit the TM record best approximating that usage, or alternatively, actual target word translations. There were 9 ...

  10. Recruitment in small japanese company

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Ilona

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on employee recruitment in japanese environment. Among others, the discussed topics include interview process, experiences of recruitment agences with japanese companies on the Czech market and recommendations of specific steps for the analysed company. The hypothesis of the thesis is that japanese compnanies are unsuccessful regarding employee recruitment in the Czech Republic, suffer from insufficient interest of potencial candidates . All these factors combined with gene...

  11. The thromboelastometric discrepancy between septic and trauma induced disseminated intravascular coagulation diagnosed by the scoring system from the Japanese association for acute medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koami, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Sakurai, Ryota; Ohta, Miho; Imahase, Hisashi; Yahata, Mayuko; Umeka, Mitsuru; Miike, Toru; Nagashima, Futoshi; Iwamura, Takashi; Yamada, Kosuke Chris; Inoue, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the hematological differences between septic and traumatic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) using the rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM).This retrospective study includes all sepsis or severe trauma patients transported to our emergency department who underwent ROTEM from 2013 to 2014. All patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence of DIC diagnosed by the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) DIC score. We statistically analyzed the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory data, ROTEM findings (EXTEM and FIBTEM), and outcome.Fifty-seven patients (30 sepsis and 27 severe trauma) were included in primary analysis. Sepsis cases were significantly older and had higher systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) scores, whereas there were no significant differences in other parameters including Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. Twenty-six patients (14 sepsis and 12 severe trauma) were diagnosed with DIC. The Septic DIC (S-DIC) group was significantly older and had higher DIC scores than the traumatic DIC (T-DIC) group. Hematologic examination revealed significantly higher CRP, fibrinogen, lower FDP, DD, and higher FDP/DD ratio were found in the S-DIC group in comparison with the T-DIC group. ROTEM findings showed that the A10, A20, and MCF in the FIBTEM test were significantly higher in the S-DIC group. However, no statistical differences were confirmed in the LI30, LI45, and ML in EXTEM test.The plasma fibrinogen level and fibrinogen based clot firmness in whole-blood test revealed statistical significance between septic and traumatic DIC patients. PMID:27495106

  12. Japanese strategy of fusion roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology bases required for realization of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO) have been discussed in the Japanese fusion community. The Join-Core Team, which was launched by ministerial council, has considered the following issues to develop strategy for the establishment of technology bases for a DEMO: (1) Concept of DEMO premised for investigation, (2) Activities requiring commitment and their goals, and (3) Scientific and technological review works for the above mentioned activities. The team summarized the issues as Joint-Core Team Report (Basic Concept of DEMO and Structure of Technological Issues). This report describes the basic concept of DEMO premised for investigation and the structure of technological issues to ensure the feasibility of the DEMO concept. Also the team clarified tasks regarding the development of the design of DEMO, and the research and development programs to resolve the issues and to provide the required evidence to support the design into the consistent timeline, which is summarized in the second Joint-Core Team Report (Chart of Establishment of Technology Bases for DEMO). The reports show that DEMO is steady power generator with several hundred thousand kilowatts being able to extend to commercialization. Also function of tritium bleeding to fulfil self-sufficiency of fuels should be equipped. Required technological activities (superconducting coils, blanket, divertor, heating and current drive systems etc.) are arranged in the chart. JAEA has established the Joint Special Design Team for Fusion DEMO in cooperation with NIFS, industry, and universities and reinforces design activity of a tokamak DEMO. Two important tasks still remain to define the roadmap of development of DEMO in future, that is, socio-economic examination of fusion energy and review of alternative approaches of helical magnetic fusion system and laser fusion system. In particular, solution of the latter task should be found under the deep discussion with

  13. Origin and Development of the Quasi-Market System in Japan: From healthcare to welfare, and to education (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    USHIRO Fusao

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare and welfare systems can be classified into three broad types: a public model in which services are provided and financed by the government through taxes; a social insurance model in which services are provided by multiple players including private-sector entities with the cost of services financed primarily by insurance premiums; and a free-choice model in which private-sector insurance firms and private-sector service providers fulfill the roles. Under the social insurance model, ...

  14. Effects of sex control and twinning on economic optimization of culling cows in Japanese Black cow-calf production systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, K; Hirooka, H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of sex control and twinning techniques on determination of optimal culling parity of cows in beef cow-calf production systems were deterministically analyzed using a herd model simulation. The model simulated the annualized net revenue as an economic indicator during the whole life cycle of a cow. Biological factors (survivability, growth, reproduction, and feed requirements) and economic factors (returns from sales of live calves and cows' carcasses and production costs) were inc...

  15. Modification of Japanese first nuclear ship reactor for a regional energy supply system using gadolinia as a burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our laboratory, a small regional energy supply system which uses a small nuclear reactor has been studied for a long time. This system could supply not only heat but also electricity. Heat could be used for hot-water supply, a heating system of a house, melting snow and so on. In this point, this system seems to be useful for the places like northern part of Japan where it snows in winter. This reactor is based on Nuclear Ship Mutsu which was developed as the first nuclear ship of Japan about 40 years ago. It has several advantages for a small reactor. For example, its moderator temperature coefficient is always to be deeply negative because boric acid solution is not used in moderator and coolant. This can lead to a self-controlled operation without control rod maneuvering for load change. But some modifications have been performed in order to satisfy requirements such as (1) longer core life without refueling and reshuffling, (2) reactivity adjustment for load change without control rods or soluble boron, (3) simpler operations for load changes and (4) ultimate safety with sufficient passive capability. In our previous study, we confirmed the core based on Mutsu core had longer core life (about 10 years) using high uranium enrichment fuel (more than 5wt%) and current 17x17 fuel assemblies. We also confirmed excess reactivity during the cycle could be suppressed using combination of erbium oxide (Er2O3) and gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) as burnable poisons. Er2O3 has advantages such that criticality safety can be kept even if uranium enrichment is more than 5wt% and burnup characteristics of the core can be gradual. But at this time there are 2 problems to apply for the core using Er2O3 in Japan. First problem is that more than 5wt% enrichment fuel is not yet accepted in Japan. Second problem is that there are no experiences of using Er2O3 in commercial reactors in Japan. Considering these problems, we have to modify the design of the core, using only Gd2O3 as a

  16. A Consideration on the Future Direction of Japanese Educational System About Fostering Human Resources for the Global Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shusuke; Shimura, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji

    The lectures are taken, making use of the textbook of the same contents, for high school students in Japan, students at Yamagata University and at Korea Maritime University in Korea. I’ ll find the similarity and difference, by comparing vertical and horizontal relations among three groups. As a result, I can find the directionality of cultivating human resources of doing well in the global society. I think there is “Matrix Thinking Frame” as one of the effective countermeasures for fostering men of ability. It is possible to part from conventional passiveness type education, according to planning and practicing one’ s “Life Management Plan” by using this system. The case where one’ s capability has been extended appears in students, as above mentioned.

  17. Anglo-Japanese Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Nish, Ian; Steeds, David; Hotta-Lister, Ayako

    2002-01-01

    Nish dealt with the diplomacy of Britain and Japan in the five months before the conclusion of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, arguing that it was not a 'natural alliance' but that there were pockets of opposition to it which had to be overcome. In the case of Japan, this was associated with the activities of Marquis Ito in Europe on which much new material was presented. In the case of Britain, the naval and military arguments in favour of closer relations with Japan eventually overcame those a...

  18. Emerging EFL Communicative Competence of Japanese Children

    OpenAIRE

    ネベンカ, ニコリッチ・細中; Nikolic-Hosonaka, Nevenka

    1995-01-01

    The starting hypothesis for the study was that with an appropriate learning environment (instructional system and instructional methods) young children will rapidly reach a stage of pre-communicative competence in the acquisition of English. The subjects of the observation were 22 six-year old Japanese children, the environment was an international school, teachers-foreign nationals and the language of instruction English. One week course exposed children to English seven hours a day through ...

  19. An unofficial history of Japanese accelerators. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the World War II, Japanese physicists initiated researches on nuclear fission. After the war, Japanese politicians conducted the introduction of atomic power systems in Japan stimulated by the U.S. President Eisenhower's address 'Atoms for Peace'. According to the Japanese government policy, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute were established. Japanese physics society, on the other hand, made a recommendation in 1962 for the government to found an institute for elementary particle physics with an investment of 30 billion yen. After serious and long-time discussions, two institutes, Institute for High Energy Physics and Research Center for Nuclear Physics were established in 1971. (K.Y.)

  20. The Japanese value of harmony and nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Emiko; Yahiro, Michiko; Nakajima, Naoko; Ono, Miki

    2009-09-01

    Harmony is one of the most fundamental Japanese values. It is derived from Confucianism and encompasses a state of mind, an action process and outcomes of the action. This article draws on research data and discusses Japanese nurses' perceptions of harmony as reflected in their everyday practice. The most important virtues for these nurses were reported as politeness and respect for other persons. The outcome from the nurses' harmonious practice, it is claimed, benefited patients and created peaceful, harmonious relationships for all. Because of the unique link between harmony and the location of interaction, the ideal 'workplace harmony' threatened some nurses' professional decision making. These nurses confused harmony with conformity by superficial agreement. The Japanese seniority system could be a major factor contributing to this problem. Ethics education that includes traditional values and concepts in Japanese culture is strongly urged. PMID:19671648

  1. Impact of a fixed price system on the supply of institutional long-term care: a comparative study of Japanese and German metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Keiko; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Background The need for institutional long-term care is increasing as the population ages and the pool of informal care givers declines. Care services are often limited when funding is controlled publicly. Fees for Japanese institutional care are publicly fixed and supply is short, particularly in expensive metropolitan areas. Those insured by universal long-term care insurance (LTCI) are faced with geographically inequitable access. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a fixed ...

  2. Aspects of the Russo-Japanese war

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Stewart; Towle, Philip

    1998-01-01

    On 6 February 1998 a symposium was held in STICERD on Aspects of the Russo-Japanese War at which two papers were presented: 'The Japanese Military during the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05: A Reconsideration of Command Politics and Public Images', by Dr Lone, and 'British Observers of the Russo-Japanese War', by Dr Towle.

  3. Review - Japanese-Mongolian Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Reid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: James Boyd. 2011. Japanese-Mongolian Relations, 1873-1945: Faith, Race and Strategy. Kent: Global Oriental. Japanese individuals were among the many foreigners with interests in Mongolia in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. With the Soviet Union to the north and the Republic of China to the south, Japanese political, military, scholarly, business, and Buddhist elites were among those attentive to the region's strategic position. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, scholars of Japan, as well as Japanese scholars, have widely contributed to dispelling myths of Mongolia's isolation, as well as to unraveling the complex geopolitical relationships between Manchuria, Russia, Mongolia, China, and Japan. Focusing on the period 1873 to 1945, and dealing with a range of topics beyond strategic political and military concerns, Boyd's seminal work explores the implications of Japanese understandings of the cultural relationships between Japan and Inner Mongolia, the so-called buffer zone between 'Outer' Mongolia and the Republic of China. Limiting his focus to Japanese perspectives during that period has permitted a comprehensive evaluation of the intricate interdependencies of Japan's non-military and military activities. Original research from Japanese archives adds fascinating and important insights, while maps and illustrations add visual depth to a well-articulated narrative.

  4. Safety design consideration for Japanese DFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safety design approach for the Japanese Demonstration Fast Breeder Reactor (DFBR) is discussed to establish the same level of safety as that of LWR. This argument has been made taking well account of the experience of the prototype FBR Monju, and contains major safety issues as follows; efforts of the reduction of sodium void reactivity worth, adoption of self actuated mechanism in the backup shutdown system, use of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system as the decay heat removal system, and provision of the containment system. (author)

  5. Business Restructuring of Japanese Firms: Structural changes during the "Lost Decades"

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the business restructuring—the entry into new businesses and the exit from unprofitable ones—of Japanese firms and its relationship with the corporate governance system. Specifically, we analyze changes in the restructuring behavior of Japanese firms by comparing two identical surveys conducted in 1998 and 2012. These surveys include large listed and small unlisted firms. There are many stable characteristics of Japanese firm restructuring behavior: the significan...

  6. Japanese Hadron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese Hadron Project (JHP) is aimed at producing various kinds of unstable secondary beams based on high-intensity protons from a new accelerator complex. The 1 GeV protons, first produced from a 1 GeV linac, are transferred to a compressor/stretcher ring, where a sharply-pulsed beam or a stretched continuous beam will be produced. The pulsed beam will be used for a pulsed muon source (M arena) and a spallation neutron source (N arena). A part of the proton beam will be used to produce unstable nuclei, which will be accelerated to several MeV/nucleon (E arena). The purpose and impact of JHP will be described in view of future applications of hadronic beams to nuclear energy and material science. (author)

  7. "Honeymoon psychosis" in Japanese tourists to Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, D; Streltzer, J; Kai, M

    1997-01-01

    Although Japanese tourists in Hawaii are infrequently treated for acute psychiatric emergencies, we observed several cases among Japanese honeymooners. To investigate this phenomenon, we retrospectively and prospectively collected such cases of honeymooners. Sixteen cases of acute psychiatric disturbance in Japanese honeymooners in Hawaii are described. This phenomenon occurs more frequently than in other Japanese tourists or non-Japanese honeymooners. The tradition of arranged marriage and other cultural factors may be associated with the potential for "honeymoon psychosis." PMID:9277018

  8. Dentistry in Korea during the Japanese Occupation

    OpenAIRE

    SHIN Jae-Eu

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893. and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in september, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians(yipchisa) without limit and controled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no n...

  9. Structural Changes of Japanese Firms: Strategy, organization, and behavior (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the characteristics of Japanese firms based on an original survey. Specifically, we analyze the changes in management strategy, corporate governance, internal organization, and business behavior of Japanese firms by comparing a survey conducted in the 1990s with a recent one using the same questionnaires. These surveys cover both listed and unlisted firms, which is an important advantage of this study. There are many stable characteristics: the longer ...

  10. Japanese Lifestyle during Childhood Prevents the Future Development of Obesity among Japanese-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Shiwa, Mami; Yoneda, Masayasu; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Oki, Kenji; Yamane, Kiminori; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a Japanese lifestyle during childhood could protect against the future development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases by comparing native Japanese with Japanese-Americans in whom genetic factors are the same. Methods Study subjects were 516 native Japanese and 781 Japanese-Americans who underwent medical examinations between 2007 and 2010. Japanese-Americans were divided into 444 first-generation immigrants (JA-1), who were born in Japan, and 337 second- or...

  11. Japanese firms in the EU.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The number of Japanese firms in Brussels has increased since the creation of the European Single Market. At the same time, large European firms have become independent political actors and harmonized their lobbying pattern, creating a distinctive business-government relationship in the EU. Yet, it still remains to be examined whether Japanese firms are able to utilize their political options and conform to the new EU lobbying style, which features firms' direct participation within the policy...

  12. Japanese negotiation styles in business

    OpenAIRE

    Minako, K.

    2015-01-01

    Culture has a significant role in communication styles. In recent years, more and more Japanese companies are expanding into the international market. When negotiating with other parties from different perspectives, values, and beliefs, the knowledge of the other parties would determine the outcome of the negotiation. This article introduces the fundamental elements of cultural behaviors or attitudes observed in business negotiations, especially by the Japanese.

  13. Human Leukocyte Antigen and Systemic Sclerosis in Japanese: The Sign of the Four Independent Protective Alleles, DRB1*13:02, DRB1*14:06, DQB1*03:01, and DPB1*02:01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Shomi; Kawasaki, Aya; Shimada, Kota; Sugii, Shoji; Matsushita, Takashi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Komiya, Akiko; Fukui, Naoshi; Kobayashi, Kouji; Osada, Atsumu; Ihata, Atsushi; Kondo, Yuya; Nagai, Tatsuo; Setoguchi, Keigo; Okamoto, Akiko; Okamoto, Akira; Chiba, Noriyuki; Suematsu, Eiichi; Kono, Hajime; Katayama, Masao; Hirohata, Shunsei; Sumida, Takayuki; Migita, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Fujimoto, Manabu; Sato, Shinichi; Nagaoka, Shouhei; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several studies on associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies and susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) have been reported. Anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) and anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (ATA) are found in SSc patients. Here, we sought to identify HLA alleles associated with SSc in Japanese, and explored their associations with SSc phenotypes including the presence of autoantibodies. Methods Associations of HLA-DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 were analyzed in 463 Japanese SSc patients and 413 controls. Results We found that DRB1*13:02 (P = 0.0011, Pc = 0.0319, odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.73), DRB1*14:06 (P = 6.60X10-5, Pc = 0.0020, OR 0.05, 95%CI 0.01–0.41), DQB1*03:01 (P = 0.0009, Pc = 0.0150, OR 0.56, 95%CI 0.40–0.79), and DPB1*02:01 (P = 5.16X10-6, Pc = 8.77X10-5, OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.39–0.69) were protectively associated with SSc. In addition, these four alleles seemed to be independently associated with the protection against the susceptibility of SSc. On the other hand, we could not find predisposing alleles for overall SSc. With respect to SSc subsets, a tendency for these four alleles to be protectively associated was observed. However, there was a significant association between DRB1*01:01, DRB1*10:01, DQB1*05:01, and DPB1*04:02 and the susceptibility to SSc with ACA. On the other hand, the presence of DRB1*15:02, DQB1*06:01, DPB1*03:01, and DPB1*09:01 was associated with SSc with ATA. Conclusion Thus, the present study has identified protective associations of the four HLA class II alleles with overall Japanese SSc and predisposing associations of HLA class II alleles with Japanese SSc subsets. PMID:27116456

  14. Comparison of circadian oscillation of melatonin release in pineal cells of house sparrow, pigeon and Japanese quail, using cell perfusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Murakamia, Noboru; Nakamura, Hisae; Nishia, Rikako; Marumotoa, Nobuyuki; Nasub, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    We compared the circadian oscillation of melatonin release from cultured pineal cells in Japanese quail, pigeon and house sparrow, to determine whether the pineal gland of these species retains the circadian oscillator function in vitro. After dissociated pineal cells have been cultured for 4 days under 12 h: 12 h light-dark (LD) cycle, they were perfused at a flow rate of 0.25 ml/h for 6-7 days under LD or constant darkness (DD). Melatonin release increased during the dark period and low dur...

  15. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of stable strontium concentration in different bones, as well as in a single bone, was studied. Dependence of the stable strontium-to-calcium ratio upon age was observed. A non-uniform distribution of the stable strontium to calcium ratio was found in both the skeleton and the single bone. It was suggested that this phenomenon may be used in predicting 90Sr distribution in the human skeleton. Concentrations of stable strontium in bone were found to be relatively higher than reported data. The total skeletal content of strontium was re-estimated, taking into account the observed uneven distribution of this element in the skeleton. The observed ratio between the adult bone and diet was found to be 0.12 and that between fetal bone and the mother's diet 0.055. These values seem considerably lower than the reported data for the European and North American populations. The mass of ''mineralized bone'' of the Japanese adult male and female was estimated as 4.2 kg and 3.2 kg, respectively. (author)

  16. Terminal Raising Intontations and Questions in Japanese: An Inquiry Based on Acoustic. Phonetic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Michio

    This article describes phonological and semantic characteristics associated with the surface structure of some Japanese sentence intonations. The aim of the long-term study is to show the place of intonation in the total system of Japanese grammar. This particular part of the study is limited to the group of intonations which are characterized by…

  17. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Goto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  18. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  19. Impacts of Liberalizing the Japanese Pork Market

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Thomas I.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Johnson, Stanley R.

    1991-01-01

    The Japanese pork market is protected by a complex set of restrictions, including a variable levy and an import tariff. The combination of these policies distorts the quantity, price, and form of Japanese pork imports. An important issue relevant to the liberalization of the Japanese pork market is the accurate measurement of the price wedge between Japanese and world pork prices. The analysis indicates that the tariff equivalent of the price wedge over the 1986-88 period was 44%. If the tari...

  20. Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Fujikura

    Full Text Available To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness, the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

  1. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  2. 日本兽用抗菌药耐药性监控系统及风险管理%The Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Montitoring System and Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马苏; 张晶; 杜昕波

    2015-01-01

    介绍日本兽用抗菌药耐药性监控系统并分析日本食品动物源细菌耐药现状和抗菌药使用情况,以期为我国动物源细菌耐药性监控管理提供参考和借鉴。%This paper introduced the Japanese veterinary antimicrobial resistance monitoring systems ( JVARM ) . The purpose of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in food-producing animals and the consumption of antimicrobial drugs used in animals in Japan, which should be used for reference during the surveillance and management of antimicrobial resistance from animal source in China.

  3. Teaching Japanese Literature and Translation in Tandem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Janine

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching Japanese literature to Japanese native speakers by comparing English translations to the original texts. Discusses criteria for choosing a text and lists some of the texts used and the method in which they were used. This method gave students a deeper understanding of the original Japanese text. (SED)

  4. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

  5. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

  6. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanes...

  7. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…

  8. Molecular and cellular markers of toxicity in the Japanese Medaka @

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; D' Surney, S.J.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hull, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been recommended for use as a model organism to detect carcinogenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic compounds in aquatic systems. Because a long latent period often occurs between initial contact with deleterious chemicals and subsequent expression of the pathology, we are investigating early biologically-relevant responses that can be used as genotoxicity markers of exposure and effect. This project focuses on the development of genotoxic bioassays and experimental protocols for exposing Japanese Medaka to genotoxic compounds. 21 refs., 8 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Market Integration in the Prewar Japanese Rice Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Mikio; Maeda, Kiyotaka; Noda, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the integration process of the Japanese major rice markets (Tokyo and Osaka) from 1881 to 1932. Using a non-Bayesian time-varying vector error correction (VEC) model, we argue that the process strongly depended on the government's policy on the network system of telegram and telephone; rice traders with an intention in using the modern communication tools were usually affected by the changes of the policy. We find that (i) the Japanese rice markets had been integrated in t...

  10. Japanese Enterprises' Investment in China's Software Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhong Pei; Linbo Jing

    2006-01-01

    The present paper introduces the overall situation of investment in China by Japanese enterprises. It focuses on the cooperation between Chinese and Japanese enterprises in the software industry. It gives a detailed account of strategic investment by Japanese enterprises,their joint-venture projects with Chinese investors and establishment of R&D centers and laboratories in China's software industry, and it analyzes the problems and prospects of Japanese investment in China's software industry. The paper suggests that it is of vital to maintain friendly Sino-Japanese relations, to strengthen bilateral economic cooperation and to enhance mutual political confidence.

  11. Japanese national reference reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a general description of the proposed Japanese national reprocessing plant and of the design philosophy. The plant is in most respects similar to the base case reprocessing plant, with an annual throughput of 100-1500 tU. The plant would be co-located with a fuel fabrication facility

  12. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenck, G.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  13. Status of Japanese university reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Yoshiaki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Status of Japanese university reactors, their role and value in research and education, and the spent fuel problem are presented. Some of the reactors are now faced by severe difficulties in continuing their operation services. The point of measures to solve the difficulties is suggested. (author)

  14. Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, India, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Parida, Manmohan; Dash, Paban K.; Tripathi, Nagesh K.; ,; Sannarangaiah, Santhosh; Saxena, Parag; Agarwal, Surekha; Sahni, Ajay K.; Singh, Sanjay P; Rathi, Arvind K.; Bhargava, Rakesh; Abhyankar, Ajay; Shailendra K Verma; Rao, Putcha V. Lakshmana; Sekhar, Krishnamurthy

    2006-01-01

    An outbreak of viral encephalitis occurred in Gorakhpur, India, from July through November 2005. The etiologic agent was confirmed to be Japanese encephalitis virus by analyzing 326 acute-phase clinical specimens for virus-specific antibodies and viral RNA and by virus isolation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates belonged to genogroup 3.

  15. Japanese encephalitis: current worldwide status*

    OpenAIRE

    Umenai, T.; Krzysko, R.; Bektimirov, T. A.; Assaad, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    The changing epidemiological and distribution patterns of Japanese encephalitis in various southern and east Asian countries are described. Immunization is considered to be the only practical way to control the infection. Several vaccines have been developed and two types of inactivated vaccine are now available for use in man.

  16. Status of Japanese university reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status of Japanese university reactors, their role and value in research and education, and the spent fuel problem are presented. Some of the reactors are now faced by severe difficulties in continuing their operation services. The point of measures to solve the difficulties is suggested. (author)

  17. Larval development of japanese "conchostracans"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jorgen; Fritsch, Martin; Grygier, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    For comparison with the remarkable larvae of the laevicaudatan (clam shrimp) Lynceus brachyurus, a basic description of the larval sequence of another laevicaudatan branchiopod, the Japanese Lynceus biformis, is provided. Four larval stages have been identified, ranging in size from 258 to 560 mu m...

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Model and Level of Chinese and Japanese Pension System%中日养老保险制度的模式及水平比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳如眉; 王玥

    2014-01-01

    China and Japan is neighboring country of Asia,but there is a great difference between the model and level of pen-sion system of two countries. The Japanese pension system with the policy ideas "universal coverage in public pension" has been established, and the level of replacement rate and pension expenditure are higher. Compared with Japan, Chinese urban and rural pension insurance system has also been established, the pension expenditure is relatively lower, the coverage and payment level of the new rural pension system and the pension system of urban residents needs to be improved. Therefore , referencing the Japanese experience,we should promote the construction and development of urban and rural pension system through speeding up the national pooling and the unification of basic pension , expanding the coverage of pension system and enhancing the coverage quality etc.%中国和日本是亚洲两个邻邦国家,但两国养老保险制度的模式及水平存在较大差别。日本建立了“全民皆年金”的养老保险制度,替代率与养老保险支出水平都比较高。与日本相比,中国城乡养老保险体系初步建立,养老保险支出水平较低,新农保和城居保等制度的覆盖面和给付水平亟待提高。因此,借鉴日本经验,中国应通过加快全国统筹并实现基础养老保险一元化、扩大覆盖面并提高扩面质量等措施,推进城乡养老保险体系的建设与发展。

  19. Evaluation of the Association of Hand-Foot Syndrome with Anticancer Drugs Using the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaoka, Sayaka; Matsui, Toshinobu; Abe, Junko; Umetsu, Ryogo; Kato, Yamato; Ueda, Natsumi; Hane, Yuuki; Motooka, Yumi; Hatahira, Haruna; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

      The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare lists hand-foot syndrome as a serious adverse drug event. Therefore, we evaluated its association with anticancer drug therapy using case reports in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). In addition, we calculated the reporting odds ratio (ROR) of anticancer drugs potentially associated with hand-foot syndrome, and applied the Weibull shape parameter to time-to-event data from JADER. We found that JADER contained 338224 reports from April 2004 to November 2014, while FAERS contained 5821354 reports from January 2004 to June 2014. In JADER, the RORs [95% confidence interval (CI)] of hand-foot syndrome for capecitabine, tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil, fluorouracil, sorafenib, and regorafenib were 63.60 (95%CI, 56.19-71.99), 1.30 (95%CI, 0.89-1.89), 0.48 (95%CI, 0.30-0.77), 26.10 (95%CI, 22.86-29.80), and 133.27 (95%CI, 112.85-157.39), respectively. Adverse event symptoms of hand-foot syndrome were observed with most anticancer drugs, which carry warnings of the propensity to cause these effects in their drug information literature. The time-to-event analysis using the Weibull shape parameter revealed differences in the time-dependency of the adverse events of each drug. Therefore, anticancer drugs should be used carefully in clinical practice, and patients may require careful monitoring for symptoms of hand-foot syndrome. PMID:26935094

  20. Moonraker and Tetris: Japanese Microrovers for Lunar Cave Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.; Britton, N.; Walker, J.; Shimizu, T.; Tanaka, T.; Hakamada, T.

    2015-10-01

    A Japanese team HAKUTO is developing a robotic system for exploration of Lunar lava tubes. Motivated by Google Lunar XPRIZE that requires 500 m travel on any surface of Moon, but the team plans to go down into a skylight in Lacus Mortis.

  1. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase IIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapter X of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR workshop, Phase IIA. Transitional analysis of electromagnetic phenomenon which includes joule heat depositions in supper conducting coil system, electromagnetic force acting on torus components and shell effects for stabilizing plasma positional instability, is carried out. (author)

  2. Activities on covariance estimation in Japanese Nuclear Data Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Described are activities on covariance estimation in the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Covariances are obtained from measurements by using the least-squares methods. A simultaneous evaluation was performed to deduce covariances of fission cross sections of U and Pu isotopes. A code system, KALMAN, is used to estimate covariances of nuclear model calculations from uncertainties in model parameters. (author)

  3. Prescription, Dispensation, and Generic Medicine Replacement Ratios: Influence on Japanese Medicine Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, Masayuki; Tashiro, Takao

    2015-01-01

    This study used publicly available data to examine the effect of the separation of dispensing and prescribing medicines between pharmacists in pharmacies and doctors in medical institutions (the separation system) and the generic medicine replacement ratio on the cost of various medicines in Japanese prefectures. For Japanese medical institutions, participation in the separation system is optional. Consequently, the expansion rate of the separation system for each administrative district is h...

  4. Oil Price, Exchange Rate Shock, and the Japanese Economy (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    IWAISAKO, TOKUO; NAKATA Hayato

    2014-01-01

    Using the framework of structural vector autoregressions (VAR), this paper provides a quantitative assessment of the relative importance of exogenous shocks to Japanese output as measured by aggregate sales, industry sales, and the sales of different firm size groups. We assume four structural shocks, namely, (i) oil supply shock, (ii) oil price fluctuations not related to supply and demand, (iii) world economic activity (aggregate demand shock), and (iv) exchange rate fluctuations not relate...

  5. Applicability of lectin histochemistry in a test system with in ovo treatment for detecting androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of chemicals in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether analysis of the appearance of specific lectin-positive substances in the quail embryonic cloacal gland would be useful for evaluating the androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of chemicals. Fertilized Japanese quail eggs were injected with 0 to 75 µg of cyproterone acetate (CA), an antiandrogenic compound, on d 12 of incubation (d 12), followed by injection of 0 to 300 µg of testosterone propionate (TP) on d 13. Experimental groups consisted of a control group (corn oil injections on d 12 and 13), a TP-L group [corn oil and a low dose (L; 30 µg) of TP], a TP-H group [corn oil and a high dose (H; 300 µg) of TP], a CA-L + TP-H group [a low dose (L;7.5 µg) of CA + TP-H], and a CA-H + TP-H group [a high dose (H; 75 µg) of CA + TP-H]. The cloacal tissues were collected on d 16, processed into paraffin sections, and stained using 14 different biotinylated lectins. The Vicia villosa (VVA) lectin most strongly stained the developing cloacal glandular cells in TP-H. Western blotting analysis showed 1 VVA-positive band of approximately 75 kDa. The ratio of VVA-positive areas per unit square examined microscopically by image analysis was significantly greater in the TP-H group than in the control group in both males and females. The ratio was significantly decreased in the CA-L + TP-H and CA-H + TP-H groups compared with the TP-H group in both males and females. Furthermore, the ratio was smaller in females than in males within a TP-L or TP-H treatment group. These results suggest that lectin histochemistry on quail embryonic cloaca using VVA is useful for evaluating the androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of chemical compounds. PMID:21177456

  6. Japanese cuisine-induced hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Reach

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a 46-year-old man with subclinical hyperthyroidism and low iodine 123 uptake. Three months later, all symptoms resolved on beta blockers only; iodine 123 uptake and hormone levels returned to normal. We suspect that hyperthyroidism was secondary to consumption of kombu, a long dark brown to grayish-black seaweed, in a soup. With the current popularity of Japanese restaurants, this possibility should be kept in mind when investigating the causes of iodine overload.

  7. Religion and the Japanese Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Hardacre, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines provisions regarding religion in the 1947 Constitution of Japan, showing how they differ from the Meiji constitution of 1889. It examines policies on religion established by the Allied Occupation of Japan (1945‐1952), especially relating to Shinto, their implementation, and their relation to the 1947 constitution. The paper documents the process through which Occupation officials drafted entirely new articles on religion, displacing a Japanese government commission that ...

  8. Point substitutions in Japanese alloalbumins.

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, K.; Madison, J; Huss, K; Ishioka, N; Satoh, C; Fujita, M.; Neel, J. V.; Sakurabayashi, I; Putnam, F W

    1989-01-01

    We have completed the structural study of five rare types of inherited albumin variants (alloalbumins) discovered in the Biochemical Genetics Study of 15,581 unrelated children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We have also identified the structural change in five other alloalbumin specimens detected during clinical electrophoresis of sera from Japanese living near Tokyo. Each of the five albumin variants from Nagasaki and Hiroshima has a single amino acid substitution. All of these substitutions di...

  9. Risk sharing in the supplier relationship: new evidence from the Japanese automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    OKAMURO, Hiroyuki

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese corporate system is assumed to contain an implicit insurance mechanism in various aspects. This paper proves the existence of risk sharing mechanism in supplier relations in a different way from the previous studies, using a unique data set of Japanese automotive parts suppliers. The results suggest that the auto makers absorb a part of the business risk of the suppliers, in spite of recent structural changes in the supplier system: The relative stability of their profit rate is ...

  10. Risk sharing in the supplier relationship: new evidence from the Japanese automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    OKAMURO, Hiroyuki

    2001-01-01

    The Japanese corporate system is assumed to contain an implicitinsurance mechanism in various aspects. Based on an alternative methodto that of previous studies, this paper examines risk sharing in thesupplier relationship, using a unique data set of Japanese automotiveparts suppliers. The results of this study suggest that the carmakerspartially absorb the business risk of the suppliers, despite of recentstructural changes in the supplier system: The relative stability ofthe profit rate of t...

  11. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  12. What Japanese Workers Want: Evidence from the Japanese Worker Representation and Participation Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Chuma; Takao Kato; Isao Ohashi

    2004-01-01

    Using a unique new survey, the Japanese Worker Representation and Participation Survey (JWRPS), this paper presents the first evidence on the representation/participation gaps among Japanese workers and its links to the degree of their discontent with work and the efficacy of celebrated participatory employment practices. We find that: (i) contrary to the popular rhetoric of the end of "participatory Japanese management", Japanese workers still desire more involvement and greater voice in fir...

  13. Medical economics of whole-body FDG PET in patients suspected of having non-small cell lung carcinoma. Reassessment based on the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing on the savings expected from the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system in the management of patients suspected of having non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), cost-effectiveness was assessed using decision tree sensitivity analysis on the basis of the 2 competing strategies of whole-body FDG PET (WB-PET) and conventional imaging (CI). A WB-PET strategy that models dependence upon chest FDG PET scan, WB-PET scan, and brain MR imaging with contrast was designed. The cost of a FDG PET examination was updated and determined to be US$625.00. The CI strategy involves a combination of conventional examinations, such as abdominal CT with contrast, brain MR imaging with contrast, and a whole-body bone scan. A simulation of 1,000 patients suspected of having NSCLC (Stages I to IV) was created for each strategy using a decision tree and baselines of other relevant variables cited from published data. By using the WB-PET strategy in place of the CI strategy for the management of patients suspected of having NSCLC in hospitals with an NSCLC prevalence of 75%, the cost saving (CS) for each patient would be US$697.69 for an M1 prevalence of 20% and US$683.52 for an M1 prevalence of 40%, but the CS gradually decreases as the NSCLC prevalence increases. The break-even point requires less than an 80% prevalence in order for the WB-PET strategy to gain life expectancy (LE) per patient. By using the WB-PET strategy in place of the CI strategy for the management of patients suspected of having NSCLC in hospitals with an NSCLC prevalence of 75%, the gain in LE for each patient would be 0.04 years (11.06 vs. 11.02 years) for an M1 prevalence of 20% and 0.10 years (10.13 vs. 10.03 years) for an M1 prevalence of 40%. The maximum cost of a PET study without losing LE would be US$1322.68 per patient for prevalences of 75% NSCLC and 20% M1 disease. The present study quantitatively showed WB-PET, employed in place of CI for managing NSCLC patients, to be cost

  14. The Japanese science education centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B

    1966-10-14

    defeating the introduction of new disciplines, new outlooks, new subject matter. The university and the examining boards in some educational systems indeed exhibit a rigor mortis. On balance, the science education centers in Japan may well represent the most significant educational experiment of our time. Their vitality, which springs from their local relationship to the prefectural schools and their permenent staffs, far exceeds in my own estimation that of most of the summer science institutes held in the United States, which lack that close relation to the local schools and which by their impermanency countenance ill-planned and ill-taught programs that are often little different from the usual summer school sessions. The best summer institutes in the United States are indeed very good, but far too few of them reach a passable standard. That is because, for the most part, their staffs are recruited quickly, teach their favorite subjects without much consideration of their appropriateness or suitability for improving science education in the lower schools, and depart without much contact with other members of the staff. What is needed is serious, continuous, prolonged, hard work devoted to the development of the right sorts of courses for renewing the training of science teachers. The Japanese seem to be achieving just that. We would do well, with our vast resources for the improvement of education, to emulate them. As they have profited by employing and improving upon our NSF supported programs in science education, we may likewise profit through the establishment of science education centers modeled on theirs. PMID:17810298

  15. Japanization? : Japanese Popular Culture among Swedish Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Lindell, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Japanese presence on the global cultural market has steadily been increasing throughout the last decades. Fan-communities all over the world are celebrating the Japanese culture and cultural identity no longer seems bound to the local. This thesis is an empirical study which aims to examine the transnational flow of Japanese popular culture into Sweden. The author addresses the issue with three research questions; what unique dimensions could be ascribed to Swedish anime-fandom, what is appea...

  16. Credit ratings in the Japanese bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Yamori, Nobuyoshi; Nishigaki, Narunto; Asai, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    Recently, credit ratings have been enhancing the influence on issuers as well as the national economy. This paper explains the historical development and several current features of the Japanese bond market, and discusses why credit ratings gained a significant role in the 1990s. We also present empirical research on credit ratings in the Japanese bond market, and discuss how foreign raters tend to assign lower credit ratings than Japanese ones, but that the relative ratings among raters end ...

  17. Animal Welfare: A Dilemma for Japanese CSR?

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuta, Wakako

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper seeks to analyse whether animal welfare issues can be one of concerns for Japanese companies to formulate CSR strategy. Today, the subject of animal welfare is becoming one of important global issues since European Union regulates the issues and its regulations are becoming stricter. Japanese companies would face on the issues in the EU and global market. However, since there is distinct public concern for the issues in Japan, it is questionable if and how Japanese com...

  18. Geochemical aspects of some Japanese lavas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Martin, W.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth concentrations in some Japanese lavas have been determined by mass-spectrometric stable-isotope dilution. The samples fall into three rare-earth groups corresponding to tholeiitic, high alumina and alkali basalts. Japanese tholeiites have trace element characteristics similar to those of oceanic ridge tholeiites except for distinctly higher relative concentrations of Ba. Japanese lavas may result from various degrees of partial fusion of amphibole eclogite.

  19. Strategies for Japanese Companies in India

    OpenAIRE

    KONDO Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing appreciation for the potential of the Indian market, competitors often experience greater success penetrating it than do Japanese companies. This paper addresses possible reasons for Japanese reticence in addition to strategies that Japanese companies have started and would do well to continue to adopt. Among these are: 1) large-scale initial investment, 2) joint ventures, 3) central decision making, 4) adaptation of products to the Indian market, 5) large-scale advertisement ...

  20. Suggestions to Promote Sino-Japanese Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ It is obvious that Sino-Japanese relations are importantly both to China and to Japan. Nevertheless, the reality of "hot economic relations vs. cold political relations" between the two countries puzzles people who show deep concern for Sino-Japanese relations: Are the inherent features of Sino-Japanese relations the cause of the phenomenon? Is the gap between aspiration and action the cause of it? Or both are the causes? The answer is there, but exploration needs to be made.

  1. Japanese MNCs Investment Objectives and Subsidiary Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Norhidayah Mohamad; Yasuo Hoshino

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the Japanese MNCs investment objectives and their subsidiary’s performance in host-county.We found five main investment objectives by Japanese MNCs generally for establishing overseas or productnetwork followed by obtain the local market, establish overseas distribution, information gathering and cheaplabor cost. China in East Asia region indicates the highest number of Japanese MNCs outward FDI followed bySoutheast Asia region (Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia) in year 2...

  2. Recent development of Japanese economy and its impact on Japanese society

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromasa Kubo

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese economy, which had suffered from a severe recession or almost zeros growth for over a decade, Japanese economy is now on track of its recovery. We will firstly examine factors behind the recovery, and secondly analyse its influences on Japanese society.

  3. In spite of Fukushima-1. The Japanese nuclear community adheres to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima-1 is the last but most severe nuclear accidents in Japan. The Japanese nuclear strategy follows an autarkic energy supply in Japan. The Japanese government adheres to the nuclear option although the seismic hazards and the increasing cost are obvious. Cover-up of deficiencies and scandals, the interdependencies of governmental bureaucracy and industry have made clear the Japanese nuclear governance system. The countrywide opposition against nuclear power is relatively small even in consequence of Fukushima-1. It seems to be difficult to start c change of energy policy.

  4. The 101 translation problems between Japanese and German/English

    OpenAIRE

    Fujinami, Tsutomu; Nanz, Christine

    1997-01-01

    We investigate differences between Japanese and German/English and explain characteristic phenomena to Japanese. The study helps us to realize what can be problematic when translating Japanese into German/English and vice versa.

  5. How Did Japanese Investments Influence International Art Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Takato Hiraki; Akitoshi Ito; Darius Spieth; Naoya Takezawa

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dynamics among the art, Japanese land, Japanese and U.S. stock market prices during the sample period from 1976 to 1998. We find that the Japanese land prices caused both art and Japanese stock prices to co-move during the sample period. We interpret this finding as suggesting that the accelerated appreciation of land prices in Japan stimulated Japanese investor demands for both international arts and Japanese stocks, especially, in

  6. Factors affecting Japanese retirees' healthcare service utilisation in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ayako; Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Musa, Ghazali; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili; Nakayama, Takeo; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Objective While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia. Design We conducted 6 focus group discussions with Japanese retirees and interviewed 8 relevant medical services providers in-depth. Guided by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, we managed and analysed the data, using QSR NVivo 10 software and the directed content analysis method. Setting We interviewed participants at Japan Clubs and their offices. Participants 30 Japanese retirees who live in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, and 8 medical services providers. Results We identified health beliefs, medical symptoms and health insurance as the 3 most important themes, respectively, representing the 3 dimensions within the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model. Additionally, language barriers, voluntary health repatriation to Japan and psychological support were unique themes that influence healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees. Conclusions The healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be partially explained by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, together with some factors that were unique findings to this study. Healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be improved by alleviating negative health beliefs through awareness programmes for Japanese retirees about the healthcare systems and cultural aspects of medical care in Malaysia. PMID:27006344

  7. A comparison of Japanese and Australian consumers' sensory perceptions of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Rod J; Nishimura, Takanori; Neath, Kate E; Watson, Ray

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of Japanese and Australian consumer sensory responses to beef, based on Meat Standards Australia methodology. Japanese and Australian consumers evaluated paired beef samples according to four sensory traits, and the weighted results were combined to produce a Meat Quality score (MQ4). The consumers also categorized the beef samples to one of four grades (unsatisfactory, good everyday, better than everyday and premium). The proportion of samples assigned to each grade was similar for Japanese and Australian consumers for yakiniku and shabu shabu cooking methods; however, Japanese consumers assigned lower scores to the grill samples. In terms of the MQ4 boundary scores between grades, these were very similar for both Japanese and Australian consumers across all cooking methods. In terms of the weightings for the four sensory traits, juiciness was more important for Japanese consumers than Australian for grill and shabu shabu cooking methods. Flavor had the highest weighting for both consumer groups. This study showed that a beef description system based on the MQ4 score, with some adjustments to the weightings and cut-off values, could be useful in describing the eating quality of beef for the Japanese consumer. PMID:23773578

  8. The Austrialian National Chinese Japanese Korean Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Providing access to Asian-language materials has always been a problem for libraries. There are particular difficulties in acquiring Asian materials, in cataloguing them and providing access, and in incorporating them in library systems. There is, however, an urgent and growing need for access to Asian materials. Part of the response of the Australian library community to the difficulties and to the increasing need has been the Australian National CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) Project. The CJK Project is a co-operative project involving seven Australian universities and the National Library of Australia. Membership is expected to grow to include other Australian research libraries, some public research libraries and some overseas libraries.

  9. A Method for Recognizing Noisy Romanized Japanese Words in Learner English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Hiromi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper describes a method for recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English. They become noise and problematic in a variety of systems and tools for language learning and teaching including text analysis, spell checking, and grammatical error detection because they are Japanese words and thus mostly unknown to such systems and tools. A problem one encounters when recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English is that the spelling rules of romanized Japanese words are often violated. To address this problem, the described method uses a clustering algorithm reinforced by a small set of rules. Experiments show that it achieves an F-measure of 0.879 and outperforms other methods. They also show that it only requires the target text and an English word list of reasonable size.

  10. “The Mysterious Other”: Carter’s Japanese Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pasolini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Angela Carter’s Japanese experience (1970-1971 profoundly affected the writer, influencing all her following works. The collections Nothing Sacred (1982 and Fireworks: Nine Profane Pieces (1974, gathering respectively journalistic writings and short stories, show how the Japanese years prompted to strengthen her criticism towards the Western patriarchal tradition and to codify a new paradigm for the representation and enactment of performative female identity(-ies.As it has been argued, Carter’s perspective is that of a Western tourist, looking down on Japanese culture and society with an imperial gaze. However, this very point of view proves to be both problematic and productive, for her being a Western foreigner (the imperial Eye, combines with her being a woman, a subject who speaks from an unprivileged position, the subordinated Other in her homeland. Moreover, as Carter declared, she did not know nor was able to learn the Japanese language, thus being forced –and willing- to observe reality with sharpened senses in order to name everything anew, starting from her self-perception of what it means to be a woman and to act as one.   Thus, the author fills in Japanese empty signs with brand new meanings and begins to build up a new system of signification from the ambivalent perspective of a foreign woman, whose otherwise underprivileged position is empowered by the fact of being British. Her impressions of the Japanese world and her reasonings about gendered identities are then conveyed though the powerful, omnipresent image of the mirror. In Carter’s wor(-dsk mirrors and reflections are at the same time both the means which make disruptive and original models and performances possible and effective ways to represent them, since it is through the reflection/projection of Japanese culture into the Western one and through the mirroring of the female subject in the other’s eyes, that female subjectivity is endowed with a new

  11. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  12. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......, fever, headache, and nausea were reported in less than 6% of children receiving inactivated vaccine compared to 0.6% of unvaccinated controls. One cluster-RCT compared the live-attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (widely used in China) with no intervention measuring adverse events. Fever was reported in 2...

  13. Japanese materials program and FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese materials program has been briefly reviewed and the associated university program, which is still in a provisional stage has been described in some detail. Important elements of the university proposal will be 1) construction of a high energy high fluence neutron irradiation facility, 2) establishing or expanding local research centers including hot laboratories, and 3) promotion of fundamental studies. The FFTF/MOTA Project is a very important constituent of the whole program, the results coming out of which should be well coordinated with other fundamental research programs to extract full essence needed for the advancement of realization of fusion energy. (author)

  14. Influence of the Separation of Prescription and Dispensation of Medicine on Its Cost in Japanese Prefectures

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, Masayuki; Tashiro, Takao

    2014-01-01

    We studied how the separation of dispensing and prescribing of medicines between pharmacies and clinics (the “separation system”) can reduce internal medicine costs. To do so, we obtained publicly available data by searching electronic databases and official web pages of the Japanese government and non-profit public service corporations on the Internet. For Japanese medical institutions, participation in the separation system is optional. Consequently, the expansion rate of the separation sys...

  15. The Effects of Smoothing of the Renewal Fees on Patent Option Value(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Setsuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to construct a patent option model suitable for the Japanese patent system, and then to explore empirically the economic effects caused by the significant revision of the Japanese patent maintenance fees in 1998. The revision of patent law in 1998 fundamentally changed the fee schedule so that payments peaked in ten to twelve year after patent registration, followed by a level off, which resulted in major fee reductions. This was a very bold change in the patent fee structure ...

  16. A non-invasive study of alopecia in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    This article provides information on the phenomenon of alopecia in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in various environments and proposes a 3-step scoring system for a quantitative assessment of hair loss. Results suggest that alopecia is commonly observed in Japanese macaques, with 20.5% of individuals showing head alopecia and 4.7% showing back alopecia across eight study groups. Alopecia was more commonly observed in adult females (30.8% individuals showing head alopecia and 15.3% showing...

  17. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  18. Study on Japanese Cornmint in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...

  19. Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Meningitis Patients, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwayama, Masaru; Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan.

  20. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  1. Japanese Flagship Universities at a Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…

  2. Englishized Style Repertoire in Modern Japanese Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Reiko

    1992-01-01

    The roles played by English borrowings in modern Japanese literary works are examined. After a brief summary of previous studies, this paper describes the style repertoire and the kinds of stylistic effects produced in Japanese literature by English borrowings, such as attention attractors and in-group-identity markers. (23 references) (Author/LB)

  3. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  4. Respect in Japanese Childhood, Adolescence, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugie, Shuji; Shwalb, David W.; Shwalb, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    The meaning of respect changed historically in postwar Japan, and respect as a concept is important yet unnoticed in postmodern Japanese society. Contrary to the perception of Japanese socialization as instilling conformist respect and obedience in children and adolescents, this chapter shows why one commentator predicts that Japan may be changing…

  5. The Japanese gas utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the Japanese gas utility industry which is composed of some 240 gas utilities of varying sizes, and the form of gas distribution between the three major gas companies and the other gas utilities are quite different. The three major gas companies distribute principally natural gas processed from imported LNG and their sales account for over 70 percent of all gas sold in Japan. The other utilities, smaller in scale, manufacture and market gas produced mainly from such feedstocks as naptha and LPG. Gas accounts for a relatively small share in the country's final energy consumption. The 3.1 percent market share has grown to 4.8 percent between 1976 and 1986. Japan's energy consumption is large in the industrial sector and small in the residential sector. The gas consumption, however, features the opposite situation, in which gas accounts for 15.7 percent in the residential sector, and only 1.9 percent in the industrial sector in 1986. This is one of the salient characteristics of the gas industry of the country as compared with Europe and the United States, where gas has a market share of 20 to 40 percent in both residential and industrial sectors. This paper presents and discusses reasons for the small share of natural gas in the Japanese market

  6. Japanese encephalitis: Challenges and intervention opportunities in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shristi Ghimire; Santosh Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito borne zoonotic disease caused by JE virus (JEV). JE has been endemic in Terai region, the lowland plains of Nepal bordering India, since 1978. However, in recent years cases of JE has been continuously reported from high altitude zones of hills and mountains. Irrigated rice farming system, expanded pig husbandry practices, inadequate vaccine coverage, low level of public awareness and climate change favoring mosquito breeding in higher altitudes might ...

  7. Nurses' views of patient handoffs in Japanese hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Andersen, Henning Boje; Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv;

    2012-01-01

    Staff perceptions of risks associated with patient handoffs were investigated in a survey of nurses in 6 Japanese hospitals. A total of 1462 valid responses were collected from nurses with an overall response rate of 74%. Respondents are moderately satisfied with the transfer of information and...... responsibility during handoffs. However, the handoff system was identified as immature. Hospital, work setting, and work experience affected nurses' views of handoff quality. Strategies for improving patient handoffs in Japan are proposed....

  8. Improvement on main control room for Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main control room which is the information center of nuclear power plant has been continuously improved utilizing the state of the art ergonomics, a high performance computer, computer graphic technologies, etc. For the latest Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant, the CRT monitoring system is applied as the major information source for facilitating operators' plant monitoring tasks. For an operating plant, enhancement of monitoring and logging functions has been made adopting a high performance computer

  9. Japanese Language Education and Dyslexia: On the Necessity of the Dyslexia Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagisa MORITOKI ŠKOF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of he perspective of dyslexia, which is said to occupy most of LD, in Japanese language education. First, it discusses what dyslexia is and what perspective it offers to Japanese language education. Then, I will outline the present status of accepting and arranging dyslexic learners in Japanese language education and point the several problems of it. Finally, I will take a general view of supporting system in the JLPT and at institutions in Europe that is already systematically established and show us a way of the solution. I will also show the necessities that all teachers including trainees in teaching institutions should learn and know about dyslexia to make prompt and effective Japanese language education to all learners in conclusion.

  10. Discuss of the old-age nursing-care development inspired by Japanese nursing-care system%日本"介护体系"及其对我国老年介护事业发展的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰

    2011-01-01

    With the development of the economics and medical insurance, life is prolonging and the increase of old people becomes an important social problems in 21 century. This article introduces the background, contents, ideas, law, cost and care givers'training of the Japanese nursing-care system, explains the necessary of developing nursingcare career in order to solve aged-supporting problems, and proposes suggestions about compiling nursing-care training materials in accordance with national or provincial condition, constructing the vocational training and access system in order to start old-age nursing-care work successfully.%随着社会经济和医疗保健的进步与发展,人的寿命不断延长,老年人口所占比例急剧增加已成为21世纪一个重要的社会问题.该文对日本介护事业的产生、工作范畴及其理念,相关法规、费用的负担与介护护士的培训进行了介绍,并就我国开展老年介护事业对解决好养老问题的必要性作了阐述,同时提出要顺利开展老年介护工作必须全面启动编写符合国情的介护专业培训教材和介护职业资格培训与准入制度等建议.

  11. The Semantics and Pragmatics of Japanese Focus Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…

  12. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  13. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter IX: engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapter IX of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base assessment are made for systems engineering, magnet systems, torus systems, and NBI heating systems. R and D programme and impact on INTOR design are also specified. In addition to the data base assessment, studies have been made for several new tasks. (author)

  14. Attitudes of the Japanese elite toward nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a survey by questionnaire on ''the attitudes of Japanese elite toward nuclear issues'' are described as follows: post-TMI Japanese attitude toward nuclear issues, dominant 'must-is-master' attitude toward nuclear power, domestic enrichment and reprocessing seen as more proliferation-prone, high consensus gained on internationalization of enrichment and reprocessing, diminishing psychological deterrent against nuclear proliferation, dim future of nuclear non-proliferation and growing importance of nuclear-age nationalism, knowledge of leaders concerning the number of nuclear power reactors in Japan. For so-called 'consistency' operating in attitude system, the data were cross-tabulated by the question ''Japan should increase nuclear power to free itself from excessive dependence upon oil imports,'' and the resultant cross-tabulations were submitted to chi-square test. Throughout, the presence of attitudinal consistency was confirmed. (J.P.N.)

  15. Japanese studies on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerations of sodium fires are very important for the design and licensing of LMFBRs. Continuing effort has been made in the study of sodium fires and their consequences since the beginning of the Japanese fast breeder reactor development program. Recent effort is mainly focussed on studies related to Monju, especially on the design and testing of primary cell liners against large sodium spills. Experimental and analytical studies on sodium fires, water release from concrete and sodium concrete reactions are conducted as a part of this study. Some extinguishing agents are also tested against sodium fires. In addition, considerable effort is being made in the development of detection systems for the small sodium leaks before a pipe rupture. This paper briefly summarizes the Japanese status of these sodium fire related activities conducted by Fast Breeder Reactor Development Project of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC)

  16. Early Japanese contributions to space weather research (1945–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nishida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Major contributions by Japanese scientists in the period of 1945 to 1960 are reviewed. This was the period when the foundation of the space weather research was laid by ground-based observations and theoretical research. Important contributions were made on such subjects as equatorial ionosphere in quiet times, tidal wind system in the ionosphere, formation of the F2 layer, VLF propagation above the ionosphere, and precursory phenomena (type IV radio outburst and polar cap absorption to storms. At the IGY (1957, 1958, research efforts were intensified and new programs in space and Antarctica were initiated. Japanese scientists in this discipline held a tight network for communication and collaboration that has been kept to this day.

  17. Wenceslau de Moraes, interpreter of japanese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Alexandre Barros Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2015v20n2p153 In this article we will comment on the critical and creative aspects of Japanese poetry in the work of Portuguese author and diplomat Wenceslau Moraes, who was the first translator of Japanese haiku into Portuguese. The author adopted the form of quatrain poem using lines of five or seven syllables for transcription of Japanese three line verses.  Wenceslau valued puns, popular expressions and other elements of poetic function present in t...

  18. Coping with instabilities - lessons from Japanese architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    This paper offers insight into the role of architecture in coping with instabilities. At its centre is a second generation of Japanese architects who came to maturity after World War II. They questioned the International Style, and asked for a return to architecture in the image of the early...... Japanese idea about an ‘in-between’, place and occasion means an ‘in-between’, the Japanese term ma. The final part of the lecture considers ma in its quality as 1) a formula replicated in different cognitive domains, in language, visual perception, abstract ways of reasoning, emotions and actions, and 2...

  19. Development of a possible nonmammalian test system for radiation-induced germ-cell mutagenesis using a fish, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    OpenAIRE

    Shima, A; Shimada, A

    1991-01-01

    To develop a specific-locus test (SLT) system for environmental mutagenesis using vertebrate species other than the mouse, we first established a tester stock of the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) that is homozygous recessive at three loci. The phenotypic expression of these loci can be easily recognized early in embryonic development by observation through the transparent egg membrane. We irradiated wild-type males with 137Cs gamma-rays to determine the dose-response relationships for dominan...

  20. Exploring Factors Behind the Weakening Competitiveness of Japan's Semiconductor Production System: from the viewpoint of meta-level integration capability (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    CHUMA Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    The competitiveness of Japan's semiconductor industry fell sharply in the latter half of the 1990s. This paper attempts to explore structural factors behind this by focusing particularly on production systems. In doing so, special attention is paid to the rapid increase in complexity of technologies and markets, a phenomenon brought about by the "self-propagating" evolution of information technologies of the semiconductor industry's own making. Such an increase in complexity calls for highly ...

  1. The parvocellular vasotocin system of Japanese quail: a developmental and adult model for the study of influences of gonadal hormones on sexually differentiated and behaviorally relevant neural circuits.

    OpenAIRE

    Panzica, Gian Carlo; Bakthazart, Jacques; Pessatti, Marzia; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Vasotocin (VT; the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. A sexually dimorphic system of VT-immunoreactive (ir) parvocellular elements has been described within the male medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the nucleus of the stria terminalis, pars medialis (BSTm). VT-ir fibers are present in many diencephalic and extradiencephalic locations, and quantitative morphometric analyses demonstrated their sexually dimorphi...

  2. Revised System to Evaluate Measurement of Blood Chemistry Data From the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey and Prefectural Health and Nutrition Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Background We developed a monitoring system that uses total errors (TEs) to evaluate measurement of blood chemistry data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) and Prefectural Health and Nutrition Surveys (PHNS). Methods Blood chemistry data from the NHNS and PHNS were analyzed by SRL, Inc., a commercial laboratory in Tokyo, Japan. Using accuracy and precision from external and internal quality controls, TEs were calculated for 14 blood chemistry items during the period 1999–201...

  3. The evolution of Japanese employer-sponsored retirement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnes, David

    2007-01-01

    make DC plans more attractive to employers in Japan are likely to be implemented in the near future. This article summarizes the Japanese retirement system, with an emphasis on private-sector employees, and the complementary role played by voluntary employer-sponsored retirement plans; describes the financial pressures that faced retirement plan sponsors in the late twentieth century and the factors motivating the reform of Japanese voluntary retirement plans; examines the 2001 legislative changes that have transformed company retirement plans; and concludes with a review of trends and recent developments in employer-sponsored retirement plans since the implementation of the 2001 pension laws. PMID:18605220

  4. Japanese Pop It's a Hit All Over

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐荣沛

    2004-01-01

    In Asia,Japanese music and musicians are visible(可见的) everywhere.Music stores in many countries carry a wide selection of Japanese CDs,Japanese videos are in heavy rotation (借环) on MTV,and Japaneses ongs are favorite selections at KTVs.Some Japanese stars have even recorded songs in Chinese because they are so popular among Chinese listeners.

  5. Japanese Management 20 Years On: The Contemporary Relevance of Japanese Management Practices’

    OpenAIRE

    Keizer, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the contemporary relevance of Japanese management practices to managers, policymakers and academic researchers. Since the emergence of the Japanese model in the 1980s, important changes have been made in the management practices of Japanese firms. A major factor has been the effort to control costs of production in a global economy where the influence of China as a centre for cheap manufacturing has undercut many competitors. In addition, the ability of countries like So...

  6. The evolution of a Japanese theory of conflict management and implications for Japanese Foreign policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ercolano, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores whether there is a uniquely Japanese method of conflict management. Given the delicate balance of stability in Northeast Asia, Japanese leadership needs to use conflict management tools to resolve territorial claims with the governments of China, Russia, and South Korea. Given its desire to be a world leader, peaceful settlement of these disputes can enhance Japanαs image in the world. Japanese leaders, in the pre-modern era, had adapted Confucian principles of consensus...

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastropathy: A comparison between Indonesian and Japanese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murdani Abdullah; Hiroyuki Ohtsuka; Abdul Aziz Rani; Tadashi Sato; Ari F Syam; Masayuki A Fujino

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection on gastropathy between Indonesian and Japanese patients.METHODS: Biopsy specimens were obtained during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from 167 subjects (125 Indonesians and 42 Japanese) with uninvestigated symptoms of dyspepsia. The specimens were analyzed for the presence of H pylori using urease analysis, histopathology, and cell culture. The grade and activity of gastritis was assessed using the updated Sydney system.RESULTS: The percentages of Indonesian and Japanese patients who were H pylori-positive at the antrum or body of the stomach were similar (68% and 59.5%, respectively; P = 0.316). Of those who were H pylori-positive, more Japanese patients than Indonesian patients had high levels of polymorphonuclear cells ( P = 0.001), mononuclear cells ( P = 0.013), glandular atrophy ( P = 0.000), and intestinal metaplasia ( P = 0.011) in both the antrum and body of the stomach.CONCLUSION: The grade of gastritis and prevalence of mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were higher in Japanese patients. The difference between Indonesian and Japanese patients was significant.

  8. INIS-based Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools for human resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Library of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed two Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools based on the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA which contains over 3.3 million records of 127 countries and 24 international organizations. These materials have been elaborated by appropriately designating Japanese terminology of nuclear field corresponding with English terminology or vice versa. One is 'Transliterated Japanese journal title list' and the other is 'INIS Thesaurus in Japanese'. While the former is served as a reference that enables users to access articles of Japanese journals better matching their needs, the latter is served as a dictionary to bridge the gap on nuclear field terminologies between over 30,000 English terms and Japanese terms which correspond with those in a semantic manner. The application of those materials to the INIS's full text collection over 280,000 of technical reports, proceedings etc. as an archive is helpful for enhancement of human resource development. The authors describe the effectiveness of those INIS-based materials with bibliographic references of Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident. (author)

  9. Development of a possible nonmammalian test system for radiation-induced germ-cell mutagenesis using a fish, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a specific-locus test (SLT) system for environmental mutagenesis using vertebrate species other than the mouse, we first established a tester stock of the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) that is homozygous recessive at three loci. The phenotypic expression of these loci can be easily recognized early in embryonic development by observation through the transparent egg membrane. We irradiated wild-type males with 137Cs gamma-rays to determine the dose-response relationships for dominant lethal and specific-locus mutations induced in sperm, spermatids, and spermatogonia. Through observation of 322,666 loci in control offspring and 374,026 loci in offspring obtained from 0.64-, 4.75-, or 9.50-Gy-irradiated gametes, specific-locus mutations were phenotypically detected during early development. These putative mutations, designated total mutation, can be recognized only in embryos of oviparous animals. The developmental fate of these mutant embryos was precisely followed. During subsequent embryonic development, a large fraction died and thus was unavailable for test-crossing, which was used to identify viable mutations. Our medaka SLT system demonstrates that the vast majority of total mutations is associated with dominant lethal mutations. Thus far only one spontaneous viable mutation has been observed, so that all doubling calculations involving this endpoint carry a large error. With these reservations, however, we conclude that the quantitative data so far obtained from the medaka SLT are quite comparable to those from the mouse SLT and, hence, indicate the validity of the medaka SLT as a possible nonmammalian test system

  10. Japanese lifestyle during childhood prevents the future development of obesity among Japanese-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Shiwa

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether a Japanese lifestyle during childhood could protect against the future development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases by comparing native Japanese with Japanese-Americans in whom genetic factors are the same.Study subjects were 516 native Japanese and 781 Japanese-Americans who underwent medical examinations between 2007 and 2010. Japanese-Americans were divided into 444 first-generation immigrants (JA-1, who were born in Japan, and 337 second- or later-generation descendants (JA-2, who were born in the United States. The JA-2 group was then divided into the kibei subgroup (N = 79, who had moved to Japan before the age of 18 years and later returned to the United States, and the non-kibei subgroup (N = 258, who had never lived in Japan.The JA-2 group had the highest percentages of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese and JA-1. Furthermore, among JA-2, the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the kibei subgroup was significantly lower than that in the non-kibei subgroup. The prevalence of diabetes in the kibei subgroup also tended to be lower than in the non-kibei subgroup.The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases differed with residence in Japan during childhood among Japanese-Americans. These findings indicate the possibility that Japanese lifestyle during childhood could reduce the future risks for obesity-associated metabolic diseases.

  11. The Research of Japanese Animation Industry Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海光

    2013-01-01

    China owns the largest animation audience group in the world, while our native animation market had been long occupied by Japanese and American animation products. After researching some assuming solutions of that embarrassing situation on Chinese animation industry, this one continues to state the proved successful mode of Japanese animation industry. After many decades of improvement, a mature and healthy industry chain had been built up. Nowadays, there is no doubt that Japanese animation industry is the most successful mode in the world. So we are looking forward to find some valuable successful experiences and make better change accordingly. And dur-ing the following research, writer of this thesis would show some visiting on Japanese local animation companies, and more details on their business mode.

  12. Seabird mortality caused by Japanese gillnet fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The meeting covered three aspects: 1 review of data collected by the Fishery Agency on gillnetting of seabirds, 2 U.S. participation as observers aboard Japanese...

  13. Forecasting Monthly Prices of Japanese Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Michinaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasts of prices can help industries in their risk management. This is especially true for Japanese logs, which experience sharp fluctuations in price. In this research, the authors used an exponential smoothing method (ETS and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to forecast the monthly prices of domestic logs of three of the most important species in Japan: sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, hinoki (Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc. Endl., and karamatsu (Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi (Lamb. Carr.. For the 12-month forecasting periods, forecasting intervals of 80% and 95% were given. By measuring the accuracy of forecasts of 12- and 6-month forecasting periods, it was found that ARIMA gave better results than did the ETS in the majority of cases. However, the combined method of averaging ETS and ARIMA forecasts gave the best results for hinoki in several cases.

  14. Japanese Oceanographic Data Center Japan Land Gravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (4,381 records) were compiled by the Japanese Oceanographic Data Center. This data base was received in July 1988. The data are in the...

  15. Pyrolysis of Barks from Three Japanese Softwood

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, Aki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Kounosu, Taku; Orihashi, Ken; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kojima, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Along with Japanese cedar bark, fir bark and Japanese larch bark were pyrolyzed to estimate the possibility of utilizing these softwood barks as resources for fine chemicals by comparing the pyrolysis product compositions. The three softwood barks contained higher ash content and yielded lower amount of volatiles when compared with cedar heartwood. The major pyrolysis products from their barks were similar to those previously reported from softwood trunks. Levoglucosan was a major pyrolysis p...

  16. Career Planning Trends in Japanese Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Firkola, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of career planning trends in Japanese companies. Research on career development in Japan is first reviewed. Career planning practices in Japanese companies are examined. Factors influencing career planning choice are then discussed. It was found that there appears to be a change occurring in the career planning practices, specifically the shifting of responsibility for an employees' career from the employer to the employee. (JEL Classifi-cation: M12, M54

  17. Sexual Harassment Prevention Policies at Japanese Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Creaser, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an accumulation of Japanese research about sexual harassment and a number of very public court cases involving prominent public figures placed the issue of sexual harassment in the media spotlight. Japan was forced to recognise sexual harassment as a national problem, and not an issue, which was confined to the Western world. In April 1999, the Japanese government realised the need to amend existing laws to include sexual harassment under article twenty-one of the Equal Oppor...

  18. Japanese Psychoanalysis from an Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Jhuma

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese theoretical contributions in Psychoanalysis and its cultural practice have taken a significant role in the history of Psychoanalysis and its development since the 1950s. Perhaps it was for the first time in the genesis of psychoanalytic practice that a consistent combined clinical and cultural perspective was brought about from one single country with one common goal, that is to understand the Japanese mind, in the works of Keigo Okonogi, Takeo Doi and Osamu Kitayama. The three t...

  19. Japanese language, standard language, national language

    OpenAIRE

    Luka CULIBERG

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The paper examines the relationship between language and nation through the historical process by which the modern Japanese language came to exist and proposes a tentative answer as to what this says about the nature of phenomena such as language and nation themselves. The paper suggests that if language is understood as an actually existing natural and definable object, it must indeed be claimed that the Japanese language is no more than a hundred years old. Keywords: language...

  20. Chlorine requirement for Japanese laying quails

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Jalceyr Pessoa Figueiredo Júnior; Denise Fontana Figueiredo Lima; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; José Humberto Vilar da Silva; Matheus Ramalho de Lima; Sarah Gomes Pinheiro; Valéria Pereira Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chlorine nutritional requirement of Japanese Quails during the laying phase, based on performance and egg quality parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed according to a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with 8 birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided in four cycles of 21 days each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet formulated to meet the nutritional requirements, except for chlori...

  1. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Chiba, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic ...

  2. Representing the Gaichi in Japanese Detective Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Aileen Marie

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between Japanese detective fiction and the territories under Japanese colonial rule, areas such as the South Seas, Korea, and Manchuria known collectively as the "outer territories" (gaichi), during the early 1930s. It analyzes the works of three detective fiction writers: Yumeno Kyusaku (1898-1936), Oguri Mushitaro (1901-1946), and Kim Nae-Seong (1909-1957). The colonial settings of their works have various functions. In Kyusaku's work, these are l...

  3. Kansei Analysis of the Japanese Residential Garden and Development of a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Kansei Engineering System for Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Matsubara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential garden design using Kansei engineering is a challenging problem. Landscaping components, such as rocks, trees, and ponds, are widely diversified and have a large number of possible arrangements. This large number of design alternatives makes conventional analyses, such as linear regression and its variations like Quantification Theory Type I (QT1, inapplicable for analyzing the relationships between design elements and the Kansei evaluation. We applied a partial least squares (PLS model that effectively deals with a large number of predictor variables. The multiple correlation coefficient of the PLS analysis was much higher than that of the QT1 analysis. The results of the analyses were used to create a low-cost virtual reality Kansei engineering system that permits visualization of garden designs corresponding to selected Kansei words. To render complex garden scenes, we developed an original 3D computation and rendering library built on Java. The garden is shown in public-view style with stereo 3D graphic projection. The rendering is scalable from low to high resolution and enables drop object shadowing, which is indispensable for considering the effect of daytime changes in insolation. Visualizing the garden design based on Kansei analysis could facilitate collaboration between the designer and customer in the design process.

  4. Nuclear knowledge management in Japanese nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various nuclear knowledge management (NKM) activities are ongoing in Japanese nuclear industries, aiming at safe, reliable and economical operation of nuclear power plants. In most countries, except in the U.S., only one electric power company owns national nuclear power plants. In Japan, however, there are 'many' electric power companies in the BWR and PWR lines. It tends to hamper smooth technology exchanges and data accumulation between them. Recently, knowledge information flows are blocked and stagnate between electric power companies. This can be attributed to the intensified consciousness of protecting their intellectual properties, in response to the liberalized electricity markets. Stagnant information flow may have adverse impacts on maintaining safety, reliability and economy of nuclear power plants. To cope with this risk, a proactive mechanism is needed for sharing relevant information. Top management of electric power companies should consider institutionalizing a system for nationwide data collection, analysis and feedback, recognizing that NKM is more important than the protection of intellectual properties. In the U.S., a dedicated entity, INPO, is collecting nationwide data for analysis and feedback. Japan has founded recently a new organization similar to INPO, as JANTI (JAPAN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE). The NKM by the electric power companies will depend on their organizational structures of maintenance work. Let me elaborate further on this point by comparing organizational structures of maintenance work in several countries. Organizational structures of maintenance work can be grouped into two types: by 'own staff' or through the 'contractors'. Most countries have practices of managing the plant O and M work directory by the own staff of electric power companies. One feature to note about Japanese nuclear industries is that electric power companies are outsourcing most of their maintenance work of nuclear power plants to multi

  5. The Kuril Islands: Russian-Japanese Relations (1920–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Biriukov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of Russian-Japanese relations on the Kuril Islands. A number of international documents, determining national ownerships of those islands are reviewed in the article. In particular, it analyzes the provisions of the Convention on basic principles of relations between the USSR and Japan of 1925. It denotes that the Yalta Agreement of 1945 established the territorial boundaries of Japan. From the international law perspective, which was back then effective, the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration of 1945 are considered. Potsdam Declaration (as well as the Yalta Agreement is an integral part of a unified system of political and legal decisions made by the Allied Powers. The author points out that by signing the Act of Surrender of September 2, 1945, Japan agreed on the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. The provisions of the acts of the United States and Japan are reviewed, as well as the position of their representatives in the 40-50s of last century, which showed the Japan's renunciation of claims for Kuril Islands. Comprehensive investigation exposed to provisions of the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951. А due attention is paid to the analysis of the Joint Soviet-Japanese Declaration of 1956. The article represents international legal arguments supporting the affiliation of Kuril Islands to the Russian Federation. The author characterizes a current state of Russian-Japanese territorial issue.

  6. Study on systemizing the technology on the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. Japanese fiscal year, 2005 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following study was done with the aim of systemizing the technology on the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R and D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis of the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. It continued in the former year and got the following results. Concerning (1), the concrete investigation, measurements, numerical analyses and chemical analyses were enforced about the following items and extracted some subjects with the viewpoint of radioactive waste disposal. More over, the way to make the co-operative program among each field of the following 1, 2 and 3 were discussed. 1. The subjects extracted with the viewpoint of the repository design and engineering technology. 2. The subject extracted with the viewpoint of the safety assessment. 3. The subjects extracted with the viewpoint of the geological environment. The joint research subjects among each field of 1, 2, 3 were also discussed. Concerning (2), the evaluation of the results and a way to the practical use were discussed on the R and D activities. The R and D activities of the study group concerning (2) are related to the fundamental and elemental technology. It was discussed if these results could be taken into the practical investigation programs which characterize the geological environment and engineering technology in the Tono Geoscience Center, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The Study group also discussed and gave the comment on the 2nd stage (the shaft construction stage) of the MIU (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory) research program in the JAEA. (author)

  7. The Stroop Effect in Kana and Kanji Scripts in Native Japanese Speakers: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Emily L. Coderre; Filippi, Christopher G.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the two writing systems of the Japanese orthography are processed differently: kana (syllabic symbols) are processed like other phonetic languages such as English, while kanji (a logographic writing system) are processed like other logographic languages like Chinese. Previous work done with the Stroop task in Japanese has shown that these differences in processing strategies create differences in Stroop effects. This study investigated the Stroop effect in kanji ...

  8. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  9. Evaluation of Japanese School Counseling Program : Qualitative Case Study in a Japanese Junior High School

    OpenAIRE

    Zaffuto, Steven Randolph

    2005-01-01

    The Japanese school counseling program has undergone considerable developmental transitions since the implementation in 1995. The organizational structure of the Japanese educational institutions has presented unique and significant influential factors regarding the establishment and implementation of program design and delivery. Within any organization the consideration of cultural, individual, economic, and political differences are essential in ensuring the success of the program outcome. ...

  10. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  11. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2008-01-01

    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…

  12. 吳汝綸日本教育考察與對晚清學制建立影響程度的再探討 Master Ju-Lun Wu’s Inspection of Japanese Education and Reevaluation of Its Influence on the Drafting of School Systems in the Late Ch’ing Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    周愚文 Yu-Wen Chou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 中國教育西化始於晚清,而壬寅及癸卯學制則是創始,主要仿日。制定過程中,過去許多研究認為吳汝綸是主要影響人物之一,他在就任京師大學堂總教習前獲派赴日考察教育4個月,透過參觀、訪談、聽講及資料蒐集,希望全面深入瞭解日本教育的發展與問題。訪問結果除即時陳報管學大臣張百熙及相關人員外,另出版《東遊叢錄》供修訂癸卯學制參考。但經本研究再考察發現,因人在日本考察、返國後朝局不利及病逝等因素,故他未能直接參與規劃、引導方向,以致主政人員在設計學制時,仍只是複製日本制度而已。 The modernization of Chinese education began from the late Ch’ing period, and the 1902 Ren-yin and 1904 Kuei-mao school systems marked the beginning of the modernization of Chinese education, which borrowed from Japanese education. Numerous studies have claimed that master Ju-Lun Wu was one of the key figures, before he inaugurated the vice-chancellor of Imperial Capital University, who inspected Japanese education over 4 months. He inquired into the development and problems of Japanese education by inspecting schools and universities; discussing with scholars, educators, and officials; listening to lectures; and collecting materials. His findings were reported to Minister Pai-Shi Chang and related staff and his Collected Records of Visiting Japan was published. Although his book became a reference book, this study found that Ju-Lun Wu was not directly involved in drafting school systems for several reasons. Therefore, the 1904 Kuei-mao system remains an uncritical, imitated Japanese school system.

  13. Japanese regulation change and Mihama accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Oct 2003 Japanese Regulation Laws on Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Facilities were revised and the new organization JNES started. In order to implement these safety operations, the inspection system was mainly revised. The electric utilities take the primary responsibility for the design, construction, and operation management of the nuclear power plants. In the other hand the regulatory authority confirms that the safety of the nuclear power plants is ensured by the electric utilities at each stage of the design, construction, and operation. The confirmation is carded out through the reviews and inspections in accordance with laws and ordinances. After Oct 1st, 2003, the quality assurance and maintenance management systems were established and also the licence's periodic inspection was clearly defined. The roles of NISA and JNES were clearly defined for the inspections and so on.. Mihama Unit No 3 had the pipe rupture accident of the condensate water at Aug 9, 2004 which was the secondary system one, namely it was not the reactor one, but 5 people were unfortunately killed by the hot steam. Next day Mihama Accident Investigation Committee was established and reported the interim report at the end of September and the final report this March. JNES was responsible for the technical investigation on the accident and reported the pipe rupture mechanism, the flow analysis, the pipe rupture analysis and so on. The main technical reason of this rupture was the erosion and corrosion of the pipe and the thinning of the pipe thickness, but the main reason was the management issues of Kansai Electric Power Co. and also the management system for the venders. There were 26 similar accidents in the world and then this accident showed that the lessons and learned is very important for the nuke people. (author)

  14. FOREIGN INVESTMENT INFLUENCE ON OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL IN JAPANESE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor Ioan Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate equity structure, whether is in a market-based system like US or a bank-based system like Japan is prone to changes due to foreign investment. Protection from outside investors varies greatly around these systems. Where protection is good, market-based systems flourish. These systems have certain advantages as they appear to foster innovation and to encourage the release of capital from declining industries. Bank-based systems may be better suited to established industries. These systems also help protect individuals from direct exposure to stock market risk. But, no matter the system, agency problems are inevitable. The paper looks at the past changes of the Japanese corporate ownership composition under the influence of foreign investment.

  15. Japanese Asset Prices, Yen-Dollar Exchange Rates and The Currency Crisis in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Changkyu Choi; Dong-Geun Han; Gang-Soo Jun

    2001-01-01

    Japanese banks' lending to Korea was influenced by Japanese asset prices and yen-dollar exchange rates. Before the Korean currency crisis in 1997, Japanese asset prices declined and yen depreciated. This made the BIS ratio of Japanese banks lower and thus enforced Japanese banks to withdraw their lending from Korea to keep up with the BIS ratio of Japanese banks. Japanese banks led US and European banks in withdrawing their lending from Korea. The Japanese banks' suspension of rollover to Kor...

  16. Progress of ITER R and D in the Japanese Home Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report on the progress of ITER R and D in the Japanese Home Team. In close collaboration with more than 30 top level industries and many universities, various R and D tasks assigned to the Japanese Home Team have been conducted. In particular, reactor structures such as superconducting coils and vacuum vessel, in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor, out-vessel components such as heating and current drive systems, remote maintenance technology, and seismic isolation systems have shown significant progress. (author)

  17. Reading in Asian Languages: Making Sense of Written Texts in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.; Wang, Shaomei, Ed.; Iventosch, Mieko, Ed.; Goodman, Yetta M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Reading in Asian Languages" is rich with information about how literacy works in the non-alphabetic writing systems (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) used by hundreds of millions of people and refutes the common Western belief that such systems are hard to learn or to use. The contributors share a comprehensive view of reading as construction of…

  18. THE IMPACT OF BSE, FMD, AND U.S. EXPORT PROMOTION EXPENDITURES ON JAPANESE MEAT DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Godfred; Maynard, Leigh J.

    2004-01-01

    The study examined Japanese consumer response to the discovery of BSE and discusses implications for the U.S. beef industry following BSE discovery in the U.S. Impacts of FMD and export promotion expenditures were also modeled. Synthetic inverse and ordinary demand systems were used to appropriately specify the demand system.

  19. Japanese proposal and contribution for IAEA/CRP on RIPL-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese Nuclear Data Committee (JNDC) organized an evaluating Calculation Support System Working Group (ECSS-WG) to investigate the subjects related to the RIPL-II project. The activities of this working group for validating model parameter and the development of the integrated nuclear data evaluation system (INDES) and its parameter database are briefly presented in this report

  20. Japanese management philosophy: can it be exported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, T

    1982-06-01

    Japanese companies have many characteristics common to innovative organizations. Missions and goals are clearly stated. These motivate the employee and make it easier to introduce innovation. They also encourage more of a sense of involvement with the organization. Japanese corporations have growth oriented and long-range goals. This derives from the expectation of life-time employment. And pressure from shareholders is not as strong as in the U.K. The separation of management from ownership is well advanced with a management committee being in effective control. Group decisions tend to be innovative, in part due to the high number of university graduates. Japanese management thus remains sensitive to new technology and new ideas. Many characteristics of Japanese management do not originate in the uniqueness of their culture but rather in the positive introduction of new theory. Strategic decisions are made by top management. Formal long-range planning has a very high diffusion among large Japanese companies. Strategies are competition oriented. There is a long-term co-operative relation between the final products manufacturer and the parts manufacturers. There is also more use of internal growth and less use of acquisition. PMID:10298731

  1. Wenceslau de Moraes, interpreter of japanese culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alexandre Barros Teixeira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2015v20n2p153 In this article we will comment on the critical and creative aspects of Japanese poetry in the work of Portuguese author and diplomat Wenceslau Moraes, who was the first translator of Japanese haiku into Portuguese. The author adopted the form of quatrain poem using lines of five or seven syllables for transcription of Japanese three line verses.  Wenceslau valued puns, popular expressions and other elements of poetic function present in the traditional haiku. The author also commented on aspects of poetic art, philosophy, religion, aesthetics and Japanese language from the philosophical principles of Shinto and Buddhism. His complete works, in the form of essays, letters, diaries and travel reports, include 14 volumes dedicated to Japan and Japanese culture, with special attention to Relance da alma japonesa, published in 1925, a work that covers from tradition court poetry, collected from court anthologies published since the VIII Century a.D, to the classic haiku and popular songs and proverbs.

  2. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  3. Are Australian Fans of Anime and Manga Motivated to Learn Japanese Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, William S.; Iida, Sumiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into Japanese as a foreign language education has strongly emphasized the link between Japanese popular culture and learning Japanese. However, these studies have only targeted Japanese language learners in formal education contexts and have largely ignored those who are not studying Japanese or studying Japanese informally. This…

  4. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR Workshop, phase IIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese contributions at INTOR Phase 2A are summarized as a first three chapters of the report, Japanese Contributions to INTOR Workshop, Phase 2A. This report contains Introduction, Summary of the total report and INTOR Concepts. (author)

  5. Japanese Language and "Characters": From the Perspective of Teaching Japanese as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko SHUKURI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces current status of "role language" and the "speaker's character" and their applications in Japanese teaching materials. Besides it studies the knowledge of Russian learners of Japanese and carefully examines their knowledge of four typical kinds of "role language" in Japanese anime and manga by using a questionnaire and follow-up interviews. From the results of the textbook research, the following two things are revealed; (a first person pronouns except for watashi are rarely used, (b there is not enough explanations about different "speaker's characters" in detail. Furthermore, findings of the questionnaire show that some of the learners who have the same impression of the characters as Japanese native speakers, wrongly connect a certain "role language" to illustrations of a character, and results of as much as three kinds of "role language" have a low positive correlation with the learners' results of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test. Results also reveal that all four kinds of "role language" have no correlation with other factors, such as student's duration of learning Japanese, or frequency of the use of Japanese outside the classroom.

  6. International Human Resources Management of Japanese, American, and European Firms in Asia : The Roles of Headquarters and Subsidiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromichi Shibata; Andrew Doyle

    2006-01-01

    The main role of the headquarters international human resources departments/business units of seven Japanese firms we researched is to manage the Japanese expatriates at their subsidiaries in Asia; they have little involvement with the management of local employees. The headquarters international human resources departments/business units at five researched American firms tend to maintain strong company value/mission that drives use of their performance appraisal/promotion systems for employe...

  7. What Makes Management Style Similar and Distinct Across Borders? Growth, Experience and Culture in Korean and Japanese Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Jangho Lee; Thomas W Roehl; Soonkyoo Choe

    2000-01-01

    Using a survey database of Japanese and Korean firms, we compare the styles of two Asian business systems, with a Japanese rather than an American mirror. There are substantial differences in the two country styles. We introduce two sources of convergence, firm size as measured by sales, and globalization as measured by export ratio, and find that both of these factors reduce the difference, with globalization the more significant of the two.© 2000 JIBS. Journal of International Business Stud...

  8. Japanese contributions to CERN-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now under construction at CERN, Geveva, to study frontier researches of particle physics. The LHC is the biggest superconducting accelerator using the most advanced cryogenics and applied superconductivities. The accelerator and large scale detectors for particle physics experiments are being constructed by collaboration with European countries and also by participation with non-CERN countries worldwide. In 1995, the Japanese government decided to take on a share in the LHC project with funding and technological contributions. KEK contributes to the development of low beta insertion superconducting quadrupole magnets and of components of the ATLAS detector by collaboration with university groups. Some Japanese companies have received contracts for technically key elements such as superconducting cable, cold compressor, nonmagnetic steel, polyimide film, and so on. An outline of the LHC project and Japanese contributions are described. (author)

  9. Intercultural Influence: A Study of Japanese Expatriate Managers in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Asha Rao; Keiji Hashimoto

    1996-01-01

    This study explored the nature of intercultural influence by examining the influence strategies of Japanese managers in Canada with their Canadian and Japanese subordinates. Theories of inter-group behavior and cultural differences were used to predict the influence strategies used by Japanese managers with subordinates from their own and another culture. There were significant differences in their strategies, which were associated with the national culture of their subordinates. Japanese man...

  10. New growth type industries of Japanese Economy <論説>

    OpenAIRE

    Ichihashi, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    This paper's purpose aims to survey and sketch a characteristic of new industrial change of Japanese Economy.The Japanese Economy shifted to export dependence type economy at 1980's because rationalization after an oil crisis at the beginning of 70's had been done. Processing structure industries of export oriented type and new service industries led Japanese Economy from that time to bubble economy period.Firstly, Japanese Economy made a recovery from about 1993 after the collapse of the bub...

  11. New growth type industries of Japanese Economy <論説>

    OpenAIRE

    Ichihashi, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    This paper's purpose aims to survey and sketch a characteristic of new industrial change of Japanese Economy. The Japanese Economy shifted to export dependence type economy at 1980's because rationalization after an oil crisis at the beginning of 70's had been done. Processing structure industries of export oriented type and new service industries led Japanese Economy from that time to bubble economy period. Firstly, Japanese Economy made a recovery from about 1993 after the collapse ...

  12. 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement: Forecast Simulation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Thomas I.; Williams, Gary W.; Dermot J. Hayes

    1989-01-01

    This paper uses dynamic simulation analysis to consider the likely consequences of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement (BMAA) on the Japanese livestock industry and beef imports. Using a simultaneous equations, econometric model of Japanese livestock markets, a forecast baseline up to 1997 was first established, asswning that the Japanese beef import quota continues to increase by 9,000 tons annually as under the 1984 agreement The restrictions of the new agreement were then impose...

  13. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Smith

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 59: Japanese Technological Innovation. Implications for Large Commercial Aircraft and Knowledge Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kotler, Mindy L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores three factors-public policy, the Japanese (national) innovation system, and knowledge-that influence technological innovation in Japan. To establish a context for the paper, we examine Japanese culture and the U.S. and Japanese patent systems in the background section. A brief history of the Japanese aircraft industry as a source of knowledge and technology for other industries is presented. Japanese and U.S. alliances and linkages in three sectors-biotechnology, semiconductors, and large commercial aircraft (LCA)-and the importation, absorption, and diffusion of knowledge and technology are examined next. The paper closes with implications for diffusing knowledge and technology, U.S. public policy, and LCA.

  15. 黃遵憲對晚清引介日本教育制度及建立西式教育的貢獻 Huang Zunxian’s Contribution to the Introduction of Aspects of the Japanese Education System and the Establishment of Western-style Education in Late Qing China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    周愚文 Yu-Wen Chou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 晚清兩學制係仿日制,而黃遵憲最先完整介紹並建議仿日。他使日時親身經歷明治維新,藉蒐集文獻、代譯書籍、訪談友人及實地參訪等法撰成《日本雜事詩》與《日本國志》,開研究日本先河,提倡設學興教,鼓勵清仿日變法。後書於甲午戰敗後問世,戊戌維新時,皇帝及變法重臣都讀過。梁啟超將《國志》列為時務學堂必讀之書,倡辦師範教育;盛宣懷創南洋公學,首建師範齋及附設小 學;戊戌時康梁議設各級學堂及京師大學堂以統各省學堂等,均當受黃氏啟迪。但因日持續變革,故不易掌握新況。當制定學制時,他雖未參與但擬藉書喚起朝野正視日本之崛起,對引介日制及建立西式教育實有貢獻。可惜主政者未重視,再派員赴日短期考察,歸國後未參與規劃,報告僅供參考,遂無法設計符合國情的新學制。本文旨在探討黃遵憲對引介日本教育及建立新學制的貢獻。 Huang Zunxian was the first Chinese to compile a description of the Japanese education system and to suggest that China should learn from it. While serving as a Chinese diplomat in Japan, Huang witnessed the Meiji Restoration reforms at first hand. The research and investigations that Huang undertook while in Japan provided the basis for his Poems on Japan and General History of Japan; Huang urged the Qing government to implement educational reforms along Japanese lines. The aim of the present study is to examine the contribution made by Huang Zunxian to the introduction of aspects of the Japanese education system into China during the last years of the Qing Dynasty. Huang’s writings influenced other educational reformers such as Sheng Xuanhuai, Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao. However, the Japanese education system itself continued to evolve during this period, which made it difficult for China to keep upto-date with the latest

  16. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  17. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  18. Factor Structure of Japanese Versions of Two Emotional Intelligence Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Fung, Tak Shing; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Kiyama, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the psychometric properties of two emotional intelligence measures translated into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the factor structure of a Japanese version of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) completed by 310 Japanese university students. A second study employed CFA…

  19. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...

  20. Aplastic anemia in Japanese radiological technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the Japanese radiological technicians, four deaths from aplastic anemia have been reported after 1930. On the other hand, during the period from 1930 to 1960, the population of radiological technicians is estimated to be 74,400 man-years, in which 0.5 aplastic anemias are expected. However, actually three died from aplastic anemia. This difference is statistically significant at the 1% level. While, in the period from 1961 to 1973, the observed value is 1 against 0.7 expected. It is concluded that aplastic anemia had been induced frequently among the Japanese radiological technicians in the era when there was much exposure to occupational radiation. (orig.)

  1. Japanese “Merchants of Culture”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2014-01-01

    of Japanese publishing. Research limitations/implications The Japanese publishing industry appears to operate under certain cultural constraints that inhibit crosscultural comparison, while enabling cross-industry comparison within Japan. Why this is so needs further research. Can the parallels between...... advertising and publishing industries be extended to other forms of cultural production in Japan? In particular, the way in which money is circulated within an industry has an influential effect upon its structure. Practical implications. A useful source of information for practitioners and academics...

  2. Japanese Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Katayama

    2014-01-01

    The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2012 (ADGL2012" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2013" together with those for other allergic diseases.

  3. What can we learn from the Japanese?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the acceptance of nuclear power it is necessary that the nuclear plants operate safely, economically and without disturbance. This message has been taken seriously in Japan. Very low frequency of disturbance is characteristic to Japanese nuclear power plants. Behind the excellent results of the Japanese plants are the good preventive maintenance based on deep technical knowledge of the plants, good theoretical and practical training of the operators and the maintenance personnel and a high quality of work. A special feature is the comprehensive programme for the preventive maintenance of the components which requires long yearly outages of the plants. (orig.)

  4. Drawing disability in Japanese manga: visual politics, embodied masculinity, and wheelchair basketball in Inoue Takehiko's REAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    This work explores disability in the cultural context of contemporary Japanese comics. In contrast to Western comics, Japanese manga have permeated the social fabric of Japan to the extent that vast numbers of people read manga on a daily basis. It has, in fact, become such a popular medium for visual communication that the Japanese government and education systems utilize manga as a social acculturation and teaching tool. This multibillion dollar industry is incredibly diverse, and one particularly popular genre is sports manga. However, Inoue Takehiko's award-winning manga series REAL departs from more conventional sports manga, which typically focus on able-bodied characters with sometimes exaggerated superhuman physical abilities, by adopting a more realistic approach to the world of wheelchair basketball and the people who play it. At the same time REAL explores cultural attitudes toward disability in Japanese culture-where disability is at times rendered "invisible" either through accessibility problems or lingering associations of disability and shame. It is therefore extremely significant that manga, a visual medium, is rendering disability visible-the ultimate movement from margin to center. REAL devotes considerable attention to realistically illustrating the lived experiences of its characters both on and off the court. Consequently, the series not only educates readers about wheelchair basketball but also provides compelling insight into Japanese cultural notions about masculinity, family, responsibility, and identity. The basketball players-at first marginalized by their disability-join together in the unity of a sport typically characterized by its "abledness." PMID:24213739

  5. Characterization and assessment of potential European and Japanese competition in photovoltaics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This study is an assessment of the potential of European and Japanese firms to produce and market photovoltaic (PV) power systems internationally in competition with firms in the United States. It consists of three distinct parts: (1) an overview of worldwide export activity which describes the general posture of selected European countries and Japan; (2) an assessment of European competition focusing on Germany, France, and the United Kingdom; and (3) an assessment of Japanese competition. All research was conducted within the United States relying on published reports in the scientific, trade, and business press; a firm's annual reports; and telephone interviews with representatives of European and Japanese firms. European and Japanese government representatives were also contacted and government-sponsored programs evaluated. European competition is addressed in three areas: characterization of the PV industry; current and potential marketing activity; and the status of PV and related technological developments. The same areas are addressed for depicting Japanese competition except that greater emphasis is placed on past industrial experience and related semiconductor sales.

  6. Emergent Processes of Language Acquisition: Japanese Language Learning and the Consumption of Japanese Cultural Products in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Noboru Toyoshima

    2013-01-01

    Motivation for learning a second language varies among individuals: some people enjoy the process of learning languages, while others learn a second language for practical reasons. Previous fieldwork research in Thailand has shown that many consumers of Japanese cultural products are also learners of the Japanese language. This suggests that Japanese cultural products motivate consumers to start studying Japanese and to continue learning it. In this study, two hypotheses will be posed in orde...

  7. The Relationship between Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students' Japanese Sign Language and Japanese Language Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Iurascu, Mariela A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study represents an attempt at investigating the relationship between the Japanese Sign Language proficiency and the Japanese literacy skills of high school students who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH). A pilot test of Japanese Sign Language was designed and administered to 138 D/HH students. A validation analysis was carried out employing classical test theory methods, and test scores were compared to scores obtained by the same participants on a Japanese language and literac...

  8. Neurophysiological changes in Japanese encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalita J

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is an encephalomyelitis involving cortex, subcortex, brainstem and spinal cord. There is paucity of studies on the neurophysiological evaluation in JE. This study aims at comprehensive evaluation of EEG, sensory and motor evoked potentials, nerve conduction and electromyography; and correlate these with clinical findings. Sixty five patients with JE diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological and virological criteria were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation during the acute stage of illness. Cranial CT scan or MRI was carried out in all the patients. All the patients underwent 10 or 18 channel EEG, motor and sensory evoked potentials to both upper and lower limbs bilaterally as well as peroneal and sural nerve conductions and concentric needle EMG. Outcome, was defined at the end of 3 months into poor, partial and complete recovery. The patient′s age ranged between 2-65 years. There were 40 males and 25 female patients. Fifteen patients were less than 12 years of age. History of seizure was present in 31 patients. Quadriplegia was seen in 39 and hemiplegia in 8 patients. Muscle wasting was present in 16 patients and tendon reflexes were reduced in 12 and of mixed pattern in 14 patients. Cranial MRI revealed thalamic lesion in 38, basal ganglia in 21, substantia nigra in 30, pons in 5, cerebellum in 3 and cerebral cortex in 7 patients out of 57 patients. EEG revealed nonspecific theta to delta slowing in 45, alpha pattern coma in 5 and epileptiform discharges in 8 patients. EMG revealed fibrillations in 23 patients. Motor evoked potentials were abnormal in 34 out of 46 patients and revealed patchy and focal abnormalities comprising of unrecordable, prolonged and normal pattern. Somatosensory evoked potentials were abnormal in 8 patients only. At 3 month, 26 patients had complete, 13 partial and 15 had poor outcome. Eight patients died in acute stage and 3 were lost to followup. MEP correlated with weakness

  9. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer system containing a low-level radioisotope and its application to the non-destructive analysis of inorganic colorants used for the traditional Japanese votive picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable RI X-ray fluorescence spectrometer having a weight of 1800 g was constructed by using a radiation annular source (241Am sealed up with ceramics, 1.85 MBq), a small Si-PIN photodiode X-ray detector mounted on a Peltier cooling device, an amplifier and a pocket-type multi-channel pulse-height analyzer. It could also be applied to a non-destructive analysis of the blue colorant in the original Japanese votive picture 'Rashoumon-zu', offered to shrine in 1682. Consequently, it was clarified that the blue colorant (X) was 'Smalt' containing Ga, Fe, Co, Ni and As as major elements. (author)

  10. Non-Native Japanese Listeners' Perception of Vowel Length Contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the perception of short vs. long vowel contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by four groups of listeners differing in their linguistic backgrounds: native Arabic (NA), native Japanese (NJ), non-native Japanese (NNJ) and Australian English (OZ) speakers. The NNJ and OZ groups shared the first language…

  11. Fundamental Frequency Range in Japanese and English: The Case of Simultaneous Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Calbert

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to test whether Japanese and English speakers vary their fundamental frequency (f0) range as a function of the language spoken. Speech samples of Japanese-(American) English simultaneous bilinguals (5 males, 5 females; all undergraduates at UC Berkeley) performing comparable reading tasks in their two native languages were analysed. The study builds on a relatively new approach to measuring f0 range that computes its high and low points from tonal targets in the intonational phonology. Unlike in most previous studies where f0 range is traditionally treated as a one-dimensional measure, f0 range in this study is measured along two quasi-independent dimensions: level and span. Findings revealed statistically significant crosslanguage differences between Japanese and English in both dimensions. This provides new insights into the relation between prosodic structure and f0 range in these two typologically different prosodic systems. PMID:25997935

  12. 日本鳗鲡消化系统的形态学及组织学研究%Morphology and Histology Studies on the Digestive System of Japanese Eel,Anguilla japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙媛; 陈真锋

    2012-01-01

    利用解剖学和组织学显微技术对日本鳗鲡(Anguilla japonica)的消化系统进行形态学及组织学研究.结果显示,日本鳗鲡消化道由口咽腔、食道、胃、小肠和直肠组成.口咽腔较大,黏膜上皮为复层扁平上皮,内含较多的杯状细胞.食道、胃及肠均由黏膜层、黏膜下层、肌层和浆膜层构成.食道短,黏膜上皮包括复层扁平上皮和单层柱状上皮.胃膨大,呈Y形,由贲门部、胃体部和幽门部组成,盲囊部发达.胃壁黏膜为单层柱状上皮,胃腺位于胃体部.肠道短,包括小肠和直肠,由前向后杯状细胞和黏膜褶皱不断减少.消化腺包括肝脏和胰脏,肝小叶分界不明显,肝细胞内脂肪滴明显.胰脏包括外分泌部和内分泌部,外分泌部由许多腺泡组成,胰岛散布在外分泌部内.%The morphology and histology structures of the digestive system of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica were studied by using the anatomy and light microscope. The result showed that the digestive tract in A. Japonica was composed of buccal— pharynx cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and rectum. The buccal-pharynx cavity was large, and its mucosa was composed of stratified squamous epitheliums with some goblet cells. The esophagus, stomach and intestine were composed of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa layers. The esophagus was short, and stratified and simple columnar squamous epitheliums were identified. The stomach was expanded, Y—shaped, and composed of cardia, body of stomach and pylorus, and the gastric caecum was conspicuous. The stomach mucosa was comprised of simple columnar squamous epitheliums and the stomach gland was located in the body of the stomach. The intestines was short and included the small intestine and the rectum. From foregut to hindgut, the number of goblet cells and intestinal villus reduced gradually. The digestive glands were composed of the liver and the pancreas. The liver lobule was

  13. Imperial Japanese Army Intelligence in North and Central China During the Second Sino-Japanese War

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese today seek to improve their national intelligence apparatus, particularly in relation to human intelligence assets and higher echelon coordination. To be successful, Japan must examine its wartime past in the intelligence field. The Imperial Japanese Army maintained a prolific intelligence presence in North and Central China during the Second World War. Its intelligence apparatus encompassed all aspects of information collection, with considerable overlap between intelligence org...

  14. Acculturation of personality: A three-culture study of Japanese, Japanese Americans, and European Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör De Bruyn, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Cote, Linda; Ceulemans, Eva; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigr...

  15. Japanese Martial Arts as Popular Culture: Teaching Opportunity and Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Robert NAGY

    2015-01-01

    Japanese martial arts, here after Japanese budō, are popular cultural icons that are found in films, comics, video games and books. Teaching Japanese budō at university offers a novel way to teach about East Asian and in particular Japanese culture, history, and philosophy while including ideas about the globalization and the localization of culture. Question though remains as to how and what should we teach about the popular culture of Japanese budō at the university level? This paper found ...

  16. Japanese Shame Culture and American Guilt Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.

  17. Production of Japanese Soy-Sauce Flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.

    2001-01-01

    The salt-tolerant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis are important for the formation of flavour in Japanese soy-sauce processes. In these processes Z. rouxii produces the flavour components ethanol, higher alcohols and 4-hydroxyfuranones, while C. versatilis is responsible for th

  18. Japanese Children's Reasoning about Conflicts with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-five Japanese children (aged 6-12) were interviewed using hypothetical stories to examine their reasoning about parent-child conflicts. Participants were most likely to reject parental authority and to support child's discretion in conflict situations where the parent interfered in the child's personal choice and gave the child commands…

  19. Culture and Information Society: The Japanese Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudjman, Miroslav

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the cultural, ontological, and epistemological principles on which knowledge is organized in Japanese culture. Topics discussed include public knowledge and corporate knowledge; cognition, including field dependent knowledge and group dependent knowledge; communication and image oriented knowledge; memory; and patterns of…

  20. Coping with instabilities - lessons from Japanese architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    capabilities in coping with eruptions and sudden changes. Transforming ruins into a city for the future, he argued, is not merely achieved by replicating the International Style it needs the inclusion of a rather stable formula for the construction of image schemes. This implies a particular Japanese motif, a......) as a formula for a ritual choreography of the construction of urban sanctuaries....

  1. Learn Japanese: Secondary School Text, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Bernice; And Others

    This is the fifth in a series of ten texts designed for teaching Japanese at the secondary level. Also available are supplementary instructional materials and teacher's guides. Throughout the two units of four lessons each, the theme centers around life in Japan as seen through the eyes of an American student. Each unit contains conversations,…

  2. Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus distribution, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nitatpattana, Narong; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Souris, Marc; Barbazan, Philippe; Yoksan, Sutee; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotypes in Thailand were studied in pigs and mosquitoes collected near houses of confirmed human JEV cases in 2003-2005. Twelve JEV strains isolated belonged to genotype 1, which shows a switch from genotype I I I incidence that started during the 1980s.

  3. Japanese Management Theory and Library Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of Japanese management theory and suggests applications to library administration. Highlights include participative management; shared decision making; long-term objectives; organizational philosophy; staff training and human resource development; strategic planning; staffing issues; cooperation; quality control; and total…

  4. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural and...

  5. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  6. Measuring Search Frictions Using Japanese Microdata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Masaru; Kohara, Miki; Machikita, Tomohiro

    This paper estimates matching functions to measure search frictions in the Japanese labor market and presents determinants of search duration to explain the effect of unemployment benefits on a job seeker’s behavior. We employ administrative micro data that track the job search process of...

  7. Measuring Search Frictions Using Japanese Microdata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Masaru; Kohara, Miki; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates individual-level matching functions to measure search frictions in the Japanese labour market and presents the determinants of search duration. We employ administrative microdata that track the job search process of job seekers who left or lost their job in August 2005 and...

  8. Introduction of Japanese Society of Oral Implantology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayoshi Kawazoe

    2009-01-01

    @@ In response to the significant advancement oforal implantology around the world, the JapaneseSociety of Oral Implantology (JSOI) was established in 1972. Its purpose is to promote and improve oral implantology in Japan, and introducesafe and predictable implant treatment methods.

  9. Learning Intelligent Genetic Algorithms Using Japanese Nonograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Fang, Jia-Cen

    2012-01-01

    An intelligent genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed to solve Japanese nonograms and is used as a method in a university course to learn evolutionary algorithms. The IGA combines the global exploration capabilities of a canonical genetic algorithm (CGA) with effective condensed encoding, improved fitness function, and modified crossover and…

  10. Learning from Analysis of Japanese EFL Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, George R. S.; Ozasa, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Japan has a long tradition of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL). A common feature of EFL courses is reliance on specific textbooks as a basis for graded teaching, and periods in Japanese EFL history are marked by the introduction of different textbook series. These sets of textbooks share the common goal of taking students from…

  11. Remembering Aborted Foetuses in a Japanese Shrine

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a shrine beside a temple in Kyoto there are a large number of small effigies. They commemorate aborted foetuses. In the absence of proper contraception, the Japanese for centuries have had to use abortion and, in the past, infanticide to control their population. These 'water children' (who return to the water world at abortion) are a source of great sadness in Japan.

  12. In Defense of Japanese Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Liberal education has been a target of political discourse in many countries, and Japan is no exception. In Japanese higher education, there are three types of institutions: national public, local public, and private. In June 2015, Japan's minister of education, Hakubun Shimomura, called upon the country's national universities to take…

  13. ‘Spring Showers’ Japanese Snowbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Spring Showers’ was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

  14. Operational benchmarking of Japanese and Danish hopsitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Andreas; Itoh, Kenji; Jacobsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This benchmarking model is designed as an integration of three organizational dimensions suited for the healthcare sector. The model incorporates posterior operational indicators, and evaluates upon aggregation of performance. The model is tested upon seven cases from Japan and Denmark. Japanese...

  15. The Vicissitudes of a Medieval Japanese Warrior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In standard accounts of medieval Japanese society, enormous stress is put on the conflicts between local landholders (zaichi ryôshu) and absentee proprietors. Fuelled by the debate on feudalism that divided scholars up until the early 1990s, these conflicts have widely been recognised as proof of...

  16. Japanese encephalitis virus: from genome to infectome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unni, S. K.; Růžek, Daniel; Chhatbar, C.; Mishra, R.; Johri, M. K.; Singh, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2011), 312-321. ISSN 1286-4579 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Japanese encephalitis * Neurotropic infection * Neuropathogenesis * Mosquito borne infections * Arboviral infections Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2011

  17. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  18. Dentistry in Korea during the Japanese Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIN Jae-Eu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893. and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in september, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians(yipchisa without limit and controled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed. Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumerbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulation for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentist Suk-Tae Ham was registered No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan. it was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. it was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. the Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche'--'Japan and Korea are one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese

  19. The Tortoise and the Hare Enigma in E-Transformation in Japanese and Korean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchem, Colin; Jung, Insung; Aoki, Kumiko; Ozkul, Ali Ekrem

    2008-01-01

    Japan and Korea have highly developed information and communications technology infrastructures and have recently reformed their higher education systems and encouraged e-transformation. However, Japanese universities have not embraced e-learning as wholeheartedly as their Korean counterparts. The paper concludes that this is due to governmental…

  20. Compare Chinese Corporate Governance with Anglo-American and German-Japanese Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenhao

    2006-01-01

    The corporate governance system in developed countries can be mainly distinguished into Anglo-American Model and German-Japanese Model. This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics of corporate governance in the UK, US, Germany and Japan, then compares them with corporate governance of contemporary China, and finally concludes the comparative characteristics of Chinese corporate governance.

  1. School Socioeconomic Context and Teacher Job Satisfaction in Japanese Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Sociologists in education have pointed out disparities associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in the Japanese compulsory education system that was once regarded as egalitarian. In addition to disparities between individual students, prior studies have empirically shown SES-based disparities among schools on important indicators such as…

  2. RECENT FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN OF JAPANESE HOUSEHOLDS: DRIVING FORCES BEHIND WESTERNIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tokoyama, Yuki; Takagi, Shingo; Ishibashi, Kimiko; Chern, Wen S.

    2002-01-01

    A complete demand system for 11 aggregated food categories with 24 demographic variables, is specified following QUAIDS and is estimated using Japanese household level data. The estimation results suggest that westernization is due to the income effect and the tendency is further enhanced by the demographic factors.

  3. Wind-blown mosquitoes and introduction of Japanese encephalitis into Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, S. A.; Rochester, W.

    2001-01-01

    Backtrack simulation analysis indicates that wind-blown mosquitoes could have traveled from New Guinea to Australia, potentially introducing Japanese encephalitis virus. Large incursions of the virus in 1995 and 1998 were linked with low-pressure systems that sustained strong northerly winds from New Guinea to the Cape York Peninsula.

  4. Error Correction Strategies Used by Learners of Japanese When Revising a Writing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mariko

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on error correction strategies employed by learners of Japanese when revising their written work. Investigates the effectiveness of the coding system employed by a university entrance assessment in Australia; types of code symbols that lead to successful self-correction; strategies used for self-correction; and successful and unsuccessful…

  5. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter V: transient electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapter V of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Simulation results are shown for feedback control of plasma position, electromagnetic forces at disruptions, penetration of electric and magnetic fields, and benchmark tests for transient electromagnetics. Design guide lines for feedback control system and database assessments are also reported. (author)

  6. A Comparative Study of Western and Japanese Practices Geared toward Improved Learning and New Product Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Kenneth A.; Hanson, David; Lanasa, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of new product development in contributing to the success of corporations and examines differences between models of corporate culture in Japan and the United States that account for the current Japanese advantage. Highlights include leadership style; work structure; reward and recognition systems; and alternative…

  7. SOME FEATURES OF THE COMBAT TRAINING JAPANESE TROOPS AT THE END OF XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. TSOKUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes some of the features of Japanese combat training of troops and their display in the wars of the late XIX – early XX century in connection with using of bladed weapons. Despite decreasing one’s role in modern warfare, much attention was paid to training bayonet fighting techniques and fencing swords. A British officer, F. Norman after a long learning Japanese fencing wrote about considerable superiority of Japanese swords and fencing systems. During the Russian-Japanese war 1904‒1905 there were widely used bayonets and sabres (swords, broadswords in the melee, but more often the bayonets were used. Most memoirs celebrate excellence in the Russian bayonet attacks. The fall of the role of the cavalry is not only sharply increased role of firearms, but also with the preparation of engineering positions. Combat training of reserve forces in Japan and Russia also differ significantly. According to General A. Kuropatkin, the Japanese reserve units sometimes were fighting better than the field troops. There is widely spread opinion in the scientific literature that the Japanese soldier was physically strong and hardy, brought on unquestioning fulfillment of all the requirements of command. Military reporter D. Yanchevetsky, who observed the actions of the Japanese troops during the march to Beijing in 1900, wrote that the Japanese are brave in the battle, but not endurance in the campaigns. They are dangerous and impetuous only in the first impact, but quickly weakened, and for the next blow they did not have enough strength and energy. They were pass long distance on the march and were ready to fight at the place of arrival. 

  8. Bone status assessment in Japanese subjects using speed of sound along the tibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To explore the potential use of ultrasound measurement (SoundScan 2000 Compact, Myriad Ultrasound Systems Ltd., Rehovot, Israel), and to assess both quantitative and qualitative properties of bone. Methods The speed of sound waves (SOS; m/s) propagating along the cortical bone was determined at the tibial shaft. The performance, reliability, validity, and clinical application of this system were evaluated in Japanese subjects. Results In phantom experiments, validity of this system was 0.04(%), coefficient variation (CV: %) in same-day tests was 0.12, in five-separate-day tests was 0.13, and in independent operators was 0.11, respectively. In experiments with Japanese subjects, CV in same-day tests was 0.38, in five-separate-day tests was 0.99, and in independent operators was 0.90, respectively. In addition, cortical bone status of 1176 Japanese subjects (372 males, 804 females) was clinically evaluated by SoundScan 2000 Compact. SOS was negatively correlated with body fat percentage (%), body fat (kg) and waist hip ratio in females and subjects with higher weight bearing index (leg strength/body weight; WBI) have higher SOS in females under the age of forty. Conclusions These findings indicate that the SoundScan 2000 Compact is a highly reliable and valid method for determining cortical bone status and body composition and WBI are closely related to cortical bone status in Japanese females.

  9. Business Communication Needs of Japanese Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoh Lee Su

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Business relationship between Japan and Malaysia has developed very quickly in recent years. This has caused a dramatic increase in the need for individuals who possess language skills to function in Japanese businesses. In order to investigate the needs of our Malaysian graduates, a survey was conducted involving graduates of Japanese language minor program from a public university in Malaysia. The aims of the survey were to get an overall understanding of (1 the use of Japanese language at workplace where the Japanese language minor program’s graduates are employed; (2 identify problems faced in language use and in terms of Japanese business practices in workplace. The results indicated that the graduates use Japanese language to communicate with the employees of their workplace compared to outsiders.  The findings also highlight that Japanese language listening and speaking skills are the most important skills needed by the graduates for their workplace success compared to reading and writing.Keyword: Japanese Companies, Business Japanese, Japanese Business Practices

  10. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  11. Resource consumption in Japanese agriculture and its link to food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy security and food security are two key policy objectives of the Japanese government. However, their study and the policies that have targeted them have been disjointed at best. This paper explores the links between these two policy objectives by quantifying the resources used in (a) the agricultural sector as a whole and (b) two very resource intensive sub-sectors, beef and pork production. Emergy synthesis is used as the analytical approach for the period 1975-2005 with the results suggesting that not only is more natural capital currently being used within the agricultural sector but the efficiency of the agricultural production has declined considering the increase in transformity during the same period. What is more important though is that agricultural yield is strongly correlated with resource use (quantified as emergy). This finding suggests that sudden changes in resource supply can affect agricultural production and as an extension national food security. Overall the evidence presented in this paper shows that energy security and food security are indeed interconnected and that integrated policy responses will be required if these issues are to be tackled effectively. - Research Highlights: → Shifting dietary patterns have transformed the Japanese agricultural system. → Resource use efficiency has decreased in the Japanese agricultural system. → Japanese agriculture over relies on energy intensive inputs. → Energy security and food security have become interlinked policy objectives. → Integrated policy responses will be needed to tackle energy and food security.

  12. Negotiating Colonial Korean Cinema in the Japanese Empire: From the Silent Era to the Talkies, 1923-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghwa Chung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines what I call a “system of cooperation” (K. hyŏp’ŏp, J. kyōgyō, 協業 in the colonial Korean film industry from 1923, when silent films appeared, to the late 1930s, when colonial cinema was restructured within an imperial wartime system. In other words, this article examines the interworking of colonial Korean and imperial Japanese cinema from Yun Hae-dong’s “colonial modern” perspective in order to go beyond the long established lens on colonial Korean film and film historiography that merely focused on the contributions of colonial Korean filmmakers. Here the author rather focuses on the cooperation or collaboration between Japan and Korea: Japanese directors and cinematographers working in Korea, Korean filmmakers with experience in the Japanese apprenticeship system, and filmmakers working together and independently during the silent film era. During the transition from the silent to the early talkie eras, second-generation filmmakers, especially those who trained in film studios in Japan, were significant. They dreamed of the corporatization of the colonial Korean film industry and took the lead in coproductions between Japanese film companies and their colonial Korean counterparts. Korean filmmakers were not unilaterally suppressed by imperial Japan, nor did they independently operate within the Korean film industry during the colonial period. The Japanese in colonial Korea did not take the lead in forming the colonial Korean film scene, either. The core formation of colonial Korean / Korean film was a process of Korean and Japanese filmmakers in competition and negotiation with one another within a complex film sphere launched with Japanese capital and technology.

  13. ITADICT Project and Japanese Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Maria MARIOTTI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how the Nuclear disaster in Fukushima (3 March 2011 affected Japanese Language teaching and learning in Italy, focusing on the ITADICT Project (Marcella Mariotti, project leader, Clemente Beghi, research fellow and Alessandro Mantelli, programmer. The project intends to develop the first Japanese-Italian online database, involving more than 60 students of Japanese language interested in lexicographic research and online learning strategies and tools. A secondary undertaking of ITADICT is its Latin alphabet transliteration of Japanese words into Hepburn style. ITADICT is inspired by EDICT Japanese-English database developed by the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group established in 2000 within the Faculty of Information Technology at Monash University. The Japanese-Italian database is evolving within the Department of Asian and North African Studies at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, the largest in the country and one of the main teaching centres of Japanese in Europe in terms of the number of students dedicated to it (1800 and number of Japanese language teaching hours (1002h at B.A. level, and 387h at M.A. level. In this paper we will describe how and why the project has been carried out and what the expectations are for its future development.-----Pričujoči članek predstavlja projekt ITADICT (vodja projekta Marcella Mariotti, sodelujoči raziskovalec Clemente Beghi, programer Alessandro Mantelli in vpliv nuklearne katastrofe v Fukushimi 3. marca 2011 na učenje japonščine v Italiji. Cilj projekta je razvoj prve spletne japonsko-italijanske baze podatkov, pri njem pa sodeluje več kot 60 študentov japonščine, ki jih zanima slovaropisje in učne strategije ter orodja na spletu. Drugi cilj projekta ITADICT je prečrkovanje japonskih besed v latinico, po sistemu Hepburn. Projekt je zastavljen po vzoru japonsko-angleške podatkovne baze EDICT, ki jo je razvila skupina Electronic Dictionary

  14. Suicide awareness of japanese family descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tiemi Kawaziri Diogo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to comprehend the meaning of suicide for Japanese descendants. This was a qualitative study, based on Grounded Theory, using a structured interview with sixteen questions, digitally recorded. Subjects were ten descendants who were interviewed in 2011. The opinions of the interviewed showed factors of psychological, social and cultural origin involved in suicide, such as: heredity, religion, mental health, personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships, pleasure and pain at work, stigma and consequences of the act on the family. Family without case of suicide showed attitudes of prejudice and judgment, while those with case displayed feelings of pain in their reports. It was concluded that the Japanese rigid culture, personality, interpersonal communication and the way family and work have effects on their behavior are predisposing factors to suicide, as well as the identification of these factors contributes to a better performance of the nurse.

  15. Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, version-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general purpose file of the third version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, JENDL-3, has been compiled by the JAERI Nuclear Data Center in cooperation with the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. It contains neutron nuclear data for 171 nuclides which are needed for design of fission and fusion reactors and for shielding calculation. In the JENDL-3 evaluation, much effort was devoted to improve reliability of high-energy data for fusion application and to include gamma-ray production data. Theoretical calculations played an important role in achieving these purposes. A special method called simultaneous evaluation was adopted to determine important cross sections of fissile and fertile nuclides. This report presents a general description for the evaluation of light, medium-heavy and heavy nuclide data. Also given are the descriptive data for each nuclide contained in the File 1 part of JENDL-3. (author)

  16. The Case of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Mitsuyo; Akie IRIYAMA

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how international production/distribution networks provide individual firms with exporting/importing responsiveness to exchange rate movements. With the micro-data of Japanese manufacturing firms from 1994 to 2004, we find that firms' exports tend to respond to exchange rate movements, in particular (1) when firms are large in size, (2) when majority-owned affiliates are dominant among their foreign affiliates, and (3) when their intra-firm trade ratio is moderately high. ...

  17. Lead in the Japanese living environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaga, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lead has long been known to be a neurotoxic heavy metal, particularly in the context of occupational health. However, its adverse effect on the cognitive development of children at lower exposure levels has only recently received attention. Although the exposure level of contemporary Japanese children is among the lowest in the world, it is desirable to reduce exposure as much as reasonably possible due to the absence of a threshold of exposure for adverse effects. In this review, information...

  18. Japanese Perspectives on Nutrition for New Millenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The Japanese are the longest living people in the world. According to Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, the average life expectancy at birth for male born in 1997 was 77.10 years, and the figure for female was 83.99 years.   Our country is ranked first in the Healthy Life Expectancy as shown in Table 1. The total Disability Adjusted Life Expectancy (DALE) is 74.5 years.

  19. Present status of Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A draft of the second edition of Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook has been finalized, and it is under examination by reviewing committee for JAERI Report. Working Group designated for revising the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook, which is chaired by Prof. Yamane, is now preparing for 'Guide on Burnup Credit for Storage and Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel' and second edition of 'Data Collection' part of Handbook. Activities related to revising the Handbook might give a hint for a future experiment at STACY. (author)

  20. Suicide awareness of japanese family descendants

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Tiemi Kawaziri Diogo; Marcos Hirata Soares; Júlia Trevisan Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehend the meaning of suicide for Japanese descendants. This was a qualitative study, based on Grounded Theory, using a structured interview with sixteen questions, digitally recorded. Subjects were ten descendants who were interviewed in 2011. The opinions of the interviewed showed factors of psychological, social and cultural origin involved in suicide, such as: heredity, religion, mental health, personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships, pleasure a...

  1. The Japanese Internet: visionaries and virtual democracy

    OpenAIRE

    P J Rimmer; T Morris-Suzuki

    1999-01-01

    An examination is made of how the development of the Internet in Japan is likely to affect civic rights and the relationship between citizens and their government. This was undertaken to determine if the trajectory of Internet development in Japan, with its distinct locational and corporate biases, has followed the predictions of two prominent Japanese commentators: the visionary Kumon Shumpei who espoused an expansive international perspective that citizens will be transformed into 'netizens...

  2. Processing and products of Japanese quince

    OpenAIRE

    Hellin, P.; Jordan, M.J.; Vila, Roser; Gustafsson, M.; Göransson, E.; Åkesson, Bengt; Gröön, I.; Laencina, J.; Ros, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, applied research on the usefulness of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) fruits in processing and for development of products is reported. Juice was extracted by crushing and centrifugation or by pressing, with and without prior treatment with pectolytic enzymes. Aroma was extracted from fresh fruits by sugar and was also enriched by pervaporation from juice. Several products were developed based on fruit juice, purée and aroma extracts, including consumer products such as ...

  3. The Japanese Market for Imported Fruit Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Feleke, Shiferaw T.; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives were to analyze the competitiveness of countries exporting fruit juices into Japan and simulate the effect of the negative Japanese population growth rate on fruit juice demand. The relative price version of the Rotterdam demand model was estimated for orange, grapefruit, other citrus, apple, pineapple and grape juices. Results indicate that most exporters can’t increase market share through price reductions. Product promotion and product differentiation is a more plausible o...

  4. Brazilian, Japanese, and American Business Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    The determinants of the outcomes of business negotiations in 3 cultures are investigated in a laboratory experiment. The outcomes of negotiations between Japanese businessmen result primarily from situational constraint—the role of the negotiator (buyer or seller). Representational (problem-solving oriented) bargaining strategies, a measure of the process of the interaction, is the most important variable in American negotiations. In negotiations between Brazilian business people, deceptive b...

  5. Japanese National Safety Standards for Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junkichi Sumiya

    2006-01-01

    @@ I am working in Japan electrical safety & environment technology laboratory, which is called JET for short. In JET, we are carrying out the safety test of electrical equipment according to Japanese domestic standards or IEC standards. And in my section, our stuff is drafting some national safety standards harmonized with IEC in cooperation with the government. The standards are applied for the mandatory regulation and other schemes.

  6. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Seiji; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura,Takashi; Tsubono, Kimio; Tanaka, Takahiro; Funaki, Iklkoh; Seto, Naoki; Numata, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Akutsu, Tomotada; Akutsu, Tomomi

    2008-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to lau...

  7. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND JAPANESE AGRICULTURAL IMPORT POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pantzios, Christos J.; Taylor, Timothy G.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis empirically evaluates a subset of Japanese agricultural policies during the 1970s and 1980s using the Trade Restrictiveness Index recently developed by Anderson and Neary. This index, though theoretically rigorous, is empirically demanding, resulting in relatively few applications. Inferences obtained from the index are in general accordance with policy changes and economic events over the period of analysis. Using 1970 as the base, the estimated TRI suggests that policy changes...

  8. Status of Japanese gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (LCGT) is planned as a future Japanese project for gravitational wave detection. A 3 km interferometer will be built in an underground mine at Kamioka. Cryogenic sapphire mirrors are going to be employed for the test masses. For the demonstration of LCGT technologies, two prototype interferometers, TAMA300 and CLIO, are being developed. This paper describes the current status of the LCGT project and the two prototype interferometers.

  9. The Industry Origins of Japanese Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgenson, Dale W.; Koji Nomura

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the sources of growth for the Japanese economy over the period 1960- 2000. The principal innovation is the incorporation of detailed information for individual industries, including those involved in the production of computers, communications equipment, and electronic components as information technology equipment. We show that economic growth is dominated by investments and productivity growth in information technology, both for individual industries and the ...

  10. Potential climate effects on Japanese rice productivity

    OpenAIRE

    TANAKA, KENTA; Managi, Shunsuke; Kondo, Katsunobu; Masuda, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Yasutaka

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change has become an important policy question in recent years. Agriculture is the economic activity most sensitive to climate change. We evaluate the dynamic effects of productivity change and individual efforts to adapt to climate change. Adaptation actions in agriculture are evaluated to determine how the climate affects production efficiency. In this paper, we use the bi-directional distance function method to measure Japanese rice production loss due to climate. We ...

  11. Eco Logic signs deal to destroy Japanese PCB stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to a recent announcement, Eco Logic of Rockwood, Ontario, has entered into a partnership with the Japanese companies Tokyo Boeki and Nippon Sharyo for the destruction of stockpiled PCB materials in Japan, using Eco Logic's non-incineration technology. The deal is reported to be worth about $50 million in revenues to Eco Logic, spread over the next few years. The agreement includes provisions for the Japanese companies to purchase, or manufacture under licence, a number of Eco Logic's gas phase chemical reduction processing units to serve the Japanese market. In exchange for exclusive rights to the Japanese market, Eco Logic will receive license fees and royalties of up to nine per cent for the use of its process. Eco Logic is currently building a demonstration unit under contract with the two Japanese companies. The Japanese PCB waste destruction market is estimated to be worth as much as $400 million. Incineration, the conventional form of disposal, is strongly opposed by local governments

  12. Internationalisation Of Japanese Companies:A Review of Perplexing Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, N J

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the concept of international!sation in the Japanese business context reveals some unexpected factors which have a great bearing on our understanding of the international behaviour of Japanese corporations. This paper will examine some of these key culture-specific factors including Japanese qualms about themselves as cross-cultural communicators, their visions of 'West-eclipsing' economic and technological grandeur, their sense of uniqueness, and uncertainties about handling...

  13. The Japanese in multiracial Peru, 1899-1942

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephanie Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the integration of the Japanese into the politics of race and nation in Peru during the period from 1899 to 1942. The first generation of Japanese immigrants arrived in Peru at the apex of debates on national racial identity and popular challenges to the white oligarchy's exclusive hold on national political and economic power. This dissertation examines how not only elites, but also working- and middle-class movements advocated the exclusion of the Japanese as a way of st...

  14. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Ruth E; Kanamori Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. Methods We searched Amazon.com Japan using t...

  15. Business Communication Needs of Japanese Companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yeoh Lee Su; Tengku Sepora Tengku Mahadi; Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Business relationship between Japan and Malaysia has developed very quickly in recent years. This has caused a dramatic increase in the need for individuals who possess language skills to function in Japanese businesses. In order to investigate the needs of our Malaysian graduates, a survey was conducted involving graduates of Japanese language minor program from a public university in Malaysia. The aims of the survey were to get an overall understanding of (1) the use of Japanese language at...

  16. Social Networks and the Maintenance of Conformity: Japanese sojourner women

    OpenAIRE

    Saint Arnault, Denise; Roles, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Asian immigrant women have the lowest utilization of mental health services of any ethnic minority (Garland, Lau, Yeh & McCabe 2005). Because help seeking for distress occurs within social networks, we examined how social networks supported or disabled help seeking for Japanese sojourners living in the US. Unfortunately, most of the literature about Japanese social relationships focuses on men in organizational settings. This study used intensive ethnographic interviewing with 49 Japanese exp...

  17. Japanese Structural Adjustment and the Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Sachs; Peter Boone

    1988-01-01

    Policy discussions in Japan have increasingly recognized the important role of land values and land-use patterns in Japanese macroeconomic adjustment. In Japan in recent years, land wealth constitutes more than half of financial wealth, a proportion that is much higher than in the United States and other industrialized economies. Consequently, shifts in land-use patterns can have important effects on Japanese savings and investment patterns, and thereby on the Japanese trade balance and curre...

  18. Corporate diversification and board composition in Japanese electronic corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, I examine the relationship between board composition and diversification strategy in Japanese electronic corporations. Many Japanese electronics companies have performed sluggishly and instituted major reforms in terms of governance and management. The strategic choice between Focus and Divarication is the foremost issue for Japanese firms aiming to improve their performance. A corporation’s diversification strategy is influenced by the board structure and configuration of corp...

  19. Internationalization of IKEA in the Japanese and Chinese markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheancharadpong, Wanee; Chaletanone, Wannapa

    2008-01-01

    Date: June 4, 2008 Level: Master Thesis EFO705, 10 points (15 credits) Authors: Wannapa Chaletanone (05-11-1982, Thailand) Wanee Cheancharadpong (03-09-1983, Thailand) Title: Internationalization of IKEA in the Japanese and Chinese markets Supervisor: Leif Linnskog Problems: Why did IKEA internationalize into Japanese and Chinese markets? And what factors did influence IKEA’s success in Chinese market but failure in the Japanese market of the first round? Purpose: The aim of thesis is to unde...

  20. Mitochondrial haplogroups associated with elite Japanese athlete status

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, E; Fuku, N.; Takahashi, H; Ohiwa, N.; Scott, R A; Pitsiladis, Y.P.; Higuchi, M; Kawahara, T; Tanaka, M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose It has been hypothesised that certain mitochondrial haplogroups, which are defined by the presence of a characteristic cluster of tightly linked mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms, would be associated with elite Japanese athlete status. To examine this hypothesis, the frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroups found in elite Japanese athletes were compared with those in the general Japanese population. Methods Subjects comprised 139 Olympic athletes (79 endurance/middle-power athletes (EMA...

  1. Australian and Japanese Value Stereotypes: A two Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey N. Soutar; Richard Grainger; Pamela Hedges

    1999-01-01

    Australians and Japanese working in Australian and Japanese organizations in both countries were involved in a research project that estimated stereotypical views of national culture. Respondents rated the importance of cultural values in Australia and Japan using the List of Values (LOV) instrument. The results of a discriminant analysis suggested that potentially detrimental misunderstandings about their respective cultures may exist between Australians and Japanese engaged in mutual intern...

  2. The Japanese Concept of Sustainable Development at a Global Level

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Bonciu

    2007-01-01

    After the end of the Second World War Japan was not only a defeated country but also a country that experienced the unimaginable shock of the atomic bombs. Despite all that, Japan succeeded to become the second economic power in the world and many people spoke about “The Japanese Miracle”. The miracle was even greater due to the fact that the country does not have many natural resources and therefore the Japanese development relied on Japanese human resources development.

  3. Bringing Home the Japanese Abductees from North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    ITO, Takuya

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the official and unofficial attitude of former Japanese prime minister Abe Shinzo towards the abductions of Japanese people by North Korea. Officially, Abe displayed an aggressive attitude towards the problem. However, unofficially, he possessed an ingratiating attitude. A Japanese weekly magazine reported that he had been in regular negotiations with North Korea surreptitiously. Abe's ingratiating attitude may be explained by his alleged connection with the Holy Spirit A...

  4. Two German-Japanese Workshops

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Hans-Hermann; Imaizumi, Tadashi; Okada, Akinori

    2009-01-01

    This volume presents theories, models, algorithms, and applications in clustering, classification, and visualization. It also includes applications of clustering, classification, and visualization in various fields such as marketing, recommendation system, biology, sociology, and social survey. The contributions give insight into new models and concepts and show the variety of research in clustering, classification, and visualization.

  5. Pyrolysis reactions of Japanese cedar and Japanese beech woods in a closed ampoule reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Asmadi, Mohd; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    The chemical structures of hemicellulose and lignin are different for two distinct types of wood, i.e., softwood and hardwood. Such differences are expected to affect pyrolysis behavior. In this article, the differences are discussed for Japanese cedar wood (a softwood) and Japanese beech wood (a hardwood) pyrolyzed in a closed ampoule reactor (N2/600°C/40–600 s). Oven-dried samples were used to eliminate the influence of initial water. Demineralized samples (prepared by acid washing) were al...

  6. The Japanese business model, and how globalization is changing it. Is change necessary for Japanese companies?

    OpenAIRE

    Daníel Jón Guðjónsson 1985

    2009-01-01

    The Japanese business model is one of the most intriguing aspects of Japanese society in my view due to its ability to export high quality products at low prices. The model’s success after the Second World War meant that Japan was the first Asian country to become a first world nation where living standards and longevity were among the highest in the world. Recently however, it can be said that the model has been changing in order to fit into the emerging global business environment wher...

  7. Nudity in Japanese visual media: a cross-cultural observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, J F

    1990-12-01

    The depiction of nude human beings in Japanese print, film, and electronic media is reported. Modern practices are then related to traditional Japanese culture. The various contexts in which nudes are regularly presented are described and various types of nude presentations are classified. It is suggested that the nude body evokes different responses in Japanese culture and is not always intended to convey sexual or erotic meanings. Sentiment, particularly that evoked by the family and motherhood, and nonsexual humor, are other responses that nudity is intended to elicit. The Japanese situation is compared to presentation of nudity in the United States. PMID:2082862

  8. Records About Japanese Americans Relocated During World War II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This series contains personal descriptive data about Japanese Americans evacuated from the states of Washington, Oregon, and California to ten relocation centers...

  9. [The alteration of Japanese anatomical terminology in the early Showa period and the Japanese language reform campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    In the second decade of the Showa period, great changes were made in the Japanese anatomical terms. It has been proposed that the presentation of JNA (Jenaer nomina anatomica) was one of the factors leading to the change. The Japanese language reform campaign, however, played an important role. The party kokugoaigo doumei and its successor kokugo kyokai required concise and unified technical terms. The anatomical nomenclature committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists worked to satisfy this requirement. The committee consulted with nomenclature committees of other medical associations and took account of their opinions. The anatomical nomenclature committee abandoned the literal translation from Latin to Japanese and shaped a succinct Japanese terminology. Modern Japanese anatomical terms are based on this terminology. PMID:20614732

  10. Practice on medical support in dealing with abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese army in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu LIU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese abandoned chemical weapons (JACWs are a momentous and eventful historical issue for both China and Japan. Large quantities of chemical weapons abandoned by the Japanese invaders still remain on Chinese soil after 1945 when Japanese invaders were defeated and surrendered. Up to date, JACWs have been found in 19 provinces (cities or districts of mainland China. The types of JACWs include chemical bombs, chemical aerial bombs, gas cylinders and loose packed barrels. The types of toxic agents include mustard gas, irritant agents, choking agents, systemic poisoning agents and etc. In order to eliminate JACWs to reduce injuries produced by toxic agents, Chinese government, in cooperation with Japanese government, organized a special troop to search, excavate, retrieve, and destroy JACWs. Up to date, about 50,000 pieces of poisonous chemical had retrieved and destroyed. The first operation was officially begun in Nanjing in October 2010. The main points of medical support on the operation of destroying JACWs include proper treatment of the newly discovered patients caused by JACWs, preparedness for handling the emergency medical rescue, and to actively provide routine medical support for JACWs operation field.

  11. Present status and future plans of the Japanese earth observation satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi; Arai, Kohei; Igarashi, Tamotsu

    Japan is now operating 3 earth observation satellites, i. e. MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1, Momo-1 in Japanese), EGS (Experimental Geodetic Satellite, Ajisai in Japanese) and GMS (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, Himawari in Japanese). MOS-1 has 3 different sensors, MESSR (Multispectral Electronic Self Scanning Radiometer), VTIR (Visible and Thermal Infrared Radiometer) and MSR (Microwave Scanning Radiometer) in addition to DCS (Data Collection System). GMS has two sensors, VISSR (Visible and IR Spin Scan Radiometer) and SEM (Solar Environmental Monitor). EGS is equipped with reflecting mirrors of the sun light and laser reflecters. For the future earth observation satellites, ERS-1 (Earth Resources Satellite-1), MOS-1b, ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) are under development. Two sensors, AMSR (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) and ITIR (Intermediate Thermal IR Radiometer) for NASA's polar platform are initial stage of development. Study and planning are made for future earth observation satellites including Japanese polor platform, TRMM, etc.). The study for the second generation GMS has been made by the Committee on the Function of Future GMS under the request of Japan Meteorological Agency in FY 1987.

  12. Compilation of INES (International Nuclear Event Scale) information. Japanese translation (Vol.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means designed for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events, that occurred at nuclear power plants and at other nuclear facilities, and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public on such events. The INES is jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Nuclear events reported to the INES Information System from member countries of IAEA and/or OECD/NEA are rated by the 'Scale', a consistent safety significance indicator. The scale runs from level 0, for events with no safety significance, to level 7 for a major accident with widespread health and environmental effects. The INES was introduced in March 1990 for a trial and then formally adopted in March 1992. In Japan, the INES was formally introduced in August 1992. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been receiving the INES information through the Science and Technology Agency, promptly translating into Japanese and providing to the relevant sections inside and outside JAERI. As well, we published the report compiling the Japanese translation of individual INES reports until May 31, 1998. Since then, we have developed a world-wide-web database for the Japanese translation and made it available to the public through the internet. This report compiles the Japanese version of approximately 70 INES reports we received from June 1, 1998 to December 31, 2000. (author)

  13. Validation of the japanese version of the sarcoidosis health questionnaire: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihara Kensaku

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL has been reported in patients with sarcoidosis, there is currently no sarcoidosis-specific questionnaire in Japan. The 29-item Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ, originally developed in the United States, is the only sarcoidosis-specific HRQOL questionnaire currently available. The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a Japanese version of the SHQ. Findings The SHQ was translated into Japanese following the forward-backward procedure. The reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the SHQ were examined. One hundred twenty-two Japanese patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were evaluated by the SHQ, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36, the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, chest radiography, an electrocardiogram, laboratory blood tests, pulmonary function tests, an echocardiogram, and assessments of dyspnea and depressive symptoms. The SHQ was found to have acceptable levels of internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α values = 0.68 to 0.91. SHQ scores correlated significantly with scores on the SF-36 and SGRQ. The domain or total scores on the SHQ also significantly correlated with serum levels of the soluble interleukin-2 receptor, the percentage of the predicted forced vital capacity, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, dyspnea, and depressive symptoms. Also, the SHQ scores of patients who had one or two organ systems affected by sarcoidosis were significantly different from those of patients who had three or more organ systems involvement. Conclusions The Japanese version of the SHQ can be used to assess the HRQOL of patients with sarcoidosis.

  14. Transforming Incentives : Analysis of Personnel and Employee Output Data in a Large Japanese Auto Sales Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuru, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic consequences of performance-oriented human resource (HR) system reform at Auto Japan (pseudonym), one of the largest Japanese auto sales firms, using personnel and employee output data. The author overviews the three major components of the HR reform: base wages, performance-based pay, and performance rating systems. Then the author examines the productivity effect of the reform. The performance-based pay was changed from combining a base wage with a simple pe...

  15. Japanese Interest in "Hotaru" (Fireflies) and "Kabuto-Mushi" (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, "Hotaru" and "Kabuto-mushi" in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan. PMID:26466535

  16. The Stroop Effect in Kana and Kanji Scripts in Native Japanese Speakers: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; Filippi, Christopher G.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the two writing systems of the Japanese orthography are processed differently: kana (syllabic symbols) are processed like other phonetic languages such as English, while kanji (a logographic writing system) are processed like other logographic languages such as Chinese. Previous work done with the Stroop task in…

  17. The teaching of music history in Japanese music education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Sonoda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading institutions in the field of musicology in Japan is the one hosted by “Tokyo University of the Arts” (previously Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music. The musicology course, started in 1949, was, and still is, the main promoter of music history teaching in the Japanese university system. A reflection on the over 60 years of its existence, which has been characterized by the fortunate coexistence of musicology students and students of ‘practical’ musical courses, might contribute to raise awareness among European musicologists about the pedagogic-didactic task that is expected of them in the current situation of Western musical culture.

  18. Japanese encephalitis: Challenges and intervention opportunities in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shristi Ghimire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito borne zoonotic disease caused by JE virus (JEV. JE has been endemic in Terai region, the lowland plains of Nepal bordering India, since 1978. However, in recent years cases of JE has been continuously reported from high altitude zones of hills and mountains. Irrigated rice farming system, expanded pig husbandry practices, inadequate vaccine coverage, low level of public awareness and climate change favoring mosquito breeding in higher altitudes might be the probable risk factors for emergence and re-emergence of JE in Nepal. Repeated outbreak in endemic areas and geographical expansion to newer areas have created huge challenge for JE prevention and control. At present, JE is one of the major public health concern of Nepal. Expanding vaccine coverage, improving agricultural practices, generating public awareness, supporting for use of mosquito avoiding practices and regional collaboration at border against JE can be helpful in getting better control over it in future.

  19. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  20. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  1. Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies) and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenta Takada

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using ...

  2. Trait Anxiety among Japanese Massage Practitioners with Visual Impairment: What Is Required in Japanese Rehabilitation Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoyama, Nozomi; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2009-01-01

    This questionnaire-based study of Japanese massage practitioners with visual impairment (n = 155, 126 males, 29 females, mean age = 41 years) found that measures of self-repression, helplessness and "daily hassles" were positively correlated to measures of trait anxiety. Also, trait anxiety was negatively associated with measures of self-esteem…

  3. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  4. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eNakano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii a semantically-related form, and (iv a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i, (ii and (iii, but not for (iv. This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i, but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii and (iii. In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts – orthographically related, but which - in their commonly written form - share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system affect the processing of (morphologically complex words.

  5. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  6. Governmental intervention approaches to promote renewable energies—Special emphasis on Japanese feed-in tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all countries have issued laws and regulations to promote renewable energy (RE). However, the applications and motivations of such laws as well as achievements have been different. Currently, the Japanese government has announced its targets to expand the electricity feed-in tariff scheme for solar power, along with other energy sources, within two years to meet the goal set by the Japanese Prime Minister who, in the 15th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15) held in September 2009, proclaimed to cut 25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the 1990 levels by 2020. In this paper, the current Japanese energy policies and measures for promoting RE in comparison to popular methods followed worldwide are explored. Furthermore, a Least Cost Feed-in Tariff (LCFIT) Simulation Model for Japanese case was developed to calculate the optimal mix of technologies to reach certain targets. The LCFIT also calculates the tariff that should be proposed for each technology and the total cost for the program with and without a carbon tax and estimates the premium added to the bill of the customer every month. - Highlights: ► RE governmental interventions vary with country's economical, social and topological condition. ► LCFIT Model showed that Japan can apply the FiT system with reasonable burdens on the customers. ► Applying 20% of carbon tax can lead to declining the burdens on the customer by about 32%–45%. ► The R and D expenditures on RE is almost one-fourth that of nuclear power in some countries. ► Japanese scenarios seem very satisfying compared to that of Germany and other European countries.

  7. Establishment of superovulation procedure in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Atsuko; Tanaka, Minako; Morita, Mami; Ushijima, Hitoshi; Tomogane, Hiroshi; Okada, Konosuke

    2016-08-01

    Japanese field vole (Microtus montebelli) is a wild-derived rodent and have unique characteristic. Thus, these species have been expected as model animal. This study was performed to develop novel superovulation procedure for Japanese field vole. First, when 30 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and 30 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were administrated 48 hours apart, females showed higher response to hCG compared with three concentrations of PMSG. Second, to effectively induce ovulation on females after vaginal opening, they were mated with vasectomized male instead of hCG administration. Average number of ovulated oocytes using PMSG mating (13.9 ± 1.9 oocytes) was higher than PMSG-hCG (control; 6.9 ± 2.3 oocytes) or PMSG-hCG mating (6.8 ± 0.8 oocytes). Finally, we attempted superovulation using GnRH agonist (GnRHa). With this treatment, we speculated that GnRHa might induce endogenous luteinizing hormone releasing to cause ovulation. Such superovulation was performed with 30 IU PMSG and different concentration of 20% polyvinylpyrrolidone-GnRHa (15, 30, 45, and 60 μg/kg). As results, average number of ovulated oocytes was highest with 30 μg/kg GnRHa (14.5 ± 4.1 oocytes). The numbers of ovulated oocytes of other concentrations were 5.0 ± 1.4 (15 μg/kg), 12.8 ± 2.7 (45 μg/kg), and 8.8 ± 3.7 oocytes (60 μg/kg). Nuclear status of most collected oocytes was the second meiotic division (range, 94.3%-100%). These superovulation procedures will be useful for development of in vitro culture systems and assisted reproductive technologies for not only Japanese field vole but also other voles. PMID:27118387

  8. Genetic and infectious profiles of Japanese multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yoshimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nationwide surveys conducted in Japan over the past thirty years have revealed a four-fold increase in the estimated number of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, a decrease in the age at onset, and successive increases in patients with conventional MS, which shows an involvement of multiple sites in the central nervous system, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and infectious backgrounds correlate to distinct disease phenotypes of MS in Japanese patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed HLA-DRB1 and -DPB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies specific for Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, varicella zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA in 145 MS patients and 367 healthy controls (HCs. Frequencies of DRB1*0405 and DPB1*0301 were significantly higher, and DRB1*0901 and DPB1*0401 significantly lower, in MS patients as compared with HCs. MS patients with DRB1*0405 had a significantly earlier age of onset and lower Progression Index than patients without this allele. The proportion and absolute number of patients with DRB1*0405 successively increased with advancing year of birth. In MS patients without DRB1*0405, the frequency of the DRB1*1501 allele was significantly higher, while the DRB1*0901 allele was significantly lower, compared with HCs. Furthermore, DRB1*0405-negative MS patients were significantly more likely to be positive for EBNA antibodies compared with HCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that MS patients harboring DRB1*0405, a genetic risk factor for MS in the Japanese population, have a younger age at onset and a relatively benign disease course, while DRB1*0405-negative MS patients have features similar to Western-type MS in terms of association with Epstein-Barr virus infection and DRB1*1501. The recent increase of MS in young Japanese people may be caused, in part, by an increase in DRB1*0405-positive MS patients.

  9. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systemati...

  10. Japanese traditional tattooing in modern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate that the contemporary practices of Japanese traditional tattooing are a living continuation of its practices in the past Edo period and post war era through the 80’s It does this by focusing on the motivation for getting these tattoos and their function as a talisman or other self-empowering device and the social position of both the practice of tattooing and the people who get tattoos. It is mainly based on independent field research in Japan, includin...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese skink [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese skink Eumeces latiscutatus Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Eumeces_latiscutatus_L.png Eumeces_lati...scutatus_NL.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_S.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutat...us&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutat...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese serow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese serow Capricornis crispus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Capricorn...is_crispus_L.png Capricornis_crispus_NL.png Capricornis_crispus_S.png Capricornis_crispus..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricorn...is+crispus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NS ...

  13. History and organizations of Japanese fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tokyo, a historical review of fusion research and development in Japan is given. A table emphasizes the historical evolution of Japanese activities in controlledthermonuclear reac ions. Topics include nuclear fusion R and D organizations and research subjects undertaken, the fusion RandD budget in the past decade, the time evolution of the total fusion RandD annual budget of Japan, steering organizations, of RandD institutions, and the location of fusion research institutions in Japan

  14. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    tell about the successes, the paper illustrates and argues that the impact of foreign aid can be measured in many ways beyond economic growth. However, in order for a diverse impact to become measurable, we need the historians’ attention to individual stories over long periods of time. Institutions...... interested in evaluating the impact of foreign aid define criteria for success that can be measured preferably in numbers just as the investment in foreign aid is measured in amounts of money. This essay is about how a number of different stakeholders negotiate narratives of successful impact of private...... sector training programs partly financed by Japanese Official development Assistance (ODA)....

  15. "Aggregate Risk in Japanese Equity Markets"

    OpenAIRE

    R. Anton Braun; Etsuro Shioji

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade Japanese households have been buffeted by some big aggregate shocks. Economic growth has slowed, unemployment risk has risen, and asset prices have fallen to levels not seen since the early 1980's. These shocks have hit both households' financial and human capital. This paper develops a framework for identifying the sources of these shocks and a way to measure how household assessments of these risks vary over time. We consider the perspective of a forward-looking risk-aver...

  16. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ando, M.; Nakamura, T.; Tsubono, K.; Tanaka, T.; Funaki, I.; Seto, N.; Numata, K.; Sato, S.; Ioka, K.; Kanda, N.; Takashima, T.; Agatsuma, K.; Akutsu, T.; Akutsu, T.; Aoyanagi, Koh-Suke; Arai, K.; Arase, Y.; Araya, A.; Asada, H.; Aso, Y.; Chiba, T.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Enoki, M.; Eriguchi, Y.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fujita, R.; Fukushima, M.; Futamase, T.; Ganzu, K.; Harada, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayama, K.; Hikida, W.; Himemoto, Y.; Hirabayashi, H.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hong, F.-L.; Horisawa, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Ichiki, K.; Ikegami, T.; Inoue, K. T.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishihara, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishizaki, H.; Ito, H.; Itoh, Y.; Kamagasako, S.; Kawashima, N.; Kawazoe, F.; Kirihara, H.; Kishimoto, N.; Kiuchi, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Kohri, K.; Koizumi, H.; Kojima, Y.; Kokeyama, K.; Kokuyama, W.; Kotake, K.; Kozai, Y.; Kudoh, H.; Kunimori, H.; Kuninaka, H.; Kuroda, K.; Maeda, K.-i.; Matsuhara, H.; Mino, Y.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Morimoto, M. Y.; Morioka, T.; Morisawa, T.; Moriwaki, S.; Mukohyama, S.; Musha, M.; Nagano, S.; Naito, I.; Nakagawa, N.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, H.; Nakao, K.; Nakasuka, S.; Nakayama, Y.; Nishida, E.; Nishiyama, K.; Nishizawa, A.; Niwa, Y.; Ohashi, M.; Ohishi, N.; Ohkawa, M.; Okutomi, A.; Onozato, K.; Oohara, K.; Sago, N.; Saijo, M.; Sakagami, M.; Sakai, S.-i.; Sakata, S.; Sasaki, M.; Sato, T.; Shibata, M.; Shinkai, H.; Somiya, K.; Sotani, H.; Sugiyama, N.; Suwa, Y.; Tagoshi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, T.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, R.; Takahashi, R.; Takamori, A.; Takano, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Taruya, A.; Tashiro, H.; Tokuda, M.; Tokunari, M.; Toyoshima, M.; Tsujikawa, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ueda, K.-i.; Utashima, M.; Yamakawa, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Yokoyama, J.; Yoo, C.-M.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshino, T.

    2008-07-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO pathfinder first to demonstrate the technologies required to realize DECIGO and, if possible, to detect gravitational waves from our galaxy or nearby galaxies.

  17. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna; DECIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ando, M.; Nakamura, T.; Tsubono, K.; Tanaka, T.; Funaki, I.; Seto, N.; Numata, K.; Sato, S.; Ioka, K.; Kanda, N.; Takashima, T.; Agatsuma, K.; Akutsu, T.; Akutsu, T.; Aoyanagi, K.-s.; Arai, K.; Arase, Y.; Araya, A.; Asada, H.; Aso, Y.; Chiba, T.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Enoki, M.; Eriguchi, Y.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fujita, R.; Fukushima, M.; Futamase, T.; Ganzu, K.; Harada, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayama, K.; Hikida, W.; Himemoto, Y.; Hirabayashi, H.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hong, F.-L.; Horisawa, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Ichiki, K.; Ikegami, T.; Inoue, K. T.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishihara, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishizaki, H.; Ito, H.; Itoh, Y.; Kamagasako, S.; Kawashima, N.; Kawazoe, F.; Kirihara, H.; Kishimoto, N.; Kiuchi, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Kohri, K.; Koizumi, H.; Kojima, Y.; Kokeyama, K.; Kokuyama, W.; Kotake, K.; Kozai, Y.; Kudoh, H.; Kunimori, H.; Kuninaka, H.; Kuroda, K.; Maeda, K.-i.; Matsuhara, H.; Mino, Y.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Morimoto, M. Y.; Morioka, T.; Morisawa, T.; Moriwaki, S.; Mukohyama, S.; Musha, M.; Nagano, S.; Naito, I.; Nakagawa, N.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, H.; Nakao, K.; Nakasuka, S.; Nakayama, Y.; Nishida, E.; Nishiyama, K.; Nishizawa, A.; Niwa, Y.; Ohashi, M.; Ohishi, N.; Ohkawa, M.; Okutomi, A.; Onozato, K.; Oohara, K.; Sago, N.; Saijo, M.; Sakagami, M.; Sakai, S.-i.; Sakata, S.; Sasaki, M.; Sato, T.; Shibata, M.; Shinkai, H.; Somiya, K.; Sotani, H.; Sugiyama, N.; Suwa, Y.; Tagoshi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, T.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, R.; Takahashi, R.; Takamori, A.; Takano, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Taruya, A.; Tashiro, H.; Tokuda, M.; Tokunari, M.; Toyoshima, M.; Tsujikawa, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ueda, K.-i.; Utashima, M.; Yamakawa, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Yokoyama, J.; Yoo, C.-M.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshino, T.

    2008-07-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. DECIGO is expected to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy especially between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz, revealing various mysteries of the universe such as dark energy, formation mechanism of supermassive black holes, and inflation of the universe. The pre-conceptual design of DECIGO consists of three drag-free spacecraft, whose relative displacements are measured by a differential Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch two missions, DECIGO pathfinder and pre-DECIGO first and finally DECIGO in 2024.

  18. Water resources in the Japanese Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, T.

    2005-12-01

    Due to its limited land area and limited range of natural resources (particularly fuel), Japan has developed a highly efficient economy in terms of resource utilization. This also applies to water resources. For sustainable use of water resources in the Japanese Islands, integrated and unified analyses of the data of groundwater by the nation and local governments have been needed. Land area of the Japanese Islands is 377,000 square kilometers, which is equivalent to the area of the state of Montana, but extends for 3,600 kilometers along the margin of the Eurasian continent. Mountainous areas separated by isolated, narrow plains make up 80 % of the land area. Due to the topography of Japan, rivers are generally short with steep grades, the longest being only 367 kilometers in length. Average annual precipitation is 1,600 millimeters but is highly seasonal. The annual water demand was approximately 87 billion cubic meters during the past 25 years, which represents 21 % of the total usable water. The water demand for agriculture makes up 66 % of the total water demand, and 96 % of the water for agricultural uses is used for the irrigation of rice paddies. Municipal and industrial uses make up 15.4 and 18.9 % of the demand, respectively (as of 2000). Nearly 80 % of the water used by industry in recycled. Approximately 87 % of the water demand is supplied from surface water with the rest from ground water. Because of its mountainous topography, the extent of individual aquifers is far smaller than in United States. Groundwater basins in the Japanese Islands are classified into the following six types: plain type (thick Quaternary strata); basin type (intermontane terraces and fans; hill type (highly eroded old volcanoes); volcano type (permeable lava and pyroclasitc flows comprising Quaternary strato volcanoes); pyroclastic type (thick tuff associated with large caldera formations); and limestone type (limestone blocks with karsts). Of the above types, the only major

  19. Risk Adjusted Deposit Insurance for Japanese Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuzo Sato; Rama V. Ramachandran; Bohyong Kang

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Japanese deposit insurance scheme by contrasting the flat insurance rate with a market-determined risk-adjusted rate. The model used to calculate the risk-adjusted rate is that of Ronn and Verrna (1986) . It utilizes the notion of Merton(1977) that the deposit insurance can be based on a one-to-one relation between it and the put option; this permits the application of Black and Scholes(1973) model for the calculation of the insurance rate. The ris...

  20. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Ladyanne Raia Rodrigues; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Cleber Franklin Santos de Oliveira; Valéria Pereira Rodrigues; José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K) (2.50 g/kg), supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg) of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png Elaphe_clim...acophora_NL.png Elaphe_climacophora_S.png Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=3 ...

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Axitinib Versus Sorafenib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Subgroup Analysis of Japanese Patients from the Global Randomized Phase 3 AXIS Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Takeshi; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kanayama, Hiroomi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tarazi, Jamal; Chen, Connie; Kim, Sinil; Ozono, Seiichiro; Naito, Seiji; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Objective Axitinib is a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3. The efficacy and safety of axitinib in Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma were evaluated. Methods A subgroup analysis was conducted in Japanese patients enrolled in the randomized Phase III trial of axitinib versus sorafenib after failure of one prior systemic therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Results Twenty-five (of 361) and 29 (o...

  3. International Inequality in the Age of Globalization: Japanese Economic Ascent and the Restructuring of the Capitalist World-Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Ciccantell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how Japanese ?rms and the Japanese state constructed a development model based on the steel industry as a generative sector that drove Japan’s economic ascent in the world-historical context of U.S. hegemony. We make three arguments in this paper. First, there is a new model of capital accumulation that does create new forms of social inequality by redistributing costs and bene?ts in very di?erent ways than earlier models. Second, Japanese ?rms and the Japanese state created this new model of capital accumulation and social inequality via mechanisms including joint ventures, long term contracts, and other forms of international trade and investment, not U.S.-based transnational corporations, as is usually assumed. Third, world-systems theory reconstructed through the lens of the new historical materialism explains this restructuring of the capitalist world-economy as the outcome of Japan’s economic ascent over the last ?fty years. Further, we argue that this new model of capital accumulation has had similar impacts on redistributing the costs and bene?ts of development between core and peripheral regions of the capitalist world-economy in a wide range of global industries. These strategies created a tightly linked set of technological and organizational innovations to overcome the natural and social obstacles to Japanese development, dramatically increase Japan’s international economic competitiveness by lowering production costs in all sectors of the economy, turn Japan into the world’s largest exporter of manufactured products, restructure a range of global industries, and recreate the world-system hierarchy in support of Japanese development. In particular, organizational inno-vations in the use of long term contracts and joint ventures in raw materials industries to foster global excess capacity and lower rents to resource extracting ?rms and states reallocated the costs of providing the material building blocks of

  4. 8-14 translocation in a Japanese Burkitt's lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto,Kanji; Sato, Jiro; Miyoshi, Isao; Nishihara,Ryuji; Terao, Seiya; Hara, Masamichi; Kimura,Ikuro

    1980-01-01

    Chromosome analysis was performed on cells obtained from the pleural effusion of a Japanese patient with Burkitt's lymphoma. Two modal chromosomal numbers were found: 45 and 46. Five different karyotypes were present, all having a t (8q-;14q+) translocation. This case illustrates that Burkitt's lymphomas of Japanese are no exception to the frequent association of this chromosomal abnormality with Burkitt's lymphomas.

  5. Profiles of Japanese Writers in L1 and L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Toshiyuki

    This study examined the writing profiles of three Japanese writers with distinctly different writing experiences, investigating participants' school writing experiences and attitudes toward writing, characteristics of the composing process, and teaching implications. The three Japanese participants included an experienced writer in both Japanese…

  6. Video Game Play in British and Japanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, John; Kato, Makiko

    2005-01-01

    Results from research into negative correlates of computer/video game play in the United Kingdom and in Japan are presented, with new analyses across cultures. Patterns of play are similar, although Japanese adolescents have been playing for longer, they play fewer aggressive games, and there is greater perceived concern by Japanese parents.…

  7. Japanese International Female Students' Experience of Discrimination, Prejudice, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…

  8. Multicriterial Evaluation of Applying Japanese Management Concepts, Methods and Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Podobiński, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    Japanese management concepts, methods and techniques refer to work organization and improvements to companies’ functioning. They appear in numerous Polish companies, especially in the manufacturing ones. Cultural differences are a major impediment in their implementation. Nevertheless, the advantages of using Japanese management concepts, methods and techniques motivate the management to implement them in the company. The author shows research results, which refer to advanta...

  9. Politeness, Paradigms of Family, and the Japanese ESL Speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Christopher J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses differences between perception of politeness in Western and Japanese societies, concentrating on relations of social power and social distance as well as on conception of family. Concludes that many problems experienced by Japanese speakers of English as a Second Language in accomplishing linguistic politeness in English stem from nature…

  10. Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing-Lin; Pan, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Shi-Hong; WANG Huan-yu; Tang, Qing; Wang, Lin-Fa; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing and virulence studies of 2 Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEVs) from bats in Yunnan, China, showed a close relationship with JEVs isolated from mosquitoes and humans in the same region over 2 decades. These results indicate that bats may play a role in human Japanese encephalitis outbreaks in this region.

  11. Implications of "Amae" for HIV Risk in Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, Francis N.; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2005-01-01

    Assertiveness, defined as perceived confidence to express true feelings in interpersonal relationships, has been reported to correlate with HIV risk avoidance. However, Japanese social structure encourages "amae" or self-repression. The present study investigated the implications of "amae" for HIV risk avoidance among Japanese university students.…

  12. Japanese High School Teachers' Views on Pupil Misbehaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Japanese high school teachers' views of pupil misbehaviour in order to contribute to the growing international literature on discipline in schools. A total of 141 Japanese high school teachers completed a questionnaire which explored their views regarding the factors accounting for pupil misbehaviour, the frequency of…

  13. English/Japanese Professional Interpretation: Its Linguistic and Conceptual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Luli

    1995-01-01

    A study of simultaneous interpretation from Japanese to English focused on problems inherent in simultaneous language processing. Data were drawn from a discussion session at an international conference of physicians concerning nuclear war. Transcription of the Japanese source text (romanized), English product, and a gloss of lexical equivalents…

  14. Acquisition of Japanese contracted sounds in L1 phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2002-05-01

    Japanese possesses a group of palatalized consonants, known to Japanese scholars as the contracted sounds, [CjV]. English learners of Japanese appear to treat them initially as consonant + glide clusters, where there is an equivalent [Cj] cluster in English, or otherwise tend to insert an epenthetic vowel [CVjV]. The acquisition of the Japanese contracted sounds by first language (L1) learners has not been widely studied compared with the consonant clusters in English with which they bear a close phonetic resemblance but have quite a different phonological status. This is a study to investigate the L1 acquisition process of the Japanese contracted sounds (a) in order to observe how the palatalization gesture is acquired in Japanese and (b) to investigate differences in the sound acquisition processes of first and second language (L2) learners: Japanese children compared with English learners. To do this, the productions of Japanese children ranging in age from 2.5 to 3.5 years were transcribed and the pattern of misproduction was observed.

  15. The Japanese Quality Control Circle: Why It Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Susumu

    1991-01-01

    The competitiveness of Japanese industry is in part because of their quality circles. Despite the West's interest in most Japanese business practices, quality circles have been difficult to transplant. This may be a result of misconceptions about their nature and the erroneous idea that workers' motivation is sociocultural, whereas in fact it is…

  16. Silence in the Second Language Classrooms of Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Japanese language learners' proclivity for silence has been alluded to by various writers (e.g. Anderson 1993; Korst 1997; Greer 2000) and is supported by plenty of anecdotal evidence, but large-scale, empirical studies aimed at measuring the extent of macro-level silence within Japanese university L2 classrooms are notably lacking. This article…

  17. The Influence of Japanese Anime Language to Chinese Network Buzzwords

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Jin Chang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of Japanese anime language to Chinese network buzzwords was studied, and the maturity and rigor were quoted. The Japanese anime language refined, creative can be so popular in the factors of psychologies also was analyzed. According to these studies, some suggestions were put forward that how to standardize the network buzzwords and how to raise its taste.

  18. Japanese Lesson Study: Teacher Professional Development through Communities of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Brian; Groves, Susie

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Lesson Study has come under increasing attention from educators in the West and throughout South-East Asia since it was revealed outside Japan through the release of the TIMSS Video Study. In this paper we argue that Japanese Lesson Study provides a model for large scale, sustainable professional development. In particular, we draw on our…

  19. Development of the Gerotranscendence Scale Type 2: Japanese Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Kazumi; Zarit, Steven H.; Nakayama, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    This study developed the Japanese version of the Gerotranscendence Scale Type 2 (the GST2) and examined reliability and validity of the scale. In Japan, 525 community-dwelling older adults (Male = 260, Female = 265) answered a questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the Japanese version of the GST2 revealed the same three-factor structure…

  20. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…