Sample records for ag-fe system japanese

  1. Epitaxial Cu(001) films grown on a Cr/Ag/Fe/GaAs(001) buffer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, Daniel M., E-mail: [Peter Grünberg Institut, Electronic Properties (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Jansen, Thomas [Peter Grünberg Institut, Electronic Properties (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance, Fundamentals for Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Hoppe, Michael [Peter Grünberg Institut, Electronic Properties (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Bürgler, Daniel E. [Peter Grünberg Institut, Electronic Properties (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance, Fundamentals for Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); and others


    We present a procedure to prepare single-crystalline, high-purity Cu(001) films (templates) suitable as substrates for subsequent epitaxial thin-film growth. The template films were grown in a dedicated molecular-beam epitaxy system on a Cr/Ag/Fe/GaAs(001) buffer layer system. Low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction were applied to determine the surface orientation and the epitaxial relationship between all layers of the stack. Post-annealing at moderate temperatures enhances the quality of the film as shown by low-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopy confirm that no atoms of the buffer layers diffuse into the Cu film during the initial preparation and the post-annealing treatment. The completed Cu(001) template system can be exposed to air and afterwards refurbished by Ar{sup +}-ion bombardment and annealing, enabling the transfer between vacuum systems. The procedure provides suitable conductive thin film templates for studies of epitaxial thin films, e.g. on the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Co and Ni based films and multilayers. - Highlights: • Preparation of epitaxial Cu(001) template films on an insulating substrate • Characterization of template structure, orientation, cleanness, and roughness • Template films can be exposed to air and refurbished in different vacuum system. • Template films are suitable for further thin film growth at up to 570 K.

  2. Comp ositionally Graded Microstructure for Ag-Fe Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandan Srivastava∗; K. V. L. Sushma


    Ag-Fe nanoparticles with a highly Ag rich average composition were synthesized by the sono-chemical route. Silver-iron system exhibits a wide miscibility gap in the bulk materials. Interestingly, a graded compositional profile along the nanoparticle radius was observed. Regions at and near the surface of the nanoparticle contained both Ag and Fe atoms. The composition got relatively deficient Fe towards the center of the particle with particle core made up of pure Ag. Alloying of Ag and Fe is confirmed by the absence of diffraction signal corresponding to pure Fe phase and presence of a paramagnetic phase in nanoparticles containing a diamagnetic (Ag) and ferromagnetic (Fe) elements.

  3. The Sound-Symbolic System of Japanese. (United States)

    Hamano, Shoko

    This study explores sound-symbolic, or mimetic, words in the Japanese language, the majority of which are never entered in Japanese dictionaries, and which may not be fully understood in all their nuances by native speakers. The extensiveness of the sound-symbolic system is related to the semantic under-differentiation of Japanese verbs. An…

  4. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru


    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…

  5. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru


    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…

  6. Synthesis and crystal structure of the quaternary compound AgFe{sub 2}GaTe{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Gerzon E., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Cristalografía, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Quintero, Eugenio; Tovar, Rafael; Grima-Gallardo, Pedro; Quintero, Miguel [Centro de Estudio de Semiconductores, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    Highlights: • New quaternary compound. • Synthesis from solid state reaction. • Crystal structure. • Rietveld refinement. - Abstract: The crystal structure of the quaternary compound AgFe{sub 2}GaTe{sub 4}, belonging to the system I–II{sub 2}–III–VI{sub 4}, was characterized by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data. The powder pattern was composed by 84.5% of the principal phase AgFe{sub 2}GaTe{sub 4} and 15.5% of the secondary phase FeTe. This material crystallizes with stannite structure in the tetragonal space group I-42m (N° 121), Z = 2, unit cell parameters a = 6.3409(2) Å, c = 12.0233(4) Å, V = 483.42(3) Å{sup 3}, and is isostructural with CuFe{sub 2}InSe{sub 4}.

  7. The Japanese Education System is a Failure, Say Some Japanese. (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.


    A Japanese editorial in an English-language daily harshly criticized Japanese education's failure to enhance students' spirit of independence; develop critical and artistic thinking skills; and promote social awareness and an international viewpoint. The United States finished fourth out of 60 in the (unpublicized) International Math Olympiad.…

  8. Microwave switching behaviors of Fe/Ag/Fe/Ag epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, D.-S. [Department of Information and Telecommunications Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail:; Tsai, C.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Yu, C.-C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liou, Y. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shang-Fan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiang, P.-C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ho, C.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yao, Y.-D. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)


    In this study, Fe/Ag/Fe/Ag ferromagnetic structures were epitaxially grown on a GaAs(1 0 0) substrate. Using the Network Analyzer (Agilent 8510C), FMR (ferromagnetic resonant) signals were observed in samples as the in-plane magnetic field was applied to either hard- or easy-axes. Of interest was that our sample demonstrated a FMR-switching behavior in hard-axis but not in easy-axis. The detecting data showed that the switch magnetic field was much smaller than what has been stated previously in Fe/Cu/Fe systems by other laboratories. In addition to the frequency switch in FMR, we also observed a magnetic reversal behavior in its M-H curve. Data presented that both of the FMR and magnetic reverse took place in the same direction (hard-axis)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Yang


    Full Text Available A major learning difficulty of Japanese foreign language (JFL learners is the complex composition of two syllabaries, hiragana and katakana, and kanji characters adopted from logographic Chinese ones. As the number of Japanese language learners increases, computer-assisted Japanese language education gradually gains more attention. This study aimed to adopt a Japanese word segmentation system to help JFL learners overcome literacy problems. This study adopted MeCab, a Japanese morphological analyzer and part-of-speech (POS tagger, to segment Japanese texts into separate morphemes by adding spaces and to attach POS tags to each morpheme for beginners. The participants were asked to participate in three experimental activities involvingwatching two Japanese videos with general or segmented Japanese captions and complete the Nielsen’s Attributes of Usability (NAU survey and the After Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ to evaluate the usability of the learning activities. The results of the system evaluation showed that the videos with the segmented captions could increase the participants’ learning motivation and willingness to adopt the word segmentation system to learn Japanese.

  10. Japanese Learning Support Systems: Hinoki Project Report

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    Full Text Available In this report, we introduce the Hinoki project, which set out to develop web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL systems for Japanese language learners more than a decade ago. Utilizing Natural Language Processing technologies and other linguistic resources, the project has come to encompass three systems, two corpora and many other resources. Beginning with the reading assistance system Asunaro, we describe the construction of Asunaro's multilingual dictionary and it's dependency grammar-based approach to reading assistance. The second system, Natsume, is a writing assistance system that uses large-scale corpora to provide an easy to use collocation search feature that is interesting for it's inclusion of the concept of genre. The final system, Nutmeg, is an extension of Natsume and the Natane learner corpus. It provides automatic correction of learners errors in compositions by using Natsume for its large corpus and genre-aware collocation data and Natane for its data on learner errors.

  11. Multimedia search system for a textbook of urology in Japanese. (United States)

    Okada, Y; Yamashita, Y; Takahashi, T


    A search system for the textbook of urology has been developed and evaluated. The textbook is written in Japanese with 1.4 megabytes of text and has about 1000 pictures. The contents of the textbook can be seen with English or Japanese medical terms. The system contains a dictionary of Japanese medical terms. The dictionary has a network structure based on Japanese ideographic characters. Such a search system is useful for physicians because of its speed and the widely spread medical knowledge of many authors of the textbook.

  12. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: risk factors suggested from Japanese published cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Y; Kanal, E; Thomsen, H S


    The aim of this article is to review the published cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in Japan. The Japanese medical literature database and MedLine were searched using the keywords NSF and nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (January 2000 to March 2009). Reports in peer-reviewed journals...... of knowledge about the possible association between GBCA and NSF. NSF is found among Japanese end-stage renal failure patients even after examinations using a single dose....

  13. Japanese Learning Support Systems: Hinoki Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this report, we introduce the Hinoki project, which set out to develop web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL systems for Japanese language learners more than a decade ago. Utilizing Natural Language Processing technologies and other linguistic resources, the project has come to encompass three systems, two corpora and many other resources. Beginning with the reading assistance system Asunaro, we describe the construction of Asunaro's multilingual dictionary and it's dependency grammar-based approach to reading assistance. The second system, Natsume, is a writing assistance system that uses large-scale corpora to provide an easy to use collocation search feature that is interesting for it's inclusion of the concept of genre. The final system, Nutmeg, is an extension of Natsume and the Natane learner corpus. It provides automatic correction of learners errors in compositions by using Natsume for its large corpus and genre-aware collocation data and Natane for its data on learner errors.-----V poročilu predstavljamo projekt Hinoki, ki je bil zastavljen pred več kot desetimi leti za izdelavo spletnih sistemov za računalniško podprto učenje japonščine kot tujega jezika. Z uporabo jezikovnih tehnologij in drugih jezikovnih virov so bili v okviru projekta razviti trije sistemi, dva korpusa in veliko drugih virov. V nadaljevanju predstavljamo sistem Asunaro za podporo branju, izgradnjo njegovega večjezičnega slovarja in pristop k podpori branju, ki sloni na odvisnostni slovnici; sistem za podporo pisanju Natsume s preprostim vmesnikom za iskanje žanrsko določenih kolokacij v obsežnih korpusih; ter sistem Nutmeg za samodejno popravljanje napak. Nutmeg je nadgradnja sistema Natsume in učnega korpusa Natane, ponuja samodejno popravljanje napak med samim pisanjem z uporabo žanrsko določenih kolokacijskih informacij iz obsežnih korpusov preko sistema Natsume in informacij o napakah piscev, ki se učijo japonščine kot tujega

  14. Facile synthesis of nano silver ferrite (AgFeO{sub 2}) modified with chitosan applied for biothiol separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Assuit University, Assuit 71515 (Egypt); Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Doctoral Degree Program of Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University and Academia Sinica, Kaohsiung 804,Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan (China)


    Silver iron oxide nanoparticles (AgFeO{sub 2} NPs) with narrow size distribution have been synthesized, characterized and was applied for biothiols separation. AgFeO{sub 2} and AgFeO{sub 2} modified chitosan (AgFeO{sub 2}@CTS NPs) were synthesized using a hydrothermal method and then characterized by electron microscopy (transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Different biological thiols (dithiothreitol, glutathione, thiabendazole, and sulfamethizole) were investigated and characterized using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI–MS) and surface assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI–MS). The new material displays dual functionality; 1) for separation and 2) can be served as the matrices for SALDI–MS. Data showed a clear background in the case of nanomaterials compared to conventional matrices (mefenamic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) for MALDI–MS). - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of AgFeO{sub 2} and AgFeO{sub 2}@chitosan has been reported • Surface modification of AgFeO{sub 2} with chitosan was presented • Applications for biothiols were investigated using mass spectrometry • Novel application as surface for SALDI-MS were successfully reported.

  15. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposites synthesized using starch. (United States)

    Ghaseminezhad, Seyedeh Masumeh; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas


    Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a facile and cost-effective method using starch. Starch acts as both a biocompatible capping agent for Fe3O4 nanoparticles and a reducing agent for the reduction of silver ions in an alkaline medium. Samples were characterized using several analytical techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometer revealed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic. The Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposites demonstrated a high-antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli as evaluated by means of minimum inhibitory concentration. The characteristics and antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites were significantly influenced by the concentration of silver nitrate and pH.

  16. Bifunctional Ag/Fe/N/C Catalysts for Enhancing Oxygen Reduction via Cathodic Biofilm Inhibition in Microbial Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Chan, Yingzi; Jiang, Baojiang; Wang, Lei; Zou, Jinlong; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang


    Limitation of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (SC-MFCs) is considered an important hurdle in achieving their practical application. The cathodic catalysts faced with a liquid phase are easily primed with the electrolyte, which provides more surface area for bacterial overgrowth, resulting in the difficulty in transporting protons to active sites. Ag/Fe/N/C composites prepared from Ag and Fe-chelated melamine are used as antibacterial ORR catalysts for SC-MFCs. The structure-activity correlations for Ag/Fe/N/C are investigated by tuning the carbonization temperature (600-900 °C) to clarify how the active-constituents of Ag/Fe and N-species influence the antibacterial and ORR activities. A maximum power density of 1791 mW m(-2) is obtained by Ag/Fe/N/C (630 °C), which is far higher than that of Pt/C (1192 mW m(-2)), only having a decline of 16.14% after 90 days of running. The Fe-bonded N and the cooperation of pyridinic N and pyrrolic N in Ag/Fe/N/C contribute equally to the highly catalytic activity toward ORR. The ·OH or O2(-) species originating from the catalysis of O2 can suppress the biofilm growth on Ag/Fe/N/C cathodes. The synergistic effects between the Ag/Fe heterojunction and N-species substantially contribute to the high power output and Coulombic efficiency of Ag/Fe/N/C catalysts. These new antibacterial ORR catalysts show promise for application in MFCs.

  17. Fabrication of AgFeO2/g-C3N4 nanocatalyst with enhanced and stable photocatalytic performance (United States)

    Tang, Dandan; Zhang, Gaoke


    This work reported a novel AgFeO2/g-C3N4 composite with enhanced photocatalytic activity, which was fabricated by a simple precipitation method. The g-C3N4 sheets with thickness of 2•4 nm were successfully loaded on the surface of the AgFeO2 particles. As compared to pure AgFeO2 and pure g-C3N4, the as-prepared AgFeO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts exhibited superior absorption in the visible-light region and displayed promising visible-light photocatalytic performance in the degradation of organic contaminations both in water and in air. About 94% of Acid red G (ARG) can be degraded by the optimized AgFeO2/g-C3N4 sample, which is ∱/47.5 and ∱/410.7 times higher than that by pure AgFeO2 and pure g-C3N4, respectively. Meanwhile, it can also effectively degrade ∱/487% of gaseous formaldehyde to CO2 within 9 h. The enhanced photocatalytic property and stability of the AgFeO2/g-C3N4 composite can be attributed to its specific nanostructure, effective electron-hole separation and the formation of Z-scheme heterostructure between AgFeO2 and g-C3N4. This work could provide new and helpful insights into the photocatalytic application of Ag-based delafossite materials.

  18. On the categorization of the Japanese honorific system Keigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barešova Ivona


    Full Text Available The way the structure of the Japanese honorific system keigo is grasped and presented influences the understanding and appropriate use of the honorific forms this system includes. Functional categorization makes it easier to perceive principles that are not immediately evident.

  19. Preparation of Cu, Ag, Fe and Al nanoparticles by the exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sen; Joyee Ghosh; Alqudami Abdullah; Prashant Kumar; Vandana


    We describe a novel process for the production of nanoparticles of Cu, Ag, Fe and Al which involves exploding their respective wires, triggered by large current densities in the wires. The particles are characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Particle sizes in the range 20-100nm were obtained employing this technique. The XRD results reveal that the nanoparticles continue to retain lattice periodicity at reduced particle sizes, displaying in some cases evidence of lattice strain and preferential orientation. In the case of Fe, Mossbauer spectroscopy reveals loss of ferromagnetism as a result of the reduced size of the particles.

  20. Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira


    The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan.

  1. Overview and Analysis of the Japanese and US Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jofre, Sergio

    This paper presents an overview of the Japanese and US national innovation systems. The information is organized, analyzed and discussed in the context of the Triple Helix Model of university-government-industry relationship. Current innovation systems in Japan and the US are in a state...... reflection from this analysis we consider that from a systemic perspective, models of collaboration are less relevant that the benefit implicit in the simple action of collaborating. This is the constant creation, diffusion, and absorption of knowledge as economic and social inputs/outputs within...

  2. Japanese Competitiveness and Japanese Management. (United States)

    Minabe, Shigeo


    Analyzes and compares Japanese and American industrial policy and labor practices. Proposes that certain aspects of the Japanese system be adapted by American businesses for purpose of increasing international competitiveness. Proposes specific actions and plans for both the Japanese and American systems. (ML)

  3. Reading Tutor, A Reading Support System for Japanese Language Learners

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    Yoshiko KAWAMURA


    Full Text Available The present paper gives an overview of the tools and materials included in the Japanese language reading tutorial system Reading Tutor and the multilingual lexicographical project Reading Tutor Web Dictionary, and discusses their possible uses both for Japanese language instruction and to support autonomous language learning. The paper further presents one particular use of these tools and resources for the development of learning materials for foreign candidates to the Japanese certified care worker national examination, and concludes with suggestions for effective guidance geared at fostering autonomous vocabulary learning.-----Članek predstavlja orodja in gradiva v sistemu za podporo branju v japonščini Reading Tutor in v večjezičnem slovarskem projektu Reading Tutor Web Dictionary ter njihovo možno uporabo tako za poučevanje japonščine kot tudi za podporo samostojnemu jezikovnemu učenju. Nadalje predstavlja konkreten primer uporabe teh orodij in virov za izdelavo učnega gradiva za tuje kandidate, ki se pripravljajo na japonski državni izpit za zdravstvene delavce. V zaključku predlaga nekaj pedagoških pristopov za učinkovito podporo samostojnemu učenju besedišča.

  4. Japanese advances in fuzzy systems research (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel G.


    During this past summer (1991), I spent two months on an appointment as visiting researcher at Kansai University, Osaka, Japan, and five weeks at the Laboratory for International Fuzzy Engineering Research (LIFE), in Yokohama. Part of the expenses for the time in Osaka, and all the expenses for the visit at LIFE, were covered by ONR. While there I met with most of the key researchers in both fuzzy systems and case-based reasoning. This involved trips to numerous universities and research laboratories at Matsushita/Panasonic, Omron, and Hitachi Corporations. In addition, I spent three days at the Fuzzy Logic Systems Institute (FLSI), Iizuka, and I attended the annual meeting of the Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Research (SOFT-91) in Nagoya. The following report elaborates what I learned as a result of those activities.

  5. Study of Japanese electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research


    This report presents the results of a study of the Japanese MLU magnetic-levitation (maglev) system. The development of the MLU system is reviewed, and the dynamic circuit model then is introduced and applied to the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system. Three different types of figure-eight-shaped null-flux suspension systems are discussed in detail: (1) the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system without cross-connection; (2) the combined suspension and guidance system; and (3) the combined propulsion, levitation, and guidance system. The electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems developed in Japan seem to be very promising and could result in a commercial application in the near future.

  6. Excitation of plasmons in Ag/Fe/W structure by spin-polarized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarin, Sergey N.; Kostylev, Mikhail; Williams, J. F. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, Perth WA 6009 (Australia); Artamonov, Oleg M.; Baraban, Alexander P. [St. Petersburg State University, Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Guagliardo, Paul [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, Perth WA 6009 (Australia)


    Using Spin-polarized Electron-Energy Loss Spectroscopy (SPEELS), the plasmon excitations were probed in a few atomic layers thick Ag film deposited on an Fe layer or on a single crystal of W(110). The measurements were performed at two specular geometries with either a 25° or 72° angle of incidence. On a clean Fe layer (10 atomic layers thick), Stoner excitation asymmetry was observed, as expected. Deposition of a silver film on top of the Fe layer dramatically changed the asymmetry of the SPEELS spectra. The spin-effect depends on the kinematics of the scattering: angles of incidence and detection. The spin-dependence of the plasmon excitations in the silver film on the W(110) surface and on the ferromagnetic Fe film is suggested to arise from the spin-active Ag/W or Ag/Fe interfaces.

  7. Highly efficient and porous TiO2-coated Ag@Fe3O4@C-Au microspheres for degradation of organic pollutants (United States)

    Shen, Mao; Chen, Suqing; Jia, Wenping; Fan, Guodong; Jin, Yanxian; Liang, Huading


    In this paper, we reported a novel hierarchical porous Ag@Fe3O4@C-Au@TiO2 core@shell microspheres with a highly photocatalytic activity and magnetically separable properties. The synthesis method is included of a Fe3O4 magnetic embedded Ag core (Ag@Fe3O4), an interlayer of carbon modified by PEI to form sufficient amounts of amine functional groups (Ag@Fe3O4@C-PEI), the grafting of Au nanoparticles on the surface of Ag@Fe3O4@C-PEI (Ag@Fe3O4@C-Au), and an ordered porous TiO2 structured shell. As an example of the applications, the photocatalytic activities of the samples were investigated by the reduction of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. The results show that the porous Ag@Fe3O4@C-Au@TiO2 core@shell microspheres display higher adsorption and photocatalytic activities compared to the pure porous TiO2 and Ag@Fe3O4@C@TiO2 microspheres, which are attributed to the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) by the Ag and Au nanoparticles and the high specific surface area.

  8. The dilemma for Japanese students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Anders


    The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students.......The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students....

  9. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: risk factors suggested from Japanese published cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Y; Kanal, E; Thomsen, H S


    The aim of this article is to review the published cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in Japan. The Japanese medical literature database and MedLine were searched using the keywords NSF and nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (January 2000 to March 2009). Reports in peer-reviewed journals...... and meeting abstracts were included, and cases with biopsy confirmation were selected. 14 biopsy-verified NSF cases were found. In seven of eight patients reported after the association between gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) and NSF was proposed, GBCA administration was documented: five received only...... gadodiamide; two received both gadodiamide and gadopentetate dimeglumine. In four cases, the amounts of contrast agent were registered: two received only a single dose (0.1 mmol kg(-1) body weight) whereas the other two received 7-15 ml (the body weight was not disclosed) for each MR examination. Five...

  10. Information Systems for the Museum of Japanese History, Archaeology and Folklore (United States)

    Terui, Takehiko

    General idea and outline of museums of Japanese history, archaeology and folklore are introduced, and the relationship between exhibits and information in them is described. Then the information systems of these museums are explained in some detail. As an example, the author describes the information systems for the museum of Japanese history, archaeology and folklore by comparing the computer system with the traditional manual system. Japanese language processing and image handling derived from the systems are also described. Significance and problems of nationwide information network linking these museums each other, and problems of staffs in the information sections are mentioned.

  11. Ferroelectricity and lattice distortion associated with spin orderings in a multiferroic delafossite AgFeO2

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    Suzuki Hiroyuki S.


    Full Text Available Spin-lattice coupling and ferroelectric polarization associated with the magnetic ordering in a geometrically frustrated delafossite AgFeO2 have been studied by high resolution neutron powder diffraction and dielectric measurements. The cycloidal magnetic ground state found in this material and the character of the lattice distortions are unprecedented in the family of the delafossite compounds, implying a peculiar mechanism lifting the geometrical frustration.

  12. A Novel Delafossite Structured Visible-Light Sensitive AgFeO2 Photocatalyst: Preparation, Photocatalytic Properties, and Reaction Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yin


    Full Text Available This work presents a systematic study of a novel efficient visible-light sensitive AgFeO2 photocatalyst. The photocatalysts were prepared via simple hydrothermal procedure at 160 °C with different reaction time. The structures, morphologies, specific surface areas, and optical properties of the photocatalysts were explored by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET model, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS. Photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis were conducted for the understanding of photogenerated electron-hole pair separation. AgFeO2 with a six-hour hydrothermal procedure demonstrated the most efficient photocatalytic performance which resulted in 97% degradation of methyl orange (MO within 180 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to the combined effect of its relatively large surface area and high separation electron-hole pair efficiency. Holes and ·O2− were the dominant reactive species responsible for MO degradation and holes played the leading role according to the quenching effects analysis and detection of active species. The conduction and valence band position of AgFeO2 were calculated to be −0.5 V and 1.32 V, respectively. Based on active species detection, along with the band structure, the photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  13. Tunable and enhanced SERS activity of magneto-plasmonic Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposites with one pot synthesize method (United States)

    Fan, Chunzhen; Zhu, Shuangmei; Xin, Haoyi; Tian, Yuchen; Liang, Erjun


    In this paper, we report the tunable and enhanced SERS activity of magneto-plasmonic Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposites that are synthesized by a one pot method. Crystal violet (CV), rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) molecules are used to investigate the SERS optical activity of Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposites under different external magnetic fields (1500, 2000, 2500, 3500 and 5000 gauss). The experimental results demonstrate the enhanced Raman effects that can be obtained by increasing the magnitude of external magnetic field. This is because the electromagnetic hot spots located between the neighboring Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposites can be tuned by utilizing the external magnetic field. The bigger density of the hot-spots and amplitude of the electric field in the hot-spot are responsible for the enhanced SERS effect. The detection limit of CV molecule can be at least down to 10-9 M. The spectra measurements of hemoglobin adsorbed on the Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposites under different external magnetic fields are also performed to explore its bio-applications. Finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the local electromagnetic field distribution in Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposites, revealing the SERS enhanced mechanism is determined mainly by the near field enhanced electromagnetic field. Due to its tunable and enhanced properties, Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposites are expected to be promising SERS substrates for chemical and biological sensing applications.

  14. New trends in the Japanese medical system in 2002. (United States)

    Motomatsu, Kenichi; Hirata, Natsuko; Imamura, Toko


    The Japanese have enjoyed the longest average life span in the world for these ten years. The universal health insurance system with free access and low cost seems to play the most important role among the proposed causes. We didn't need to worry about the charges at hospitals when we consulted a doctor, although we had to pay a premium in proportion to our income, and we received a national benefit which was money-paid by tax-payers. Unfortunately, the economic depression started around 1990 has driven us to a difficult situation. We are now planning several new policies to prevent the bankruptcy of the universal health insurance system due to the reduction of the medical expenditure. New attempts, such as reduction in the number of hospital beds, shortening of the average hospital stay, introduction of a long-term care insurance system, and the reduction of fee schedule by 2.7% from April 2002, and so on are being considered. On the other hand, the percentage of medical expenditure to GDP in Japan is the lowest, along with England, among the developed countries. Having realized that the poor medical system was due to low medical expenditure, the British government decided to raise the budget of the national health service. The situation concerning medical expenditure in Japan might become the worst among developed countries in the near future.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa


    Japanese patients. The two CAD softwares were evaluated using the same group of 257 Japanese patients, who underwent bone scintigraphy because of suspected metastases of malignant tumors in 2009. The final diagnostic results made by clinicians were used as gold standard.The Japanese CAD software showed......Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone...... scans from Japanese patients.The two CAD software are trained to interpret bone scans using training databases consisting of bone scans with the desired interpretation, metastatic disease or not. One software was trained using 795 bone scans from European patients and the other with 904 bone scans from...

  16. Enhancement of giant magnetoresistance and oscillation by wave-vector filtering in Fe/Ag/Fe/InAs/Ag (United States)

    Wang, Ziran; Victora, R. H.


    The performance of a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) heterostructure Fe/Ag/Fe/InAs/Ag(100) in the current-perpendicular-to-plane geometry is presented. Calculations are based on a realistic tight-banding model with full s p d bands and the recursive Green's function algorithm. Results show that the system's GMR can reach values above 1000%. This GMR enhancement mainly is a result of the wave-vector filtering effect imposed by the InAs layer, restricting conductance within a small region around the Γ point in the 2D Brillouin zone. Calculations also reveal that when the Fermi level sits in the InAs band gap, MR gradually saturates as a function of InAs thickness with a smooth plateau; whereas when the Fermi level is in the InAs conduction band and close to the band bottom, GMR exhibits an oscillatory behavior with a large period. GMR oscillations are also observed with respect to Ag thickness, with oscillation amplitude determined by the Fermi level position relative to the InAs conduction band edge. The oscillation periods in both cases can be well explained by the concept of quantum-well states, and are determined by the spanning vector of the Fermi surface belly of the material whose thickness is varied. The observed GMR oscillations are due to the quantum interference of conduction electrons near the Γ point. The GMR and area-resistance (RA) product profiles at a wide range of Fermi energy positions relative to InAs bands are also compared. Near the GMR peak (with GMR above 1000%) in the conduction band, RA product can be as low as 8.8 Ω μ m2 . This feature of large GMR but small RA product results from the wave-vector filtering effect of doped InAs, and it makes the structure under study distinct from conventional GMR systems (small GMR, small RA) or magnetic tunnel junctions (large GMR, large RA).

  17. Structure and properties of α-AgFe 2(MoO 4) 3 (United States)

    Balsanova, L.; Mikhailova, D.; Senyshyn, A.; Trots, D.; Fuess, H.; Lottermoser, W.; Ehrenberg, H.


    Silver diiron tris(oxomolybdate), α-AgFe 2(MoO 4) 3, was synthesized in sealed silica tubes at 1050 K and is isostructural to α-NaFe 2(MoO 4) 3, determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (space group P-1, a = 6.9320(7) Å, b = 6.9266(6) Å, c = 10.9732(13) Å, α = 81.197(8)°, β = 83.456(9)°, γ = 81.352(8)° at 300 K, Z = 2). The crystal structure is built up from both monomers and edge-sharing dimers of [FeO 6]-octahedra, which are linked with each other by isolated [MoO 4]-tetrahedra to a three-dimensional network. Ag ions are situated on a site with four near oxygen neighbours. Thermal expansion is most pronounced along the c-axis, while the angle α decreases with increasing temperature. Antiferromagnetic ordering is indicated by a sharp maximum in the temperature dependence of magnetization at 21.5(5) K, and a magnetic moment of 5.36(1) μ B per Fe-ion was derived from the Curie constant in the paramagnetic region. The collinear antiferromagnetic structure with propagation vector k = (0,½,½) and an ordered magnetic moment of 4.62(9) μ B per Fe-ion were deduced from neutron powder diffraction data and give evidence for an underlying magnetic interaction mechanism, resulting in rather strong and long-ranged couplings. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows a change in the electronic configuration on the two distinct Fe sites between room temperature and 150 K, accompanied by an increase of the average Fe-O distance for one site and a shrinking one for the other as expected for charge ordering in a mixed valence compound with Fe(II) and Fe(III).

  18. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshafadzila Mohammad Naim


    Full Text Available PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300°C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm–424 nm and 426 nm–464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.

  19. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring. (United States)

    Mohammad Naim, Norshafadzila; Abdullah, H; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Abdul Hamid, Aidil; Shaari, Sahbudin


    PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300 °C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm-424 nm and 426 nm-464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.

  20. Acquired dyslexia in three writing systems: study of a Portuguese-Japanese bilingual aphasic patient. (United States)

    Senaha, Mirna Lie Hosogi; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice


    The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes.

  1. Acquired Dyslexia in Three Writing Systems: Study of a Portuguese-Japanese Bilingual Aphasic Patient (United States)

    Senaha, Mirna Lie Hosogi; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice


    The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes. PMID:22713387

  2. The evolution of the Japanese medical education system: a historical perspective. (United States)

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David


    The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the "Galapagos Islands" for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tokyo International Research center.1 Japanese medical schools are currently working to increase their students' clinical hours or else these students may not be able to train in the United States for residencies. Knowing the history of the Japanese Medical education system is paramount to understanding the current system in place today. Studying the historical foundation of this system will also provide insight on how the system must change in order to produce better clinicians. This article provides a glimpse into the medical system of another nation that may encourage needed reflection on the state of current healthcare training in the United States.

  3. Institutional limits to the internalization of work systems : A comparative study of three Japanese multinational companies in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saka, A


    This study adopts a multilevel comparative approach to investigating the degree to which Japanese work systems are implemented and internalized in the UK business system. The focus is on the limits to accepting the continuous improvement schemes of Japanese multinational corporations. The article ad

  4. Compact Ag@Fe3O4 Core-shell Nanoparticles by Means of Single-step Thermal Decomposition Reaction (United States)

    Brollo, Maria Eugênia F.; López-Ruiz, Román; Muraca, Diego; Figueroa, Santiago J. A.; Pirota, Kleber R.; Knobel, Marcelo


    A temperature pause introduced in a simple single-step thermal decomposition of iron, with the presence of silver seeds formed in the same reaction mixture, gives rise to novel compact heterostructures: brick-like Ag@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles. This novel method is relatively easy to implement, and could contribute to overcome the challenge of obtaining a multifunctional heteroparticle in which a noble metal is surrounded by magnetite. Structural analyses of the samples show 4 nm silver nanoparticles wrapped within compact cubic external structures of Fe oxide, with curious rectangular shape. The magnetic properties indicate a near superparamagnetic like behavior with a weak hysteresis at room temperature. The value of the anisotropy involved makes these particles candidates to potential applications in nanomedicine.

  5. Comparative analysis of Japanese Just-in-Time Purchasing and Traditional Indian Purchasing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Singh,


    Full Text Available Japanese Just-in –Time purchasing strategy is being recognized as a corner stone of the Japanese success story. Just-in –Time Purchasing has received an increasing amount of attention throughout the world due to its potential for quality improvement and cost saving. Today many reputed Indian industries have also switched to the Japanese JIT Purchasing concept to improve their product quality and productivity. This paper discusses the major activities of JIT Purchasing and provides a comparative analysis of differences between the JIT urchasing and traditional Indian purchasing systems. In this article the problems encountered in JIT Purchasing implementation and its benefits, the companies benefited in India and other countries are also discussed.

  6. On "Japanese Style" Teacher Education Reform: Considering Issues of Quality Development under an "Open System" (United States)

    Iwata, Yasuyuki


    A complication of teacher education policy in Japan is rooted in a gap between an image of teachers, which is held by society as a whole, and includes various character traits and the reality of Japanese university education. On the other hand, the expansion of an "open system" and lack of nationwide standard are making individual…

  7. Exploring the Influence of the Japanese Accreditation System through Managerial and Institutional Lenses (United States)

    Honda, Hirosuke


    In response to the declining quality of Japanese undergraduate education, the Ministry of Education implemented the accreditation system in 2004. As the first cycle of accreditation reviews ended in 2010, the effectiveness of these reviews has been discussed in the policy arena. This qualitative study examined the influence of accreditation…

  8. 银铁纳米复合材料的脑胶质瘤放射增敏作用%Enhancing radiosensitivity of glioma cells with Ag/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴湘婷; 刘连科


    目的 研究银/四氧化三铁纳米复合材料(Ag/Fe3O4)对人源性脑胶质瘤U251细胞的放射敏感性的影响.方法 人源性脑胶质瘤U251细胞分为对照组、Ag/Fe3O4组、放疗组、Ag/Fe3O4复合放疗组.用集落形成实验检测Ag/Fe3O4对U251细胞放疗效果;流式细胞术检测银纳米颗粒(AgNPs)对细胞周期和凋亡率的影响.结果 Ag/Fe3O4能够引起U251细胞G2/M期阻滞,并使细胞放疗后凋亡率显著提高(P<0.05).结论 可利用Ag/Fe3O4纳米颗粒提高脑胶质瘤放射敏感性.%Objective To study the effect of Ag/Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the efficacy of radiosensitivity enhancement of U251 glioma cells. Methods U251 cells were divided into four groups of control, Ag/Fe3 O4, radiotherapy and Ag/Fe3 O4 combined with radiotherapy. The effect of Ag/Fe3O4 nanoparticles on radiosensitivity of glioma cells was detected by colony-forming assay. The cell cycles and apoptosis after irritation were tested by flow cytometry. Results Ag/Fe3 O4 nanoparticles could induce cell cycle in G2/M arrest and increased cells apoptosis rate after radiotherapy (P<0. 05). Conclusion The Ag/Fe3O4 nanostructures can significantly enhance radiosensitivity of glioma cells.

  9. Effect of Changing Governance System: Result of Western Style Management Adoption to Japanese Culture of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohichiro Hotta


    Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.

  10. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery system for the Japanese experiment module (United States)

    Otsuji, K.; Hirao, M.; Satoh, S.

    The Japanese Space Station Program is now under Phase B study by the National Space Development Agency of Japan in participation with the U.S. Space Station Program. A Japanese Space Station participation will be a dedicated pressurized module to be attached to the U.S. Space Station, and is called Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Astronaut scientists will conduct various experimental operations there. Thus an environment control and life support system is required. Regenerable carbon dioxide removal and collection technique as well as oxygen recovery technique has been studied and investigated for several years. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal subsystem using steam desorbed solid amine and an oxygen recovery subsystem using Sabatier methane cracking have a good possibility for the application to the Japanese Experiment Module. Basic performance characteristics of the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem are presented according to the results of a fundamental performance test program. The trace contaminant removal process is also investigated and discussed. The solvent recovery plant for the regeneration of various industrial solvents, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and so on, utilizes the multi-bed solvent adsorption and steam desorption process, which is very similar to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. Therefore, to develop essential components including adsorption tank (bed), condensor, process controller and energy saving system, the technology obtained from the experience to construct solvent recovery plant can be easily and effectively applicable to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. The energy saving efficiency is evaluated for blower power reduction, steam reduction and waste heat utilization technique. According to the above background, the entire environment control and life support system for the Japanese Experiment Module including the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem is evaluated and proposed.

  11. Japanese SMEs and the credit guarantee system after the global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Yamori


    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief explanation of the Japanese public credit guarantee system and analyzes what role it played during the global financial crisis. The author conducted a questionnaire survey of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Aichi Prefecture, the prefecture most seriously hit by the crisis, in collaboration with the Aichi-ken Credit Guarantee Corporation. Using the survey, which provides valuable information about the usage of the credit guarantee program, this paper finds that the credit guarantee system was effective in protecting the economy from collapsing. The system was so generous that now almost all SMEs want it to remain unchanged. However, as the generous system brings heavy financial burdens on the Japanese government and, more seriously, discourages firms and banks from improving their efficiencies, the author insists that reforms, such as limiting the target and the guarantee coverage, are inevitable.

  12. [Microeconomics of introduction of a PET system based on the revised Japanese National Insurance reimbursement system]. (United States)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kosuda, Shigeru; Kusano, Shoichi; Nagata, Masayoshi


    It is crucial to evaluate an annual balance before-hand when an institution installs a PET system because the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system set the cost of a FDG PET study as 75,000 yen. A break-even point was calculated in an 8-hour or a 24-hour operation of a PET system, based on the total costs reported. The break-even points were as follows: 13.4, 17.7, 22.1 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The break-even points were 19.9, 25.5, 31.2 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in a full PET system operation of 24 hours. The results indicate no profit would accrue in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The annual profit and break-even point for the total cost including the initial investment would be respectively 530 million yen and 2.8 years in a 24-hour operation with 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system.

  13. Heterometallic [AgFe3S4] ferredoxin variants: synthesis, characterization, and the first crystal structure of an engineered heterometallic iron–sulfur protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martic, Maja; Simon, Ida Noemi; Haahr, Lærke Tvedebrink;


    Heterometallic [AgFe3S4] iron–sulfur clusters assembled in wild-type Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin and two variants, D14C and D14H, are characterized. The crystal structure of the [AgFe3S4] D14C variant shows that the silver(I) ion is indeed part of the cluster and is coordinated to the thiolate...

  14. Normative and systems integration in human resource management in Japanese multinational companies


    Furusawa, Masayuki; Brewster, Chris; Takashina, Toshinori


    Purpose\\ud This paper aims to conceptualise a framework of “transnational human resource management” (HRM) and to demonstrate the validity of the model.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud Evidence is drawn from survey of 93 large Japanese multinational companies (MNCs). Data are analysed through descriptive statistics, hierarchical multiple regression analyses and mediation effect analyses.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud The analysis reveals that the practices for normative and systems integration are...

  15. Japanese; Japanese Proverbs. (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The proverbs and expressions listed in this supplementary Japanese language text are grouped as follows: (1) 161 general proverbs and expressions; (2) 42 slang expressions; and (3) 73 expressions concerning the body. Each entry appears in transliteration as well as in Japanese orthography, with its English gloss. (AMM)

  16. A geographical study of the international urban system between China and Japan in terms of Japanese affiliated entreprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Du


    Full Text Available The Japanese-affiliated enterprises in China are considered to have played important roles for economic development of both two countries. Looking at cities with Japanese-affiliated enterprises, this research investigates the changes in the international urban system between China and Japan. We selected 5084 direct investments items from Japan to China and inve-stigated the spatial structure of the international urban system in 4 periods.

  17. Not lost in translation: generalization of the primary systems hypothesis to Japanese-specific language processes. (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru; Saito, Akie; Tanida, Yuki; Patterson, Karalyn; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A


    The emergentist-connectionist approach assumes that language processing reflects interaction between primary neural systems (Primary Systems Hypothesis). This idea offers an overarching framework that generalizes to various kinds of (English) language and nonverbal cognitive activities. The current study advances this approach with respect to language in two new and important ways. The first is the provision of a neuroanatomically constrained implementation of the theory. The second is a test of its ability to generalize to a language other than English (in this case Japanese) and, in particular, to a feature of that language (pitch accent) for which there is no English equivalent. A corpus analysis revealed the presence and distribution of typical and atypical accent forms in Japanese vocabulary, forming a quasiregular domain. Consequently, according to the Primary Systems Hypothesis, there should be a greater semantic impact on the processing of words with an atypical pitch accent. In turn, when word meaning is intrinsically less rich (e.g., abstract words), speakers should be prone to regularization errors of pitch accent. We explored these semantic-phonological interactions, first, in a neuroanatomically constrained, parallel-distributed processing model of spoken language processing. This model captured the accent typicality effect observed in nonword repetition in Japanese adults and children and exhibited the predicted semantic impact on repetition of words with atypical accent patterns. Second, also as predicted, in word repetition and immediate serial recall of spoken words, human participants exhibited reduced pitch-accent accuracy and/or slower RT for low imageability words with atypical accent patterns, and they generated accent errors reflecting the more typical accent patterns found in Japanese.

  18. Effectiveness of ISO 9001 System Implementation in Japanese Companies


    Shimada,Tomoaki; Okamoto, Nobuki


    ISO (International Organization for Standardization) management systems are represented by ISO 9001:2000. Since the establishment of the ISO 9000 series in 1984, many manufacturers in Japan that perform international transactions have adopted the ISO management systems, and now, companies in various industries, including those in the service sector, have implemented ISO management systems. The ISO 9001 system specifies operational procedures that reflect business policy, organizational charac...

  19. NICT/ATR Chinese-Japanese-English Speech-to-Speech Translation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tohru Shimizu; Yutaka Ashikari; Eiichiro Sumita; ZHANG Jinsong; Satoshi Nakamura


    This paper describes the latest version of the Chinese-Japanese-English handheld speech-to-speech translation system developed by NICT/ATR,which is now ready to be deployed for travelers.With the entire speech-to-speech translation function being implemented into one terminal,it realizes real-time,location-free speech-to-speech translation.A new noise-suppression technique notably improves the speech recognition performance.Corpus-based approaches of speech recognition,machine translation,and speech synthesis enable coverage of a wide variety of topics and portability to other languages.Test results show that the character accuracy of speech recognition is 82%-94% for Chinese speech,with a bilingual evaluation understudy score of machine translation is 0.55-0.74 for Chinese-Japanese and Chinese-English.

  20. Ag/Fe/Ag纳米颗粒膜磁特性和微结构%Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Ag/Fe/Ag Pseudo-Sandwich Nanogranular Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕; 胡彦英; 李耀鹏; 孙会元


    Nanogranular Ag/Fe/Ag films were prepared by magnetron sputtering from a silver and an iron target onto glass substrates at room temperature and subsequent in situ annealing. The structural and magnetic properties of the films were investigated as a function of silver layer thickness and annealing temperature.X-ray diffraction shows the Fe(110) peak is formed in all the samples. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements indicate that the magnetic moments lie well perpendicular to the film plane. Coercivity reaches the maximum in the sample annealed at 500 ℃ for 30 min with 3 nm Ag layer. A scanning probe microscope was used to scan surface morphology and magnetic domain structures. In as-deposited samples the average grain size and the average roughness is smaller than that the annealing samples. After annealing,the grain size is larger and the contrast of domains increases, but the domain size becomes smaller.%利用对靶磁控溅射法制备了一系列Ag/Fe/Ag纳米薄膜,沉积态样品Fe层厚度固定为35 nm,Ag层厚度为1、2、3、4、5 nm.随后对沉积态样品进行了退火处理,退火温度分别为200、300、400、500、600℃,退火30 min.利用VSM测量了样品的磁特性,利用SPM观察样品表面形貌和磁畴结构,并且利用XRD分析了样品的晶体结构.研究结果表明,沉积态样品随Ag层厚度的变化,垂直和平行膜面矫顽力均先增加后减小.当Ag层厚度为3 nm时,垂直膜面矫顽力最大约为260 Oe,样品颗粒分布均匀尺寸较校粗糙度较小.对该样品进行退火处理,进一步研究了退火温度对薄膜磁特性和微结构的影响.当退火温度为500℃时,垂直膜面矫顽力约为2600 Oe.经过退火处理,样品颗粒尺寸变大,磁踌明暗对比度增强,磁畴尺寸变小.认为退火处理促使非磁性Ag原子向磁性颗粒边界扩散,扩散作用减弱了磁性颗粒间交换相互作用,提高了矫顽力.

  1. Policy implications of social capital for the Japanese social security system. (United States)

    Hamada, Jun; Takao, Soshi


    We discuss the concept of social capital, which has received much attention recently. Social capital is important for the following 2 key reasons:(1) a highly democratic polity and a strong economic performance that attaches great importance to the public good can be achieved on the basis of high social capital;and (2) social capital can effect health status in the human population, and widening of income inequality harms human health through the erosion of social capital. In addition, there are 3 political implications of social capital for Japanese society:(1) social capital has implications for the political decision of whether Japanese society should adopt a "medium burden for medium welfare" or a "low burden for small welfare" model together with the concept of social overhead capital;(2) reciprocity, which is one of the primary components of social capital, is similar to the philosophy underlying the health care system of Japan;(3) Japanese society needs to change from a society that emphasizes the relationships between its members to a society that is open to outsiders and has sufficient opportunities.

  2. Policy Implications of Social Capital for the Japanese Social Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We discuss the concept of social capital, which has received much attention recently. Social capital is important for the following 2 key reasons:(1 a highly democratic polity and a strong economic performance that attaches great importance to the public good can be achieved on the basis of high social capital;and (2 social capital can effect health status in the human population, and widening of income inequality harms human health through the erosion of social capital. In addition, there are 3 political implications of social capital for Japanese society:(1 social capital has implications for the political decision of whether Japanese society should adopt a “medium burden for medium welfare” or a “low burden for small welfare” model together with the concept of social overhead capital;(2 reciprocity, which is one of the primary components of social capital, is similar to the philosophy underlying the health care system of Japan;(3 Japanese society needs to change from a society that emphasizes the relationships between its members to a society that is open to outsiders and has sufficient opportunities.

  3. Association of TNFAIP3 Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Kawasaki


    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region at 6q23 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in European-American populations. In this study, we investigated whether SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region are associated with SLE also in a Japanese population. A case-control association study was performed on the SNPs rs13192841, rs2230926, and rs6922466 in 318 Japanese SLE patients and 444 healthy controls. Association of rs2230926 G allele with SLE was replicated in Japanese (allelic association P=.033, odds ratio [OR] 1.47, recessive model P=.023, OR 8.52. The association was preferentially observed in the SLE patients with nephritis. When the TNFAIP3 mRNA levels of the HapMap samples were examined using GENEVAR database, the presence of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 G allele was associated with lower mRNA expression of TNFAIP3 (P=.013. These results indicated that TNFAIP3 is a susceptibility gene to SLE both in the Caucasian and Asian populations.

  4. Boosted Hyperthermia Therapy by Combined AC Magnetic and Photothermal Exposures in Ag/Fe3O4 Nanoflowers. (United States)

    Das, R; Rinaldi-Montes, N; Alonso, J; Amghouz, Z; Garaio, E; García, J A; Gorria, P; Blanco, J A; Phan, M H; Srikanth, H


    Over the past two decades, magnetic hyperthermia and photothermal therapy are becoming very promising supplementary techniques to well-established cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. These techniques have dramatically improved their ability to perform controlled treatments, relying on the procedure of delivering nanoscale objects into targeted tumor tissues, which can release therapeutic killing doses of heat either upon AC magnetic field exposure or laser irradiation. Although an intense research effort has been made in recent years to study, separately, magnetic hyperthermia using iron oxide nanoparticles and photothermal therapy based on gold or silver plasmonic nanostructures, the full potential of combining both techniques has not yet been systematically explored. Here we present a proof-of-principle experiment showing that designing multifunctional silver/magnetite (Ag/Fe3O4) nanoflowers acting as dual hyperthermia agents is an efficient route for enhancing their heating ability or specific absorption rate (SAR). Interestingly, the SAR of the nanoflowers is increased by at least 1 order of magnitude under the application of both an external magnetic field of 200 Oe and simultaneous laser irradiation. Furthermore, our results show that the synergistic exploitation of the magnetic and photothermal properties of the nanoflowers reduces the magnetic field and laser intensities that would be required in the case that both external stimuli were applied separately. This constitutes a key step toward optimizing the hyperthermia therapy through a combined multifunctional magnetic and photothermal treatment and improving our understanding of the therapeutic process to specific applications that will entail coordinated efforts in physics, engineering, biology, and medicine.

  5. The Effects of Pacifist Norms of the Japanese Justice System


    Zenn, Andrea J.


    The reliance on pacifist norms in Japan may have left irreparable effects on the countrys ability to police organized crime. Japans pacifist culture is due in no small part to its tumultuous history, but to fully understand the impact these and other norms have on domestic police and legal institutions we need study the evolution of this societys criminal element over the last several decades and measure the effectiveness of the justice system in Japan. The major areas of research for this pr...

  6. Improving a Japanese-Spanish Machine Translation System Using Wikipedia Medical Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Ramirez


    Full Text Available The quality, length and coverage of a parallel corp us are fundamental features in the performance of a Statistical Machine Translation Sy stem (SMT. For some pair of languages there is a considerable lack of resources suitable for Natural Language Processing tasks. This paper introduces a technique for extracting medical information from the Wikipedia page. Using a medical ontological dictionary and then we evaluate on a Japanese-Spanish SMT system. The study shows an increment in the BLEU sc ore.

  7. Identification of crude drugs in the Japanese pharmacopoeia using a DNA barcoding system (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Xiang, Li; Shi, Linchun; Li, Gang; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Lin, Yulin; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin


    Kampo is the general designation for traditional Japanese herbal medicines, which are recognized as official medicines and listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia (JP). In most cases, it is difficult to identify the crude drug materials to species level using only traditional identification methods. We report the first online DNA barcode identification system, which includes standard barcode sequences from approximately 95% of the species recorded in the JP (16th edition). This tool provides users with basic information on each crude drug recorded in the JP, DNA barcoding identification of herbal material, and the standard operating procedure (SOP) from sampling to data analysis. ITS2 sequences (psbA-trnH was an alternative when ITS2 could not be amplified) were generated from a total of 576 samples to establish the database. An additional 100 samples (from different medicinal parts, from both single origin and multiple origins and from both retailers and the planting base) were identified using the system. A total of 78% of the test samples were identified as the species listed on their label. This system establishes a model platform for other pharmacopeias from countries like China, Korea, the US and the European Union, for the safe and effective utilization of traditional herbal medicines. PMID:28186159

  8. Things Japanese. (United States)

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  9. Kooperatives Lernen lernen? Zur Diskussion uber das Bildungswesen in Japan (Learning Cooperative Learning? On the Discussion of the Japanese Educational System). (United States)

    Schubert, Volker


    Suggests a reconsideration of the criticism of Japanese competition against the background of the Japanese educational system's highly developed learning culture. Considers some of the basic aspects of group-oriented communal learning in school, while also cautioning against a "monocausal" culturalism. (Author/CMK)

  10. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  11. Cooperation between Japanese and Cambodian Dietitians in Setting up a Hospital Diet Management System. (United States)

    Ly, Koung Ry; Saito, Shino; Kusama, Kaoru


    Cambodia faces a considerably high percentage of the stunted under 5 (Unicef, 2014). Despite the National Nutrition Strategy Launched by the Ministry of Health in cooperation with development partners, nutrition improvement projects have not always been effective. It is generally said these issues are addressed in many other developing nations, and the literature largely documented that successful nutrition programmes are community-based programmes because of their sustainability and the intensive communications between health workers and beneficiaries. Learning from the past experiences, the Foundation for International Development/Relief organized a project team with a Cambodian dietitian and an experienced Japanese dietitian to implement a hospital diet programme for children from April 2006 to March 2014 in the National Pediatric Hospital (NPH) in Cambodia. The project has two objectives: establishing a hospital diet management system, and developing the capacity of NPH staff. Hospital food menus were created paying particular attention to Cambodian culture, eating habits and accessibility to the ingredients for the purpose of continuous supply. We have also put emphasis on the communication between dietitians and family members of the children to let them understand the importance of a nutritious diet. After 8 y of project implementation, the hospital diet management system was established providing 7 types of menu with nutritious diets. The final evaluation of the project showed that NPH staff have the intention to continue hospital food supply with their acquired knowledge and capacity. In practice, a Cambodian dietitian currently takes the initiative for a continuous nutritional diet in NPH. The key to this success is the collaboration between Japanese dietitians with experience and Cambodian dietitians with knowledge of Cambodian eating habits. Taking our experience into account, it is highly recommended to educate Cambodian dietitians, as they are

  12. We Have It too: A Strategy Which Helps to Grasp the Japanese Writing System for Students from Outside of the Chinese Character Cultural Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej BEKEŠ


    Full Text Available For beginner learners with non-Chinese character background complexities of Japanese writing system often represent an insurmountable obstacle. Yet closer look at different types of writing systems reveals that differences between them are more of a degree than of a kind. Present paper, based on this perception, argues for the employment of strategies based on a transfer of analogies between alphabet based writing systems such as English, to Japanese writing system. This would help beginner learners overcome cognitive and affective blockade, when beginning to learn Japanese writing.

  13. Facile synthesis and enhanced magnetic, photocatalytic properties of one-dimensional Ag@Fe3O4-TiO2 (United States)

    Jia, Xiaohua; Dai, Rongrong; Lian, Dandan; Han, Song; Wu, Xiangyang; Song, Haojie


    Fe3O4-TiO2 heterostructures were synthesized through co-precipitation method based on TiO2 nanobelts. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibration sample magnetometry (VSM) were used to characterize the heterostructure nanocomposites. The results of XRD proved that the TiO2 nanobelt was anatase which was the most suitable crystal form for photocatalysis. SEM and TEM analysis indicated that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were adhere to TiO2 nanobelts which have one-dimensional structure with 100-200 nm in width. The VSM measurements showed that the photocatalyst can be easily recovered by an extemal magnetic field. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of Ag@Fe3O4-TiO2 nanocomposites studies confirm that Ag is in Ag0 state. Finally, the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) by the obtained magnetic photocatalyst was investigated via UV-vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the composites was observed to be lower compared to bare TiO2 due to the higher degree of recombination reactions after combined with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. After coated the composite of 15% Fe3O4-TiO2 with Ag, the new nanocomposite of Ag@Fe3O4-TiO2 can be easily recovered after photocatalysis by an extemal magnetic field and showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. The mechanisms for the exhibited enhanced photocatalytic effect of Ag nanoparticle decorated Fe3O4-TiO2 nanocomposites with surface heterostructures are discussed.

  14. Comprehensive association analysis of 27 genes from the GABAergic system in Japanese individuals affected with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Balan, Shabeesh; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hashimoto, Takanori; Toyota, Tomoko; Shimamoto, Chie; Maekawa, Motoko; Takagai, Shu; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Kameno, Yosuke; Kurita, Daisuke; Yamada, Kohei; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Yoshikawa, Takeo


    Involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in schizophrenia pathogenesis through disrupted neurodevelopment has been highlighted in numerous studies. However, the function of common genetic variants of this system in determining schizophrenia risk is unknown. We therefore tested the association of 375 tagged SNPs in genes derived from the GABAergic system, such as GABAA receptor subunit genes, and GABA related genes (glutamate decarboxylase genes, GABAergic-marker gene, genes involved in GABA receptor trafficking and scaffolding) in Japanese schizophrenia case-control samples (n=2926; 1415 cases and 1511 controls). We observed nominal association of SNPs in nine GABAA receptor subunit genes and the GPHN gene with schizophrenia, although none survived correction for study-wide multiple testing. Two SNPs located in the GABRA1 gene, rs4263535 (Pallele=0.002; uncorrected) and rs1157122 (Pallele=0.006; uncorrected) showed top hits, followed by rs723432 (Pallele=0.007; uncorrected) in the GPHN gene. All three were significantly associated with schizophrenia and survived gene-wide multiple testing. Haplotypes containing associated variants in GABRA1 but not GPHN were significantly associated with schizophrenia. To conclude, we provided substantiating genetic evidence for the involvement of the GABAergic system in schizophrenia susceptibility. These results warrant further investigations to replicate the association of GABRA1 and GPHN with schizophrenia and to discern the precise mechanisms of disease pathophysiology.

  15. Highly efficient and recyclable triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants and reduction of hexavalent chromium ions (United States)

    Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yunxia; Xu, Sichao; Wang, Shuan; Ding, Hualin; Pan, Shusheng; Wang, Guozhong; Li, Guanghai; Zhao, Huijun


    Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2 (P25), pure TiO2 microspheres, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and annealed Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites, the as-obtained amorphous triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 hierarchical nanospheres exhibit a markedly enhanced visible light or sunlight photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of methylene blue and photoreduction of hexavalent chromium ions in wastewater. The outstanding photocatalytic activities of the plasmonic photocatalyst are mainly due to the enhanced light harvesting, reduced transport paths for both mass and charge transport, reduced recombination probability of photogenerated electrons/holes, near field electromagnetic enhancement and efficient scattering from the plasmonic nanostructure, increased surface-to-volume ratio and active sites in three dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructures, and improved photo/chemical stability. More importantly, the hierarchical nanostructured Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts could be easily collected and separated by applying an external magnetic field and reused at least five times without any appreciable reduction in photocatalytic efficiency. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, make these multifunctional nanostructures promising candidates to remediate aquatic contaminants and meet the demands of future environmental issues.Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2

  16. Performance analysis of GPS augmentation using Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (United States)

    Wu, F.; Kubo, N.; Yasuda, A.


    The current GPS satellite constellation provides limited availability and reliability for a country like Japan where mountainous terrain and urban canyons do not allow a clear skyline to the horizon. At present, the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) is under investigation through a government-private sector cooperation. QZSS is considered a multi-mission satellite system, as it is able to provide communication, broadcasting and positioning services for mobile users in a specified region with high elevation angle. The performance of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can be quantified by availability, accuracy, reliability and integrity. This paper focuses on availability, accuracy and reliability of GPS with and without augmentation using QZSS. The availability, accuracy and reliability of GPS only and augmented GPS using QZSS in the Asia-Pacific and Australian area is studied by software simulation. The simulation results are described by the number of visible satellites as a measure of availability, geometric dilution of precision as a measure of accuracy and minimal detectable bias, and bias-to-noise rate as a measure of reliability, with spatial and temporal variations. It is shown that QZSS does not only improve the availability and accuracy of GPS positioning, but also enhances the reliability of GPS positioning in Japan and its neighboring area.

  17. 半核壳 PS@Ag/Fe/Ag 阵列的制备与 SERS 性能研究%Semi-nanoshell of PS@Ag/Fe/Ag Array for SERS Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华中; 孙欢欢; 张梦宁; 刘毛毛; 陈雷; 韩无双; 张永军


    表面增强拉曼散射( SERS)光谱已广泛应用在生命科学、化学、医学等诸多领域.设计了一种二维有序的半核壳SERS活性基底.利用自组装技术制备聚苯乙烯( PS)球核,通过磁控溅射系统在其表面包覆Ag/Fe/Ag三层壳,改变Fe的溅射时间,制成不同厚度铁磁性层的半核壳PS@Ag/Fe/Ag阵列.采用532 nm激发波长,选择对巯基苯胺作为探针分子研究SERS基底的活性,其增强因子可达到107.SERS的增强主要来源于物理增强(即电磁场增强),实现基底的高灵敏度检测和重现性.铁磁性层的引入对PS@Ag/Fe/Ag阵列的SERS增强具有较好的调控作用.%Surface-enhanced Raman scattering ( SERS ) spectroscopy has been widely used in life science , chemistry ,medicine and many other areas .In this paper , we presented a two-dimensional ordered polystyrene ( PS) microsphere array by self-assembly technology and used magnetron sputtering system to prepare semi-nanoshell array of Ag/Fe/Ag on the PS array .By changing sputtering time of magnetic layer Fe ,we prepared the different thicknesses of core-shell SERS active substrates .We applied an excitation wavelength of 532 nm and used P-aminothiophenol as a probe molecule to study SERS property and enhancement factor can reach 107 .

  18. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma. (United States)

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E


    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  19. Japanese Exploration to Solar System Small Bodies: Rewriting a Planetary Formation Theory with Astromaterial Connection (Invited) (United States)

    Yano, H.


    Three decades ago, Japan's deep space exploration started with Sakigake and Suisei, twin flyby probes to P/Halley. Since then, the Solar System small bodies have been one of focused destinations to the Japanese solar system studies even today. Only one year after the Halley armada launch, the very first meeting was held for an asteroid sample return mission at ISAS, which after 25 years, materialized as the successful Earth return of Hayabusa , an engineering verification mission for sample return from surfaces of an NEO for the first time in the history. Launched in 2003 and returned in 2010, Hayabusa became the first to visit a sub-km, rubble-pile potentially hazardous asteroid in near Earth space. Its returned samples solved S-type asteroid - ordinary chondrite paradox by proving space weathering evidences in sub-micron scale. Between the Halley missions and Hayabusa, SOCCER concept by M-V rocket was jointly studied between ISAS and NASA; yet it was not realized due to insufficient delta-V for intact capture by decelerating flyby/encounter velocity to a cometary coma. The SOCCER later became reality as Stardust, NASA Discovery mission for cometary coma dust sample return in1999-2006. Japan has collected the second largest collection of the Antarctic meteorites and micrometeorites of the world and asteromaterial scientists are eager to collaborate with space missions. Also Japan enjoyed a long history of collaborations between professional astronomers and high-end amateur observers in the area of observational studies of asteroids, comets and meteors. Having these academic foundations, Japan has an emphasis on programmatic approach to sample returns of Solar System small bodies in future prospects. The immediate follow-on to Hayabusa is Hayabusa-2 mission to sample return with an artificial impactor from 1999 JU3, a C-type NEO in 2014-2020. Following successful demonstration of deep space solar sail technique by IKAROS in 2010-2013, the solar power sail is a deep

  20. Influence of biocompatible metal ions (Ag, Fe, Y) on the surface chemistry, corrosion behavior and cytocompatibility of Mg-1Ca alloy treated with MEVVA. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Bian, Dong; Wu, Yuanhao; Li, Nan; Qiu, Kejin; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong


    Mg-1Ca samples were implanted with biocompatible alloy ions Ag, Fe and Y respectively with a dose of 2×10(17)ionscm(-2) by metal vapor vacuum arc technique (MEVVA). The surface morphologies and surface chemistry were investigated by SEM, AES and XPS. Surface changes were observed after all three kinds of elemental ion implantation. The results revealed that the modified layer was composed of two sublayers, including an outer oxidized layer with mixture of oxides and an inner implanted layer, after Ag and Fe ion implantation. Y ion implantation induced an Mg/Ca-deficient outer oxidized layer and the distribution of Y along with depth was more homogeneous. Both electrochemical test and immersion test revealed accelerated corrosion rate of Ag-implanted Mg-1Ca and Fe-implanted Mg-1Ca, whereas Y ion implantation showed a short period of protection since enhanced corrosion resistance was obtained by electrochemical test, but accelerated corrosion rate was found by long period immersion test. Indirect cytotoxicity assay indicated good cytocompatibility of Y-implanted Mg-1Ca. Moreover, the corresponding corrosion mechanisms involving implanting ions into magnesium alloys were proposed, which might provide guidance for further application of plasma ion implantation to biodegradable Mg alloys.

  1. Family Relationships and Adolescent Development in Japan: A Family-Systems Perspective on the Japanese Family. (United States)

    Gjerde, Per F.; Shimizu, Hiroshi


    Tested a triple-interaction hypothesis predicting problems of adolescent adjustment. Data obtained from Japanese 14-year-olds, parents, and teachers provided measures of parent-adolescent cohesion, parent socialization values, and 4 personality clusters. Found that lowest Resilient Impulse Control and Interpersonal Warmth scores were obtained for…

  2. Japanese Private University as a Socialization System for Future Leaders in Business and Industry (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Mitsuru; And Others


    Examines the normative behavior and perceptual changes that take place as students within one of the more prestigious Japanese private universities advance in standing from freshmen to seniors and looks at the effects of differing student backgrounds on these changes. Available from: Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers--The State…

  3. JaSlo: Integration of a Japanese-Slovene Bilingual Dictionary with a Corpus Search System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper presents a set of integrated on-line language resources targeted at Japanese language learners, primarily those whose mother tongue is Slovene. The resources consist of the on-line Japanese-Slovene learners’ dictionary jaSlo and two corpora, a 1 million word Japanese-Slovene parallel corpus and a 300 million word corpus of web pages, where each word and sentence is marked by its difficulty level; this corpus is furthermore available as a set of five distinct corpora, each one containing sentences of the particular level. The corpora are available for exploration through NoSketch Engine, the open source version of the commercial state-of-the-art corpus analysis software Sketch Engine. The dictionary is available for Web searching, and dictionary entries have direct links to examples from the corpora, thus offering a wider picture of a possible translations in concrete contextualised examples, and b monolingual Japanese usage examples of different difficulty levels to support language learning.




  5. Schooling in Micronesia during Japanese Mandate Rule. (United States)

    Shuster, Donald R.


    This review of Japanese educational policy in Micronesia from 1920-36 describes the separate school systems established for natives and for Japanese immigrants. Native schools offered a shorter, less rigorous program whose main intent was socialization to Japanese language and culture. (SJL)

  6. Centering in Japanese Discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M; Côté, S; Walker, Marilyn; Iida, Masayo; Cote, Sharon


    In this paper we propose a computational treatment of the resolution of zero pronouns in Japanese discourse, using an adaptation of the centering algorithm. We are able to factor language-specific dependencies into one parameter of the centering algorithm. Previous analyses have stipulated that a zero pronoun and its cospecifier must share a grammatical function property such as {\\sc Subject} or {\\sc NonSubject}. We show that this property-sharing stipulation is unneeded. In addition we propose the notion of {\\sc topic ambiguity} within the centering framework, which predicts some ambiguities that occur in Japanese discourse. This analysis has implications for the design of language-independent discourse modules for Natural Language systems. The centering algorithm has been implemented in an HPSG Natural Language system with both English and Japanese grammars.

  7. Mutation Profile of B-Raf Gene Analyzed by fully Automated System and Clinical Features in Japanese Melanoma Patients. (United States)

    Ide, Masaru; Koba, Shinichi; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko; Sato, Akemi; Nagano, Yuri; Inoue, Takuya; Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Shinya; Sueoka, Eisaburo


    BRAF gene mutations have been observed in 30-50 % of malignant melanoma patients. Recent development of therapeutic intervention using BRAF inhibitors requires an accurate and rapid detection system for BRAF mutations. In addition, the clinical characteristics of the melanoma associated with BRAF mutations in Japanese patients have not been investigated on a large scale evaluation. We recently established quenching probe system (QP) for detection of an activating BRAF mutation, V600E and evaluated 113 melanoma samples diagnosed in Saga University Hospital from 1982 to 2011. The QP system includes fully automated genotyping, based on analysis of the probe DNA melting curve, which binds the target mutated site using a fluorescent guanine quenched probe. BRAF mutations were detected in 54 of 115 (47 %) including 51 of V600E and 3 of V600 K in Japanese melanoma cases. Among clinical subtypes of melanoma, nodular melanoma showed high frequency (12 of 15; 80 %) of mutation followed by superficial spreading melanoma (13 of 26; 50 %). The QP system is a simple and sensitive method to determine BRAF V600E mutation, and will be useful tool for patient-oriented therapy with BRAF inhibitors.

  8. Beneficial effect of botulinum toxin A on Raynaud's phenomenon in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis: A prospective, case series study. (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-ichiro; Yamada, Kazuya; Toki, Sayaka; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Kubota, Yuka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Osamu


    Currently, there is no satisfactory treatment for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Recently, it has been reported that botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection was effective for the treatment of RP in SSc patients. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of BTX-A on RP in Japanese SSc patients. In the prospective, case series study, 10 Japanese SSc patients with RP received 10 U of BTX-A injections into the hand. The change in severity of RP, including the frequency of attacks/pain, color changes, duration time of RP and the severity of pain, was assessed by Raynaud's score and pain visual analog scale (VAS) at each visit during 16 weeks. The recovery of skin temperature 20 min after cold water stimulation was examined by thermography at baseline and 4 weeks after injection. The number of digital ulcers (DU) and adverse effects were assessed at each visit. BTX-A injection decreased Raynaud's score and pain VAS from 2 weeks after injection, and the suppressive effect was continued until 16 weeks after injection. Skin temperature recovery after cold water stimulation at 4 weeks after injection was significantly enhanced compared with that before injection. All DU in five patients were healed within 12 weeks after injection. Neither systemic nor local adverse effects were observed in all cases. We conclude that BTX-A injection significantly improved the activity of RP in SSc patients without any adverse events, suggesting that BTX-A may have possible long-term preventive and therapeutic potentials for RP in Japanese SSc patients.

  9. International Transfer of Kaizen: Japanese Manufacturers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, K.


    Kaizen, the synonym for continuous improvement, is an essential component of Japanese management system. Kaizen programs have long been employed with great success in Japanese companies. Due to their origin in Japanese organisations, and their embeddedness in Japanese context, applicability of kaize

  10. Reflections on Japanese Education. (United States)

    Pegels, Joyce


    Describes the educational system in Japan and outlines a secondary level social studies unit. Topics include the agricultural, industrial, artistic, and religious aspects of Japan. The author observed a genuine "term spirit" among Japanese students, greater respect for school property, and a heightened awareness for the value of education. (KC)

  11. Semi-quantitative study to evaluate the performance of a HACCP-based food safety management system in Japanese milk processing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampers, I.; Toyofuku, H.; Luning, P.A.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.


    This study aimed to gain an insight in the performance of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)-based food safety management systems (FSMS) implemented in Japanese milk processing plants. Since 1995, Japan has a comprehensive approval system for food manufacturing establishments by eva

  12. 日语拟声拟态词自主学习系统的构建%Construction of Multimedia Learning System of Japanese Onomatopoeic Mimesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴美颖; 翁丽霞; 王蓉


    For many Japanese learners in China, it is difficult to understand and use the Japanese onomatopoeic mimetic words. And it is also hard to master the nuances on some words by using textbooks and learning tools. The paper, in the light of difficulties in learning Japanese onomatopoeic mimetic words and based on the related analysis and classifications, designs the Japanese Onomatopoeia Autonomous Learning System, JOMLS and evaluates the effectiveness of the system with experiments .%对于许多中国人日语学习者来说,日语拟声拟态词的理解和运用是一个难点。使用教科书、词典等传统的学习工具,学习者难以掌握一些词之间的细微差别。根据日语拟声拟态词学习难点,将它们总结、分析、分类,拙论在这些分析、分类的基础上丧计了一个日语拟声拟态词自主学习系统JOMLS(Japanese Onomatopoeia Autonomous Leaming Systern),并对该系统的有效性进行了实验评价。

  13. JaSlo: Integration of a Japanese-Slovene Bilingual Dictionary with a Corpus Search System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper presents a set of integrated on-line language resources targeted at Japanese language learners, primarily those whose mother tongue is Slovene. The resources consist of the on-line Japanese-Slovene learners’ dictionary jaSlo and two corpora, a 1 million word Japanese-Slovene parallel corpus and a 300 million word corpus of web pages, where each word and sentence is marked by its difficulty level; this corpus is furthermore available as a set of five distinct corpora, each one containing sentences of the particular level. The corpora are available for exploration through NoSketch Engine, the open source version of the commercial state-of-the-art corpus analysis software Sketch Engine. The dictionary is available for Web searching, and dictionary entries have direct links to examples from the corpora, thus offering a wider picture of a possible translations in concrete contextualised examples, and b monolingual Japanese usage examples of different difficulty levels to support language learning.-----Članek predstavlja japonsko-slovenski slovar jaSlo, spletni slovar za slovensko govoreče učence japonščine, in vključitev primerov iz dveh korpusov s pomočjo odprto-kodnega korpusnega iskalnika NoSketch Engine. Korpusa sta jaSlo (milijon besed, vzporedni korpus japonskih in slovenskih besedil, ki je bil zgrajen za ta namen in vsebuje večinoma literarna, spletna in akademska besedila, ter JpWaC-L (300 milijonov besed, korpus spletnih besedil, razdeljenih v povedi, ki so rangirane po težavnostnih stopnjah. S pregledno povezavo korpusnih primerov in slovarskih iztočnic v dvojezičnem slovarju za učence japonščine kot tujega jezika, ponuja sistem uporabnikom prijazen dostop k slovarskim podatkom, tj. reprezentativnim prevodnim ustreznicam, in korpusnim podatkom, ki ponujajo a širšo sliko možnih prevodnih ustreznic v konkretnih primerih s sobesedilom in b enojezične primere rabe japonskih besed v povedih različnih te

  14. Analysis of Japanese Science and Technology Award System%日本科技奖励体系简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the rapid development of science and technology all over the world, science and technology awards have been highly valued by many countries in the world, and have been widely developed since the twentieth century. In order to promote the country's science and technology development, encourage the combination of technology and economy, many countries has formed their own distinctive science and technology reward systems for the promotion of scientific and technological progress and the economic development. Reward system of science and technology in Japan mainly includes two models: one is the centralized and hierarchical incentive model led by the government, and the other one is scattered diversification model which is carried out by non-governmental organizations and enterprises, which have become one of the important means for the Japanese government to encourage basic research and guide the innovation of technology. The paper summarized the basis system of Japanese science and technology reward system, lists the major science and technology awards in Japan, and makes analysis and research on the awards, and summed up the main features of the Japanese science and technology reward system.%20 世纪以来,伴随科学技术在世界范围的飞速发展,科技奖励也受到世界各国高度重视,并得到广泛发展.为了促进本国的科学技术发展,鼓励科技和经济的结合,世界各国普遍制定了有利于促进本国科技进步和经济发展的科技奖励制度,形成了各具本国特色的科技奖励体系.日本的科技奖励体系包括由政府主导的集中分层奖励模式以及由民间团体和企业开展的分散多元化模式,这两种模式已成为日本政府鼓励基础研究和引导技术创新的重要手段之一.本文概括介绍了日本的科技奖励基本体系,列举了日本的主要科技奖,并对各奖项进行了分析研究,从而总结得出日本科技奖励的主要特点.

  15. Japanese Management: An American Challenge. (United States)

    Rehder, Robert R.


    In contrast to the American system of management, Japanese management motivates its employees by challenging them with high goals and by providing inhouse training and development opportunities to meet their self-fulfillment needs. (Author/LD)

  16. Estimates of embodied global energy and air-emission intensities of Japanese products for building a Japanese input-output life cycle assessment database with a global system boundary. (United States)

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaba, Rokuta; Tohno, Susumu


    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input-output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains.

  17. Pathomorphological changes in the alimentary system of Japanese quails naturally infected with Eimeria tsunodai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesek Michał


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate pathomorphological changes in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and caecum of Japanese quails naturally infected with Eimeria tsunodai. Samples of the intestines were collected from 6-week-old cockerels and hens before laying and from laying quails aged 12, 24, and 48 weeks. The tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, PAS method according to McManus, and Ziehl-Neelsen method. Morphometric and morphological analyses of coccidia revealed that Eimeria tsunodai was responsible for the infection. Different developmental stages of the coccidia were observed almost exclusively in the caecum, and they led to the complete damage of caecal mucosa. The main changes observed in the caecum involved mucosal damage, atrophy of the folds and crypts, and mucosal desquamation. No significant inflammation changes were detected. The degree of damage to caecal mucosa increased with age and the greatest damage was noted at the age of 48 weeks. Eimeria tsunodai infections occur in Japanese quails during the entire laying period. Different developmental stages of coccidia are responsible for total damage to caecal mucosa.

  18. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  19. Population data on 10 non-CODIS STR loci in Japanese population using a newly developed multiplex PCR system. (United States)

    Asamura, H; Ota, M; Fukushima, H


    This paper describes a newly devised autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems for 10 loci (D1S1656, D2S1353, D8S1132, D12S1090, D14S608, D18S535, D19S253, D20S480, D21S226, and D22S689) unlinked to the core STR loci (non-CODIS loci). Of 252 samples taken from the Japanese population, PCR products ranged in length from 107 bp to 319 bp. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed at any of the 10 loci. The accumulated power of discrimination and power of exclusion for the 10 loci were 0.999999999998 and 0.99991, respectively. We conclude that the present multiplex system for the 10 non-CODIS loci represents a powerful tool for forensic applications.

  20. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoue S


    Full Text Available Shiro Mizoue,1 Tadashi Nakano,2 Nobuo Fuse,3 Aiko Iwase,4 Shun Matsumoto,5 Keiji Yoshikawa6 On behalf of the IOP CHANGE Study Group7 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Integrative Genomics, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Miyagi, Japan; 4Tajimi Iwase Eye Clinic, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 6Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7IOP CHecked and Assessed in Normal tension Glaucoma by Exceptional Glaucomatologists Study Group, Japan Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG patients. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs <20 mmHg were enrolled after three consecutive time measurements taken at screening and baseline visits. Travoprost with sofZia® was instilled once daily. Lowering effect on IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and adverse events were examined at week 4, 8, and 12 after drug instillation. Results: One-hundred and three of the 107 enrolled patients (baseline IOP =15.2±2.0 mmHg [mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The mean IOP value as well as percent reduction was significantly reduced at each visit after travoprost with sofZia® initiation (P<0.0001. The conjunctival hyperemia score was 1 or less throughout the study, though it increased significantly over time. No significant change was observed in superficial punctate keratopathy. The cumulative incidence of side effects such as eyelash changes, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper lid was 47.6%, 27.2%, and 16.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Travoprost preserved with sofZia® effectively lowered the IOP of Japanese NTG patients. It was

  1. Rethinking Japanese Language Pedagogy. (United States)

    Larson, Phyllis


    Discusses the work of Seiichi Makino, a scholar of Japanese, noting that his work in establishing the Japanese proficiency guidelines helped make it appear that Japanese language teaching was part of mainstream American language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  2. The HumD21S11 system of short tandem repeat DNA polymorphisms in Japanese and Chinese. (United States)

    Zhou, H G; Sato, K; Nishimaki, Y; Fang, L; Hasekura, H


    HumD21S11 is a short tandem repeat DNA polymorphic system with a complex basic structure of (TCTA)4-6 (TCTG)5-6 (TCTA)3 TA (TCTA)3 TCA (TCTA)2 TCCA TA (TCTA)n. Using the allelic ladder prepared by us, the distribution of alleles among Japanese and Chinese was investigated, and four new alleles 28.2, 34, 35.2, and 36.2, were discovered. DNA sequencing was performed on the newly found alleles as well as on family samples and led to the discovery of different gene structures within alleles 28 and 32. Forensic materials, including hairs and seminal stains, were tested in parallel with blood samples from the same individual and were successfully typed for D21S11.

  3. Effects of calorie restriction on reproductive and adrenal systems in Japanese quail: are responses similar to mammals, particularly primates? (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary Ann; Mobarak, Mohammed; Abdelnabi, Mahmoud; Roth, George; Proudman, John; Ingram, Donald K


    The benefits of calorie restriction (CR) have been established across a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Although the effects of CR on lifespan in birds have not been examined, it is clear that CR has beneficial effects on reproductive, metabolic, and physiological function in adult poultry. We examined the effects of CR in Japanese quail, a rapidly maturing avian model, on reproductive endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. Male Japanese quail were pair fed at 0% ad libitum (AL), 20%, or 40% CR of AL, recorded for juveniles (3-7 weeks of age) or adults (12-16 weeks of age). Juvenile males on CR matured more slowly, and both juvenile and adult males had reduced plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) with CR. Adults on 40% CR showed evidence of stress, with increased plasma corticosterone and reduced testes weight and circulating androgens. In a separate study, pituitary gland response was tested in juvenile and adult castrated males that had been on the same CR treatments. All birds responded to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, with LH release. However, the 40% CR juvenile and adult birds had quantitatively lower responses, suggesting central inhibition of the reproductive axis. This hypothesis was tested by measurement of sexual behavior and catecholamines known to stimulate GnRH in hypothalamic regions that modulate these responses. Results showed reduced norepinephrine in key hypothalamic regions and reduced dopamine in posterior hypothalamus. These data support the hypothesis that CR affects reproductive function, with evidence for effects in the central nervous system. These data are discussed and compared to data collected in mammals, especially the rhesus monkey, on the effects of timing and degree of CR on reproductive and stress responses.

  4. Japanese manufacturing: strategy and practice


    Bolwijn, P.T.; Brinkman, S.


    A striking characteristic of Japanese factories is the extent of process control: from both the technical and the social viewpoint the labour and production system is controlled down to the very last detail. The characteristics of management and organization which underlie this are closely interwoven with Japanese culture. This explains why the work content, working conditions and working relationships in the factories look so different from those in western cultures. The paper shows why fact...

  5. Influence of Nano TiO2 by Ag+/Fe3+ Co-doping on Photocatalytic Degradation to Methyl Orange%Ag+/Fe3+共掺杂纳米TiO2薄膜光催化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青龙; 沈毅; 李飞


    用溶胶-凝胶法制备了Ag+/Fe3+复合掺杂的纳米TiO2薄膜,以甲基橙为光催化反应模型化合物,考察了复合掺杂光催化剂的活性.Ag+、Fe3+的掺入量分别为wAg+=0.043%、wFe3+=0.1%,且同时掺入TiO2光催化时具有最佳的光催化效率.并通过XRD、AFM、UV-Vis对复合掺杂薄膜进行了表征.结果表明,金属共掺杂可以促进纳米TiO2由锐钛矿向金红石相转化,平均晶径约为30 mm左右;Fe3+掺入可能以替代的方式占据TiO2晶格中Ti4+的位置,并在TiO2禁带中产生掺杂能级,使吸收边红移,并在可见光区有极低的透过率.Ag+的掺入在光催化过程中有效地抑制光生电子与空穴的复合,提高掺杂TiO2的光催化效率.

  6. Vowel Reduction in Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirai; Setsuko


    This paper reports the result that vowel reduction occurs in Japanese and vowel reduction is the part of the language universality.Compared with English,the effect of the vowel reduction in Japanese is relatively weak might because of the absence of stress in Japanese.Since spectral vowel reduction occurs in Japanese,various types of researches would be possible.

  7. On the Characteristics of the Japanese Legal System Modernization%论日本法制现代化道路的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文通过对日本现代法制化的形成原因的分析,得出日本法制现代化主要是基于民主宪政体制的确立、发展资本主义经济之需、东西方法律文化的并存及现代化产业队伍的壮大这四大因素,进而得出日本法制现代化的特点,最后提出其对我国现代化法制建设的一些经验借鉴,以期对我国法制现代化建设提供一点帮助。%Based on the analysis of Japanese legal system of the formation of modern,this paper draws the conclusion that modern Japanese legal system is mainly based on the establishment of democratic government,the development of the capitalist economy needs,Western legal cultures co-exist and the growth of the ranks of modern industry.Then,it points out the characteristics of the Japanese legal system modernization.Finally,it put forward some reference of our experience of the modernization of China's legal system,which will be helpful to our establishment of legislation modernization.

  8. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  9. Morphological observation of the horseshoe kidney with special reference to the vascular system in 2 Japanese cadavers. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoichi; Yi, Shuang-Qin; Iimura, Akira; Terayama, Hayato; Naito, Munekazu; Itoh, Masahiro


    Two cases of the horseshoe kidney in Japanese cadaver were reported in this paper. The kidneys and their associated vessels in the retroperitoneal cavity were carefully examined, and the histological examination of the isthmus was performed. In Case 1, four arteries arose from the abdominal aorta. One right and two left renal arteries were distributed to the apical, upper, middle and posterior regions of the kidney, respectively, and the artery of isthmus entered the lower segments and the isthmus. In Case 2, six arteries arose from the abdominal aorta. Among three arteries arose from the inferior end of the aorta and entered the lower segments and the isthmus. Histological study revealed that the isthmuses consisted of collecting tubes, glomeruli and urinary tubules and fibrous connective tissue. The incidence of the horseshoe kidney during the dissecting practice at Tokyo Medical University in a period of 24 years from 1980 to 2003 was estimated to be 0.16% (2 out of the 1,219 cadavers). The anatomical and embryological significance of this anomaly and its associated vascular system were discussed. And the histology of the parenchymal structure of the isthmus in the horseshoe kidney containing either fibrous connective tissue or renal parenchyma was also analyzed in this report.

  10. Effects of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen on growth performance and immune system of Japanese quails (United States)

    Babaei, Sakine; Rahimi, Shaeban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Tahmasebi, Golamhosein; Khaleghi Miran, Seyed Naser


    Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen in comparison with virginiamycin (as growth promoter antibiotic) as regards the performance and immune system of Japanese quail were assessed. We used 256 mixed-sex quail chicks in a completely randomized design by eight treatments, including control, ethanolic extract of propolis 1000 (PE1) and 5000 (PE2) mg kg-1, pollen powder 1000 (PO1) and 5000 (PO2) mg kg-1, royal jelly 100 mg kg-1 (RJ), honey 22 g L-1 of drinking water (H) and virginiamycin 150 mg kg-1 (V), and four replicates of eight birds in each replication for 42 days. There was significant differences for weight gain (WG), feed intakes (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) between experimental groups. In addition, WG in V treatment (18.82%), H and PO2 treatments (16.87%) and RJ treatment (12.00%) were significantly higher than to control group (p virginiamycin groups (p < 0.01). There was significant difference in antibody production against avian influenza (AI) and sheep red blood cells (p < 0.01). Significant differences were observed in heterophils to lymphocytes ratio among PE1, PE2, PO1 and PO2 with V and control groups (p < 0.01). PMID:27226882

  11. Assessing paternity in japanese quails (Coturnix japonica using microsatellite markers - inferences for its mating system and reproductive success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Gomes


    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers were analyzed in Japanese quails, Coturnix japonica, using different methodologies (PAGE and automated genotyping, in order to evaluate their use in paternity testing. Ten animal triplets composed by a female and two males were used to mate and generate an offspring. Paternity was determined in five-day-old embryos, and the data generated by fluorescent labeled and tailored primers in PCR and further automated genotyping were robust. Three microsatellite markers were polymorphic (Na = 5-8, H E = 0.75 and no loci were found to deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or showed any evidence of linkage disequilibrium (p > 0.05. A slight heterozygote deficiency and some incompatibilities between the female known parent and its offspring that involved homozygous genotypes were observed at GUJ0001 locus and may indicate the presence of null alleles. Although a reduced set of microsatellite primers were applied, it was possible to determine the paternity of 96.87% of the embryos, using combined data of three loci. The approach was useful for parentage inferring in a captive population of C. japonica and the results evidenced a potential polyandric mating system in the species, in which no advantage mechanism of last-male sperm precedence seems to occur.




  13. Benefits of Using Online Student Response Systems in Japanese EFL Classrooms (United States)

    Mork, Cathrine-Mette


    Online student response systems (OSRSs) are fast replacing classroom response systems (CRSs), also known as personal or audience response systems or "clickers". OSRSs can more easily be implemented in the classroom because they are web-based and allow students to use any browser and device to do the "clicking" required to…

  14. An in vitro recombination-based reverse genetic system for rapid mutagenesis of structural genes of the Japanese encephalitis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruikun; Du; Manli; Wang; Zhihong; Hu; Hualin; Wang; Fei; Deng


    Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV) is one of the most common pathogens of severe viral encephalitis, which is a severe threat to human health. Despite instability of the JEV genome in bacteria, many strategies have been developed to establish molecular clone systems of JEV, providing convenient tools for studying the virus life cycle and virus–host interactions. In this study, we adapted an In-Fusion enzyme-based in vitro recombination method to construct a reverse genetic system of JEV, thereby providing a rapid approach to introduce mutations into the structural genes. A truncated genome without the structural genes was constructed as the backbone, and the complementary segment containing the structural genes was recombined in vitro, which was then transfected directly into virus-permissive cells. The progeny of the infectious virus was successfully detected in the supernatant of the transfected cells, and showed an identical phenotype to its parental virus. To provide a proof-of-principle, the 12 conserved cysteine residues in the envelope(E) protein of JEV were respectively mutated using this approach, and all mutations resulted in a complete failure to generate infectious virus. However, a leucine-tophenylanine mutation at amino acid 107 of the E protein did not interfere with the production of the infectious virus. These results suggested that all 12 cysteines in the E protein are essential for the JEV life cycle. In summary, a novel reverse genetic system of JEV was established for rapidly introducing mutations into structural genes, which will serve as a useful tool for functional studies.

  15. International Transfer of Kaizen: Japanese Manufacturers in the Netherlands


    Yokozawa, K


    Kaizen, the synonym for continuous improvement, is an essential component of Japanese management system. Kaizen programs have long been employed with great success in Japanese companies. Due to their origin in Japanese organisations, and their embeddedness in Japanese context, applicability of kaizen to countries with different cultures and different management styles still remains to be understood. The purpose of the research is to investigate the international transfer of kaizen. Case study...

  16. Japanese mission plan for Jupiter system: The Jupiter magnetospheric orbiter and the Trojan asteroid explorer (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Yano, H.; Takashima, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Kimura, J.; Funase, R.; Mori, O.; Tsuda, Y.; Campagnola, S.; Kawakatsu, Y.


    In the future Jupiter system study, Coordinated observation of Jovian magnetosphere is one of the important targets of the mission in addition to icy satellites, atmosphere, and interior of Jupiter. JAXA will take a role on the magnetosphere spinner JMO (Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter), in addition to JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) by ESA and JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) by NASA. We will combine JMO with a proposed solar sail mission of JAXA for Jupiter and one of Trojan asteroids. Since Trojan asteroids could be representing raw solid materials of Jupiter or at least outer solar system bodies, involvement of Trojan observation should enhance the quality of Jupiter system exploration.

  17. Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives. (United States)

    Wada, Shuji


    Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)

  18. English Loanwords in Japanese. (United States)

    Kay, Gillian


    Examines the historical and cultural contexts of word borrowing from English into Japanese, processes of nativization, and functions served by English loanwords. Notes that linguistic and cultural borrowing is to some extent kept separate from native language and culture, resulting in a Japanese/Western dichotomy in Japanese life and language. (20…

  19. Case-study of thermo active building systems in Japanese climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo


    Thermo active building systems (TABS) have been applied in office buildings as a promising energy efficient solution in many European countries. The utilization of building thermal mass helps to provide high quality thermal environments with less energy consumption. However, the concept of TABS...... is entirely new in Japan. This paper introduces and evaluates TABS under Tokyo weather conditions to clarify the potential of use TABS in Japan. Cooling capacity of thermo active building systems used in an office building was evaluated by means of dynamic simulations. Two central rooms of the office were...

  20. Development of a prediction system for anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury in Japanese patients (United States)

    Mushiroda, Taisei; Yanai, Hideki; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Sasaki, Yuka; Okumura, Masao; Ogata, Hideo; Tokunaga, Katsushi


    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common adverse drug reaction in patients receiving antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment. Among the anti-TB agents, isoniazid (INH) is the primary drug that causes hepatotoxicity in TB patients with DILI. Previous reports in several populations have consistently demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene, which is responsible for INH hepatic metabolism, and a risk of DILI in TB patients. In this study, the genetic and baseline clinical data from 366 Japanese patients with TB (73 patients with DILI and 293 without DILI) were used to develop a system to predict DILI risk due to anti-TB agents. The distribution of the NAT2 acetylator status among the TB patients with DILI was 31 (42.5%), 29 (39.7%), and 13 (17.8%) for rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylators, respectively. A significant association was observed between NAT2 slow acetylators and DILI risk (odds ratio 4.32, 95% confidence interval 1.93–9.66, P value=5.56×10−4). A logistic regression model based on age and NAT2 genotype revealed that the area under the curve for the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.717. The findings demonstrated that slow NAT2 acetylator status is a significant predictor of the risk of DILI by anti-TB agents, and a personalized anti-TB treatment approach may aid in making treatment decisions and reducing the incidence of DILI. PMID:27340556

  1. Generalized Transition Network Parsing for Language Study: The GPARS System for English, Russian, Japanese, and Chinese. (United States)

    Loritz, Donald


    GPARS is a generalized transition network system designed for language study by both students and researchers. It generalizes the Augmented Transition Network formalism by allowing top-down, bottom-up, depth-first, breadth-first, determininistic, and nondeterministic parsing strategies to be freely intermixed. (26 references) (Author/LB)

  2. A history of Japanese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David E


    One of the first books to show Westerners the nature of Japanese mathematics, this survey highlights the leading features in the development of the wasan, the Japanese system of mathematics. Topics include the use of the soroban, or abacus; the application of sangi, or counting rods, to algebra; the discoveries of the 17th-century sage Seki Kowa; the yenri, or circle principle; the work of 18th-century geometer Ajima Chokuyen; and Wada Nei's contributions to the understanding of hypotrochoids. Unabridged republication of the classic 1914 edition. 74 figures. Index.

  3. 复合纳米光催化环保涂料制备及其超临界CO2喷涂研究Ⅰ.纳米SO42-/TiO2-(Ag,Fe)光催化剂制备及其表征%Preparation of Nanometer SO42-/TiO2-(Ag, Fe) Composite Photocatalytic Coating and Research of Supercritical CO2 Spraying Ⅰ.Preparation and Characterization of Nanometer SO42-/TiO2-(Ag,Fe)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喜载; 张于弛



  4. The High Speed Projection Technique for Teaching the Reading of Korean & Japanese or Other Non-Roman Witing Systems. (United States)

    Critchfield, Theodore M.

    High Speed Projection (HiSP) is a classroom technique that employs a standard carousel slide projector to induce conditioned oral responses by students to unfamiliar symbols. HiSP enables active teaching of Japanese, Korean, and other non-Roman languages, drastically reducing the time and effort students must devote to learning the pronunciation…

  5. A Comparison of Japanese and British Colonial Policy in Asia and their Effect on Indigenous Educational Systems Through 1930 (United States)


    support for Korean independence. 1909 It6 resigns as Resident-General and is followed by Sone Arakuse. 1909 It6 is murdered in Harbin , Manchuria by a...34 The Far East 32 (1928): 28-94; 386-396. White, Oswald. "Japanese Administration of Korea and Manchuria ." Royal Central Asian Journal 33 (1943): 19-36

  6. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education (United States)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  7. Japanese manufacturing: strategy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolwijn, P.T.; Brinkman, S.


    A striking characteristic of Japanese factories is the extent of process control: from both the technical and the social viewpoint the labour and production system is controlled down to the very last detail. The characteristics of management and organization which underlie this are closely interwove

  8. Settlement Between Electric Transmission Companies under the Point of Connection Tariff or "Postal Stamp" System (Japanese)


    Hatta, Tatsuo


    This paper discusses how an electric transmission company in a pass-through area should settle the cost of a pass-through with the neighboring transmission companies under the point-of-connection tariff system. First, the paper shows that if the cost of the pass-through is settled based on the principle that determines the (metered) power transmission fares for ordinary customers (i.e. injectors and withdrawers) of the transmission companies, the fare receipts of the pass-through transmission...

  9. Differences between British and Japanese perspectives on forensic mental health systems: A preliminary study (United States)

    Shiina, Akihiro; Tomoto, Aika; Omiya, Soichiro; Sato, Aiko; Iyo, Masaomi; Igarashi, Yoshito


    AIM To clarify the differences in views on forensic mental health (FMH) systems between the United Kingdom and Japan. METHODS We conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with six leading forensic psychiatrists. Based on a discussion by the research team, we created an interview form. After we finished conducting all the interviews, we qualitatively analyzed their content. RESULTS In the United Kingdom the core domain of FMH was risk assessment and management; however, in Japan, the core domain of FMH was psychiatric testimony. In the United Kingdom, forensic psychiatrists were responsible for ensuring public safety, and psychopathy was identified as a disease but deemed as not suitable for medical treatment. On the other hand, in Japan, psychopathy was not considered a mental illness. CONCLUSION In conclusion, there are considerable differences between the United Kingdom and Japan with regard to the concepts of FMH. Some ideas taken from both cultures for better FMH practice were suggested.

  10. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system. (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K


    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  11. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions (United States)

    ... the vaccine, what should I do? What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially severe ... cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts ...

  12. Yokohama Pidgin Japanese Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. AVRAM


    Full Text Available The paper is an overview of the structural features of the phonology, morphology, syntax and vocabulary of Yokohama Pidgin Japanese, an under researched contact language. The data examined are from a corpus which includes records not analyzed in previous work on this 19th century variety of pidginized Japanese.

  13. The Japanese American Story. (United States)

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…




  15. Japanese Media in English. (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda


    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  16. Disruption of the thyroid system by the thyroid-disrupting compound Aroclor 1254 in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Dong

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3 gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus following 25- and 50-day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies.

  17. Japanese Word Sketches: Advances and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, we present results of an evaluation of Japanese word sketches and address in detail issues that were observed by the evaluators. A word sketch presents a list of salient collocates of a word, organized by the grammatical relations holding between the word and its collocate. The word sketch functionality is incorporated into the Sketch Engine corpus query system and has been created for more than twenty languages so far, including Japanese. The issues that have been discovered in the evaluation of word sketches in Japanese are to be addressed for further enhancement of the word sketch functionality. Other tools and resources which are combined for use and influence the performance of the word sketches should also be looked over. We divide the issues into the following: 1 the lemmatizer and tagger in use, 2 the sketch grammar that is specifically written for Japanese, and 3 the corpus and statistical methods.

  18. Japanese Discourse and the Process of Centering

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M; Côté, S; Walker, Marilyn; Iida, Masayo; Cote, Sharon


    This paper has three aims: (1) to generalize a computational account of the discourse process called {\\sc centering}, (2) to apply this account to discourse processing in Japanese so that it can be used in computational systems for machine translation or language understanding, and (3) to provide some insights on the effect of syntactic factors in Japanese on discourse interpretation. We argue that while discourse interpretation is an inferential process, syntactic cues constrain this process, and demonstrate this argument with respect to the interpretation of {\\sc zeros}, unexpressed arguments of the verb, in Japanese. The syntactic cues in Japanese discourse that we investigate are the morphological markers for grammatical {\\sc topic}, the postposition investigate the role of speaker's {\\sc empathy}, which is the viewpoint from which an event is described. This is syntactically indicated through the use of verbal compounding, i.e. the auxiliary use of verbs such as {\\it kureta, kita}. Our results are based ...

  19. Analysis of data captured by barcode medication administration system using a PDA; aiming at reducing medication errors at point of care in Japanese Red Cross Kochi Hospital. (United States)

    Akiyama, Masanori; Koshio, Atsushi; Kaihotsu, Nobuyuki


    Preventing medication errors by using a barcode administration system has become prevalent in patient safety. Analyses of data captured by bar code systems provide opportunities to understand the actual situation at the point of care. Our study aims at understanding issues of medication safety as well as investigating measures taken to prevent medication accidents, by analyzing data captured by a bar code system and a personal digital assistant (PDA). The barcode administration system named Point-of-Act-System implemented in Japanese Red Cross Kochi Hospital was designed to capture every activity at the bedside. Complete activity data captured by the system, which included injections, treatment and other nursing activity, as well as injection warning data, were used for our analyses. We describe the data and analyze them statistically to find potentially times of risk and to ascertain the relation between busyness and error. The injection warning rate as a whole was 6.1% on average. The results showed there was a negative correlation between the number of injections given and the injection warning rate (-0.48, pmedication safety. A bar code administration system is quite an effective way not only to prevent medication error at point of care, but also to improve patient safety through analyses of data captured by such a system.

  20. WSPEEDI (worldwide version of SPEEDI): A computer code system for the prediction of radiological impacts on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Moriuchi, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishikawa, Hirohiko


    A computer code system has been developed for near real-time dose assessment during radiological emergencies. The system WSPEEDI, the worldwide version of SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) aims at predicting the radiological impact on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries. WSPEEDI consists of a mass-consistent wind model WSYNOP for large-scale wind fields and a particle random walk model GEARN for atmospheric dispersion and dry and wet deposition of radioactivity. The models are integrated into a computer code system together with a system control software, worldwide geographic database, meteorological data processor and graphic software. The performance of the models has been evaluated using the Chernobyl case with reliable source terms, well-established meteorological data and a comprehensive monitoring database. Furthermore, the response of the system has been examined by near real-time simulations of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), carried out over about 2,000 km area in Europe. (author).

  1. 日本从军“慰安妇”制度的极端隐秘性%Ultimate Crypticity of the System of Comfort Women in Japanese Army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    近代日本从军“慰安妇”制度极其重要的特征是它的极端隐秘性。它是在日本军方和政府的高度默契“合作”下得以实现的。这些“合作”,主要体现在日军征集“慰安妇”时,政府对其征集者和被征“慰安妇”采取简化出国手续等各个方面的“特殊照顾”。其极端隐秘性,主要表现在日本军方与政府间事关“慰安妇”的文件均以不同密级严格保密、对“慰安所”事务管理的极其严密和阻断与外部的联系,甚至对“慰安妇”杀人灭口以掩藏罪行等各个方面。由于其极端的隐秘性,日本从军“慰安妇”问题诸多真相至今仍被掩藏。%The most important feature of the modern system of comfort women in imperial Japanese army was its ultimate crypticity which was realized under secret agreement and cooperation between Japanese army and Japanese government. This cooperation mainly refers to the privilege provided by Japanese government for Japanese army in recruiting comfort women. It was elusive that all the documents signed between Japanese army and Japanese government about comfort women were highly confidential, military comfort stations were strictly managed and some comfort women were even killed secretly for concealing the crimes of Japanese army. Its ultimate crypticity has been preventing a lot of truth from being revealed.

  2. How the Japanese work. (United States)

    Chambers, D W


    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry.

  3. Feasibility of high-speed power line carrier system to Japanese overhead low voltage distribution lines; Teiatsu haidensen hanso no kosokuka no kanosei (hanso sningo denpa purogram no kanosei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T.; Takeshita, K.; Ishino, R.


    The high-speed distribution line carrier systems on underground distribution lines are being developed in Germany. To estimate these systems on Japanese overhead low voltage distribution lines, the Carrier Propagation Program has been developed and applicability of OFDM system was roughly estimated. 1. Carrier Propagation Program Carrier Propagation Program that calculates the carrier propagation characteristics of any line structure was developed. 2. Carrier propagation characteristics Carrier propagation characteristics on typical Japanese overhead low voltage distribution lines were calculated 3.Rough estimation of OFDM system Electric fields caused by carrier at near point were calculated on the basis on carrier propagation characteristics. Results of rough estimation are as follows: - Electric field caused by carrier of more than 2Mbps system exceeds the value of the regulation. (author)

  4. Teaching Japanese Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Shamoon


    Full Text Available Japanese popular culture has arrived on American college campuses as never before. Student interest in Japanese manga (comic books, anime (animated films and television shows, and video games drives much of the enrollment in Japanese courses and Japanese majors and minors. In response to student interest, as well as the establishment of popular culture as a topic of serious academic scholarship, the demand for courses on Japanese popular culture has never been higher. Yet the number of scholars specializing in the study of popular culture is still relatively small. This can potentially create problems, as faculty teach outside their expertise, and perhaps face an uncomfortable situation in which the students know more about the topic than the professor. In this article, I will offer some suggestions and advice for faculty creating a popular culture course for the first time, based on my experiences teaching undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame. The course I developed reflects my background in Japanese literature and film, and is but one example of many possible approaches to the topic. The sample syllabus and list of resources at the end of this article provide citations for all text and media sources mentioned.

  5. Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Japanese Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Krukowska


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that determine the Japanese approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR to facilitate future empirical research in the Polish conditions. Methodology: To conduct the research, the available literature concerning CSR, managerial behaviour and stakeholder relations in Japan was studied. The research was conducted onsite in Japan after consultation with local experts, both Japanese and foreigners, specialized in Japanese management and the economy. Findings: The Japanese approach to CSR is strongly determined by their religious, philosophical, cultural, historical, economic and legal factors. It is proof of the concept of CSR contextuality, which provokes questions about the nature of the business relations of Japanese companies with their foreign counterparts and their style of management while investing abroad. Research limitations: The methodology was only supposed to gain a general view of the factors infl uencing CSR in Japan. Studying more detailed issues with the use of empirical data was complicated because of the short time available for the research (6 weeks and the relatively low level of transparency of the Japanese companies. Value: The study helped in understanding managerial decisions and Japanese business behaviour in the context of corporate responsibility and the ethics of its everyday operations. It was the fi rst research thoroughly analyzing many of the determinants of CSR in Japan, which may be valuable for any counterparts cooperating with the Japanese companies and foreign researchers analyzing Japanese management systems.

  6. Schizophrenic neologism versus aphasic neologism: characteristics in writings of Japanese schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Moriyama, N; Nakao, H


    Three cases of schizophrenia with ideographic neologisms in Japanese are presented and compared with aphasic neologisms reported in Japanese literature. Schizophrenic neologisms are different from aphasic neologisms in nature. The contrast becomes obvious when both are compared in Japanese writing based on the dual writing system of kanji (Chinese characters, ideogram) and kana (phonetic characters, syllabogram).

  7. The Origin of the Japanese "Comfort Women"System and the Pros and Cons of "Kono Statement"%日军“慰安妇”制度的由来与“河野谈话”的得失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉见义明[日; 芦鹏(译)


    The Japanese "comfort women"first appeared in 1932 in Shanghai, in order to maintain a war of aggression, improve soldiers'combat effectiveness, the Japanese military develop ed and implemented a complete recruitment, transportation, and management system of"comfort women", forcing hundreds of thousands of women became sex slaves for the Japanese army.To this end, In the case of indefensible, the Japanese government pub-lished "Kono Statement"to bear a part of the responsibility for war crimes.However, the"Kono Statement"itself had ambiguous place, and the Japanese right-wing forces have continued to deny guilt"comfort women"system, which led this historical problem is still not completely resolved.%日军“慰安妇”最早出现在1932年的上海,为了维持侵略战争,提高士兵的战斗力,日本军方制订并实施了完整的“慰安妇”招募、运输、管理制度,逼迫数十万女性成为日军性奴隶。为此,日本政府在无可辩解的情况下发表了“河野谈话”,以此承担了一部分战争犯罪的责任。但是,由于“河野谈话”本身存在着暧昧之处,且日本右翼势力不断否认“慰安妇”制度的罪责,导致这一历史遗留问题至今依旧没有彻底解决。

  8. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  9. Japanese Outbound Market to Singapore


    Aw, Yeow Keng


    This research examines Japanese tourists' perceptions of Image of Singapore and attempts to apply motivational theories to attract Japanese tourists not only to come but stay longer in Singapore. For the analysis, data were collected via a questionnaires-based survey among the 650 Japanese tourists at Singapore Changi Airport, Departure Hall. The purpose of survey is to find out Japanese tourists' perceptions of Singapore as a travel destination, their satisfactions toward Singapore and like...

  10. Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    or "spiritual" aspects. This book investigates the contemporary living reality of the largest Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhist group, Myōshinji. Drawing on textual studies and ethnographic fieldwork, Jørn Borup analyses how its practitioners use and understand their religion, how they practice their religiosity...... and how different kinds of Zen Buddhists (monks, nuns, priest, lay people) interact and define themselves within the religious organization. Living Zen portrays a living Zen Buddhism being both uniquely interesting and interestingly typical for common Buddhist and Japanese religiosity...

  11. Japanese VLBI Network

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, A; Harada, K; Nagayama, T; Suematsu, K; Sugiyama, K; Habe, A; Honma, M; Kawaguchi, N; Kobayashi, H; Koyama, Y; Murata, Y; Omodaka, T; Sorai, K; Sudou, H; Takaba, H; Takashima, K; Wakamatsu, K; Doi, Akihiro; Fujisawa, Kenta; Harada, Keiichiro; Nagayama, Takumi; Suematsu, Kousuke; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Habe, Asao; Honma, Mareki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Murata, Yasuhiro; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Sudou, Hiroshi; Takaba, Hiroshi; Takashima, Kazuhiro; Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi


    We present the basic features and the activities of Japanese VLBI network (JVN), a newly-established VLBI network with baselines ranging from 50 to 2560 km spreading across the Japanese islands, and capable of observing at 6.7, 8.4, and 22 GHz. We show a number of results of JVN observations: 8.4-GHz continuum images of a Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) source and radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), the spatial and velocity structures of water masers in NML Cygni as well as methanol masers in Cep A, and demonstrative observations with the bigradient phase referencing.

  12. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Trials of Japanese Universities (United States)

    Shi, Lili; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi


    This article examines the Japanese response in terms of innovation capacity and entrepreneurship enhancement under the ever-changing economic environment. Particular focus would go to the interactions among government, industry and universities in the national innovation system at a macro level, and entrepreneurship education at the institutional…

  13. Japanese and American Education: Attitudes and Practices. (United States)

    Wray, Harry

    Continuing concern regarding the quality and future of education in both America and Japan prompts many comparisons of their nation's educational systems. Chapter 1, "Japanese Schools' Higher Achievement, Literacy, Efficiency, Discipline, Classroom Management, and Strengths of Civilization," attempts to explain the superior performance…

  14. Japanese Visit CERN's Jardin d'Enfants

    CERN Document Server


    On 1 November twenty four Japanese teachers from the Association of Private Kindergartens in Osaka visited CERN’s Jardin d’Enfants to exchange experience and learn more about the Swiss educational system. The delegation was lead by Mrs. Nobuko Shirae, President of the Association, and Mr. Takeshi Kakimoto from the Japan Travel Bureau.

  15. On Japanese Children's Books. (United States)

    Watanare, Shigeo

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…

  16. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives (United States)

    Kama, Amit


    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  17. 日本社会保障制度中残疾人概念简析%Analysis on the Concept of Disabled Person in Japanese Social Security System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      日本对“残疾人”内涵的理解既借鉴和遵从了国际社会通行的理念,例如联合国通过的《残疾人权利宣言》等国际规则,同时也有其独特的理解,并通过制定《残疾人基本法》和其他配套法律,将一般意义上的残疾人范围进行了扩展。这一立法上的变化是日本受到了“回归常态化”理念的影响,日本政府改变了以往由行政机关提供社会福祉服务的方式,引进了由援助对象自行选择服务,并与提供服务的机构直接订立契约的新型制度。本文主要对日本有关残疾人概念的界定及其演变进行概括性介绍,包括以下内容,日本对社会保障、残疾人等概念的界定;现行制度下的残疾人基本类型与残疾人基本状况;有关残疾人制度理念的变化。%  In Japanese sociological study and social security system, the general understanding about the connotation of “disabled person” is used as a reference from the common idea of international society, such as international rules of "Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" and "International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" which were adopted by the United Nations. Meanwhile, some unique understandings are added in Japan. The range of a disabled person in a general meaning was expanded through the establishment of "The basic Act for people with disabilities" and other corresponding laws. Such legislative changes are considered to have been affected by the idea of “normalization”. The Japanese government has changed the social welfare services provided by the executive authorities in the past, and has begun to introduce a new type system which supports the candidates to choose services by themselves and signs contracts with service providing organizations directly. This paper mainly introduced the definition of “disabled person” and its changing in Japan; the content mainly the

  18. An Empirical Examination of the Mechanisms Mediating between High-Performance Work Systems and the Performance of Japanese Organizations (United States)

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P.; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo


    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human…

  19. Detraditionalisation: Japanese Students in the USA. (United States)

    Ueno, Junko


    Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…

  20. Validating the Japanese translation of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation and comparing performance levels of American and Japanese students (United States)

    Ishimoto, Michi; Thornton, Ronald K.; Sokoloff, David R.


    This study assesses the Japanese translation of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE). Researchers are often interested in comparing the conceptual ideas of students with different cultural backgrounds. The FMCE has been useful in identifying the concepts of English-speaking students from different backgrounds. To identify effectively the conceptual ideas of Japanese students and to compare them to those of their English-speaking counterparts, more work is required. Because of differences between the Japanese and English languages, and between the Japanese and American educational systems, it is important to assess the Japanese translation of the FMCE, a conceptual evaluation originally developed in English for American students. To assess its appropriateness, we examined the performance of a large sample of students on the translated version of the FMCE and then compared the results to those of English-speaking students. The data comprise the pretest results of 1095 students, most of whom were first-year students at a midlevel engineering school between 2003 and 2012. Basic statistics and the classical test theory indices of the translated FMCE indicate that its reliability and discrimination are appropriate to assess Japanese students' concepts about force and motion. In general, the preconcepts of Japanese students assessed with the Japanese translation of the FMCE are quite similar to those of American students assessed with the FMCE, thereby supporting the validity of the translated version. However, our findings do show (1) that only a small percentage of Japanese students grasped Newtonian concepts and (2) that the percentage of Japanese students who used two different concept models together to answer some questions seems to be higher than that of American students.

  1. Classifiers in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru


    This paper proposes an analysis of classifiers into four major types: UNIT, METRIC, GROUP and SPECIES, based on properties of both Japanese and English. The analysis makes possible a uniform and straightforward treatment of noun phrases headed by classifiers in Japanese-to-English machine translation, and has been implemented in the MT system ALT-J/E. Although the analysis is based on the characteristics of, and differences between, Japanese and English, it is shown to be also applicable to the unrelated language Thai.

  2. Japanese Woman Chooses China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IN Qianyang Village, Gucheng Township, Bozhou city in Anhui Province, lives Mitsui Yoshie, a 72-year-old Japanese woman. Her Chinese name is Wang Fengying. This is the story of how she decided to spend the rest of her life in China. Mitsui Yoshie was born into a well-to-do family in Kumamoto, Japan. Her father, Mitsui Kichizo, followed her grandfather into the timber business. She and her older brother, Mitsui Seiki, and

  3. Japanese encephalitis virus-based replicon RNAs/particles as an expression system for HIV-1 Pr55 Gag that is capable of producing virus-like particles. (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Im; Song, Byung-Hak; Koo, Yongbum; Jeon, Iksoo; Byun, Sung June; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Joo, Yi-Seok; Kim, Seok-Yong; Lee, Young-Min


    Ectopic expression of the structural protein Pr55(Gag) of HIV-1 has been limited by the presence of inhibitory sequences in the gag coding region that must normally be counteracted by HIV-1 Rev and RRE. Here, we describe a cytoplasmic RNA replicon based on the RNA genome of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) that is capable of expressing HIV-1 gag without requiring Rev/RRE. This replicon system was constructed by deleting all three JEV structural protein-coding regions (C, prM, and E) from the 5'-proximal region of the genome and simultaneously inserting an HIV-1 gag expression cassette driven by the internal ribosome entry site of encephalomyocarditis virus into the 3'-proximal noncoding region of the genome. Transfection of this JEV replicon RNA led to expression of Pr55(Gag) in the absence of Rev/RRE in the cytoplasm of hamster BHK-21, human HeLa, and mouse NIH/3T3 cells. Production of the Pr55(Gag) derived from this JEV replicon RNA appeared to be increased by approximately 3-fold when compared to that based on an alphavirus replicon RNA. Biochemical and morphological analyses demonstrated that the Pr55(Gag) proteins were released into the culture medium in the form of virus-like particles. We also observed that the JEV replicon RNAs expressing the Pr55(Gag) could be encapsidated into single-round infectious JEV replicon particles when transfected into a stable packaging cell line that provided the three JEV structural proteins in trans. This ectopic expression of the HIV-1 Pr55(Gag) by JEV-based replicon RNAs/particles in diverse cell types may represent a useful molecular platform for various biological applications in medicine and industry.

  4. Current Status of Japanese Research and Development Activity and Program Plan on Failed Fuel Detection and Location Systems for LMFBR



    Progress of research and development on failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) implemented since 1968 in Japan is summarized and reviewed from the viewpoint of availability to reflect to the design and operation of JOYO and MONJU. These include basic experiments of fission product behavior, component development and testing, feasibility study of detection system response, and comparison of several kinds of location methods. The discussion will extend to the role of FFDL in the other survei...

  5. International Space Station Japanese Module Information System Preliminary Design Analysis%国际空间站日本舱信息系统早期设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志国; 钟红恩


    文章基于国际空间站日本实验舱早期总体定义阶段的活动研究成果,概述了日本实验舱信息系统的结构、通信链路环境、系统基本组成要素,并详细介绍了信息系统的需求、功能、子系统、硬件架构、软件结构以及与美国舱信息接口等关键点。最后总结分析了日本实验舱信息系统的典型特点,包括通信链路备份、核心网络与有效栽荷网络相互独立、数据传输线路优化、分层控制体系、光技术应用、CCSDS标准应用、软件分层模块化设计等。%Based on the early definition stage research activities of Japanese Experiment Module on International Space Station, an overview of the Japanese Experiment Module information system structure, communication link environment, the basic elements of the system, and a detailed analysis of the information system requirements, features, subsystems, hard- ware architecture, software structure and the information interface with the NASA core Module are provided. Ultimately, the typical characteristics of information systems on the Japanese Experiment Module is summarized, including a backup communications link, the core network separated from the payload networks, the data transmission line optimization, hierarchical control systems, optical technology, CCSDS standard applications, and software modular hierarchical design.

  6. Air Writing as a Technique for the Acquisition of Sino-japanese Characters by Second Language Learners (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret


    This article calls attention to a facet of the expertise of second language (L2) learners of Japanese at the intersection of language, memory, gesture, and the psycholinguistics of a logographic writing system. Previous research has shown that adult L2 learners of Japanese living in Japan (similarly to native speakers of Japanese) often…

  7. The Deconstruction of Japanese Two-dimensional Animation Industry System Based on the Theory of Dissipative Structure%基于耗散结构理论的日本“二次元”动漫产业系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 熊文靓


    近年来,日本“二次元”动漫产业已成为动漫界热议的焦点。基于耗散结构理论解析日本“二次元”动漫产业系统发现其具有远离平衡态、非线性、突变性和涨落等耗散结构特点。支撑日本“二次元”动漫产业系统的体系包括政府支持、人才输送、知识产权法律、投融资渠道等。日本经验启示中国发展动漫产业应采取建立激励保健机制、创建学科交叉平台、增加信息技术投入和变“走出去”为“融进去”等措施。%In recent years, Japanese two-dimensional animation industry has become the focus of the debate in animation industry. Based on the theory of dissipative structure, the deconstruction of Japanese two-dimensional animation industry system is found to be far from equilibrium, nonlinear, mutability and lfuctuation etc. The support system of Japanese two-dimensional animation industry system mainly includes the support from the government, intellectual property act, investment and ifnancing. system. Taking examples from Japan's experience, countermeasures are ought to be taken, that establishing incentive care mechanism, creating a platform of cross-disciplines, increasing information technology investment, and "going out" to "blend in", on the current situation of the development of animation industry in China.

  8. A Consideration on the Future Direction of Japanese Educational System About Fostering Human Resources for the Global Society (United States)

    Kubota, Shusuke; Shimura, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji

    The lectures are taken, making use of the textbook of the same contents, for high school students in Japan, students at Yamagata University and at Korea Maritime University in Korea. I’ ll find the similarity and difference, by comparing vertical and horizontal relations among three groups. As a result, I can find the directionality of cultivating human resources of doing well in the global society. I think there is “Matrix Thinking Frame” as one of the effective countermeasures for fostering men of ability. It is possible to part from conventional passiveness type education, according to planning and practicing one’ s “Life Management Plan” by using this system. The case where one’ s capability has been extended appears in students, as above mentioned.

  9. A Comparison of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean shipyard production technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xue-ping; NIE Wu; LIU Cheng-ming


    This paper compares Chinese, Korean, and Japanese shipyard production technology. Development in the world shipbuilding over recent years has influenced focus areas related to shipyard manufacturing technologies and product performance. Software systems, information technology,production technology, and local challenges of shipyards are compared with shipbuilding outputs among these three countries. Various technologies developments, shipyard production and the problems in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean shipyards are discussed respectively. Finally, future areas of research are pointed out.

  10. Innovating Uses of Japanese Honorifics and Polite Forms. Papers in Japanese Linguistics, Vol. 3. (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuko

    The Japanese system of honorification shows respect either to the subject or to the direct or indirect object of the sentence. The selection of the polite or plain styles of speech determines the level of honorifics. The increase in mass communication and public speaking has led to a search for a reasonably polite but not old-fashioned or pompous…

  11. Simulation of Radioactive Corrosion Product in Primary Cooling System of Japanese Sodium-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (United States)

    Matuo, Youichirou; Miyahara, Shinya; Izumi, Yoshinobu

    Radioactive Corrosion Product (CP) is a main cause of personal radiation exposure during maintenance with no breached fuel in fast breeder reactor (FBR) plants. The most important CP is 54Mn and 60Co. In order to establish techniques of radiation dose estimation for radiation workers in radiation-controlled areas of the FBR, the PSYCHE (Program SYstem for Corrosion Hazard Evaluation) code was developed. We add the Particle Model to the conventional PSYCHE analytical model. In this paper, we performed calculation of CP transfer in JOYO using an improved calculation code in which the Particle Model was added to the PSYCHE. The C/E (calculated / experimentally observed) value for CP deposition was improved through use of this improved PSYCHE incorporating the Particle Model. Moreover, among the percentage of total radioactive deposition accounted for by CP in particle form, 54Mn was estimated to constitute approximately 20 % and 60Co approximately 40 % in the cold-leg region. These calculation results are consistent with the measured results for the actual cold-leg piping in the JOYO.

  12. An Analysis of the Japanese Tourism Destination Management Organization System%日本旅游目的地管理组织体系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    前川友希; 郑耀星


    围绕旅游目的地的研究是近些年旅游研究的热点。“旅游目的地”的概念一直在变化发展中,不同国家在其界定上也存在着差异,相应的在开发与管理上也有所不同。日本将“观光立国”作为基本国策,举全国之力推动旅游产业的发展,取得了明显的成效,但同时也存在着诸多问题。本文结合日本旅游目的地管理研究的历史与现状,对包括政府、民间旅游管理组织的框架体系及相应的工作和职能,进行梳理和比较,对现有管理组织存在的问题进行了分析,并提出相应的建议。并为中国旅游管理组织构架的完善和发展提供一些参考和借鉴。%Tourism destination management has become a worldwide research focus in recent years. The definition of“Tourism Destination Management”is given as a dynamic terminology rather than a fixed one. It is understood diversely and developed all along. Therefore the management concept and the relevant procedures are diverse accordingly in different countries. Since 2003the Tourism-based Country Strategy has been established and implemented in Japan, which has made remarkable achievements. Meanwhile there are also problems. This essay is aiming to work out the framework of Japanese tourism destination management organization system includinggovernment and other societal sectors on the basis of the history of the tourism destination management in Japan. The exiting problems within the current organization framework system are proposed and analyzed, and the suggestions are also made for the further improvements. Moreover it is hoped that this study could fill in the correlativetheoretical gaps in Japan and provide some references for the improvements of tourism destination management organization framework in China.

  13. [First 24 Japanese cases of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy using the daVinci Surgical System]. (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kunihiko; Hatano, Tadashi; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ozu, Choichiro; Horiguchi, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Noboru; Yonov, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yoshio; Ohori, Makoto; Tachibana, Masaaki; Patel, Vipul R


    In Japan, as of September 2007, prostatectomy is conducted with open surgical procedures in more than 90% of the cases. Following the first reported robotic prostatectomy by Binder, et al. in 2000, a robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) using the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA) has been extensively used as a standard procedure with gratifying results in the United States. In the Asian region, in contrast, RALP is still in an introductory phase. Recently, we introduced RALP in Japan. A total of 24 patients received robotic surgery within a year since August 2006. RALP was completed in all patients without conversion to open surgery, except for the first patient in whom a restriction to a 2-hour operation had been imposed by the Ethical Committee. The mean operative time using the daVinci device and the mean estimated blood loss were 232.0 (range; 136-405) minutes and 313.0 (range; 10-1,000) ml, respectively. The training program we recently developed proved remarkably effective in reducing the learning curve of robotic surgery in Japan, where there is no person with expertise in this operating procedure. In particular, the intraoperative guidance given by the expert was useful after relevant problematic points were delineated by operators who received comprehensive video-based image training and actually performed robot surgery in several cases. With direct intraoperative guidance by the mentor during cases 13 and 14, both the operation time and estimated blood loss was markedly reduced.

  14. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering (United States)

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko


    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with…

  15. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (United States)

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko


    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  16. The Japanese Language: An Introduction. (United States)

    Backhouse, A. E.

    This guide provides an overview of the salient features of the Japanese language from the perspective of the beginning-level English-speaking learner. Chapters address these topics: the Japanese language and its historic and cultural setting; phonology (sounds and syllables, word accentuation; loanwords; connected speech); writing (scripts,…

  17. The Japanese feudalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Loaiza Becerra


    Full Text Available This paper explores some peculiarities of Japanese feudalism following postwar theoretical debate that came out of academic circles in Japan as well in Europe and the United States. Contemporary thought schools influenced by historical materialism from Marxism have pointed out that feudalism effectively happened in Japan since 12th Century until 16th Century. Gradual changes and transitions, in the same way as the European case, are the key to explain main economic changes that caused the emergence of capitalism in Japan.

  18. Some Manifestations of Japanese Exclusionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Morita


    Full Text Available The Japanese subscribe to ethnic nationalism, which is an ideology with the aim to develop an ethnically exclusive and homogeneous nationhood. One manifestation of ethnic nationalism is the belief that Japan is, or should be, a mono-ethnic society. Ethnic nationalism is manifested in the exclusionary attitude or opinion of the Japanese. In the context of foreigners living in Japan, the exclusionary attitude or opinion of the Japanese often translates into the insistence that foreigners should do things the Japanese way. This is unfriendly to foreigners living in Japan, to say the least. This article illustrates how unwelcoming and inconvenient Japanese exclusionism can be by using two examples that directly affect foreigners: housing and discrimination against foreigners.

  19. Post-deposition early-phase migration and retention behavior of radiocesium in a litter-mineral soil system in a Japanese deciduous forest affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident. (United States)

    Koarashi, Jun; Nishimura, Syusaku; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Takeuchi, Erina; Muto, Kotomi


    The fate of radiocesium ((137)Cs) derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident and associated radiation risks are largely dependent on its migration and retention behavior in the litter-soil system of Japanese forest ecosystems. However, this behavior has not been well quantified. We established field lysimeters in a Japanese deciduous broad-leaved forest soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident to continuously monitor the downward transfer of (137)Cs at three depths: the litter-mineral soil boundary and depths of 5 cm and 10 cm in the mineral soil. Observations were conducted at two sites within the forest from May 2011 to May 2015. Results revealed similar temporal and depth-wise variations in (137)Cs downward fluxes for both sites. The (137)Cs downward fluxes generally decreased year by year at all depths, indicating that (137)Cs was rapidly leached from the forest-floor litter layer and was then immobilized in the upper (0-5 cm) mineral soil layer through its interaction with clay minerals. The (137)Cs fluxes also showed seasonal variation, which was in accordance with variations in the throughfall and soil temperature at the sites. There was no detectable (137)Cs flux at a depth of 10 cm in the mineral soil in the third and fourth years after the accident. The decreased inventory of mobile (or bioavailable) (137)Cs observed during early stages after deposition indicates that the litter-soil system in the Japanese deciduous forest provides only a temporary source for (137)Cs recycling in plants.

  20. Resultative Predicates in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Takamine


    Full Text Available Washio (1997; 1999 observes that resultative predicates are divided into two different groups, strong and weak resultatives, depending on ‘patienthood’ of the object. This typology of resultatives seems to capture a point of crosslinguistic variation in resultatives; Japanese has weak but not strong resultatives, while English has both. Washio also observes that there is another group of examples that bears a superficial resemblance to resultatives but constitutes a different phenomenon, hence spurious resultatives. The difference between weak and strong resultatives is made in terms of the ‘affectedness’ of the verb. Thus the typology of resultatives proposed by Washio is semantically grounded. In this paper, I propose: (i a fine-grained distinction for Washio’s weak resultatives: (ii a syntactic analysis of the different resultative types. On the basis of syntactic evidence, I argue that there are two types of weak resultatives, an adjunct of VP and a complement of VP within the vP projection. I also argue that spurious resultatives are structurally higher than weak resultatives in Japanese.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从开端、发展、完善、终结四个阶段来全程展现抗日战争时期国共两党的军人抚恤制度,并对国共两党有关抗日军队的抚恤制度进行对比研究,分析各自制度的优缺点,认为国共两党的抚恤政策均有利于促进实现抗战的胜利。%The article analyzes the military pension system of the Kuomintang and Communist Party throughout the 4 stages of Anti-Japanese War from the beginning,developing,progressing and ending of the war and then it conducts a comparative study of the military pension systems of the two parties.The paper analyzes the pros and cons of the related systems and reaches a conclusion that their pension policies are conducive to promoting the victory of Anti-Japanese War.

  2. Basic English Writers' Japanese-English Wordbook. (United States)

    Daniels, F. J.

    The author of this Japanese-English wordbook suggests that it may be used by Japanese writers of English, by those translating from Japanese into English, and by learners of Japanese, in addition to its main intended uses as an aid to the preparation of teaching material and as a work of reference for teachers. A translator will need to supplement…

  3. "Honeymoon psychosis" in Japanese tourists to Hawaii. (United States)

    Langen, D; Streltzer, J; Kai, M


    Although Japanese tourists in Hawaii are infrequently treated for acute psychiatric emergencies, we observed several cases among Japanese honeymooners. To investigate this phenomenon, we retrospectively and prospectively collected such cases of honeymooners. Sixteen cases of acute psychiatric disturbance in Japanese honeymooners in Hawaii are described. This phenomenon occurs more frequently than in other Japanese tourists or non-Japanese honeymooners. The tradition of arranged marriage and other cultural factors may be associated with the potential for "honeymoon psychosis."

  4. Anthropophobia and Japanese performance. (United States)

    Takano, R


    Actors are not the only people who act on a regular basis--everyone does some "acting" in his everyday life. The merchant is acting when he pays compliments to his annoying customers. Neurotics often exaggerate their sufferings and assume poses in order to impress their therapists with the seriousness of their illness. When this acting is done so poorly that everyone but the person himself perceives its penny-dreadful nature, the neurosis might be designated a hysteria. Such dramatics can be observed not only in the demeanor of neurotics, but also in their symptoms. The unconscious and concealed acting revealed in the symptoms of neurotics, especially in those of anthropophobiacs, whose main concern is with their appearance in the eyes of others, is what I would like to examine in this paper. I will attempt to eludicate the psychopathology of a large element in Japanese neurosis--that is, of anthropophobia--in relation to unconscious acting.

  5. An SIRS epidemic model of Japanese Encephalitis


    Mukhopadhyay, B. B.; Tapaswi, P. K.


    An epidemiological model of the dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis (J.E.) spread coupling the SIRS (Susceptible/Infected/Removal/Susceptible) models of J.E. spread in the reservoir population and in the human population has been proposed. The basic reproductive rate R(0) in the coupled system has been worked out. Using Aron's results (cf. [1] and [2]), it has been observed that the disease-free system is stable in this coupled system also, if R(0) is less than unity, and if R(0) is greater tha...

  6. Histological Observation of Digestive System of Japanese Crab Charybdis j aponica%日本蟳消化系统组织结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苓; 耿继梅; 刘艳华; 郭恩棉


    To establish artificial breeding mode and exploit palatable feeds in production of Japanese crab Charybdis j aponica ,histostructure of its digestive system was studied by paraffin method and H · E dye technology .The digestive system of C .j aponica was composed of digestive tract and digestive gland .The digestive tract was consisted of mouth ,esophagus ,stomach ,midgut ,hindgut and anus ,and histostruc‐ture of digestive tract wall was divided into four layers from inside to outside ,namely the mucosa ,submu‐cosa ,muscular layer and adventitia .Abundant esophageal glands secreting mucus to help animals swallow food were found in esophageal submucosa .The setae or bone plates in chitin covered over epithelial layer of cardiac stomach played a role in grinding food .T he chitin layer in pyloric stomach converted into dense‐ly packed setae by which large food particles were blocked into the midgut .There was no chitin layer cov‐ering over the intestinal epithelium .Striated border of the epithelial cells took participate in the absorption of food .Digestive glands also named as hepatopancreas were complex tubular glands and made up of many small liver tubes .The mucosa epithelium of liver tube was composed of a single layer of columnar cells which were divided into four types :absorptive cell ,secretary cell ,fiber cell and embryonic cell .%应用石蜡切片和苏木精—伊红染色技术对日本蟳消化系统组织结构进行研究,以期为日本蟳的人工养殖模式建立和饲料开发提供基础资料。研究结果表明,日本蟳消化系统包括消化道和消化腺两部分。消化道由口、食道、胃、中肠、后肠及肛门组成,消化道管壁由内向外为黏膜层、黏膜下层、肌层和外膜。食道黏膜下层中含有丰富的食道腺,可分泌黏液帮助食物的吞咽;贲门胃黏膜上皮覆盖的几丁质层有刚毛或骨板等构成的胃磨可磨碎食物;幽门胃中几丁质层特化形成密

  7. Identification of G protein α subunits in the main olfactory system and vomeronasal system of the Japanese Striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata. (United States)

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Koshi, Katsuo; Ono, Hisaya K; Sasaki, Kuniaki; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki


    In the olfactory system, G proteins couple to the olfactory receptors, and G proteins expressed in the main olfactory system and vomeronasal system vary according to animal species. In this study, G protein α subunits expressed in the main olfactory system and vomeronasal system of the snake were identified by immunohistochemistry. In the olfactory epithelium, only anti-Gαolf/s antibody labeled the cilia of the receptor cells. In the vomeronasal epithelium, only anti-Gαo antibody labeled the microvilli of the receptor cells. In the accessory olfactory bulb, anti-Gαo antibody stained the whole glomerular layer. These results suggest that the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system of the snake express Gαolf and Gαo as G proteins coupling to the olfactory receptors, respectively.

  8. The Curriculum Design and System of Evaluation about Japanese Interpretation Teaching%论商贸日语口译教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper explores Japanese interpretation teaching from the perspectives of teaching orientation, curriculum setting and assessment. In terms of orientation, Japanese interpretation teaching involves language ability improvement and basic interpreta⁃tion training. In curriculum setting, Japanese interpretation teaching should integrate interpreting skills training with theme training under the guidance of interpreting theories to gradually improve students’ language ability. From the perspective of assessment, formative assessment and summative assessment are combined to encourage students to participate in qualifications and interpreting contests. In the teaching process, formative assessment is adopted and students’ portfolio is established.%本科日语专业口译教学从定位来说,其担负着提高语言能力和进行初步口译技能培训的双重任务。在课程设置中,日语口译教学应将口译技能训练和主题训练相结合,口译理论贯穿始终,在训练过程中逐步提高日语语言能力。在评估方面,采用终结性评价和形成性评价相结合的方式,鼓励学生参加各种资格考试、口译大赛,教学过程中导入形成性评价,建立学习档案。

  9. Report on Two Cases of Adequate Medical Support System Using the Japanese Version of Kid-KINDL Questionnaire for Children with ADHD



    We are investigating whether medical support improves not only the core symptoms of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but also their quality of life (QOL) using the Japanese version of the Kid-KINDLR (for ages 7-13 years) questionnaire (Kid-KINDLR). Herein, we report two cases of adequate medical support using Kid-KINDLR for children with ADHD. Case 1 is a 9-year-old boy. The Kid-KINDLR questionnaire revealed that this patient had conflict with his father; however...

  10. Analysis about Criminal Investigation and Crime Control System in Taiwan during the Japanese Occupation%台湾日治时期刑事侦查与犯罪控制体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In 1895 to 1945,Taiwan was under Japanese rule,it diverted from the traditional Chinese legal systems to the Western judicial system during this period. In addition to transplantation of Japanese law,the traditional Chinese criminal countermeasures was retained, such as Bao Jia system, whipping pun- ishment. Aboriginal areas adopted some convenient program policy,and formed"the characteristics of Tai- wan'in the investigation and crime control system which consists of four parts,namely the general mode of judicial,military reconnaissance system, the old criminal control system and the criminal measures under the adjustment of special law.%1895年到1945年的台湾处于日本统治之下,在此期间,改行与传统中华法系不同的西方司法制度。除了日本法的移植以外,还保留了传统中国的刑事对策,如保甲连坐制度、鞭笞刑等,对于原住民族地区采取某些程序便宜政策,形成了"台湾特色"的侦查与犯罪控制体系。该体系由四个部分组成,即一般司法模式、军事侦查体制、旧有犯罪控制体制、特别法调整下的刑事对策。

  11. The Japanese "Internment" Cases Revisited. (United States)

    Robinson, Edward T.


    Reviews topics discussed in the OAH article, "Incarcerating Japanese Americans" (Roger Daniels). States that the three internment cases were correct. Asks whether internment could re-occur given the climate in U.S. society since September 11, 2001. (CMK)

  12. Differential Reading, Naming, and Transcribing Speeds of Japanese Romaji and Hiragana (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Leong, Che Kan


    The morpho-syllabic Japanese writing system consists of the phonetic scripts of hiragana and katakana, the logographic kanji derived from Chinese characters and the less well researched romaji based on the Roman alphabet. In four experiments we investigated the speed with which Japanese college students read, named, and transcribed romaji as…

  13. Applying the Self-Determination Theory to Japanese Special Education Contexts: A Four-Step Model (United States)

    Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Wehmeyer, Michael L.


    The authors describe what preparations they undertook before introducing self-determination theory and its corresponding teaching model to the Japanese special education system for students with intellectual disabilities. The Japanese special education services are designed to nurture students to be individuals who are independent, know and…

  14. A Lesson for American Managers: Learning from Japanese Experiences in the U.S. (United States)

    Nosow, Sigmund


    Research finds that, in Japanese-owned plants in America, efforts are made to bring the system around slowly to a Japanese management style through acculturation, communication, and training. Problems engendered by these efforts emerge particularly at the middle management levels. Barriers to corporate unity are far fewer at the plant level. (CT)

  15. Law System in Japan


    Andreea Lorena Ponaru


    This article attempts to present and explain the main features of the japanese law system. Japanese Law system was reformed during the domination of Tokugawa shogun family. In 1870, Foreign Governmental Systems Study Office was founded. By judicial sentences many french laws were introduced in Japanese law system. Roma-Tokyo-Berlin Alliance (1936) introduced a strong German influence in the law system. The Japanese judicial system has known five periods. In the first (1869-1888) were introduc...

  16. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto


    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  17. Language Attitudes in the Second Generation Japanese Group in Melbourne. (United States)

    Nasu, Tsuneo

    This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…

  18. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin


    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  19. 日本兽用抗菌药耐药性监控系统及风险管理%The Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Montitoring System and Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马苏; 张晶; 杜昕波


    介绍日本兽用抗菌药耐药性监控系统并分析日本食品动物源细菌耐药现状和抗菌药使用情况,以期为我国动物源细菌耐药性监控管理提供参考和借鉴。%This paper introduced the Japanese veterinary antimicrobial resistance monitoring systems ( JVARM ) . The purpose of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in food-producing animals and the consumption of antimicrobial drugs used in animals in Japan, which should be used for reference during the surveillance and management of antimicrobial resistance from animal source in China.

  20. Delegation of the Japanese Kokuminrengo Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    正At the invitation of the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU), an 11-member delegation of Japanese Kokuminrengo (Japanese National Federation for Autonomy, Peace and Democracy) headed by Secretary-General Nishizawa Kiyoshi visited Beijing from

  1. A Japanese Agenda for Management Development. (United States)

    Lim, Howard


    Discusses myths about the Japanese management styles; what the West can learn from the Japanese; the concept of nonlinear management; and training modules which teach self-discipline, tolerance, and nonlinear management. (CT)

  2. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.


    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  3. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children. (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi


    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  4. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay


    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  5. Japanese management. Implications for nursing administration. (United States)

    Smith, H L; Reinow, F D; Reid, R A


    Does Japanese management possess sufficient practical validity to warrant retraining of nursing administrators and their staffs? Can Japanese management really address the complexities of contemporary nursing administration? Before espousing the benefits of Theory Z and implementing quality circles in your hospital, read this analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of Japanese management--the benefits can be substantial but so can the costs!

  6. Asian Languages Library Materials: Japanese, Korean Bibliographies. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vivian; Yeh, Irene

    These annotated bibliographies of Japanese and Korean core collections are designed for use by medium-sized public libraries in either creating or expanding Japanese and/or Korean language collections. Author and title are given in the Japanese and Korean character script as well as in the English transliteration. The character script for…

  7. Developing Instructional Materials for Business Japanese. (United States)

    Koike, Shohei

    Business Japanese should be the study of Japanese language and culture for business communication and should include values and beliefs and institutional constraints on which the Japanese act as well as business etiquette and terminology. Topics to be covered in instruction will vary depending on the role (seller, buyer, or colleague) played by…

  8. Effect of Led Lighting Colors for Laying Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p0.05. The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05 than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.

  9. Molecular and cellular markers of toxicity in the Japanese Medaka @

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; D' Surney, S.J.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hull, C.G.


    The Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been recommended for use as a model organism to detect carcinogenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic compounds in aquatic systems. Because a long latent period often occurs between initial contact with deleterious chemicals and subsequent expression of the pathology, we are investigating early biologically-relevant responses that can be used as genotoxicity markers of exposure and effect. This project focuses on the development of genotoxic bioassays and experimental protocols for exposing Japanese Medaka to genotoxic compounds. 21 refs., 8 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Model and Level of Chinese and Japanese Pension System%中日养老保险制度的模式及水平比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳如眉; 王玥


    China and Japan is neighboring country of Asia,but there is a great difference between the model and level of pen-sion system of two countries. The Japanese pension system with the policy ideas "universal coverage in public pension" has been established, and the level of replacement rate and pension expenditure are higher. Compared with Japan, Chinese urban and rural pension insurance system has also been established, the pension expenditure is relatively lower, the coverage and payment level of the new rural pension system and the pension system of urban residents needs to be improved. Therefore , referencing the Japanese experience,we should promote the construction and development of urban and rural pension system through speeding up the national pooling and the unification of basic pension , expanding the coverage of pension system and enhancing the coverage quality etc.%中国和日本是亚洲两个邻邦国家,但两国养老保险制度的模式及水平存在较大差别。日本建立了“全民皆年金”的养老保险制度,替代率与养老保险支出水平都比较高。与日本相比,中国城乡养老保险体系初步建立,养老保险支出水平较低,新农保和城居保等制度的覆盖面和给付水平亟待提高。因此,借鉴日本经验,中国应通过加快全国统筹并实现基础养老保险一元化、扩大覆盖面并提高扩面质量等措施,推进城乡养老保险体系的建设与发展。

  11. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay (United States)

    Takayama, Keita


    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular…

  12. Addition of Japanese terms to MEDLINE File-Service through JOIS-III (United States)

    Hosoe, Takao; Sakagami, Yasuhiko; Kawano, Koreni

    This paper describes new service through JOIS-III(JICST Online Information System-III) which enabled English databases, MEDLINE, TOXLINE, and CANCERLIT, to search and output both with Japanese MeSH terms and with English MeSH terms by adding terms of MeSH translated into Japanese to these three files. In this paper, circumstances and background of this plan, cooperation of the work between JICST and The Japan Medical Library Association(JMLA) , fundamental conception and rules for translation of MeSH thesaurus terms into Japanese, practical translation work, search and output by JOIS-III using Japanese MeSH terms translated, relation between JOIS-III and Japanese version of MeSH in book style published by JMLA, and future issues are also described.

  13. [Dissemination of the Japanese version of the International Chemical Safety Card (ICSC) on the World Wide Web (WWW)]. (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Yokote, N; Morita, M; Nakano, T; Ishikawa, K; Kaminuma, T


    ge of the Japanese version of the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). We prepared the Japanese text files of ICSC, converted them into HTML files and also prepared the dictionary database for the retrieval system, using programs which we developed. These programs shortened the time of work remarkably. 2D- and 3D-structures of chemicals were also incorporated in each ICSC page. Approximately 900 ICSCs in Japanese are provided at the moment on the homepage.

  14. Activities on covariance estimation in Japanese Nuclear Data Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Described are activities on covariance estimation in the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Covariances are obtained from measurements by using the least-squares methods. A simultaneous evaluation was performed to deduce covariances of fission cross sections of U and Pu isotopes. A code system, KALMAN, is used to estimate covariances of nuclear model calculations from uncertainties in model parameters. (author)

  15. Improving Intra-Organizational Communication: A Lesson from Japanese Management. (United States)

    Hirokawa, Randy Y.


    Organizational scholars have consistently noted that organizations in Japan generally possess more effective systems of communication than U.S. firms. This article explains how the Japanese approach to management encourages and facilitates the exchange of information between organizational members. (PD)

  16. Taiwan: From China province to Japanese Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Conelly Ortiz


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Japanese occupation of Taiwan from 1895 to 1945. It also explores the development of the Sino- Japanese War of 1894-1895 and the process of colonization. It explains the strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese military and civilian governments. It demonstrates that although the Japanese occupation brought economic welfare, it also brought discrimination towards Taiwanese people. The paper looks at the movement organized by Taiwanese intellectuals and students who wanted to gain political participation. Final remarks are given about the fifty years that Taiwan was occupied by the Japanese.

  17. Japanese Enterprises' Investment in China's Software Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhong Pei; Linbo Jing


    The present paper introduces the overall situation of investment in China by Japanese enterprises. It focuses on the cooperation between Chinese and Japanese enterprises in the software industry. It gives a detailed account of strategic investment by Japanese enterprises,their joint-venture projects with Chinese investors and establishment of R&D centers and laboratories in China's software industry, and it analyzes the problems and prospects of Japanese investment in China's software industry. The paper suggests that it is of vital to maintain friendly Sino-Japanese relations, to strengthen bilateral economic cooperation and to enhance mutual political confidence.

  18. On Curriculum System Construction of Applied Japanese in Higher Vocational Education%高职应用日语专业课程体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    我国经济的不断发展以及国际化步伐的加快,对高职应用日语专业人才的培养提出了更高的要求。为此,我们要及时调整不适应市场需求的课程体系,深化教学改革,以“平台+岗位”人才培养模式,培养适应行业一线需要的高素质技能性专门人才。%With the development of our economy and globalization, there is a higher demand for talents who major in applied Japanese. We should deepen teaching reform and adjust the curriculum courses which cannot meet the market demand. With the "platform plus post" training mode, we should cultivate students in areas such as morals, intelligence, physical fitness and aesthetics so that they would be able to adapt to the need of front line job requirements.

  19. Citation Indicators of Japanese Journals. (United States)

    Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki


    Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact…

  20. Larval development of japanese "conchostracans"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jorgen; Fritsch, Martin; Grygier, Mark J.


    For comparison with the remarkable larvae of the laevicaudatan (clam shrimp) Lynceus brachyurus, a basic description of the larval sequence of another laevicaudatan branchiopod, the Japanese Lynceus biformis, is provided. Four larval stages have been identified, ranging in size from 258 to 560 mu m...

  1. Japanese Attitudes toward English Accents. (United States)

    Chiba, Reiko; And Others


    Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…

  2. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy? (United States)

    Wenck, G.


    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  3. Look Who Invented Japanese Management! (United States)

    Chait, Richard P.


    The Japanese theory of participatory management is seen as thriving on American campuses under the rubrics of shared governance and collegiality. Participatory management, quality control circles, lifetime employment, superordinate goals, and interdependent leadership are discussed. More commerce between academic administrators and corporate…

  4. Japanese Basic Course: Exercise Book. (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This exercise book, prepared for use after Lesson 121 of the Defense Language Institute Basic Course in Japanese, provides for instruction in the use of Kanji dictionaries, familiarizes students with useful phrases and expressions that are not included in the Basic Course, and allows for greater variety in the classroom. The ten lessons, in the…

  5. Automatically Collecting and Monitoring Japanese Weblogs (United States)

    Nanno, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Fujiki, Toshiaki; Okumura, Manabu

    Weblogs (blogs) are now thought of as a potentially useful information source. Although the definition of blogs is not necessarily definite, it is generally understood that they are personal web pages authored by a single individual and made up of a sequence of dated entries of the author's thoughts, that are arranged chronologically. In Japan, since long before blog software became available, people have written `diaries' on the web. These web diaries are quite similar to blogs in their content, and people still write them without any blog software. As we will show, hand-edited blogs are quite numerous in Japan, though most people now think of blogs as pages usually published using one of the variants of public-domain blog software. Therefore, it is quite difficult to exhaustively collect Japanese blogs, i.e., collect blogs made with blog software and web diaries written as normal web pages. With this as the motivation for our work, we present a system that tries to automatically collect and monitor Japanese blog collections that include not only ones made with blog software but also ones written as normal web pages. Our approach is based on extraction of date expressions and analysis of HTML documents, to avoid having to depend on specific blog software, RSS, or the ping server.

  6. 基于NLB检索系统词语搭配统计值的日语近义词词典编纂构想%Conceptions of Japanese Synonym Lexicography Based on the Statistics of Word Collocation in NLB Retrieval System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳伟; 刘玉琴


    日语近义词词典作为日语学习者重要的参考工具书,若不能提供丰富、详尽、科学的近义词辨析信息,很可能导致误用,阻碍学习。语料库提供大量的真实语料,基于语料库的词语搭配,对近义词进行辨析,使近义词研究更具科学性和有效性。NLB检索系统是日本国立国语研究所和Lago语言研究所共同开发的日语在线检索系统,检索数据源于「現代日本語書き言葉均衡コーパス」语料库。NLB自动呈现节点词与搭配词的共现频数、MI值和LD值。本文基于NLB检索系统,以近义词「文句」和「苦情」为例,从词配角度区分二者的异同,探讨日语近义词词典编纂的新方法。%As an important reference book for Japanese learners, Japanese synonym dictionary will impede students’ Japanese learning and lead them to misuse some words if it cannot provide rich, detailed and scientific synonym discrimination information. Since a corpus provides a large quantity of authentic language materials, synonym discrimination based on a corpus can make the research into synonyms more scientific and effective. As an online Japanese retrieval system jointly developed by National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics and Lago Language Research Institute, NLB gets its data from the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese and it can automatically reflect the co-occurrence frequency, MI value and LD value of node words and their collocates. Based on the collocation information found in NLB, this paper analyzes the similarities and differences between “文句”and “苦情”, and thus explores the new methods of Japanese synonym lexicography.

  7. A Conceptual Model of Cultural Predictors of Anxiety among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents. (United States)

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Miyamoto, Robin; Anzai, Neal; Izutsu, Satoru; Yanagida, Evelyn; Nishimura, Stephanie; Andrade, Naleen; Baker, F. M.


    Develops and assesses a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and anxiety in Japanese American and part-Japanese American high school seniors. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the scale and reported fewer anxiety symptoms than part-Japanese American adolescents. The model had a good overall fit, suggesting that…

  8. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Rhinitis


    Kimihiro Okubo; Yuichi Kurono; Shigeharu Fujieda; Satoshi Ogino; Eiichi Uchio; Hiroshi Odajima; Hiroshi Takenaka; Kohtaro Baba


    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 6th editi...

  9. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin


    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  10. Suggestions to Promote Sino-Japanese Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ It is obvious that Sino-Japanese relations are importantly both to China and to Japan. Nevertheless, the reality of "hot economic relations vs. cold political relations" between the two countries puzzles people who show deep concern for Sino-Japanese relations: Are the inherent features of Sino-Japanese relations the cause of the phenomenon? Is the gap between aspiration and action the cause of it? Or both are the causes? The answer is there, but exploration needs to be made.

  11. Open source, collectivism, and Japanese society


    Iitaka, Toshikazu


    This paper is about collectivism in the Network Society. Many researches about the Network Society evaluate collectivism, citing Japanese culture and Hacker culture as good models of such collectivism. However, some researchers, such as K. Abe in his analysis of “Seken,” criticize Japanese collectivism. Abe’s study pointed out the negative effect of Japanese collectivism on scientific progress. This paper will criticize Abe’s study and offer a new model for evaluating collec...

  12. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism


    Yuan Cai


    The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and t...

  13. Analysis of Japanese Compound Nouns using Collocational Information

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Y; Tanaka, H; Kobayasi, Yosiyuki; Takunaga, Takenobu; Tanaka, Hozumi


    Analyzing compound nouns is one of the crucial issues for natural language processing systems, in particular for those systems that aim at a wide coverage of domains. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze structures of Japanese compound nouns by using both word collocations statistics and a thesaurus. An experiment is conducted with 160,000 word collocations to analyze compound nouns of with an average length of 4.9 characters. The accuracy of this method is about 80%.

  14. Americans and Japanese Nonverbal Communication. Linguistic Communications 15 (Papers in Japanese Linguistics 3). (United States)

    Taylor, Harvey M.

    Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…

  15. What Is Business Japanese? Designing a Japanese Course for Business Communication. (United States)

    Koike, Shohei

    Experiences in developing "Business Japanese" courses for the undergraduate major in Language and International Trade at Eastern Michigan University are described. In 1987, six new courses in Japanese were proposed so that Japanese could be offered as a language specialty in the program. Issues considered in defining business Japanese…

  16. Korean students' attitude toward role language in Japanese


    鄭, 惠先


    Kinsui(2003) defines a locution or speech pattern which has some peculiar association with some character, for example, man or woman, as role language. Non-Japanese residing in Japan and using Japanese as a second language will acquire the knowledge of Japanese role language. In this paper, an attitude-survey concerning role language of Japanese was done towards both Koreans learning Japanese and Japanese. Three conclusions are drawn from this survey: (1) Korean examinees try to understand th...

  17. A Method for Recognizing Noisy Romanized Japanese Words in Learner English (United States)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Hiromi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper describes a method for recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English. They become noise and problematic in a variety of systems and tools for language learning and teaching including text analysis, spell checking, and grammatical error detection because they are Japanese words and thus mostly unknown to such systems and tools. A problem one encounters when recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English is that the spelling rules of romanized Japanese words are often violated. To address this problem, the described method uses a clustering algorithm reinforced by a small set of rules. Experiments show that it achieves an F-measure of 0.879 and outperforms other methods. They also show that it only requires the target text and an English word list of reasonable size.

  18. Emergent Processes of Language Acquisition: Japanese Language Learning and the Consumption of Japanese Cultural Products in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Toyoshima


    Full Text Available Motivation for learning a second language varies among individuals: some people enjoy the process of learning languages, while others learn a second language for practical reasons. Previous fieldwork research in Thailand has shown that many consumers of Japanese cultural products are also learners of the Japanese language. This suggests that Japanese cultural products motivate consumers to start studying Japanese and to continue learning it. In this study, two hypotheses will be posed in order to reveal the relationship between the consumption of Japanese cultural products and Japanese language learning: (1 exposure to Japanese cultural products induces Japanese language learning, and (2 Japanese language learning induces the consumption of other Japanese cultural products. Through questionnaire research conducted on university students in Thailand and through ethnographic data, this study attempts to examine the hypotheses and to demonstrate a continuous cycle model of Japanese language learning and the consumption of Japanese cultural ­products.

  19. “The Mysterious Other”: Carter’s Japanese Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pasolini


    As it has been argued, Carter’s perspective is that of a Western tourist, looking down on Japanese culture and society with an imperial gaze. However, this very point of view proves to be both problematic and productive, for her being a Western foreigner (the imperial Eye, combines with her being a woman, a subject who speaks from an unprivileged position, the subordinated Other in her homeland. Moreover, as Carter declared, she did not know nor was able to learn the Japanese language, thus being forced –and willing- to observe reality with sharpened senses in order to name everything anew, starting from her self-perception of what it means to be a woman and to act as one.   Thus, the author fills in Japanese empty signs with brand new meanings and begins to build up a new system of signification from the ambivalent perspective of a foreign woman, whose otherwise underprivileged position is empowered by the fact of being British. Her impressions of the Japanese world and her reasonings about gendered identities are then conveyed though the powerful, omnipresent image of the mirror. In Carter’s wor(-dsk mirrors and reflections are at the same time both the means which make disruptive and original models and performances possible and effective ways to represent them, since it is through the reflection/projection of Japanese culture into the Western one and through the mirroring of the female subject in the other’s eyes, that female subjectivity is endowed with a new –subversive- potential.

  20. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8. (United States)

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese…

  1. Anxiety in the College Japanese Language Classroom. (United States)

    Kitano, Kazu


    Investigated two potential sources of the anxiety of college learners of Japanese in oral practice: an individual student's fear of negative evaluation and self-perceived speaking ability. A survey was administered to 212 students in Japanese courses at two major universities. Results are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  2. The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement. (United States)

    Kurose, Yuki

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…

  3. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish


    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  4. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural...... sector training programs partly financed by Japanese Official development Assistance (ODA)....

  5. Social Studies in the Japanese Elementary School. (United States)

    Thomas, Paul F.


    The most striking feature of the Japanese social studies curriculum at the elementary level is its role as the instructor of Japanese national values and attitudes. The social studies curriculum has gone through four major revisions since World War II. In the most recent revision, in the early 1980's, the focus has been on instituting new teaching…

  6. Communicative Activities for the Japanese Classroom. (United States)

    Mishima, Toshiko; Pusavat, Yoko S.

    This handbook, developed in connection with a California State University Project, provides 30 communication activities for the Japanese classroom to assist teachers of Japanese in implementing communication-based instruction. It is designed so that teachers can easily identify and use an activity that corresponds to the language area currently…

  7. The Japanese economy and future growth prospects


    Sian Fenner


    This paper examines Japanese growth prospects through a 3P framework - population, participation and productivity - and illustrates the importance of productivity growth in offsetting the effects of declining population and aggregate labour force participation. Without further structural reforms, particularly in the labour market and non-tradeable sectors, labour productivity growth will remain subdued and Japanese potential GDP growth constrained.




  9. Protection against Japanese encephalitis by inactivated vaccines. (United States)

    Hoke, C H; Nisalak, A; Sangawhipa, N; Jatanasen, S; Laorakapongse, T; Innis, B L; Kotchasenee, S; Gingrich, J B; Latendresse, J; Fukai, K


    Encephalitis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus occurs in annual epidemics throughout Asia, making it the principal cause of epidemic viral encephalitis in the world. No currently available vaccine has demonstrated efficacy in preventing this disease in a controlled trial. We performed a placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized trial in a northern Thai province, with two doses of monovalent (Nakayama strain) or bivalent (Nakayama plus Beijing strains) inactivated, purified Japanese encephalitis vaccine made from whole virus derived from mouse brain. We examined the effect of these vaccines on the incidence and severity of Japanese encephalitis and dengue hemorrhagic fever, a disease caused by a closely related flavivirus. Between November 1984 and March 1985, 65,224 children received two doses of monovalent Japanese encephalitis vaccine (n = 21,628), bivalent Japanese encephalitis vaccine (n = 22,080), or tetanus toxoid placebo (n = 21,516), with only minor side effects. The cumulative attack rate for encephalitis due to Japanese encephalitis virus was 51 per 100,000 in the placebo group and 5 per 100,000 in each vaccine group. The efficacy in both vaccine groups combined was 91 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 70 to 97 percent). Attack rates for dengue hemorrhagic fever declined, but not significantly. The severity of cases of dengue was also reduced. We conclude that two doses of inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine, either monovalent or bivalent, protect against encephalitis due to Japanese encephalitis virus and may have a limited beneficial effect on the severity of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  10. Further Thoughts on the Japanese American Cases. (United States)

    Daniels, Roger


    Responds to the article, "The Japanese 'Internment' Cases Revisited," (Edward T. Robinson) in this issue of OAH Magazine of History. Focuses on three court cases related to Japanese internment. Believes that the possibility of whether internment can happen again should not be dismissed so easily. (CMK)

  11. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English. (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko


    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  12. Japanese-Style Management: A Bibliometric Study. (United States)

    Noguchi, Sachie


    Reports results of a bibliometric study of the literature on Japanese-style management published in western languages from 1971-84 in order to: (1) determine Japanese contributions to the literature; (2) determine whether there are nuclear journals for the subject; and (3) investigate how the flow of information from Japan to overseas countries…

  13. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia. (United States)

    Marriott, Helen E.


    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  14. ITADICT Project and Japanese Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Maria MARIOTTI


    Full Text Available This article aims to show how the Nuclear disaster in Fukushima (3 March 2011 affected Japanese Language teaching and learning in Italy, focusing on the ITADICT Project (Marcella Mariotti, project leader, Clemente Beghi, research fellow and Alessandro Mantelli, programmer. The project intends to develop the first Japanese-Italian online database, involving more than 60 students of Japanese language interested in lexicographic research and online learning strategies and tools. A secondary undertaking of ITADICT is its Latin alphabet transliteration of Japanese words into Hepburn style. ITADICT is inspired by EDICT Japanese-English database developed by the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group established in 2000 within the Faculty of Information Technology at Monash University. The Japanese-Italian database is evolving within the Department of Asian and North African Studies at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, the largest in the country and one of the main teaching centres of Japanese in Europe in terms of the number of students dedicated to it (1800 and number of Japanese language teaching hours (1002h at B.A. level, and 387h at M.A. level. In this paper we will describe how and why the project has been carried out and what the expectations are for its future development.

  15. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric (United States)

    Cumming, Brett


    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  16. A semiotactic approach to modern Japanese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkoren, Henriëtte Carolina


    The aim of this research was to establish if the semiotactic theory of C.L. Ebeling could be applied to Modern Japanese and mathematical descriptions of Japanese sentences could be made that are consistent, clear and easy to understand. For this purpose example sentences from various sources, contai

  17. Englishized Style Repertoire in Modern Japanese Literature. (United States)

    Ono, Reiko


    The roles played by English borrowings in modern Japanese literary works are examined. After a brief summary of previous studies, this paper describes the style repertoire and the kinds of stylistic effects produced in Japanese literature by English borrowings, such as attention attractors and in-group-identity markers. (23 references) (Author/LB)

  18. Synesthetic Colors for Japanese Scripts in Japanese Synesthetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Yokosawa


    Full Text Available The determinants of synesthetic colors for Japanese scripts were studied in six Japanese grapheme-color synesthetes. We investigated the influence of linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning on synesthetic colors for logographic characters (Kanji, phonetic characters (hiragana and katakana, and digits. From a palette of 138 colors, the synesthetes selected colors for 79 Kanji, 71 hiragana, and 71 katakana characters, and 9 digits. The results revealed that the color choices for hiragana and katakana characters representing the same sound were remarkably consistent, indicating that color selection depended on phonology and not visual form. On the other hand, synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually learned later, depended on meaning and phonology. Kanji characters representing concepts that are highly related to colors (eg, names of objects with typical colors were associated with those colors. Digits and corresponding Kanji numerals elicited strikingly similar colors. Colors for Kanji and hiragana characters sharing the same sound were likely to be similar. These results suggest that synesthetic colors are generalized from digits and phonetic scripts to Kanji characters via meaning and phonology. This study provides insights into the generalization of synesthetic colors to later acquired sets of graphemes within a language.

  19. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos


    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  20. Russo-Japanese Territorial Dispute (United States)


    ul-! C+t -; rio J-lbz. cU Sfu;(e , 15. SUBJECT TERMS rr~n:.ior-•’a.{ () ;.,.~t..V{ e._ 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18...Spruce, fir and broad leaf forests of yew, oak and mulberry, as well as bamboo thickets are also very common on the Islands. Some types of flora on the...brought chaos to Siberia and Far Eastern provinces of the collapsed Russian Empire. In 1918 Japan, using protection of Japanese citizens and support

  1. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K


    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  2. [Chapter 5. The internationalization of the Japanese pharmaceutical industry (1980-2010)]. (United States)

    Yongue, Julia S


    The Japanese pharmaceutical industry experienced a period of rapid and economic growth following the introduction of the national healthcare system in 1961. Triggered by a major revision in Japanese legislation from process to substance patents, leading Japanese pharmaceutical companies began to invest in research and development (R&D). By the mid-1980s, some had managed to develop their first internationally marketable drugs, many of which were antibiotics. The emergence of novel drugs gave companies the impetus to engage in progressively more appreciable investments in Asia, Europe and the United States. In the 1980s, internationalization was mainly inwardly focused so as to limit firms' exposure to risk. However, as profits increased in the 1990s from the sale of new drugs, Japanese pharmaceutical companies were able to engage in even more sizeable, outwardly focused investments. By 2010, Japan's leading pharmaceutical enterprises had succeeded in putting place three types of global operations: manufacturing, marketing and R&D.

  3. Japanese Economic Victory Over America: Fact or Fiction (United States)


    Labor, Labor Law and Practice in Japan, p. 9. 27. Rodney Clark, The Japanese Company, p. 145. 28. "The Changing Role of Women in Japan," Japan Report...Employees are protected by labor laws , union involvement, and actual tenured professions. Is Japan’s lifetime employment system the best in the world...Labor Statistics. Bulletin 2340, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 1989. 43. U.S. Department of Labor. Labor Law and Practice. BLS

  4. Education and making human resources activities in japanese universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshikazu, Takeda [Osaka Univ., Div. of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Suita Osaka (Japan); Yoshiaki, Oka [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Management (Japan); Seiji, Shiroya [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan)


    Education systems of Japanese Universities for developing human resources in nuclear industry are described. As examples, the present nuclear engineering curricula of the University of Tokyo, of the Tokyo Institute of Technology and of the Osaka University are presented. The experimental courses on reactor physics using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly, the Kinki University Training Reactor, and the Joyo reactor and Monju are also presented. (authors)

  5. Countability and Number in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru


    This paper presents a heuristic method that uses information in the Japanese text along with knowledge of English countability and number stored in transfer dictionaries to determine the countability and number of English noun phrases. Incorporating this method into the machine translation system ALT-J/E, helped to raise the percentage of noun phrases generated with correct use of articles and number from 65% to 73%.

  6. Independent college business Japanese translation professional curriculum system construction--In Chongqing normal university institute of foreign trade, for example%独立学院商务日语翻译专业课程体系的构建--以重庆师范大学涉外商贸学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The practicability and applicability of business Japanese translation is very strong, for the Japanese translation ability of students put forward higher requirements, and students are required to have certain business knowledge. In this paper, combined with the geographical situation, with the establishment and development of the Chongqing Liangjiang new area, with the actual situation of the Chongqing normal university foreign trade college is given priority to, from the course target, teaching content, teaching methods, etc, to discuss our business professional course system construction of Japanese translation.%商务日语翻译是实用性和应用性都非常强的专业,对学生的日语翻译能力提出了较高的要求,并且,要求学生具备一定的商务知识。本文结合地域情况,随着重庆市两江新区的建立与发展,以本校重庆师范大学涉外商贸学院的实际情况为主,从课程目标、教学内容、教学方法等方面,来探讨本校商务日语翻译专业课程体系的构建。

  7. Persistence and Breakthrough:The Exploration of Diversified Recruitment System by Chinese, Japanese and Korean%坚守与突围:中日韩对多元化招生机制的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹达; 田建荣


    纵观东亚地区中日韩三国高考制度的历史沿革,不难发现一个事实:各国政府都在积极探索适合各自国情的高考制度。实行自主招生制度是扩大高校自主权、深化高校招录制度改革的重要举措,也是对选拔优秀人才的积极探索。相比而言,日本和韩国的高校自主招生较为充分,而中国的自主招生制度只是全国统考的一个辅助手段。实践证明,坚持国家统考与高校自主招生相结合,推行多元化录取的招考机制,构建完善的社会诚信机制与监督机制,是高考制度改革与发展的大势所趋。%After looking through the historical reform of the college entrance examination system of China , Ja-pan and Korea , it is not difficult to find the fact that: every government is actively making exploration about the college entrance examination system which is suitable for their own national condition .The implementation of inde-pendent recruitment system is an important measure for expanding college decision -making power , deepening col-lege recruitment system reform and actively exploring the selection method of excellent talents .In comparison , Jap-anese and Korean college independent recruitment is in full implementation , while that in China is only a supple-mentary means of national unified examination .As it is proved by practice , it is the general trend of college en-trance examination system reform and development that insisting the combination between national unified examina -tion and college independent recruitment , carrying out diversified recruitment mechanisms and establishing perfect social credit and supervision mechanism .

  8. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook (United States)

    Nagata, Noriko


    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  9. Intercultural Orientations as Japanese Language Learners' Motivation in Mainland China (United States)

    Lv, Leining; Gao, Xuesong; Teo, Timothy


    This article reports on a study that investigated how 665 Japanese language learners, who had started learning Japanese at different times in the last 3 decades, had been motivated to learn Japanese in China. Analysis of the survey data revealed that the participants displayed similar intercultural orientations when learning Japanese despite the…

  10. CCL2, but not its receptor, is essential to restrict immune privileged central nervous system-invasion of Japanese encephalitis virus via regulating accumulation of CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug


    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a re-emerging zoonotic flavivirus that poses an increasing threat to global health and welfare due to rapid changes in climate and demography. Although the CCR2-CCL2 axis plays an important role in trafficking CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes to regulate immunopathological diseases, little is known about their role in monocyte trafficking during viral encephalitis caused by JEV infection. Here, we explored the role of CCR2 and its ligand CCL2 in JE caused by JEV infection using CCR2- and CCL2-ablated murine models. Somewhat surprisingly, the ablation of CCR2 and CCL2 resulted in starkly contrasting susceptibility to JE. CCR2 ablation induced enhanced resistance to JE, whereas CCL2 ablation highly increased susceptibility to JE. This contrasting regulation of JE progression by CCR2 and CCL2 was coupled to central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and Ly-6G(hi) granulocytes. There was also enhanced expression of CC and CXC chemokines in the CNS of CCL2-ablated mice, which appeared to induce CNS infiltration of these cell populations. However, our data revealed that contrasting regulation of JE in CCR2- and CCL2-ablated mice was unlikely to be mediated by innate natural killer and adaptive T-cell responses. Furthermore, CCL2 produced by haematopoietic stem cell-derived leucocytes played a dominant role in CNS accumulation of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in infected bone marrow chimeric models, thereby exacerbating JE progression. Collectively, our data indicate that CCL2 plays an essential role in conferring protection against JE caused by JEV infection. In addition, blockage of CCR2, but not CCL2, will aid in the development of strategies for prophylactics and therapeutics of JE.

  11. Early Japanese contributions to space weather research (1945–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nishida


    Full Text Available Major contributions by Japanese scientists in the period of 1945 to 1960 are reviewed. This was the period when the foundation of the space weather research was laid by ground-based observations and theoretical research. Important contributions were made on such subjects as equatorial ionosphere in quiet times, tidal wind system in the ionosphere, formation of the F2 layer, VLF propagation above the ionosphere, and precursory phenomena (type IV radio outburst and polar cap absorption to storms. At the IGY (1957, 1958, research efforts were intensified and new programs in space and Antarctica were initiated. Japanese scientists in this discipline held a tight network for communication and collaboration that has been kept to this day.

  12. Ontogeny of the Lymphoid Organs of Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun; JIANG Guoliang; ZHANG Shicui


    Histological study on the ontogeny of the lymphoid organs, kidney, thymus and spleen of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, from hatching to 40 d was carried out. The pronephric kidney duct appeared early in hatching although the primordial haemopoietic stem cells were observed within a week after hatching. The spleen was first seen after 8 d of hatching. The thymus appeared after 15 d, situated near the pronephric kidney. Small lymphoid cells appeared during the later phase of the post-larval stage in the sequence of thymus, kidney and spleen. During the 40 d of observations, there were no distinct inner or outer zones in thymus and no red or white pulp in spleen. These results suggest that the nonspecific defense immune system plays a very important role in the early larval stage of Japanese flounder.

  13. New Research on the Reform of Marriage System in Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Anti-Japanese Base%晋察冀抗日根据地婚姻制度改革新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    传统婚姻制度延续数千年,严重落后于抗战新形势,极大地阻碍了妇女参加抗日斗争。于是,晋察冀边区改革了传统婚姻制度,大致分为反对虐待妇女、提倡婚姻自由和建设富裕和睦的家庭三个时期,有效地发动和组织了广大妇女,为抗战增添了一支新的生力军,并促进了妇女解放,初步建立了新民主主义婚姻制度。不过,晋察冀边区改造旧婚姻制度的初衷是动员妇女参加抗战,而不是以妇女解放为目的,这种实用主义倾向导致了婚姻制度改革的简单化、表层化,故现代婚姻制度尚未完全建立起来。%The traditional marriage system continued for thousands of years,and seriously lagged be-hind in the new situation of the Anti-Japanese War,it had greatly hindered the women to join the war of resistance.So the traditional marriage system was reformed in Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei border area.It in-cluded roughly three periods:against the abuse of women,advocating freedom of marriage and the con-struction of harmonious family.The border region women were effectively mobilized and organized,which formed a new force for the war of resistance.Meanwhile it also promoted the women’s liberation and ini-tially established the new democratic marriage system.However,the purpose that the old marriage system was reformed in the Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei border area is to mobilize women to participate in the Anti-Japa-nese War rather than the women’s liberation.This tendency led marriage reform to simplistic pragmatism on a surface level.So the modern institution of marriage has not been fully established.

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastropathy: A comparison between Indonesian and Japanese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murdani Abdullah; Hiroyuki Ohtsuka; Abdul Aziz Rani; Tadashi Sato; Ari F Syam; Masayuki A Fujino


    AIM: To compare the effects of Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection on gastropathy between Indonesian and Japanese patients.METHODS: Biopsy specimens were obtained during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from 167 subjects (125 Indonesians and 42 Japanese) with uninvestigated symptoms of dyspepsia. The specimens were analyzed for the presence of H pylori using urease analysis, histopathology, and cell culture. The grade and activity of gastritis was assessed using the updated Sydney system.RESULTS: The percentages of Indonesian and Japanese patients who were H pylori-positive at the antrum or body of the stomach were similar (68% and 59.5%, respectively; P = 0.316). Of those who were H pylori-positive, more Japanese patients than Indonesian patients had high levels of polymorphonuclear cells ( P = 0.001), mononuclear cells ( P = 0.013), glandular atrophy ( P = 0.000), and intestinal metaplasia ( P = 0.011) in both the antrum and body of the stomach.CONCLUSION: The grade of gastritis and prevalence of mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were higher in Japanese patients. The difference between Indonesian and Japanese patients was significant.

  15. Japanese Pop It's a Hit All Over

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In Asia,Japanese music and musicians are visible(可见的) everywhere.Music stores in many countries carry a wide selection of Japanese CDs,Japanese videos are in heavy rotation (借环) on MTV,and Japaneses ongs are favorite selections at KTVs.Some Japanese stars have even recorded songs in Chinese because they are so popular among Chinese listeners.

  16. Japanese experiences of environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, T. [Toyo University, Itakura (Japan)


    Japan experienced a very rapid industrialization and economic growth in the era of income doubling in 1960s and at the same time it experienced very severe damage from various types of environmental pollution. In this paper, historical development of population, GNP, energy consumption with classification of petroleum, coal and electric power, and CO{sub 2} emission are introduced as basic background data on Japanese development. The tragic experience of Minamata disease and Itai-itai disease caused by methyl mercury and cadmium, respectively, are introduced. In two tables, historical development of water pollution and air pollution are summarized. Regarding solid wastes management, the total mass balance in Japan and recent development in legislation framework for enhancement of recycling of wastes are introduced briefly.

  17. Regulation of the sympathetic nervous system by nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla: 2012 Academic Conference Award from the Japanese Society of Hypertension. (United States)

    Kishi, Takuya


    Sympathoexcitation has an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) and/or oxidative stress in the brain are important for the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. We have investigated the role of NO derived from an overexpression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) or oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which is known as a vasomotor center in the brainstem, on the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Our results indicated that NO derived from an overexpression of eNOS in the RVLM caused sympathoinhibition via an increase in γ-amino butyric acid and that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-induced oxidative stress in the RVLM caused sympathoexcitation. We also demonstrated that oxidative stress in the RVLM caused sympathoexcitation via interactions with NO, effects on the signal transduction or apoptosis of the astrocytes. Furthermore, several orally administered AT1R blockers have been found to cause sympathoinhibition via a reduction in oxidative stress through the blockade of AT1R in the RVLM of hypertensive rats. In conclusion, our studies suggest that the increase in AT1R-induced oxidative stress and/or the decrease in NO in the RVLM mainly cause sympathoexcitation in hypertension.

  18. 日本教师教育研究生院课程体系述评%A Commentary on the Curriculum System of Japanese Teacher Education Graduate Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学智; 付晓娟; 栾慧敏


    In order to adapt the social and economic reform,the education reform aiming at cultivating students" viability,and the request of cultivating high level professional personnel, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan has established teacher education graduate schools in universities. Japanese teacher education graduate school curriculum system includes two parts,one is the education goal based on improving teachers" practice ability,the other is teacher education graduate school curriculum system ,which includes compulsory courses, elective courses in the field of each subject and teaching practice on the school site. The establishment of teacher education graduate school curriculum system in Japan can provide some reference for us, such as that the teacher education of graduate level should regard cultivating practice ability as educational goal, and should enhance such curriculum contents about the practice and application.%日本文部科学省为适应社会经济变革、以学生“生存能力”为培养目标的教育改革以及培养教育领域高层次专门人才的要求,在各大学设立了教师教育研究生院。其教师培养课程体系的基本框架包括两部分,即确定以实践能力为核心的教师教育培养目标和由必修课程、学科领域的选修课程及学校现场的教育实习构成的研究生层次的教师教育课程体系。其借鉴意义在于.研究生层次的教师教育应以培养“实践能力”为目标.应强化实践性、应用性课程内容。

  19. The Research of Japanese Animation Industry Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    China owns the largest animation audience group in the world, while our native animation market had been long occupied by Japanese and American animation products. After researching some assuming solutions of that embarrassing situation on Chinese animation industry, this one continues to state the proved successful mode of Japanese animation industry. After many decades of improvement, a mature and healthy industry chain had been built up. Nowadays, there is no doubt that Japanese animation industry is the most successful mode in the world. So we are looking forward to find some valuable successful experiences and make better change accordingly. And dur-ing the following research, writer of this thesis would show some visiting on Japanese local animation companies, and more details on their business mode.

  20. Seabird mortality caused by Japanese gillnet fisheries (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The meeting covered three aspects: (1) review of data collected by the Fishery Agency on gillnetting of seabirds, (2) U.S. participation as observers aboard Japanese...

  1. Coping with instabilities - lessons from Japanese architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    This paper offers insight into the role of architecture in coping with instabilities. At its centre is a second generation of Japanese architects who came to maturity after World War II. They questioned the International Style, and asked for a return to architecture in the image of the early...... capabilities in coping with eruptions and sudden changes. Transforming ruins into a city for the future, he argued, is not merely achieved by replicating the International Style it needs the inclusion of a rather stable formula for the construction of image schemes. This implies a particular Japanese motif......, a Japanese idea about an ‘in-between’, place and occasion means an ‘in-between’, the Japanese term ma. The final part of the lecture considers ma in its quality as 1) a formula replicated in different cognitive domains, in language, visual perception, abstract ways of reasoning, emotions and actions, and 2...

  2. Japanese Oceanographic Data Center Japan Land Gravity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (4,381 records) were compiled by the Japanese Oceanographic Data Center. This data base was received in July 1988. The data are in the...

  3. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eishin Morita


    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  4. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cai


    Full Text Available The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and the decline of Japanese pacifism. A host of domestic and international factors were responsible for the growth of pacifism and its subsequent decline, but only three important domestic factors will be examined in detail: the concept of victimhood in the development of pacifism and its implication for its continuing strength, the importance of peace education and the role played by the influential Japan’s Teachers’ Union on the formation of pacifist conscience and finally, the influence of leftist organisations on the organised peace movement.

  5. Forecasting Monthly Prices of Japanese Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Michinaka


    Full Text Available Forecasts of prices can help industries in their risk management. This is especially true for Japanese logs, which experience sharp fluctuations in price. In this research, the authors used an exponential smoothing method (ETS and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to forecast the monthly prices of domestic logs of three of the most important species in Japan: sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, hinoki (Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc. Endl., and karamatsu (Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi (Lamb. Carr.. For the 12-month forecasting periods, forecasting intervals of 80% and 95% were given. By measuring the accuracy of forecasts of 12- and 6-month forecasting periods, it was found that ARIMA gave better results than did the ETS in the majority of cases. However, the combined method of averaging ETS and ARIMA forecasts gave the best results for hinoki in several cases.

  6. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs (United States)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  7. Effects of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, a Japanese Kampo medicine, on tachycardia and central nervous system stimulation induced by theophylline in rats and mice. (United States)

    Sanae, F; Hayashi, H; Chisaki, K; Komatsu, Y


    Effects of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to (SRBT) on theophylline-induced tachycardia in anesthetized rats and theophylline-induced locomotion and convulsions in mice were examined. An intraduodenal administration of SRBT (1 g/kg) prevented theophylline (5 mg/kg, i.v.)-induced tachycardia in rats. SRBT also attenuated an increase in arterial blood pressure with a slow reduction in heart rate of rats treated with theophylline, with no influence on the plasma level of theophylline. However, SRBT did not change the beating rate of right atrium isolated from rats in the absence or presence of theophylline or isoproterenol. The locomotor activity of theophylline in mice was reduced by the treatment with SRBT. Furthermore, the latency of convulsions in mice induced by administration of theophylline at a higher dose (240 mg/kg, i.p.) was prolonged by treatment with SRBT (1 g/kg, p.o.) and seven out of fifteen mice were saved from death due to convulsions. These results suggest that theophylline-induced tachycardia and central nervous stimulation are suppressed by SRBT and that SRBT may reduce the undesirable actions of theophylline on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

  8. Kansei Analysis of the Japanese Residential Garden and Development of a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Kansei Engineering System for Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Matsubara


    Full Text Available Residential garden design using Kansei engineering is a challenging problem. Landscaping components, such as rocks, trees, and ponds, are widely diversified and have a large number of possible arrangements. This large number of design alternatives makes conventional analyses, such as linear regression and its variations like Quantification Theory Type I (QT1, inapplicable for analyzing the relationships between design elements and the Kansei evaluation. We applied a partial least squares (PLS model that effectively deals with a large number of predictor variables. The multiple correlation coefficient of the PLS analysis was much higher than that of the QT1 analysis. The results of the analyses were used to create a low-cost virtual reality Kansei engineering system that permits visualization of garden designs corresponding to selected Kansei words. To render complex garden scenes, we developed an original 3D computation and rendering library built on Java. The garden is shown in public-view style with stereo 3D graphic projection. The rendering is scalable from low to high resolution and enables drop object shadowing, which is indispensable for considering the effect of daytime changes in insolation. Visualizing the garden design based on Kansei analysis could facilitate collaboration between the designer and customer in the design process.

  9. No association of atherosclerosis with digital ulcers in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis: evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness and plaque characteristics. (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Hattori, Tomoyasu; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu


    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) usually develop Raynaud's phenomenon, persistent digital ischemia and sometimes develop digital ulcers (DU). Several studies have reported an association of carotid artery atherosclerosis with SSc by evaluating carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in SSc patients. However, none of those studies analyzed the association between DU and carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. We examined the association of carotid artery atherosclerosis with digital ulcers by comparing SSc patients with (n = 48, 29.5%) and without (n = 206, 70.5%) DU. The demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients showed that young age, male sex, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, severe skin sclerosis, interstitial lung disease complication and cardiac involvements were significantly prevalent in patients with DU. In addition, diffuse cutaneous type, anti-RNA polymerase III antibody positivity and severe skin sclerosis are more frequent in SSc patients with DU at the extensor surface of joints than SSc patients with DU at the digital tip. There were no differences in serum lipid level, carotid IMT or plaque score between SSc patients with and without DU, suggesting that atherosclerotic changes are not primarily involved in the development of DU.

  10. The Kuril Islands: Russian-Japanese Relations (1920–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Biriukov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of Russian-Japanese relations on the Kuril Islands. A number of international documents, determining national ownerships of those islands are reviewed in the article. In particular, it analyzes the provisions of the Convention on basic principles of relations between the USSR and Japan of 1925. It denotes that the Yalta Agreement of 1945 established the territorial boundaries of Japan. From the international law perspective, which was back then effective, the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration of 1945 are considered. Potsdam Declaration (as well as the Yalta Agreement is an integral part of a unified system of political and legal decisions made by the Allied Powers. The author points out that by signing the Act of Surrender of September 2, 1945, Japan agreed on the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. The provisions of the acts of the United States and Japan are reviewed, as well as the position of their representatives in the 40-50s of last century, which showed the Japan's renunciation of claims for Kuril Islands. Comprehensive investigation exposed to provisions of the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951. А due attention is paid to the analysis of the Joint Soviet-Japanese Declaration of 1956. The article represents international legal arguments supporting the affiliation of Kuril Islands to the Russian Federation. The author characterizes a current state of Russian-Japanese territorial issue.

  11. A Japanese model of disease management. (United States)

    Nakashima, Naoki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Nishida, Daisuke; Tanaka, Naomi; Nakazono, Hiromi; Hoshino, Akihiko; Soejima, Hidehisa; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Nawata, Hajime


    We started a disease management model, Carna, that includes two programs: one for primary prevention of lifestyle diseases and one for secondary/tertiary prevention of diabetes mellitus. These programs support the family doctor system and education for participants to allow the concept of disease management to take root in Japan. We developed a critical pathway system that can optimize health care of individual participants by matching individual status. This is the core technology of the project. Under the primary prevention program, we can perform the health check-up/ instruction tasks in the 'Tokutei Kenshin', which will start for all Japanese citizens aged 40-74 years in April 2008. In the diabetic program, Carna matches doctors and new patients, prevents patient dropout, supports detection of early-stage complications by distributing questionnaires periodically, and facilitates medical specialists' cooperation with family doctors. Carna promotes periodic medical examinations and quickly provides the result of blood tests to patients. We are conducting a study to assess the medical outcomes and business model. The study will continue until the end of 2007.

  12. Joint action syntax in Japanese martial arts. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko; Okumura, Motoki; Kijima, Akifumi; Kadota, Koji; Gohara, Kazutoshi


    Participation in interpersonal competitions, such as fencing or Japanese martial arts, requires players to make instantaneous decisions and execute appropriate motor behaviors in response to various situations. Such actions can be understood as complex phenomena emerging from simple principles. We examined the intentional switching dynamics associated with continuous movement during interpersonal competition in terms of their emergence from a simple syntax. Linear functions on return maps identified two attractors as well as the transitions between them. The effects of skill differences were evident in the second- and third-order state-transition diagrams for these two attractors. Our results suggest that abrupt switching between attractors is related to the diverse continuous movements resulting from quick responses to sudden changes in the environment. This abrupt-switching-quick-response behavior is characterized by a joint action syntax. The resulting hybrid dynamical system is composed of a higher module with discrete dynamics and a lower module with continuous dynamics. Our results suggest that intelligent human behavior and robust autonomy in real-life scenarios are based on this hybrid dynamical system, which connects interpersonal coordination and competition.

  13. A Japanese Woman Takes Root in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    MORE than half a century ago, a 15 year-old Japanese girl chose to stay in China during the warridden years and has since rooted herself firmly in the land. She has devoted her life to the Chinese people and contributed greatly to strengthening friendship between the two countries. The girl is Ye Qi, now director of the Cardiology Department and Department for Foreign Nationals of the Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital in

  14. Career Planning Trends in Japanese Companies


    Firkola, Peter


    This paper provides an overview of career planning trends in Japanese companies. Research on career development in Japan is first reviewed. Career planning practices in Japanese companies are examined. Factors influencing career planning choice are then discussed. It was found that there appears to be a change occurring in the career planning practices, specifically the shifting of responsibility for an employees' career from the employer to the employee. (JEL Classifi-cation: M12, M54

  15. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians


    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA


    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...

  16. 日本法西斯统治与大政翼赞体制%Political Structure of the Japanese Fascist Rule and the Imperial Rule Assistance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    After the collapse of the party politics in contemporary Japan,while reinforcing the administrative independence,the “national unity cabinet”advocated fair elections to better man-age the popular will.But the two were separated and lacked a political entity for carrying and re-alizing the popular will.As an opposition to and repudiation of the politics of liberal political par-ties,Fumimaro Konoe launched the movement of imperial rule assistance and set up the imperial rule assistance association which had sustained criticism over its alleged contravention of the con-stitution in the parliament and general public opinion.The cabinet of Hideki Tojo set up the as-sistance political association which kept the political nature of the imperial rule assistance associa-tion while successfully freed itself of the former’s suspect constitutional contravention and made the parliament essentially an impotent figurehead.The system of the imperial rule assistance in-cluded both the ethics of national polity and constitutional rules.It stipulated to maintain the“constitutional facade”of the parliament in the meantime of popular political assistance.But e-ventually the ethics and morals overrode the constitutional rules,and the political popularization of the national life led to the outcome of the loss of authority of constitutional rules,the degener-ation of the parliament into a passage to the strengthening of the imperial authority,and of the Emperor’s becoming of the authority of all authorities.%近代日本的政党政治崩溃后,举国一致内阁在强化行政自立的同时,标榜公平选举以疏通民意,但缺乏承载和实现民意的政治主体。基于对自由主义政党政治的反动与否定,近卫文麿发起大政翼赞运动并成立大政翼赞会,但在议会及社会舆论中,大政翼赞会受到违宪批判。东条英机内阁成立翼赞政治会,承载起了大政翼赞会的政治性并解除其“违宪嫌疑

  17. 吳汝綸日本教育考察與對晚清學制建立影響程度的再探討 Master Ju-Lun Wu’s Inspection of Japanese Education and Reevaluation of Its Influence on the Drafting of School Systems in the Late Ch’ing Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    周愚文 Yu-Wen Chou


    Full Text Available 中國教育西化始於晚清,而壬寅及癸卯學制則是創始,主要仿日。制定過程中,過去許多研究認為吳汝綸是主要影響人物之一,他在就任京師大學堂總教習前獲派赴日考察教育4個月,透過參觀、訪談、聽講及資料蒐集,希望全面深入瞭解日本教育的發展與問題。訪問結果除即時陳報管學大臣張百熙及相關人員外,另出版《東遊叢錄》供修訂癸卯學制參考。但經本研究再考察發現,因人在日本考察、返國後朝局不利及病逝等因素,故他未能直接參與規劃、引導方向,以致主政人員在設計學制時,仍只是複製日本制度而已。 The modernization of Chinese education began from the late Ch’ing period, and the 1902 Ren-yin and 1904 Kuei-mao school systems marked the beginning of the modernization of Chinese education, which borrowed from Japanese education. Numerous studies have claimed that master Ju-Lun Wu was one of the key figures, before he inaugurated the vice-chancellor of Imperial Capital University, who inspected Japanese education over 4 months. He inquired into the development and problems of Japanese education by inspecting schools and universities; discussing with scholars, educators, and officials; listening to lectures; and collecting materials. His findings were reported to Minister Pai-Shi Chang and related staff and his Collected Records of Visiting Japan was published. Although his book became a reference book, this study found that Ju-Lun Wu was not directly involved in drafting school systems for several reasons. Therefore, the 1904 Kuei-mao system remains an uncritical, imitated Japanese school system.

  18. 网络环境下的高级日语课程实验教学模式建设研究——以实验教学网络资源体系的建立为中心%Model construction research on senior Japanese courses experimental teaching under the network environment—— to establish the experiment teaching system of network resources as the center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目前高级日语的教学面临着教学任务重,教学方式单一以传统模式为主,学生缺乏自主学习的困境,随时教学改革的发展,实验教学符合高级日语课程的实践性的要求,并且现代教育技术的发展和完善为高级日语实验教学提供了有利的保障,因此高级日语课程的实验教学资源体系的建立必须坚持坚持"以人为本"为中心的原则和"适度"原则.%At present, a senior Japanese teaching is facing many difficulties: task of teaching, teaching methods, single is given priority to with the traditional model, students lack of autonomous learning, with the development of teaching reform, experimental teaching conforms to the requirement of practical senior Japanese course, and the development of modern education technology and perfect for senior Japanese experiment teaching provides a favorable safeguard, therefore, to establish the system of experimental teaching of the course resources of senior Japanese must adhere to the principle of "people-oriented" and "moderate".

  19. 大学日语语法教学模式的新探索%New Exploration of the Japanese Grammar Teaching Mode in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    College Japanese grammar teaching is the focus and difficulty of College Japanese teaching system, the traditional mode of College Japanese grammar teaching is a kind of problems, must be from the reform of university teaching materials, enrich College Japanese grammar classroom activities, improve students' ability of Japanese grammar, increase students' practical application of Japanese grammar, using the whole Japanese language teaching mode, strengthen Japanese grammar learning feedback and other aspects to build a ne w era of Japanese grammar teaching new model.%大学日语语法教学是大学日语教学体系的重点和难点,大学日语语法教学的传统模式存在着各类问题,必须从改革大学日语语法的教材、丰富大学日语语法课堂活动、提高学生日语语法的应用能力、增加学生日语语法的实际运用机会、采用全日语教学的模式、加强日语语法学习的反馈等几个方面构建新时期大学日语语法教学新模式。

  20. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger


    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  1. The Japanese in Hawaii: An Annotated Bibliography of Japanese Americans. Hawaii Series No. 5. (United States)

    Matsuda, Mitsugu

    This revision of Mitsugu Matsuda's Japanese in Hawaii, 1868-1967: An Annotated Bibliography of the First Hundred Years, calls attention to writings which are available to students and individuals interested in Americans of Japanese ancestry. The materials range from scholarly pieces based on traditional academic sources for documentation to…

  2. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers (United States)

    Anzai, Shinobu


    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  3. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family (United States)

    Goto, Courtney T.


    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor Ioan Alin


    Full Text Available Corporate equity structure, whether is in a market-based system like US or a bank-based system like Japan is prone to changes due to foreign investment. Protection from outside investors varies greatly around these systems. Where protection is good, market-based systems flourish. These systems have certain advantages as they appear to foster innovation and to encourage the release of capital from declining industries. Bank-based systems may be better suited to established industries. These systems also help protect individuals from direct exposure to stock market risk. But, no matter the system, agency problems are inevitable. The paper looks at the past changes of the Japanese corporate ownership composition under the influence of foreign investment.

  5. The System and Practice of Japanese Policy Evaluation and Its Enlightenments to the S&T Evaluation of China%日本的政策评估体系和实践及其对中国科技评估的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞宇; 崔玉亭


    日本自2002年全面开展政策评估,目前已形成较为完善的政策评估体系.本文通过介绍日本政府政策评估的制度建设、评估模式及其在管理中发挥的作用,结合日本中央和地方政府部门以及评估机构开展政策评估的实践,总结认为,日本的政策评估本质上是用于改进行政主体的管理,特别是改善管理目标和途径的一个重要手段.结合中国当前的科技评估(主要是科技计划评估)工作现状,提出全面认识评估作用、加强评估体系建设等启示与建议.%Japan has been entirely implementing policy evaluation since 2002. It has formed the integrated system of policy evaluation at present. This article introduces the institutionalization and models of Japanese government' s policy evaluation, and its function for management. Considering with the practices of Japanese' central government, local government and evaluation organizations, we conclude that Japanese policy evaluation is essentially an important measure for enhance the administrators' management, especially to improve the management's targets and approaches. Furthermore, as to the current S&T evaluation (mainly about S&T program evaluation) of China, we give some suggestions including overall understanding of the evaluation's functions, strengthening the evaluation system, etc.

  6. Exploration of loanwords in modern Japanese%现代日语中外来语之探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are many loanwords in modern Japanese, loanwords play a very important role in Japanese. Because of the adding of loanwords, the Japanese vocabulary is richer and more expressive, also make the Japanese system obviously have some kind of"openness", more conducive to absorption, integration of heterogeneous culture of other nations. Extensive use of loanwords, not only broaden the cultural view of Japanese, but also have brought new concepts, new ideas to the Japanese, and even affect the Japanese way of thinking.%  现代日语中有许多外来语,外来语在日语中占了很重要的地位。由于有了外来语的加入,使日语词汇更加丰富,更有表现力,也使日语系统明显地具有某种“开放性”,更有利于吸收、融合其他民族的异质文化。外来语的广泛使用,不仅拓宽了日本人的文化视野,给日本人带来了新概念、新思想,甚至影响到日本人的思维方式。

  7. English /r/-/l/ category assimilation by Japanese adults: individual differences and the link to identification accuracy. (United States)

    Hattori, Kota; Iverson, Paul


    Native speakers of Japanese often have difficulty identifying English /r/ and /l/, and it has been thought that second-language (L2) learning difficulties like this are caused by how L2 phonemes are assimilated into ones native phonological system. This study took an individual difference approach to examining this relationship by testing the category assimilation of Japanese speakers with a wide range of English /r/-/l/ identification abilities. All Japanese subjects were assessed in terms of (1) their accuracy in identifying English /r/ and /l/, (2) their assimilation of /r/ and /l/ into their Japanese flap category, (3) their production of /r/ and /l/, and (4) their best-exemplar locations for /r/, /l/, and Japanese flap in a five-dimensional set of synthetic stimuli (F1, F2, F3, closure duration, and transition duration). The results demonstrated that Japanese speakers assimilate /l/ into their flap category more strongly than they assimilate /r/. However, there was little evidence that category assimilation was predictive of English /r/-/l/ perception and production. Japanese speakers had three distinct best exemplars for /r/, /l/, and flap, and only their representation of F3 in /r/ and /l/ was predictive of identification ability.

  8. Reading in Asian Languages: Making Sense of Written Texts in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.; Wang, Shaomei, Ed.; Iventosch, Mieko, Ed.; Goodman, Yetta M., Ed.


    "Reading in Asian Languages" is rich with information about how literacy works in the non-alphabetic writing systems (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) used by hundreds of millions of people and refutes the common Western belief that such systems are hard to learn or to use. The contributors share a comprehensive view of reading as construction…

  9. Reading in Asian Languages: Making Sense of Written Texts in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.; Wang, Shaomei, Ed.; Iventosch, Mieko, Ed.; Goodman, Yetta M., Ed.


    "Reading in Asian Languages" is rich with information about how literacy works in the non-alphabetic writing systems (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) used by hundreds of millions of people and refutes the common Western belief that such systems are hard to learn or to use. The contributors share a comprehensive view of reading as construction of…

  10. Language specific listening of Japanese geminate consonants: a cross-linguistic study. (United States)

    Sadakata, Makiko; Shingai, Mizuki; Sulpizio, Simone; Brandmeyer, Alex; Sekiyama, Kaoru


    Various aspects of linguistic experience influence the way we segment, represent, and process speech signals. The Japanese phonetic and orthographic systems represent geminate consonants (double consonants, e.g., /ss/, /kk/) in a unique way compared to other languages: one abstract representation is used to characterize the first part of geminate consonants despite the acoustic difference between two distinct realizations of geminate consonants (silence in the case of e.g., stop consonants and elongation in the case of fricative consonants). The current study tests whether this discrepancy between abstract representations and acoustic realizations influences how native speakers of Japanese perceive geminate consonants. The experiments used pseudo words containing either the geminate consonant /ss/ or a manipulated version in which the first part was replaced by silence /_s/. The sound /_s/ is acoustically similar to /ss/, yet does not occur in everyday speech. Japanese listeners demonstrated a bias to group these two types into the same category while Italian and Dutch listeners distinguished them. The results thus confirmed that distinguishing fricative geminate consonants with silence from those with sustained frication is not crucial for Japanese native listening. Based on this observation, we propose that native speakers of Japanese tend to segment geminated consonants into two parts and that the first portion of fricative geminates is perceptually similar to a silent duration. This representation is compatible with both Japanese orthography and phonology. Unlike previous studies that were inconclusive in how native speakers segment geminate consonants, our study demonstrated a relatively strong effect of Japanese specific listening. Thus the current experimental methods may open up new lines of investigation into the relationship between development of phonological representation, orthography and speech perception.

  11. Language Specific Listening of Japanese Geminate Consonants: Cross-linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko eSadakata


    Full Text Available Various aspects of linguistic experience influence the way we segment, represent, and process speech signals. The Japanese phonetic and orthographic systems represent geminate consonants (double consonants, e.g. /ss/, /kk/ in a unique way compared to other languages: one abstract representation is used to characterize the first part of geminate consonants despite the acoustic difference between two distinct realizations of geminate consonants (silence in the case of e.g. stop consonants and elongation in the case of fricative consonants. The current study tests this discrepancy between abstract representations and acoustic realizations influences how native speakers of Japanese perceive geminate consonants. The experiments used pseudo words containing either the geminate consonant /ss/ or a manipulated version in which the first part was replaced by silence /_s/. The sound /_s/ is acoustically similar to /ss/, yet does not occur in everyday speech. Japanese listeners demonstrated a bias to group these two types into the same category while Italian and Dutch listeners distinguished them. The results thus confirmed that distinguishing fricative geminate consonants with silence from those with sustained frication is not crucial for Japanese native listening. Based on this observation, we propose that native speakers of Japanese tend to segment geminated consonants into two parts and that the first portion of fricative geminates is perceptually similar to a silent duration. This representation is compatible with both Japanese orthography and phonology. Unlike previous studies that were inconclusive in how native speakers segment geminate consonants, our study demonstrated relatively strong effect of Japanese specific listening. Thus the current experimental methods may open up new lines of investigation into the relationship between development of phonological representation, orthography and speech perception.

  12. Are Australian Fans of Anime and Manga Motivated to Learn Japanese Language? (United States)

    Armour, William S.; Iida, Sumiko


    Recent research into Japanese as a foreign language education has strongly emphasized the link between Japanese popular culture and learning Japanese. However, these studies have only targeted Japanese language learners in formal education contexts and have largely ignored those who are not studying Japanese or studying Japanese informally. This…

  13. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)


    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  14. Wenceslau de Moraes, interpreter of japanese culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alexandre Barros Teixeira


    Full Text Available In this article we will comment on the critical and creative aspects of Japanese poetry in the work of Portuguese author and diplomat Wenceslau Moraes, who was the first translator of Japanese haiku into Portuguese. The author adopted the form of quatrain poem using lines of five or seven syllables for transcription of Japanese three line verses.  Wenceslau valued puns, popular expressions and other elements of poetic function present in the traditional haiku. The author also commented on aspects of poetic art, philosophy, religion, aesthetics and Japanese language from the philosophical principles of Shinto and Buddhism. His complete works, in the form of essays, letters, diaries and travel reports, include 14 volumes dedicated to Japan and Japanese culture, with special attention to Relance da alma japonesa, published in 1925, a work that covers from tradition court poetry, collected from court anthologies published since the VIII Century a.D, to the classic haiku and popular songs and proverbs.

  15. Japanese “Merchants of Culture”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian


    Purpose. To provide an overview of the Japanese publishing industry and to compare it with the publishing industry in the United Kingdom to see whether similarities and differences are industry- or culture-specific. Design/methodology/approach. The paper provides detailed descriptions of the acti......Purpose. To provide an overview of the Japanese publishing industry and to compare it with the publishing industry in the United Kingdom to see whether similarities and differences are industry- or culture-specific. Design/methodology/approach. The paper provides detailed descriptions...... of the activities of the three main players in the Japanese publishing industry (publishers/editors; distributors; and booksellers). This tripartite structure of the industry encourages divide-and-rule mechanisms also found in the Japanese advertising industry. At the same time, a comparison with the UK publishing...... industry reveals certain structural differences between it and the Japanese publishing industry. Findings. Three developments that have affected trade relations in the UK publishing industry (retail chains, literary agents, and mergers and acquisitions) do not have such great impact in Japan. In Japan...

  16. Gendered Characteristics of Female Learners’ Conversational Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Yoshida


    Full Text Available This study examines gendered characteristics in four female Japanese language learners’ discourse practices in a communicative setting, where they interact with native Japanese speaking friends in a JFL context. Focusing on the relationship between gender ideologies and discourse practices, I explore the extent to which learners are aware of gender ideologies in the Japanese community and how these ideologies are influential in their discourse practices in the particular setting. In addition, how native speakers of Japanese evaluate gender-differentiated features produced by the learners during the interaction is investigated. Qualitatively-approached, this study revealed that each learner possesses a unique character in their utterances and perceptions, reflecting their individual awareness of gender ideologies and their negotiation of language use against the backdrop of social expectations. At the same time, a lack of such awareness emerged as an issue which kept them from fully and actively engaging in exploring their subjectivities. In addition, this study pointed out that native Japanese speakers utilised gender ideologies as the basis for their judgements on learners’ gendered features in their interaction.

  17. Japanese Vowel Devoicing: Cases of Consecutive Devoicing Environments. (United States)

    Tsuchida, Ayako


    Argues that devoicing sites in Japanese are specified for the feature, departing from the traditional phonological analysis of Japanese vowel devoicing, which considers devoicing as an assimilation of the feature [+spread glottis]. (Author/VWL)

  18. Japanese Language and "Characters": From the Perspective of Teaching Japanese as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko SHUKURI


    Full Text Available This paper introduces current status of "role language" and the "speaker's character" and their applications in Japanese teaching materials. Besides it studies the knowledge of Russian learners of Japanese and carefully examines their knowledge of four typical kinds of "role language" in Japanese anime and manga by using a questionnaire and follow-up interviews. From the results of the textbook research, the following two things are revealed; (a first person pronouns except for watashi are rarely used, (b there is not enough explanations about different "speaker's characters" in detail. Furthermore, findings of the questionnaire show that some of the learners who have the same impression of the characters as Japanese native speakers, wrongly connect a certain "role language" to illustrations of a character, and results of as much as three kinds of "role language" have a low positive correlation with the learners' results of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test. Results also reveal that all four kinds of "role language" have no correlation with other factors, such as student's duration of learning Japanese, or frequency of the use of Japanese outside the classroom.

  19. Japanese Small Type Coastal Whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Fisher


    Full Text Available 2016 marks the 70th anniversary of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW as well as the 30th anniversary of the International Whaling Commission’s (IWC moratorium on commercial whaling. It also marks three decades of effort by Japan to overturn this ban. Its strategy to circumvent the moratorium by issuing permits to kill protected whales for scientific research is famous—even the subject of a 2014 lawsuit at the International Court of Justice. Less well known is Japan’s strategy to overturn the ban by persuading the Commission to authorise a category of commercial whaling known as Small Type Coastal Whaling (STCW that is conducted on minke and other small whales in Japanese waters but has never been regulated, or even formally recognised, by the IWC. For three decades Japan has sought STCW catch limits for four communities which it claims are still suffering distress as a result of the moratorium. While the Commission has rejected each proposal, mainly citing concerns that the commercial nature and purpose of STCW violates the moratorium, Japan has persisted, exhibiting great flexibility in its approach. Its tactics changed significantly in 2014; it no longer denied (or defended the commerciality of the hunt, but argued that it is irrelevant since it sought only a small exemption to the moratorium which would remain intact for all other populations. This is a perspective on Japan’s evolving STCW strategy and the risk that lifting, or modifying, the moratorium would pose to the conservation of whales.

  20. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film


    Erika Smith


    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  1. Characterization and assessment of potential European and Japanese competition in photovoltaics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study is an assessment of the potential of European and Japanese firms to produce and market photovoltaic (PV) power systems internationally in competition with firms in the United States. It consists of three distinct parts: (1) an overview of worldwide export activity which describes the general posture of selected European countries and Japan; (2) an assessment of European competition focusing on Germany, France, and the United Kingdom; and (3) an assessment of Japanese competition. All research was conducted within the United States relying on published reports in the scientific, trade, and business press; a firm's annual reports; and telephone interviews with representatives of European and Japanese firms. European and Japanese government representatives were also contacted and government-sponsored programs evaluated. European competition is addressed in three areas: characterization of the PV industry; current and potential marketing activity; and the status of PV and related technological developments. The same areas are addressed for depicting Japanese competition except that greater emphasis is placed on past industrial experience and related semiconductor sales.

  2. The serum vaspin levels are reduced in Japanese chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Junko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine proteinase inhibitor (vaspin is an adipokine identified in genetically obese rats that correlates with insulin resistance and obesity in humans. Recently, we found that 7% of the Japanese population with the minor allele sequence (A of rs77060950 exhibit higher levels of serum vaspin. We therefore evaluated the serum vaspin levels in Japanese chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods Healthy Japanese control volunteers (control; n = 95, 49.9±6.91 years and Japanese patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy (HD; n = 138, 51.4±10.5 years were enrolled in this study, and serum samples were subjected to the human vaspin RIA system. Results The measurement of the serum vaspin levels demonstrated that a fraction of control subjects (n = 5 and HD patients (n = 11 exhibited much higher levels (> 10 ng/ml; VaspinHigh group, while the rest of the population exhibited lower levels (Low group. By comparing the patients in the VaspinLow group, the serum vaspin levels were found to be significantly higher in the control subjects (0.87±0.24 ng/ml than in the HD patients (0.32±0.15 ng/ml (p  Conclusions The creatinine levels are negatively correlated with the serum vaspin levels and were significantly reduced in the Japanese HD patients in the VaspinLow group.

  3. Drawing disability in Japanese manga: visual politics, embodied masculinity, and wheelchair basketball in Inoue Takehiko's REAL. (United States)

    Wood, Andrea


    This work explores disability in the cultural context of contemporary Japanese comics. In contrast to Western comics, Japanese manga have permeated the social fabric of Japan to the extent that vast numbers of people read manga on a daily basis. It has, in fact, become such a popular medium for visual communication that the Japanese government and education systems utilize manga as a social acculturation and teaching tool. This multibillion dollar industry is incredibly diverse, and one particularly popular genre is sports manga. However, Inoue Takehiko's award-winning manga series REAL departs from more conventional sports manga, which typically focus on able-bodied characters with sometimes exaggerated superhuman physical abilities, by adopting a more realistic approach to the world of wheelchair basketball and the people who play it. At the same time REAL explores cultural attitudes toward disability in Japanese culture-where disability is at times rendered "invisible" either through accessibility problems or lingering associations of disability and shame. It is therefore extremely significant that manga, a visual medium, is rendering disability visible-the ultimate movement from margin to center. REAL devotes considerable attention to realistically illustrating the lived experiences of its characters both on and off the court. Consequently, the series not only educates readers about wheelchair basketball but also provides compelling insight into Japanese cultural notions about masculinity, family, responsibility, and identity. The basketball players-at first marginalized by their disability-join together in the unity of a sport typically characterized by its "abledness."

  4. Japanese College Students' Attitudes towards Japan English and American English (United States)

    Sasayama, Shoko


    This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…

  5. Factor Structure of Japanese Versions of Two Emotional Intelligence Scales (United States)

    Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Fung, Tak Shing; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Kiyama, Sachiko


    This article reports the psychometric properties of two emotional intelligence measures translated into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the factor structure of a Japanese version of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) completed by 310 Japanese university students. A second study employed CFA…

  6. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...

  7. Teaching about Japanese-American Internment. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Mukai, Gary

    The Japanese-American internment experience during World War II continues to affect the Japanese-American community. This ERIC Digest provides six suggestions for teaching about the Japanese-American internment, touching on civil rights, immigration, the media, "loyalty," redress and reparations, and primary and secondary sources.…

  8. Classroom Management for Teachers of Japanese and Other Foreign Languages (United States)

    Horwitz, Elaine K.


    This article describes the classroom management component of the Professional Development of Japanese Teachers of Texas (PDJT), a certification program for teachers of Japanese. In addition, it offers suggestions in classroom management for teachers of Japanese and other foreign languages as well as guidance for teacher trainers to help new…

  9. Deaf signers who know Japanese remember words and numbers more effectively than deaf signers who know English. (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary; Moran, Aidan


    Deaf people have difficulty reading and remembering English script because of its sound-based orthography. Logographs (e.g., kanji, Arabic numerals) should not pose the same challenge because they are based on meaning, not sound. Little research has been conducted to test this theory's validity cross-culturally. The present study was an attempt to do just that. The first of two experiments tested immediate memory spans for word sequences of 20 hearing Irish, 20 prelingually deaf Americans, 20 hearing Japanese, and 20 prelingually deaf Japanese. For English words, deaf participants showed shorter memory spans than hearing participants, but memory spans were similar for deaf and hearing participants for words in kanji, the logographic system for Japanese writing. The second experiment tested memory span for Arabic numerals, with the same participants. Deaf English-readers showed shorter memory spans than their hearing counterparts, but deaf and hearing Japanese performed similarly.

  10. Japanese Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Katayama


    The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2012 (ADGL2012" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2013" together with those for other allergic diseases.

  11. Measuring Search Frictions Using Japanese Microdata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Masaru; Kohara, Miki; Machikita, Tomohiro

    This paper estimates matching functions to measure search frictions in the Japanese labor market and presents determinants of search duration to explain the effect of unemployment benefits on a job seeker’s behavior. We employ administrative micro data that track the job search process of individ......This paper estimates matching functions to measure search frictions in the Japanese labor market and presents determinants of search duration to explain the effect of unemployment benefits on a job seeker’s behavior. We employ administrative micro data that track the job search process...

  12. Japanese Onomatopoeic Expressions with Quantitative Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Vitalievna KUTAFEVA


    Full Text Available Grammatical category of quantity is absent in the Japanese language but there are many different grammatical, lexical, derivational and morphological modes of expression of quantity. This paper provides an analysis of the lexical mode of expression of quantitative meanings and their semantics with the help of onomatopoeic (giongo and mimetic (gitaigo words in the Japanese language. Based on the analysis, we have distinguished the following semantic groups: mimetic words A existence of some (large or small quantity (things, phenomena and people, B degree of change of quantity; and onomatopoeic words A single sound, B repetitive sounds.

  13. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword. (United States)

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand


    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed.

  14. Possessive Pronouns as Determiners in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru


    Possessive pronouns are used as determiners in English when no equivalent would be used in a Japanese sentence with the same meaning. This paper proposes a heuristic method of generating such possessive pronouns even when there is no equivalent in the Japanese. The method uses information about the use of possessive pronouns in English treated as a lexical property of nouns, in addition to contextual information about noun phrase referentiality and the subject and main verb of the sentence that the noun phrase appears in. The proposed method has been implemented in NTT Communication Science Laboratories' Japanese-to-English machine translation system ALT-J/E. In a test set of 6,200 sentences, the proposed method increased the number of noun phrases with appropriate possessive pronouns generated, by 263 to 609, at the cost of generating 83 noun phrases with inappropriate possessive pronouns.

  15. Collocational Relations in Japanese Language Textbooks and Computer-Assisted Language Learning Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.

  16. Emergent Processes of Language Acquisition: Japanese Language Leaning and the Consumption of Japanese Cultural Products in Thailand



    Motivation for learning a second language varies among individuals: some people enjoy the process of learning languages, while others learn a second language for practical reasons. Previous fieldwork research in Thailand has shown that many consumers of Japanese cultural products are also learners of the Japanese language. This suggests that Japanese cultural products motivate consumers to start studying Japanese and to continue learning it. In this study, two hypotheses will be posed in orde...

  17. [Development of a sex-specific molecular marker for Japanese hop Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc]. (United States)

    Aleksandrov, O S; Divashuk, M G; Karlov, G I


    Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc.) is a dioecious plant and a suitable model for studying the XX/XY1Y2 system of sex chromosomes. To develop a sex-specific marker, 12 RAPD and 36 ISSR markers were analyzed on the basis of pools of male and female plants identified after flowering. We were the first to identify ISSR marker K-16, which manifested stable amplification of an approximately 300-bp fragment in male plants and the absence of amplification in female plants in the populations examined. Marker effectiveness was confirmed in several Japanese hop populations of different origin.

  18. Non-Native Japanese Listeners' Perception of Vowel Length Contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) (United States)

    Tsukada, Kimiko


    This study aimed to compare the perception of short vs. long vowel contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by four groups of listeners differing in their linguistic backgrounds: native Arabic (NA), native Japanese (NJ), non-native Japanese (NNJ) and Australian English (OZ) speakers. The NNJ and OZ groups shared the first language…

  19. Language Specific Listening of Japanese Geminate Consonants: Cross-linguistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakata, M.; Shingai, M.; Brandmeyer, A.; Sulpizio, S.; Sekiyama, K.


    Various aspects of linguistic experience influence the way we segment, represent, and process speech signals. The Japanese phonetic and orthographic systems represent geminate consonants (double consonants, e.g. /ss/, /kk/) in a unique way compared to other languages: one abstract representation is

  20. The Japanese American Internment, 1942-45: A Lesson from Recent History. Multicultural Education Resource Series. (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia. Office for Equity Education.

    Designed for secondary school students, this 3-5 day unit focuses on the legal context of the Japanese-American internment during World War II and can be incorporated into a history unit or used as a case study of the American legal system or American race relations. Four lesson plans are provided. In lesson 1, the historical events of the…

  1. Japanese Approaches to Organizational Internationalization of Universities: A Case Study of Three National University Corporations (United States)

    Watabe, Yuki


    This study aims to develop an understanding of the internationalization processes at universities in Japan by exploring a strategic model in internationally oriented universities. Universities in Japan have experienced university reform since the 1990s. The role and system of Japanese universities have been re-examined due to an emerging global…

  2. Assessing technology in hospital logistical settings: Comparing Danish and Japanese healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter; Itoh, Kenji


    to health care institutions with very different backgrounds. Additionally the differences in-between the Danish and Japanese health care system have been identified as part of the process of developing and testing the framework. The study showed that there are big differences in-between the health care...

  3. Japanese Management: What Is It and Can It Be Used in Education? (United States)

    Jones, Franklin B.; Villines, Roger T.


    Discusses the Japanese management system, particularly the Theory Z emphasis on employee incentives, cooperation, trust, and focus on people. Reviews the American adaptation called "quality circles" and "team management" and shows how synergistic management techniques can be applied to building- and district-level school…

  4. School Socioeconomic Context and Teacher Job Satisfaction in Japanese Compulsory Education (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji


    Sociologists in education have pointed out disparities associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in the Japanese compulsory education system that was once regarded as egalitarian. In addition to disparities between individual students, prior studies have empirically shown SES-based disparities among schools on important indicators such as…

  5. A FAQ-Based e-Learning Environment to Support Japanese Language Learning (United States)

    Liu, Yuqin; Yin, Chengjiu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Qiao, Guojun; Yano, Yoneo


    In traditional classes, having many questions from learners is important because these questions indicate difficult points for learners and for teachers. This paper proposes a FAQ-based e-Learning environment to support Japanese language learning that focuses on learner questions. This knowledge sharing system enables learners to interact and…

  6. A Survey of Japanese Sources on the Use of English in Japan. (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda; Tanaka, Harumi


    Provides an overview of the different types of books about the use of English published in Japan and discusses some of the controversies about the role of English in Japan. New directions in the use of English are described that are reflected in new courses in the school system and in publications aimed at English-speaking Japanese. (56…

  7. Interview Survey Results and Analysis on New Trends in Open Innovation in Large Japanese Corporations (Japanese)


    MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki; Ueda, Yoji; MINO Motoyasu


    Japanese firms, having to face global innovation competition and business reorganization targeting emerging markets in the world, are actively engaged in open innovation. In this paper, an interview survey conducted on nine large Japanese manufacturers provides the new trends in open and global innovation. They include (1) establishment of a dedicated function of open innovation, (2) open approach for the whole process of new business development, (3) strategic alliance activities, (4) collab...

  8. [The newly certified 105 Japanese medical technologists in clinical microbiology]. (United States)

    Kumasaka, Kazunari


    Interest in quality assurance(QA) in clinical laboratories in Japan has increased over the past 30 years. We have however been lagging behind countries such as the USA, Canada and the UK in QA of clinical microbiology. The main problem of QA in Japan is human resources. There are only about 400 laboratory physicians certified by the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine(JSLM). Almost no academics in microbiology are interested in QA and they mostly lack clinical competence. There is a small number of faculty positions, and promotions are mostly based on research productivity while medical graduates are increasingly drawn to bench work for basic, short-term research. The Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology (JSCM) was established in 1990 in order to promote the development of clinical microbiology and its relevant fields in Japan. And 2001 was a milestone in sustained efforts of the JSLM to initiate qualifying examinations of medical technologists(MT) in clinical microbiology. 105 MT in clinical microbiology were newly certified by the Joint Committee of JSCM, JSLM, Japanese Association of Medical Technologists (JAMT) and College of Clinical Pathology of Japan(CCPJ). The certified MTs have appropriate educational background and are well motivated. With good on-the-job training, they are expected to perform effectively various tasks, including laboratory management. Recent radical changes in the health care delivery system have also had serious implications on laboratory services and QA of microbiological tests. The primary goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory is to provide accurate diagnostic testing and high-quality service at a low cost for its customers. It is believed that the Joint Committee and the newly certified MTs will contribute to narrowing the gap between Japan and other countries in clinical microbiology.

  9. Knowledge graph analysis of particles in Japanese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.


    The theory of knowledge graphs is a structuralistic theory of language. Its ontology consists of eight types of binary relationships and four types of so-called frames. The relationships connect so-called tokens, that represent semantic units. In this way a graph structure arises. Japanese particles

  10. Japanese and South Korean Environmental Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Tonami, Aki

    to resources. Aki Tonami, researcher at the Nordic Institute for Asian Studies and Anders Riel Müller of the Danish Institute for International Studies seek to nuance the discussion and demystify Japanese and Korean environmental aid. Through a historical analysis of the historical trajectories...

  11. Object Drop in Japanese and Korean (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Yamashita, Yoshie; Cho, Sookeun


    Languages can differ in fundamental ways with respect to the syntax of sentences with a "missing" direct object. Whereas Japanese and Korean permit null direct objects that are licensed under general discourse conditions (the recoverability of the referent from context) without regard for choice of verb, object ellipsis in English obeys lexical…

  12. Japanese Shame Culture and American Guilt Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Weijie


    Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.

  13. In Defense of Japanese Liberal Education (United States)

    Mori, Rie


    Liberal education has been a target of political discourse in many countries, and Japan is no exception. In Japanese higher education, there are three types of institutions: national public, local public, and private. In June 2015, Japan's minister of education, Hakubun Shimomura, called upon the country's national universities to take…

  14. Lexical Representation of Japanese Vowel Devoicing (United States)

    Ogasawara, Naomi


    Vowel devoicing happens in Japanese when the high vowel is between voiceless consonants. The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing. A long-term repetition-priming experiment was conducted. Participants shadowed words containing either a devoiced or a voiced vowel in three priming paradigms, and their…

  15. Learning Intelligent Genetic Algorithms Using Japanese Nonograms (United States)

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Fang, Jia-Cen


    An intelligent genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed to solve Japanese nonograms and is used as a method in a university course to learn evolutionary algorithms. The IGA combines the global exploration capabilities of a canonical genetic algorithm (CGA) with effective condensed encoding, improved fitness function, and modified crossover and…

  16. Operational benchmarking of Japanese and Danish hopsitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Andreas; Itoh, Kenji; Jacobsen, Peter


    This benchmarking model is designed as an integration of three organizational dimensions suited for the healthcare sector. The model incorporates posterior operational indicators, and evaluates upon aggregation of performance. The model is tested upon seven cases from Japan and Denmark. Japanese...

  17. Measuring Search Frictions Using Japanese Microdata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Masaru; Kohara, Miki; Machikita, Tomohiro


    This paper estimates individual-level matching functions to measure search frictions in the Japanese labour market and presents the determinants of search duration. We employ administrative microdata that track the job search process of job seekers who left or lost their job in August 2005...

  18. The Vicissitudes of a Medieval Japanese Warrior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten


    In standard accounts of medieval Japanese society, enormous stress is put on the conflicts between local landholders (zaichi ryôshu) and absentee proprietors. Fuelled by the debate on feudalism that divided scholars up until the early 1990s, these conflicts have widely been recognised as proof...

  19. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette


    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  20. Nationalism and Worldmindedness: Japanese Versus American Comparison. (United States)

    Der-Karabetian, Aghop; And Others

    Nationalism and worldmindedness are social cognitions that have both culture-unique and culture-universal aspects. To compare cross-cultural manifestations of these 2 sentiments, 270 Japanese and 210 American university students in Tokyo and Los Angeles answered questions on national resources, self-sufficiency and interdependence, communication,…

  1. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape. (United States)

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  2. Japanese-American Internment. A Historical Reader. (United States)


    This Historical Reader on "Japanese American Internment" in World War II introduces students to key events and issues during the period through the voices of people with firsthand experienced. Source documents and illustrations are arranged in chronological order and/or thematic units that establish context. Each selection is followed by…

  3. Japanese American Internment: A Historical Narrative. (United States)

    Pickering, Susan M.; Walker, Lori B.


    Maintains that little is written for elementary and middle school students about the World War II Japanese internment camps. Asserts that the issue can help teach about democratic principles and citizenship. Presents a role-playing dialog on the topic and includes recommended materials for students and teachers. (CFR)

  4. Introduction of Japanese Society of Oral Implantology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayoshi Kawazoe


    @@ In response to the significant advancement oforal implantology around the world, the JapaneseSociety of Oral Implantology (JSOI) was established in 1972. Its purpose is to promote and improve oral implantology in Japan, and introducesafe and predictable implant treatment methods.

  5. Japanese Management Theory and Library Administration. (United States)

    Clayton, Peter


    Provides an overview of Japanese management theory and suggests applications to library administration. Highlights include participative management; shared decision making; long-term objectives; organizational philosophy; staff training and human resource development; strategic planning; staffing issues; cooperation; quality control; and total…

  6. Japanese Children's Reasoning about Conflicts with Parents (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki


    Ninety-five Japanese children (aged 6-12) were interviewed using hypothetical stories to examine their reasoning about parent-child conflicts. Participants were most likely to reject parental authority and to support child's discretion in conflict situations where the parent interfered in the child's personal choice and gave the child commands…

  7. Recognition of International Education in Japanese Teachers (United States)

    Yoshida, Masami


    Education for international understanding in Japan was focused to develop its own national identity as well as to recognize its coexistence through intercultural education. Then, we have investigated the opinions of Japanese school teachers in terms of their recognition of the necessary content to introduce school instruction of intercultural…

  8. Internationalization in Practice in Japanese Universities. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akiyoshi; Lander, Denis


    Reports results of a study of internationalization practices of Japanese four-year colleges and universities with majors in humanities, social sciences, and education. Sketches Japan's policy concerning internationalization and its translation into higher education practice in the areas of numbers of students involved, program types, program…

  9. Mora or syllable? Speech segmentation in Japanese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otake, T.; Hatano, G.; Cutler, A.; Mehler, J.


    Four experiments examined segmentation of spoken Japanese words by native and non-native listeners. Previous studies suggested that language rhythm determines the segmentation unit most natural to native listeners: French has syllabic rhythm, and French listeners use the syllable in segmentation, wh

  10. Production of Japanese Soy-Sauce Flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.


    The salt-tolerant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis are important for the formation of flavour in Japanese soy-sauce processes. In these processes Z. rouxii produces the flavour components ethanol, higher alcohols and 4-hydroxyfuranones, while C. versatilis is responsible for th

  11. Borneo constituencies: Japanese rule and its legitimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raben, R.


    Thinking of wartime occupations, we tend to picture suppression, looting, and violent and arbitrary rule. For the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, the prevailing image is one of a brutal regime ruling Indonesian society at gunpoint and spoiling the lives of thousands, while incompetent administrato

  12. Dentistry in Korea during the Japanese Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIN Jae-Eu


    Full Text Available The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893. and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in september, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians(yipchisa without limit and controled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed. Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumerbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulation for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentist Suk-Tae Ham was registered No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan. it was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. it was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. the Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche'--'Japan and Korea are one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. TSOKUR


    Full Text Available The article describes some of the features of Japanese combat training of troops and their display in the wars of the late XIX – early XX century in connection with using of bladed weapons. Despite decreasing one’s role in modern warfare, much attention was paid to training bayonet fighting techniques and fencing swords. A British officer, F. Norman after a long learning Japanese fencing wrote about considerable superiority of Japanese swords and fencing systems. During the Russian-Japanese war 1904‒1905 there were widely used bayonets and sabres (swords, broadswords in the melee, but more often the bayonets were used. Most memoirs celebrate excellence in the Russian bayonet attacks. The fall of the role of the cavalry is not only sharply increased role of firearms, but also with the preparation of engineering positions. Combat training of reserve forces in Japan and Russia also differ significantly. According to General A. Kuropatkin, the Japanese reserve units sometimes were fighting better than the field troops. There is widely spread opinion in the scientific literature that the Japanese soldier was physically strong and hardy, brought on unquestioning fulfillment of all the requirements of command. Military reporter D. Yanchevetsky, who observed the actions of the Japanese troops during the march to Beijing in 1900, wrote that the Japanese are brave in the battle, but not endurance in the campaigns. They are dangerous and impetuous only in the first impact, but quickly weakened, and for the next blow they did not have enough strength and energy. They were pass long distance on the march and were ready to fight at the place of arrival. 

  14. Bone status assessment in Japanese subjects using speed of sound along the tibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objectives To explore the potential use of ultrasound measurement (SoundScan 2000 Compact, Myriad Ultrasound Systems Ltd., Rehovot, Israel), and to assess both quantitative and qualitative properties of bone. Methods The speed of sound waves (SOS; m/s) propagating along the cortical bone was determined at the tibial shaft. The performance, reliability, validity, and clinical application of this system were evaluated in Japanese subjects. Results In phantom experiments, validity of this system was 0.04(%), coefficient variation (CV: %) in same-day tests was 0.12, in five-separate-day tests was 0.13, and in independent operators was 0.11, respectively. In experiments with Japanese subjects, CV in same-day tests was 0.38, in five-separate-day tests was 0.99, and in independent operators was 0.90, respectively. In addition, cortical bone status of 1176 Japanese subjects (372 males, 804 females) was clinically evaluated by SoundScan 2000 Compact. SOS was negatively correlated with body fat percentage (%), body fat (kg) and waist hip ratio in females and subjects with higher weight bearing index (leg strength/body weight; WBI) have higher SOS in females under the age of forty. Conclusions These findings indicate that the SoundScan 2000 Compact is a highly reliable and valid method for determining cortical bone status and body composition and WBI are closely related to cortical bone status in Japanese females.

  15. Comparative genomics of Japanese Erwinia pyrifoliae strain Ejp617 with closely related erwinias. (United States)

    Thapa, Shree P; Park, Duck H; Kim, Won S; Choi, Beom S; Lim, Jong S; Choi, Ik Y; Hur, Jang H; Lim, Chun K


    Japanese Erwinia pyrifoliae strains cause bacterial shoot blight of pear (BSBP) in Japan. The genetics of Japanese Erwinia remains largely unknown relative to the abundant genomic information available for other Erwinia strains. We compared the genome of Japanese and Korean E. pyrifoliae strains along with those of E. amylovora and E. tasmaniensis. Comparisons with the Korean E. pyrifoliae strain revealed numerous gene insertions/deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in the central regions of the chromosomes. Approximately 80% (2843) of coding DNA sequences (CDSs) are shared by these two genomes which represent about three-quarters of the genome, and there are about 20% unique CDSs. Comparative analysis with closely related erwinias showed that 1942 (more than 50%) core open reading frames (ORF) are shared by all these strains. In addition to two type III secretion systems (hrp/dsp and inv/spa), the genome of Ejp617 encodes numerous virulence factors, including a type VI secretion system, an exopolysaccharide synthesis cluster, and another protein secretion system present in plant pathogenic Erwinia strains. The availability of whole genome sequence should provide a resource to further improve the understanding of pathogenesis in Japanese E. pyrifoliae Ejp617 and to facilitate evolutionary studies among the species of the genus Erwinia.

  16. 大学日语教学如何激发学生的学习积极性%How to Stimulate Students' Learning Motivation in University Japanese Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    在研讨激发学生学习积极性对大学日语教学深层次价值的基础上,提供了建立大学日语教学目标体系、重新解构大学日语教学结构、灵活进行大学日语教学的课堂设计等方法,激发学生学习大学日语的积极性,推进大学日语教学改革。%Based on the deep-seated values of inspiring students' motivation to university Japanese teaching, this paper provided methods of establishment of university Japanese teaching target system, re-deconstruction Japanese teaching structure of the university, flexible classroom design for university Japanese teaching to stimulate students' learning motivation of university Japanese and promote Japanese language teaching reform.

  17. Negotiating Colonial Korean Cinema in the Japanese Empire: From the Silent Era to the Talkies, 1923-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghwa Chung


    Full Text Available This article examines what I call a “system of cooperation” (K. hyŏp’ŏp, J. kyōgyō, 協業 in the colonial Korean film industry from 1923, when silent films appeared, to the late 1930s, when colonial cinema was restructured within an imperial wartime system. In other words, this article examines the interworking of colonial Korean and imperial Japanese cinema from Yun Hae-dong’s “colonial modern” perspective in order to go beyond the long established lens on colonial Korean film and film historiography that merely focused on the contributions of colonial Korean filmmakers. Here the author rather focuses on the cooperation or collaboration between Japan and Korea: Japanese directors and cinematographers working in Korea, Korean filmmakers with experience in the Japanese apprenticeship system, and filmmakers working together and independently during the silent film era. During the transition from the silent to the early talkie eras, second-generation filmmakers, especially those who trained in film studios in Japan, were significant. They dreamed of the corporatization of the colonial Korean film industry and took the lead in coproductions between Japanese film companies and their colonial Korean counterparts. Korean filmmakers were not unilaterally suppressed by imperial Japan, nor did they independently operate within the Korean film industry during the colonial period. The Japanese in colonial Korea did not take the lead in forming the colonial Korean film scene, either. The core formation of colonial Korean / Korean film was a process of Korean and Japanese filmmakers in competition and negotiation with one another within a complex film sphere launched with Japanese capital and technology.

  18. The expressive psychopathology of the Japanese poet, Sakutaro Hagiwara. (United States)

    Hayashi, Y


    Sakutaro Hagiwara is a famous Japanese poet from the early part of this century. His debut collection of poems, 'Tsuki ni Hoeru', contains a number of works characterized by the strange and abnormal impression they convey. The various and characteristic psychotic symptoms exhibited by this poet have been the subject of much discussion and pathographic description. However, it seems that there have been few considerations as to the meaning of such poetic expression for Sakutaro. In the present study, the relationship between his internal psychopathology and such forms of expression was examined. Furthermore, the influence of the contemporary fin de siècle art and the significance of the choice of poetry as his medium of expression was considered. It was found that his earliest psychopathological problems, such as anthropophobia (which could well be viewed as having been engendered by the particular Japanese cultural climate of that time) and systemic depersonalization, both led to his own anxiety about existence; expressing himself through the medium of poetry was a kind of self-healing act for Sakutaro, who had been suffering seriously from feelings of inadequacy and self-doubt.

  19. A view of environmental accounting in Japanese national university corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, A. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)


    Recently, the Japanese government has enacted many laws and regulations relating to climate change and environmental conservation. As a part of these trends, the government promulgated the Promotion of Environmental Consideration Law in 2004, and enacted the law on April 1, 2005. The law requires Specified Corporations including 60 National University Corporations (NUCs) to publish environmental reports annually. With the preparation of the environmental report, many NUCs have included environmental accounting information. This paper clarifies the status quo of environmental accounting information disclosed in NUCs' environmental report, and examines future directions of environmental accounting in NUCs. In order to achieve these objectives, firstly, the contents of environmental report by NUCs are overviewed, and the disclosed information of environmental accounting is analyzed. Secondly, the necessity of the introduction of environmental accounting systems into NUCs is examined. Third, we examine the future directions of environmental accounting in NUCs taking UK experiences into account. Fourth, some obstacles of environmental accounting are presented, and finally, some general implications for public service providing organizations are provided based on the lessons learned from the Japanese NUCs practices.

  20. Phylogeography of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) in the Japanese Archipelago based on chloroplast DNA haplotypes. (United States)

    Sugahara, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuko; Ito, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Sakio, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Wajiro; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki


    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago. To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that are distinguished from adjacent haplotypes by one or two steps. Most of the populations had a single haplotype, suggesting low diversity. Spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested three obvious phylogeographic structures in western Japan, where Japanese horse chestnut is scattered and isolated in mountainous areas. Conversely, no clear phylogeographic structure was observed from the northern to the southern limit of this species, including eastern Japan, where this plant is more common. Rare and private haplotypes were also found in southwestern Japan, where Japanese horse chestnuts are distributed sparsely. These findings imply that western Japan might have maintained a relatively large habitat for A. turbinata during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, while northerly regions could not.

  1. Japanese women in education: a retrospective and future vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Yamaguchi


    Full Text Available This article illustrates the evolution of Japanese female education based on feminist criti- cism of two events in Japan’s history; the establishment of the modern education system which occurred during the Meiji Restoration at the end of the nineteenth century, and the post-war reform after the Second World War which was directed by the Allied Forces. The argument is supported not only by data from the Ministry of Education, but also with qualitative aspects of sexism which have been insidiously validated through the course of its development. In doing so, the article is aimed at recovering women’s contribution within the educational system and reconfirming the significant role of gender studies.

  2. Japanese application of bioassays for environmental management. (United States)

    Kusui, Takashi


    The increasing number of existing and new chemicals demands ecotoxicological data as well as toxicological data for pre- and postmarketing risk assessments. Although human health has been the major concern in Japanese environmental management, ecosystem health is becoming the big issue as the need for preserving the diversity of ecosystems has been recognized. This recognition is changing the regulatory framework in Japan, resulting in new actions toward establishment of water-quality standards for aquatic organisms and ecotoxicological assessment of existing chemicals. At the same time, the need to assess complex liquids that contain several kinds of chemicals is increasing. The ecotoxicological study of Japanese effluents shows that the present chemical-specific standards are not enough to protect aquatic ecosystems. These two factors encourage the application of ecotoxicological tests as well as the toxicological data.

  3. Suicide awareness of japanese family descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tiemi Kawaziri Diogo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to comprehend the meaning of suicide for Japanese descendants. This was a qualitative study, based on Grounded Theory, using a structured interview with sixteen questions, digitally recorded. Subjects were ten descendants who were interviewed in 2011. The opinions of the interviewed showed factors of psychological, social and cultural origin involved in suicide, such as: heredity, religion, mental health, personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships, pleasure and pain at work, stigma and consequences of the act on the family. Family without case of suicide showed attitudes of prejudice and judgment, while those with case displayed feelings of pain in their reports. It was concluded that the Japanese rigid culture, personality, interpersonal communication and the way family and work have effects on their behavior are predisposing factors to suicide, as well as the identification of these factors contributes to a better performance of the nurse.

  4. Synesthetic colors for Japanese late acquired graphemes. (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko


    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for the Japanese logographic script, Kanji, were studied. The study investigated how synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually acquired later in life than other types of graphemes in Japanese language (phonetic characters called Hiragana and Katakana, and Arabic digits), are influenced by linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning. Of central interest was a hypothesized generalization process from synesthetic colors for graphemes, learned prior to acquisition of Kanji, to Kanji characters learned later. Results revealed that color choices for Kanji characters depend on meaning and phonological information. Some results suggested that colors are generalized from Hiragana characters and Arabic digits to Kanji characters via phonology and meaning, respectively. Little influence of orthographic information was observed. The findings and approach of this study contributes to a clarification of the mechanism underlying grapheme-color synesthesia, especially in terms of its relationship to normal language processing.

  5. The Axial Part Phrase in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Takamine


    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the categorial status of spatial terms in locative/directional expressions in Japanese. I will show that a certain class of spatial terms have a distinct categorial status from both regular postpositions and nouns. On one hand, syntactic diagnostics such as doubling, coordination by to, and co-occurrence with demonstratives indicate that these spatial terms belong to a nominal category rather than to a postpositional category. On the other hand, the fact that these spatial terms are modified by range modifiers indicates that they are more similar to regular postpositions than to nouns. On the basis of these diagnostics, I will argue that spatial terms in Japanese need to be assigned a new category Axial Part Phrase which is proposed by Svenonius 2006.

  6. Cognitive and neurophysiological evaluation of Japanese dyslexia. (United States)

    Shiota, M; Koeda, T; Takeshita, K


    Seven Japanese dyslexic boys were evaluated as to their pedagogic performance on the pupil rating scale (PRS), and psychological and neurophysiological characteristics. One of them suffered from severe English dyslexia despite that his Japanese dyslexia was feeble. PRS did not successfully reveal their reading difficulties. Psychological examination (WISC-R and K-ABC) revealed their cognitive dysfunction, but the results were heterogeneous. The Token test was most useful for detecting their poor reading comprehension. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence analysis showed high inter- and intra-hemispheric values. These findings may imply hyperconnectivity of the cerebral white matter in dyslexia. We assumed that the Token test demonstrates the discrepancy between reading and hearing comprehension best of all among these psychological tests and that connectivity between non-functional cortical lesions remains in dyslexic children.

  7. ITADICT Project and Japanese Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANTELLI, Alessandro


    Full Text Available This article aims to show how the Nuclear disaster in Fukushima (3 March 2011 affected Japanese Language teaching and learning in Italy, focusing on the ITADICT Project (Marcella Mariotti, project leader, Clemente Beghi, research fellow and Alessandro Mantelli, programmer. The project intends to develop the first Japanese-Italian online database, involving more than 60 students of Japanese language interested in lexicographic research and online learning strategies and tools. A secondary undertaking of ITADICT is its Latin alphabet transliteration of Japanese words into Hepburn style. ITADICT is inspired by EDICT Japanese-English database developed by the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group established in 2000 within the Faculty of Information Technology at Monash University. The Japanese-Italian database is evolving within the Department of Asian and North African Studies at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, the largest in the country and one of the main teaching centres of Japanese in Europe in terms of the number of students dedicated to it (1800 and number of Japanese language teaching hours (1002h at B.A. level, and 387h at M.A. level. In this paper we will describe how and why the project has been carried out and what the expectations are for its future development.-----Pričujoči članek predstavlja projekt ITADICT (vodja projekta Marcella Mariotti, sodelujoči raziskovalec Clemente Beghi, programer Alessandro Mantelli in vpliv nuklearne katastrofe v Fukushimi 3. marca 2011 na učenje japonščine v Italiji. Cilj projekta je razvoj prve spletne japonsko-italijanske baze podatkov, pri njem pa sodeluje več kot 60 študentov japonščine, ki jih zanima slovaropisje in učne strategije ter orodja na spletu. Drugi cilj projekta ITADICT je prečrkovanje japonskih besed v latinico, po sistemu Hepburn. Projekt je zastavljen po vzoru japonsko-angleške podatkovne baze EDICT, ki jo je razvila skupina Electronic Dictionary

  8. Japanese PM Taro Aso Visited Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan


    @@ To continue of bilateral high-level exchanges and deepening of cooperation,Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso visit China on April 29,2009.During his two days' visit,he met with Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao on April 29 and President Hu Jintao on April 30.Aso first met Hu on the sidelines of a meeting of the Group of 20 rich and industrializing nations in London.

  9. Japanese Dietmen's Delegation Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Invited by the China-Japan Friendship Association, (CJFA), a 12-member Japanese dietmen's delegation headed by Takeshi Noda,Diet member and former minister of home affairs,paid a visit to China from August 24 to 26, 2004.Tang Jiaxuan, state councillor, Lu Yongxiang, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Song Jian,

  10. Japanese National Safety Standards for Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junkichi Sumiya


    @@ I am working in Japan electrical safety & environment technology laboratory, which is called JET for short. In JET, we are carrying out the safety test of electrical equipment according to Japanese domestic standards or IEC standards. And in my section, our stuff is drafting some national safety standards harmonized with IEC in cooperation with the government. The standards are applied for the mandatory regulation and other schemes.

  11. Japanese Perspectives on Nutrition for New Millenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@The Japanese are the longest living people in the world. According to Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, the average life expectancy at birth for male born in 1997 was 77.10 years, and the figure for female was 83.99 years.   Our country is ranked first in the Healthy Life Expectancy as shown in Table 1. The total Disability Adjusted Life Expectancy (DALE) is 74.5 years.

  12. Teaching English Thesis Writing to Japanese Undergraduates


    Lambacher, Stephen G.


    This paper presents an overview of a course in thesis writing specifically designed for Japanese undergraduates studying English within a foreign language (EFL) context. The course provides students with the basic writing knowledge and skills necessary for documenting their research activities. All of the basic and relevant writing concepts, methods, and documentation formats necessary for completion of a thesis in English are incorporated into the course, which consists of lectures, thesis s...

  13. Lead in the Japanese living environment




    Lead has long been known to be a neurotoxic heavy metal, particularly in the context of occupational health. However, its adverse effect on the cognitive development of children at lower exposure levels has only recently received attention. Although the exposure level of contemporary Japanese children is among the lowest in the world, it is desirable to reduce exposure as much as reasonably possible due to the absence of a threshold of exposure for adverse effects. In this review, information...

  14. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Rhinitis 2014


    Kimihiro Okubo; Yuichi Kurono; Shigeharu Fujieda; Satoshi Ogino; Eiichi Uchio; Hiroshi Odajima; Hiroshi Takenaka


    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 7th editi...

  15. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle. (United States)

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu


    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.

  16. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Hamasaki


    Full Text Available The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2013 (JAGL 2013 describes childhood asthma after the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012 by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. JAGL 2013 provides information on diagnosis by age group from infancy to puberty (0–15 years of age, treatment for acute exacerbations, long-term management by anti-inflammatory drugs, daily life guidance, and patient education to allow non-specialist physicians to refer to this guideline for routine medical treatment. JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that JAGL emphasizes early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. A management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management drugs based on the status of asthma control levels, as in JAGL, is easy to understand, and thus the Guideline is suitable as a frame of reference for routine medical treatment. JAGL has also introduced treatment and management using a control test on children, recommending that the physician aim at complete control by avoiding exacerbation factors and by appropriate use of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  17. Arms and alliance in Japanese public opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, T.


    This thesis analyzes the transformation of Japanese public opinion concerning the nation's security posture during the past decade. Until the early 1970s, the peculiar strength of a neutralist-pacifist outlook among the Japanese people, which arose in large part from the absence of a serious external threat severely encumbered Tokyo's defense efforts in the context of the alliance with the United States. In particular, such state of domestic opinion gave rise to what the author has elected to call the institutionalized constraints - limitations deriving from constitutional interpretation, the Three Non-Nuclear Principles, and the Three Principles on Weapons Exports - on the scope of such endeavors. It moreover prepared the condition for the Government's adoption of restrictive military buildup policies in the National Defense Program Outline. Over the past decade, however, as Japan's security environment has deteriorated with the growth of the putative Soviet threat, and as the United States and China have come to expect greater Japanese defense efforts, the climate of opinion within Japan has gradually shifted in favor of a security posture based on the Mutual Security Treaty (MST) and the Self-Defense Forces (SDFs). Opinion polls have come to indicate solid popular approval of maintenance of armament and participation in alliance.

  18. Speech level shift in Japanese and Slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina BAJRAMI


    Full Text Available In verbal communication, we always aim to establish and maintain harmonious relations with others. Proper use of expressions and the choice of the way we speak are closely connected with politeness. In Japanese speech level is a level of formality or politeness in conversation, which is expressed by the use of linguistic forms (formal vs. informal within and at the end of an utterance and the use of honorific expressions. In Slovene the level of formality or politeness in conversation is mainly expressed by the use of formal language and general colloquial language. Speech level shift is a shift from one speech level to another – e.g. from a formal style to an informal, etc. According to previous research, these shifts express speaker's psychological distance and a change of attitude towards a hearer. In this paper I will first briefly present the theoretical framework of politeness and an outline of speech levels in Japanese and Slovene. I will then present the data and the method used in this study. Finally, I will present and discuss the results of the analysis of both Japanese and Slovene conversation.

  19. Acoustic correlates of Japanese pitch accent (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yukiko


    Acoustic correlates of Japanese pitch accent were investigated using bimoraic/disyllabic pairs of words that are identical except for their accent patterns. For example, /hana/ ``flower'' and /hana/ ``nose'' have the same phonological shape and pitch levels (low-high) yet they differ in that ``flower'' is accented but ``nose'' is unaccented. The most notable acoustic difference between the two accent patterns is realized by the F0 of the following word when there is one. There have been debates about whether the two accent patterns are acoustically different when the following word is excluded. It has been proposed that the F0 maximum is higher, and/or the F0 movement is larger for the accented words. While previous studies used only a few pairs of words, this study tests all 20 pairs of words found by searching a computerized dictionary [Amano and Kondo (1999)] that had a relatively high word familiarity. The F0 maximum and movement were measured in the 20 pairs of words as produced by native speakers of Tokyo Japanese (males and females) in isolation and two frame sentences. Implications of their results for the nature of accent in Japanese and the perception of accent will be discussed.

  20. Japanese Language Education from "the Standpoint of Facilitation"



    In "Language Education as a Hope for a Sustainable Society", Uehara (2014) discussed a systematic language education from the standpoint of a native language education. This article also discusses the same topic, but this time the author does so from the standpoint of teacher training. The report includes the Japanese language education as a method of interaction, Japanese language education from the perspective of facilitation and actual practice of the method in a Japanese language teacher ...

  1. Construction of gender images in Japanese pornographic anime


    Barancovaitė-Skindaravičienė, Kristina


    The article explores the means of gender image construction in Japanese pornographic animation (hentai anime). Alongside other genres of Japanese animation, during the last decades hentai anime has gained enormous popularity all over the world. Gender as a category is especially emphasised in the animation of sexually explicit content, therefore hentai anime plays an important role as a visual medium representing the images of Japanese masculinity and femininity on the international level. Ba...

  2. Automatic Addition of Genre Information in a Japanese Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul BLIN


    Full Text Available This article presents the method used for the automatic addition of genre information to the Japanese entries in a Japanese-French dictionary. The dictionary is intended for a wide audience, ranging from learners of Japanese as a second language to researchers. The genre characterization is based on the statistical analysis of corpora representing different genres. We will discuss the selection of genres and corpora, the tool and method of analysis, the difficulties encountered during this analysis and their solutions.

  3. Internationalization of IKEA in the Japanese and Chinese markets.


    Cheancharadpong, Wanee; Chaletanone, Wannapa


    Date: June 4, 2008 Level: Master Thesis EFO705, 10 points (15 credits) Authors: Wannapa Chaletanone (05-11-1982, Thailand) Wanee Cheancharadpong (03-09-1983, Thailand) Title: Internationalization of IKEA in the Japanese and Chinese markets Supervisor: Leif Linnskog Problems: Why did IKEA internationalize into Japanese and Chinese markets? And what factors did influence IKEA’s success in Chinese market but failure in the Japanese market of the first round? Purpose: The aim of thesis is to unde...

  4. The Korean-Japanese Territorial Dispute Over Dokdo/Takeshima (United States)


    military troops in Manchuria on February 20. When Kuroki was fighting in Pyongyang, Kuropatkin arrived in Harbin on March 27, and Liaoyang, his main...25 A. POWER STRUGGLE OVER MANCHURIA AND KOREA...................25 1. Memory of the Sino-Japanese War...OUTBREAK OF THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR A. POWER STRUGGLE OVER MANCHURIA AND KOREA While the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) was a struggle for the

  5. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA. (United States)

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank


    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted.

  6. "Characters" in Japanese Communication and Language: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki SADANOBU


    Japanese speakers are keenly conscious of the self’s situation-sensitiveness, but there is no need to think of Japanese society as unique just because it was the first to come out about this fact to the world. This characteristic of Japanese society can be understood as a difference of degree; that is, there is "a low degree of freedom in style, and a correspondingly large degree of freedom in character."

  7. Present status and future plans of the Japanese earth observation satellite program (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi; Arai, Kohei; Igarashi, Tamotsu

    Japan is now operating 3 earth observation satellites, i. e. MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1, Momo-1 in Japanese), EGS (Experimental Geodetic Satellite, Ajisai in Japanese) and GMS (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, Himawari in Japanese). MOS-1 has 3 different sensors, MESSR (Multispectral Electronic Self Scanning Radiometer), VTIR (Visible and Thermal Infrared Radiometer) and MSR (Microwave Scanning Radiometer) in addition to DCS (Data Collection System). GMS has two sensors, VISSR (Visible and IR Spin Scan Radiometer) and SEM (Solar Environmental Monitor). EGS is equipped with reflecting mirrors of the sun light and laser reflecters. For the future earth observation satellites, ERS-1 (Earth Resources Satellite-1), MOS-1b, ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) are under development. Two sensors, AMSR (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) and ITIR (Intermediate Thermal IR Radiometer) for NASA's polar platform are initial stage of development. Study and planning are made for future earth observation satellites including Japanese polor platform, TRMM, etc.). The study for the second generation GMS has been made by the Committee on the Function of Future GMS under the request of Japan Meteorological Agency in FY 1987.

  8. Experiences of Japanese University Students’ Willingness to Speak English in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant L. Osterman


    Full Text Available English as a foreign language (EFL in Japan is becoming a mandatory subject in all compulsory educational systems. Currently, the average Japanese student will study EFL for at least 8 years. Yet despite this period of time, Japanese continually score low on international English tests. Using a qualitative descriptive multiple case study method, the willingness to communicate (WTC in a Japanese university setting was researched. Twelve student participants, ranging in age from 18 to 20, were interviewed in one Japanese university classroom. Data were gathered by classroom observations and post-class interviews. Data were analyzed by using qualitative software to aggregate the data into five themes. The results revealed that although the prior experiences with learning English has been mostly positive, students believe that the grammar-based learning has not been helpful in developing oral communication competency and what would help is an earlier start to oral English communication. Other findings revealed that the classroom environment has a severe impact on students’ WTC and the interaction with other students in the class. Recommendations for future research include gathering more case studies to compare and test students who have had an opportunity to start English learning earlier and the benefits of grammar-based learning.

  9. High maltose sensitivity of sweet taste receptors in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) (United States)

    Nishi, Emiko; Tsutsui, Kei; Imai, Hiroo


    Taste sensitivity differs among animal species depending on feeding habitat. To humans, sucrose is one of the sweetest natural sugars, and this trait is expected to be similar in other primates. However, previous behavioral tests have shown that some primate species have equal preferences for maltose and sucrose. Because sweet tastes are recognized when compounds bind to the sweet taste receptor Tas1R2/Tas1R3, we evaluated the responses of human and Japanese macaque Tas1R2/Tas1R3 to various natural sugars using a heterologous expression system. Human Tas1R2/Tas1R3 showed high sensitivity to sucrose, as expected; however, Japanese macaque Tas1R2/Tas1R3 showed equally high sensitivity to maltose and sucrose. Furthermore, Japanese macaques showed equally high sensitivity to sucrose and maltose in a two-bottle behavioral experiment. These results indicate that Japanese macaques have high sensitivity to maltose, and this sensitivity is directly related to Tas1R2/Tas1R3 function. This is the first molecular biological evidence that for some primate species, sucrose is not the most preferable natural sugar, as it is for humans. PMID:27982108

  10. Health Information in Japanese (日本語): MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Japanese (日本語) URL of this page: Health Information in Japanese (日本語) To use ...

  11. On the Construction and Implementation of a Diverse Practical Teaching System of Vocationally-oriented Business Japanese%职业导向商务日语专业多元立体实践教学体系的构建与实施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳健; 张佩霞


    商务日语专业是实践性很强的复合应用型专业,但现实中其实践教学在理论和实务上存在诸多问题.本研究以职业(要求)为导向,以"实用主义""、建构主义""、语言习得理论"等思想理论为基础和指导,从实践教学的目标、内容、模式、管理监控、评价、质量跟踪反馈六个方面多元立体构建商务日语专业实践教学体系,并从师资建设、多媒体实验室建设、第二课堂建设、涉日资源利用、实践教学动力机制等方面探讨了如何实施开展商务日语专业实践教学.%Business Japanese is practical and compound, so there are some difficulties in the theories and implementation of its practical teaching. This paper looks at the basis of several theories, such as pragmatism, constructivism and language acquisition, to form a diverse practical teaching system for business Japanese from six aspects, namely, the target, its contents, the mode, the management, the evaluation and the feedback. The paper approaches the subject of how to effectively implement practical teaching methods from different directions, for instance the teaching staff, media laboratories, the second class, resources related to Japan and motivation of practical teaching.

  12. Records About Japanese Americans Relocated During World War II (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This series contains personal descriptive data about Japanese Americans evacuated from the states of Washington, Oregon, and California to ten relocation centers...

  13. 当代日本弓道体系对中国传统弓箭发展的启示%Enlightenments of Contemporary Japanese Kyudo System on the Development of Traditional Chinese Archery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By analyzing the history of Chinese and Japanese archery, the paper interprets the Japanese Kyudo from the perspective of the three-level theory of culture, believing that the archery culture is the tranquil way cultivating mind, which serves as a wonder drug to combat the cotemporary social blunderingness. However, the thousand-year traditional Chinese archery is faced with the dilemma of being lost. Japan, on the other hand, has turned its traditional archery into Kyudo although it has always been influenced by Chinese culture, which enables itself to be in line with the contemporary society without losing its tradition and plays its proper role in society. Chinese archery should follow suit to update its development mode so as to keep up with the times.%本文通过中日弓箭历史的梳理,并从文化三层次理论的视角出发,就核心价值层、制度习俗层、物器技术层三个方面对日本弓道体系加以解构,认为弓箭文化是一种主静的修心运动,是针对现今时代社会浮躁的一剂良药,但当前在中国历史上延续了上千年的传统射艺,发展至今正面临者失传的困境;而在中国文化影响下的日本,将传统射艺发展成为了日本弓道,在保持传统的基础上适应当代社会的需要,将战场上厮杀的射艺转化为了体育运动,在其社会中发挥着应有的作用。我国传统弓箭也因该在保持传统的同时加强与时代的接轨,在传统与现在之间找到平衡的发展点。并且有针对性的借鉴日本弓道体系的优点,进行自身的建设。

  14. [The alteration of Japanese anatomical terminology in the early Showa period and the Japanese language reform campaign]. (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo


    In the second decade of the Showa period, great changes were made in the Japanese anatomical terms. It has been proposed that the presentation of JNA (Jenaer nomina anatomica) was one of the factors leading to the change. The Japanese language reform campaign, however, played an important role. The party kokugoaigo doumei and its successor kokugo kyokai required concise and unified technical terms. The anatomical nomenclature committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists worked to satisfy this requirement. The committee consulted with nomenclature committees of other medical associations and took account of their opinions. The anatomical nomenclature committee abandoned the literal translation from Latin to Japanese and shaped a succinct Japanese terminology. Modern Japanese anatomical terms are based on this terminology.

  15. A Survey of Register Labelling in Japanese Dictionaries: Towards the Labelling of Words in Dictionaries for Learners of Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako MAEBO


    Full Text Available Writing by learners of Japanese as a foreign language often contains words that do not fit the style of their context. One possible reason for this is the lack of information on word connotation and usage labels in existing dictionaries. The present study examines the current state of connotational information and register labels in Japanese learner’s dictionaries, Japanese language dictionaries and dictionaries of synonyms, and proposes a possible technique for analysing the words’ descriptions. The study reveals that Japanese learner’s dictionaries and dictionaries for Japanese native speakers use different register labels and assign them from a different perspective. In the case of synonyms, presenting them in their context of use appears to be more useful than only listing them. Finally, the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ - Gendai Nihongo Kakikotoba Kinkoo Koopasu is used to show how corpora can be a very important linguistic resource for the analysis of lexical register.

  16. The Japanese business model, and how globalization is changing it. Is change necessary for Japanese companies?


    Daníel Jón Guðjónsson 1985


    The Japanese business model is one of the most intriguing aspects of Japanese society in my view due to its ability to export high quality products at low prices. The model’s success after the Second World War meant that Japan was the first Asian country to become a first world nation where living standards and longevity were among the highest in the world. Recently however, it can be said that the model has been changing in order to fit into the emerging global business environment wher...

  17. The Stroop Effect in Kana and Kanji Scripts in Native Japanese Speakers: An fMRI Study (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; Filippi, Christopher G.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie A.


    Prior research has shown that the two writing systems of the Japanese orthography are processed differently: kana (syllabic symbols) are processed like other phonetic languages such as English, while kanji (a logographic writing system) are processed like other logographic languages such as Chinese. Previous work done with the Stroop task in…



    Kim KyoungOk; Takatera Masayuki; Zhu AliChunhong; Otani Tsuyoshi


    To better understand the reasons for the marketability of clothing now designed and sold in China and Japan, we asked Japanese and Chinese experts to evaluate Chinese and Japanese brands of clothing currently for sale in the Japanese market. The marketability of the Chinese apparel items in the Japanese market was evaluated by the Japanese experts. Five Japanese jackets were purchased from a department store in Tokyo, and ten items of Chinese clothing were purchased from a department store in...

  19. Trends and Determinants in the Japanese Cross-Border M&As


    Filobok, Natalia


    This paper provides an overview of the recent trends in the Japanese cross-border M&A activity in 1988-2004 and investigates the factors influencing them. We develop classifications of theoretical foundations and factors of M&A activity and their application for the Japanese case. The article examines two categories of the Japanese M&As - transactions with Japanese companies as a target (sales) and transactions with Japanese companies as an acquirer (purchases). In the Japanese cr...

  20. Two German-Japanese Workshops

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Hans-Hermann; Imaizumi, Tadashi; Okada, Akinori


    This volume presents theories, models, algorithms, and applications in clustering, classification, and visualization. It also includes applications of clustering, classification, and visualization in various fields such as marketing, recommendation system, biology, sociology, and social survey. The contributions give insight into new models and concepts and show the variety of research in clustering, classification, and visualization.

  1. The teaching of music history in Japanese music education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Sonoda


    Full Text Available One of the leading institutions in the field of musicology in Japan is the one hosted by “Tokyo University of the Arts” (previously Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music. The musicology course, started in 1949, was, and still is, the main promoter of music history teaching in the Japanese university system. A reflection on the over 60 years of its existence, which has been characterized by the fortunate coexistence of musicology students and students of ‘practical’ musical courses, might contribute to raise awareness among European musicologists about the pedagogic-didactic task that is expected of them in the current situation of Western musical culture.

  2. Savings Groups and Rural Financial Markets: Japanese and Thai Experiences

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    Ohno Akihiko


    Full Text Available Savings groups/credit unions serve as a financial intermediary within a village by mobilizing savings from rural households and extending loans to them. This system often encounters an issue of excess funds when total savings exceed loan demands within a credit union. In Thailand rural financial markets created by savings groups are segregated not only from those created by other savings groups but also from formal financial markets. Excess funds become a critical issue for some savings groups and hinder their development. On the other hand, in Japan, the market integration with respect to excess funds was pursued by organizing segregated rural credit markets (horizontal integration and aligning rural credit markets with formal financial markets (vertical integration. This paper discusses the contrasting evolutionary paths of Japanese credit unions and Thai savings groups to offer practical insights for Lao savings group movement.

  3. Japanese encephalitis: Challenges and intervention opportunities in Nepal

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    Shristi Ghimire


    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito borne zoonotic disease caused by JE virus (JEV. JE has been endemic in Terai region, the lowland plains of Nepal bordering India, since 1978. However, in recent years cases of JE has been continuously reported from high altitude zones of hills and mountains. Irrigated rice farming system, expanded pig husbandry practices, inadequate vaccine coverage, low level of public awareness and climate change favoring mosquito breeding in higher altitudes might be the probable risk factors for emergence and re-emergence of JE in Nepal. Repeated outbreak in endemic areas and geographical expansion to newer areas have created huge challenge for JE prevention and control. At present, JE is one of the major public health concern of Nepal. Expanding vaccine coverage, improving agricultural practices, generating public awareness, supporting for use of mosquito avoiding practices and regional collaboration at border against JE can be helpful in getting better control over it in future.

  4. MHC class II DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus

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    Yasukochi Yoshiki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are one of the most important genetic systems in the vertebrate immune response. The diversity of MHC genes may directly influence the survival of individuals against infectious disease. However, there has been no investigation of MHC diversity in the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus. Here, we analyzed 270-bp nucleotide sequences of the entire exon 2 region of the MHC DQB gene by using 188 samples from the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus from 12 local populations. Results Among 185 of 188 samples, we identified 44 MHC variants that encoded 31 different amino acid sequences (allotypes and one putative pseudogene. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that MHC variants detected from the Japanese black bear are derived from the DQB locus. One of the 31 DQB allotypes, Urth-DQB*01, was found to be common to all local populations. Moreover, this allotype was shared between the black bear on the Asian continent and the Japanese black bear, suggesting that Urth-DQB*01 might have been maintained in the ancestral black bear population for at least 300,000 years. Our findings, from calculating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, indicate that balancing selection has maintained genetic variation of peptide-binding residues at the DQB locus of the Japanese black bear. From examination of genotype frequencies among local populations, we observed a considerably lower level of observed heterozygosity than expected. Conclusions The low level of observed heterozygosity suggests that genetic drift reduced DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear due to a bottleneck event at the population or species level. The decline of DQB diversity might have been accelerated by the loss of rare variants that have been maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. Nevertheless, DQB diversity of the black bear appears to be relatively high compared with some other

  5. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

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    Greg Robinson


    Full Text Available

    The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  6. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson


    Full Text Available The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  7. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald


    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  8. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eNakano


    Full Text Available The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii a semantically-related form, and (iv a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i, (ii and (iii, but not for (iv. This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i, but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii and (iii. In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts – orthographically related, but which - in their commonly written form - share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system affect the processing of (morphologically complex words.

  9. International Inequality in the Age of Globalization: Japanese Economic Ascent and the Restructuring of the Capitalist World-Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Ciccantell


    Full Text Available This paper shows how Japanese ?rms and the Japanese state constructed a development model based on the steel industry as a generative sector that drove Japan’s economic ascent in the world-historical context of U.S. hegemony. We make three arguments in this paper. First, there is a new model of capital accumulation that does create new forms of social inequality by redistributing costs and bene?ts in very di?erent ways than earlier models. Second, Japanese ?rms and the Japanese state created this new model of capital accumulation and social inequality via mechanisms including joint ventures, long term contracts, and other forms of international trade and investment, not U.S.-based transnational corporations, as is usually assumed. Third, world-systems theory reconstructed through the lens of the new historical materialism explains this restructuring of the capitalist world-economy as the outcome of Japan’s economic ascent over the last ?fty years. Further, we argue that this new model of capital accumulation has had similar impacts on redistributing the costs and bene?ts of development between core and peripheral regions of the capitalist world-economy in a wide range of global industries. These strategies created a tightly linked set of technological and organizational innovations to overcome the natural and social obstacles to Japanese development, dramatically increase Japan’s international economic competitiveness by lowering production costs in all sectors of the economy, turn Japan into the world’s largest exporter of manufactured products, restructure a range of global industries, and recreate the world-system hierarchy in support of Japanese development. In particular, organizational inno-vations in the use of long term contracts and joint ventures in raw materials industries to foster global excess capacity and lower rents to resource extracting ?rms and states reallocated the costs of providing the material building blocks of

  10. Current status of Japanese detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu


    Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

  11. Acoustic comparisons of Japanese and English vowels produced by native speakers of Japanese (United States)

    Nishi, Kanae; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Kubo, Rieko; Strange, Winifred


    This study explored acoustic similarities/differences between Japanese (J) and American English (AE) vowels produced by native J speakers and compared production patterns to their perceptual assimilation of AE vowels [Strange et al., J. Phonetics 26, 311-344 (1998)]. Eight male native J speakers who had served as listeners in Strange et al. produced 18 Japanese (J) vowels (5 long-short pairs, 2 double vowels, and 3 long-short palatalized pairs) and 11 American English (AE) vowels in /hVbopena/ disyllables embedded in a carrier sentence. Acoustical parameters included formant frequencies at syllable midpoint (F1/F2/F3), formant change from 25% to 75% points in syllable (formant change), and vocalic duration. Results of linear discriminant analyses showed rather poor acoustic differentiation of J vowel categories when F1/F2/F3 served as input variables (60% correct classification), which greatly improved when duration and formant change were added. In contrast, correct classification of J speakers' AE vowels using F1/F2/F3 was very poor (66%) and did not improve much when duration and dynamic information were added. J speakers used duration to differentiate long/short AE vowel contrasts except for mid-to-low back vowels; these vowels were perceptually assimilated to a single Japanese vowel, and are very difficult for Japanese listeners to identify.

  12. The Impact of Western Criticisms of Japanese Rhetorical Approaches on Learners of Japanese (United States)

    McKinley, Jim


    For learners of Japanese, a conundrum arises at university level as they are expected to be able to shift between direct and indirect language in various writing tasks. The apparent indirectness in inductive language is required of regular writing tasks such as response essays and e-mails, while the directness of deductive academic writing, a…

  13. Trait Anxiety among Japanese Massage Practitioners with Visual Impairment: What Is Required in Japanese Rehabilitation Education? (United States)

    Donoyama, Nozomi; Munakata, Tsunetsugu


    This questionnaire-based study of Japanese massage practitioners with visual impairment (n = 155, 126 males, 29 females, mean age = 41 years) found that measures of self-repression, helplessness and "daily hassles" were positively correlated to measures of trait anxiety. Also, trait anxiety was negatively associated with measures of…

  14. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in a Higher Education Context (United States)

    Demir, Kadir; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Hart, Lynn C.


    The purpose of this article is to describe a reform model of instructional collaboration, Japanese lesson study, which has been shown in previous research to enhance reform-based teaching. Japanese lesson study is a method of professional development in which teachers collaborate with peers and other specialists to improve teaching and learning.…

  15. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese (United States)

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro


    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

  16. Japanese investment in Peru: limits of developmental investment


    Kamiya, Marco


    Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.

  17. Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience (United States)

    Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa


    Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional…

  18. Normalizing Social Networking in a Beginners' Japanese Course (United States)

    Morofushi, Mari; Pasfield-Neofitou, Sarah Ellen


    With the spread of the Internet, students now have greater opportunities to use Japanese outside of the classroom. For example, they can interact with other Japanese speakers through instant messaging or social networking, or utilize online dictionaries and translation tools to decipher websites in ways that would be impossible with traditional…

  19. Vowel devoicing and the perception of spoken Japanese words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Otake, T.; McQueen, J.M.


    Three experiments, in which Japanese listeners detected Japanese words embedded in nonsense sequences, examined the perceptual consequences of vowel devoicing in that language. Since vowelless sequences disrupt speech segmentation [Norris et al. (1997). Cognit. Psychol. 34, 191–243], devoicing is po

  20. Development of Text Reading in Japanese: An Eye Movement Study (United States)

    Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko


    This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…

  1. Curricular, Relational, and Physical Spaces in the Japanese Hoikuen (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel E.; Kuby, Candace R.


    Recent scholarship looks at the relationship of learning to space and place within educational research. The purpose of this article was to put data produced from teaching in four Japanese preschools into conversation with spatial theory and Ma, a Japanese spatial esthetic. We seek to understand "how" and "what" spaces…

  2. Development of the Gerotranscendence Scale Type 2: Japanese Version (United States)

    Hoshino, Kazumi; Zarit, Steven H.; Nakayama, Makoto


    This study developed the Japanese version of the Gerotranscendence Scale Type 2 (the GST2) and examined reliability and validity of the scale. In Japan, 525 community-dwelling older adults (Male = 260, Female = 265) answered a questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the Japanese version of the GST2 revealed the same three-factor structure…

  3. "Peace and Progress" Chinese and Japanese Contemporary Calligraphy Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the sign-ing of Sino-Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, a "Peace and Progress" Chinese and Japanese Contemporary Calligraphy Exhibition jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the Chinese Association for Promoting Cultural Development, the Federation of Re-

  4. The Lived Experiences of "Taibatsu" in Japanese High School Wrestling (United States)

    Kumate, James M.; Falcous, Mark


    The issue of "taibatsu" (physical punishment) in Japanese sport has received high-profile media and public attention in recent years. This article addresses the retrospective experiences of "taibatsu" within Japanese high school wrestling, drawing upon a three-month ethnography that included semi-structured interviews. Our…

  5. Interlanguage Pragmatics Study of Indirect Complaint among Japanese ESL Learners (United States)

    Baba, Junko


    This interlanguage pragmatics study of linguistic expressions of affect focuses on how Japanese learners of English may express themselves in an affect-laden speech act of indirect complaint. The English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' data are compared with the baseline data of native speakers of Japanese (JJ) and American English (AA). The…

  6. Interlanguage Pragmatic Features of Japanese and Korean Learners of English. (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Ja; Nakano, Michiko


    Focuses on the interlanguage pragmatic strategies used by Japanese and Korean learners of English. Data was collected from a project carried out jointly by Korean and Japanese university students. Observation, analysis, and discussion of student data suggest that interspeaker understanding and sensitivity to pragmatic variables of the target…

  7. Positioning Foreign English Language Teachers in the Japanese University Context (United States)

    Whitsed, Craig; Volet, Simone


    This study employs positioning theory to explore the experiences of adjunct foreign English language teachers (AFELT) in the Japanese university sector. The research is located in the broad internationalisation discourse and considers AFELT positions as "foreign" teachers at a time when the Japanese university sector is aiming to…

  8. Japanese Naval Military Culture in the Pacific War (United States)


    examples of the Japanese warrior traditions include the samurai and the samurai code of bushido. Up to the Pacific War, Japan’s ascendance as a military...Patterns of Japanese Culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Cameron, Craig M. American Samurai : Myth, Imagination, and the Conduct of Battle in the

  9. Japanese Matsuyama Ballet Troupe's Performance Tour in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To mark the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, the 91-member Japanese Matsuyama Ballet Troupe gave performances of the new adaptation of Swan Lake, two in the Shanghai Grand Theatre and four in the Beijing Tianqiao Theatre,from October 7 to 18, 2003, successfully concluding their 12th performance tour in China.

  10. Japanese Matsuyama Ballet Troupe’s Performance Tour in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>To mark the 25th anniversary of the signing of the SinoJapanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, the 91-member Japanese Matsuyama Ballet Troupe gave performances of the new adaptation of Swan Lake, two in the Shanghai Grand Theatre and four in the Beijing Tianqiao Theatre, from October 7 to 18, 2003, successfully concluding their 12th performance tour in China.

  11. Evidence for and Characteristics of Dyslexia among Japanese Children. (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Banks, Adam


    Assessment of 125 fourth graders in Japan found that 4 boys and 4 girls qualified as dyslexic, challenging the belief that dyslexia is largely absent among Japanese children. Japanese schoolchildren who decoded kana text slowly also performed poorly in digits reversed and other areas. Characteristics of these students are described. (Author/JDD)

  12. Marco Polo Parkside,Beijing Opens New Japanese Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Marco Polo Parkside, Beijing opened a new Japanese Restaurant, Matsuko, on January 28,2010. A traditional Japanese sake ceremony was held at the opening ceremony. Hotel General Manager Henk Meyknecht and Zhan Weiguo, CEO of Matsuko, opened the sake barrel and shared the sake with

  13. Acquisition of Japanese contracted sounds in L1 phonology (United States)

    Tsurutani, Chiharu


    Japanese possesses a group of palatalized consonants, known to Japanese scholars as the contracted sounds, [CjV]. English learners of Japanese appear to treat them initially as consonant + glide clusters, where there is an equivalent [Cj] cluster in English, or otherwise tend to insert an epenthetic vowel [CVjV]. The acquisition of the Japanese contracted sounds by first language (L1) learners has not been widely studied compared with the consonant clusters in English with which they bear a close phonetic resemblance but have quite a different phonological status. This is a study to investigate the L1 acquisition process of the Japanese contracted sounds (a) in order to observe how the palatalization gesture is acquired in Japanese and (b) to investigate differences in the sound acquisition processes of first and second language (L2) learners: Japanese children compared with English learners. To do this, the productions of Japanese children ranging in age from 2.5 to 3.5 years were transcribed and the pattern of misproduction was observed.

  14. Japanese International Female Students' Experience of Discrimination, Prejudice, and Stereotypes (United States)

    Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel


    This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…

  15. Children of the "Danchi": A Japanese Primary School for Newcomers (United States)

    Gordon, June A.


    Practices and policies of Japanese schooling for immigrant and marginalised students are examined through the lens of a primary school which serves one of the largest foreign student populations in Japan. Student families include Southeast Asian refugees, South American immigrants of Japanese descent, recent and longstanding Chinese and Koreans,…

  16. Memory contested, locality transformed : representing Japanese colonial 'heritage' in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiang, Min-Chin


    In the search for a Taiwanese identity rooted in the land of Taiwan the Japanese colonial past plays an ambiguous role. The Japanese colonial sites became a constituent part of the new identity and cultural narrative of Taiwan in the 1990s and 2000s, when a memory boom was experienced in Taiwan repr

  17. Identity Construction, Negotiation, and Resistance: Reconsideration of "Japanese" Identity (United States)

    Fukuda, Chie


    This dissertation explores identity construction, mainly focusing on the ethnonational identity of "Japanese," in contrast to that of "non-Japanese" from ethnomethodological and social constructionist perspectives. Within these approaches, identity is not given "a priori" but emerges through sociohistorical contexts…

  18. Japanese Lesson Study: Teacher Professional Development through Communities of Inquiry (United States)

    Doig, Brian; Groves, Susie


    Japanese Lesson Study has come under increasing attention from educators in the West and throughout South-East Asia since it was revealed outside Japan through the release of the TIMSS Video Study. In this paper we argue that Japanese Lesson Study provides a model for large scale, sustainable professional development. In particular, we draw on our…

  19. Silence in the Second Language Classrooms of Japanese Universities (United States)

    King, Jim


    Japanese language learners' proclivity for silence has been alluded to by various writers (e.g. Anderson 1993; Korst 1997; Greer 2000) and is supported by plenty of anecdotal evidence, but large-scale, empirical studies aimed at measuring the extent of macro-level silence within Japanese university L2 classrooms are notably lacking. This article…

  20. Compulsory "Foreign Language Activities" in Japanese Primary Schools (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kayoko


    From 2011, the new curriculum for introducing English to Japanese primary schools will be fully implemented in the form of "foreign language activities". This innovation forms part of the government's plan to cultivate "Japanese with English abilities", a development based on the awareness, particularly in the business sector,…

  1. On the Teaching of Japanese: The State of the Art. (United States)

    Martin, Samuel E.

    Until the coming of World War II, little interest was shown in the teaching of Japanese outside Japan except for the elementary schools set up to inculcate the ways of the homeland among the offspring of Japanese emigrants to places like Hawaii, the Pacific Coast of North America, and Brazil. A few European and American universities offered…

  2. Business Communication Needs of Japanese Companies in Malaysia (United States)

    Su, Yeoh Lee; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku; Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar


    Business relationship between Japan and Malaysia has developed very quickly in recent years. This has caused a dramatic increase in the need for individuals who possess language skills to function in Japanese businesses. In order to investigate the needs of our Malaysian graduates, a survey was conducted involving graduates of Japanese language…

  3. Intransparent German number words complicate transcoding - A translingual comparison with Japanese

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    Korbinian eMoeller


    Full Text Available Superior early numerical competencies of children in several Asian countries have (amongst others been attributed to the higher transparency of their number word systems. Here, we directly investigated this claim by evaluating whether Japanese children’s transcoding performance when writing numbers to dictation (e.g., twenty five  25 was less error prone than that of German-speaking children; both in general as well as when considering language-specific attributes of the German number word system such as the inversion property, in particular. In line with this hypothesis we observed that German-speaking children committed more transcoding errors in general than their Japanese peers. Moreover, their error pattern reflected the specific inversion intransparency of the German number-word system. Inversion errors in transcoding represented the most prominent error category in German-speaking children, but were almost absent in Japanese-speaking children. We conclude that the less transparent German number-word system complicates the acquisition of the correspondence between symbolic Arabic numbers and their respective verbal number words.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png Elaphe_clim...acophora_NL.png Elaphe_climacophora_S.png Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png ...

  5. Moyamoya in Hispanics: not only in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmad Said


    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease was first described in 1957 as hypoplasia of the bilateral internal carotid arteries, the characteristic appearance of the associated network of abnormally dilated collateral vessels on angiography was later likened to something hazy, like a puff of cigarette smoke, which, in Japanese, is moyamoya. This paper describes two cases of moyamoya presentations, including moyamoya disease and moyamoya syndrome. Moyamoya may rarely occur in North American Hispanic patients. The presentation can vary significantly and ranges bwtween fulminant outcome and prolonged survival. Awareness about moyamoya and its different presentations may be beneficial for the patients and can improve the outcome.

  6. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan


    Saito, Toshihiro


    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systemati...

  7. Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter in 2010 (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Ishii, N.; Satoh, T.; Abe, T.; Imamura, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.


    Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO"FProject Code Planet-C) is the first Japanese Venus orbiter to be launched in 2010. It aims at studying the atmospheric dynamics of Venus. In this talk we will report its engineering aspect to meet its science purposes, and also present the present status of the VCO development. We have finished the Proto-Model integration test of major components of VCO in December 2007. In March 2008, we finished the CDR for the phase-up (to Phase D). The flight model development will be finalized by 2009 and the final integration test will be done during whole 2009.

  8. Worldwide academic contributions of Japanese neurosurgeons. (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomio; Hashiguchi, Kimiaki; Yoshimoto, Koji; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro


    Based on the data reported in the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy 2010, Japan is ranked in fourth place in the world in terms of the numbers of the articles in the fields of clinical medicine. However, there had not been any objective data regarding the numbers of publications by neurosurgeons. As it is important for neurosurgeons to realize the extent of academic contributions by the neurosurgeons in different countries, the numbers of publications in the major journals by the members of the Japan Neurosurgical Society and those from neurosurgical institutions around the world were analyzed using both the biomedical literature database PubMed and the publication database "ISI Web of Knowledge." Parts of the results were presented in the 69th Annual Meeting of the Japan Neurosurgical Society. As to the number of neurosurgical publications in English from the top 9 countries, the US has been consistently in first place and Japan in second. However, the number of publications from Japan has been decreasing since 2000. With regards to the "top 8 journals" such as the Lancet and the Journal of the American Medical Association, the number of first-author publications by Japanese neurosurgeons increased in the late 1980s and had been 2-9 articles per year until recently. In the "top 12 neuroscience journals" which include Stroke, Neuro-Oncology, Cancer Research, and others, Japan had been in the third next to the US and UK till 2004, but Germany surpassed Japan in 2005. In the "top 6 clinical journals" such as the Journal of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery, the US has been consistently keeping first place and Japan second place since 1977. Searches using the key word elucidated that Japanese neurosurgeons are greatly contributing in the field of "aneurysm." Regarding the number of publications per neurosurgeon, Canada and UK are in the forefront and Japan is down to eighth place. Japanese neurosurgeons have been contributing greatly next to the

  9. Clinical aspects of Japanese cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Okuda


    Full Text Available Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis is a major national health problem in Japan. The present review provides an update on information on JCPsis based on clinical data from our research group, through the support of the Department of Health and Welfare (Japanese Government, during the period from 1988 to 1997, because this disease is infrequently documented internationally despite a large number of publications from Japan. The information on JCPsis presented here may be of use in the management of various kinds of pollinosis prevalent in other countries. The prevalence rates of JCPsis vary from district to district and also depend on the age of the subjects, the method of analysis and the year of examination in population. Yet, on an average, the incidence of JCPsis is presumed to be 10-20% in adults and 5-10% in children. The risk factors for sensitization and the onset of symptoms seem to be dependent on the amount of air-borne pollen, the age of school children, hereditary disposition, including human leukocyte antigen type and the high levels of specific IgE in childhood. Because pollen counts also vary depending on many factors, such as the type of pollen samplers used, yearly variations, the number of pollen count stations, the atmospheric temperature and solar radiation in the previous year of the season, accurate predictions of daily and seasonal pollen counts are rather difficult. Commercial crude extracts and purified allergenic substances Cry j I and II correlate well with the skin test and the radioallergosorbent test. Japanese cedar pollen has an allergenic component that is cross-reactive with Japanese cypress. In many patients, the onset of symptoms occurs on the day when the air-borne pollen count is 10/cm2 (the Durham method and, if severe symptoms occur due to intense exposure to pollen, the symptoms will last for a long time despite variations in the pollen count (priming effect. Eye glasses, face masks and keeping windows and

  10. Extracting diagnosis from Japanese radiological report. (United States)

    Imai, Takeshi; Onogi, Yuzo


    This study is aimed at extracting diagnosis with positive or negative assertion from radiological report written in Japanese Natural Language. We get frequency of verb patterns that indicate pos/neg assertion, and extract a rule in order of the occurrence. We made customized dictionary of 36,152 terms relating to disease names or radiological findings, and tried to extract pairs of (pos/neg, disease and verb pattern ) by using rules according to the most frequent pattern from 1,524/5,000 CT reports (each report consists of 15.1 words on the average). We tried only a few rules so far, and continue to find other rules.

  11. Handwritten Japanese Address Recognition Technique Based on Improved Phased Search of Candidate Rectangle Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehisa NAKAYAMA


    Full Text Available In the field of handwritten Japanese address recognition, it is common to recognize place-name strings from place-name images. However, in practice, it is necessary to recognize the place-name strings from address images. Therefore, we have proposed the post-processing system, which checks the list of the place-name strings in two-stages for recognizing the place-name images. In this paper, we propose a new technique based on phased search of candidate rectangle lattice, and improve the technique with the detection of key-characters for final output. Applying our proposal to the IPTP 1840 image data of address strings, the results of experiments clearly show the efficiency of our system in handwritten Japanese address recognition.

  12. Japanese Chinese character%日本汉字文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Japanese absorbed Chinese character from our nation, and also created ideographs which originated in Japan and Japanese Chinese. Chinese character widely used in daily life has become an important means of writing Japanese. And closely linked to the Japanese daily life, reflecting the spiritual life and the Japanese national character reflect the Chinese culture in Japan.%日本民族在吸收我国汉字的基础上创造了国字和和制汉语,在日常生活中广泛使用,成为表记日语的重要手段,与日本人的日常生活密切相连,反映了日本人的精神生活和民族性格,折射出日本汉字文化。

  13. [Evaluation of "Japanese Journal of Psychology" using citation analysis]. (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa; Baba, Mamiko; Tabata, Naoya; Shimoda, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Mildki; Okubo, Nobutoshi


    This study investigated the professional impact of "Japanese Journal of Psychology." Thirty four psychological journals written in Japanese were selected to register articles in a new database. This database included approximately 23,900 articles published through 2010. Using citations extracted from the references and footnotes in these scholarly journals, the Psychology Citation Index for Japanese Papers was created. The citation impact factors in Japanese psychology was determined on the basis of the number of times a journal was cited, cumulative impact factors, and the cited half-life of the journal; five years was a valid period for impact factor of psychological journals in Japan. The changes in the 5-year impact factors of "Japanese Journal of Psychology" were reviewed by comparing it with other journals.

  14. A Japanese Class as a Teaching for Engineer (United States)

    Soda, Yukiko

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a writer‧s opinion about the ability of Japanese language that engineers should acquire. The writer is a teacher of a college of technology. And this study expresses writer‧s opinion by showing own teaching method. The writer thinks that there are no special Japanese only for engineers. This study shows that an ability of Japanese language is not just the ability of reading or presentation, but is the ability combined with ‘reading skill’ , ‘writing skill’ , ‘listening skill’ , and ‘expressing skill’ . Therefore, there is no difference between the Japanese ability of students for engineer and the Japanese ability of students for other majors.

  15. Japanese Martial Arts as Popular Culture: Teaching Opportunity and Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Robert NAGY


    Full Text Available Japanese martial arts, here after Japanese budō, are popular cultural icons that are found in films, comics, video games and books. Teaching Japanese budō at university offers a novel way to teach about East Asian and in particular Japanese culture, history, and philosophy while including ideas about the globalization and the localization of culture. Question though remains as to how and what should we teach about the popular culture of Japanese budō at the university level? This paper found that a comprehensive approach to teaching about budō was effective. By using many kinds of materials and the incorporation of opportunities to experience budō and to try budō, students were better able to grasp the historical, cultural and religious characteristics of budō.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.


    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  17. 浅谈大学日语精读课教学%On College Japanese Intensive Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从语言学习的角度看,大学日语精读课程是决定日语教学质量和日语学习质量的关键课程,我国大学日语教学中有历来重视精读课教学的传统,这是我国大学日语教学取得各类辉煌成果的基础和保证。新时期应该从大学日语精读课教材选择、讲授方法、教学任务、学生学习、教学模式、教学重点的变革入手,探寻新时期大学日语精读课教学的新亮点,在提升大学日语精读课教学质量的同时,更为全面、系统地发挥出大学日语精读课教学的价值。%To learn from the language point of view, the University of Japanese intensive reading course is the key courses in teaching of Japanese language and Japanese language learning quality of, our country university Japanese teaching there has always attached great importance to the traditional teaching of intensive reading, which is the basis and guarantee of all kinds of brilliant achievements made in our college Japanese teaching. In the new period should be from University of Japanese intensive reading textbook selection, teaching methods, teaching task, students' learning, teaching mode, teaching focus on the change of, explore the new bright spot in the new period of intensive reading teaching in College Japanese, in improving the quality of Teaching College Japanese intensive reading at the same time, more comprehensive, system to play the value of College Japanese Teaching of intensive reading.

  18. Changes in daily pollen concentration based on meteorological data and days after seasonal initiation - a case study for Japanese hop (United States)

    Choe, H.; Kim, K. R.; Kim, M.; Han, M. J.; Cho, C.; Choi, B. C.


    Pollinosis causes various allergy symptoms such as seasonal rhinitis, asthma, and conjunctivitis (Min, 1991). Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus) is a major allergen in southern Gyonggi-do during the fall seasons (Park, 1998). So that it is needed to forecast the concentration of its pollens.For the germination of Japanese hop, a period of low temperature (model.As a result, a regression model was produced to forecast daily pollen concentration. It can be integrated into the daily pollinosis warning system of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and provide more accurate daily risk information.

  19. Public engagement in Japanese policy-making: A history of the genetically modified organisms debate


    SHINEHA, Ryuma; Kato, Kazuto


    New laws regulating the use of genetically modified organisms have recently been enacted in Japan, and there were many stakeholders involved in the development of this policy. Our review of the history and the debates held in the course of policy development regarding genetically modified organisms in Japan shows that the current regulatory system was developed taking past national and international regulatory contexts into consideration. The turning point in Japanese policy-making occurred e...

  20. Role of surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinomabased on Japanese clinical guidelines for hepatocellularcarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hisashi Nakayama; Tadatoshi Takayama


    In the Algorithm for Diagnosis and Treatment in theJapanese Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelinesfor Hepatocellular Carcinoma, the treatment strategyis determined by three major factors liver functionand the number and size of tumors. The algorithm isquite simple, consisting of fewer components than theBarcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. In thisarticle, we describe the roles of the treatment algorithmin hepatectomy and perioperative management ofhepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Pregnancy Outcomes Based on Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index in Japanese Women


    Enomoto, Kimiko; Aoki, Shigeru; Toma, Rie; Fujiwara, Kana; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Hirahara, Fumiki


    Objective To verify whether body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is valid in Japanese women. Method A study was conducted in 97,157 women with singleton pregnancies registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System between January 2013 and December 2013, to examine pregnancy outcomes in four groups stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI category according to the 2009 criteria recommended by the I...

  2. Locomotor activity rhythm in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica elvers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Under artificial LD cycles (6, 12, 18 L), the elvers of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, showed a 24 h cycle of locomotor activity rhythm being most active at light transitions: the eels' activity rose to a primary peak after lights-off, followed by a quiescent period during which they buried into the shelters or lying motionlessly on sand for most of the time, and then reached a secondary peak before lights-on. Elvers could resynchronize their activity rhythm with a new photo cycle within 4 d. Moreover, their activity level at dark phase significantly increased as the light period was prolonged: higher activity levels during shorter dark period. However, the elvers did not display clearly the existence of a circadian rhythm under constant light or dark conditions. The timing of daily activity rhythm evidenced in the Japanese eels may occur through the action of the LD cycles with a weak participation of an endogenous circadian system. In all the LD cycles, over 99% of the activity occurred in the dark phase, indicating that the eels were always nocturnally active no matter what time of day it might be. Under 12 L conditions, the eels' activity level and the time outside sand were significantly elevated both at light and dark phases as temperature increased from 10~15 to 20~25 ℃. The activity rhythm pattern (i.e., two peaks occurring around light transitions) did not apparently change among temperatures. However, in contrast with the primary activity peaks immediately after lights-off at 20 and 25 ℃, the timing of the primary peaks at 10 and 15 ℃ showed a latency of a few hours following lights-off, indicating the inhibiting effect of low temperature on the eels' activity.

  3. The Role of Japanese as a Heritage Language in Constructing Ethnic Identity among Hapa Japanese Canadian Children (United States)

    Noro, Hiroko


    Today, Japanese Canadians are marrying outside of their ethnic community at an unprecedented rate, resulting in the creation of a newly identifiable group of "Japanese Canadians" borne from these interracial unions. Members of this emergent group are increasingly being referred to both by social scientists and self-referentially as…

  4. Ethics committees in Japanese medical schools. (United States)

    Saito, T


    The present features and functions of ethics committees in 80 Japanese medical schools were surveyed by employing questionnaires. Seventy-nine schools had already established committees on each campus (however, the ethics committee at Kitasato Medical University was formally established after the completion of this survey). The major role of Japanese ethics committees may be said roughly to correspond to that of Institutional Review Boards (IRB) in the U.S., although ethics committees have other functions as well. Among the ethics committees' many problems, two significant weaknesses should be underscored. The first is the inappropriate composition of the membership of the committees: more non-campus members, younger professionals, and women should be invited to participate. The second concern is the committees' essentially closed review process: this process has not been adequately open to the public even in cases in which the issue of the patient's confidentiality does not arise. However, several schools are now preparing to open their meetings to non-members and this policy should improve the present situation. It is fortunate, however, that the ethics committees in Japan's medical schools were established by members from each campus and not as a response to national directives or legislation.

  5. Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children (United States)

    Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide


    [Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644

  6. Japanese Encephalitis: Estimating Future Trends in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Metelka


    Full Text Available Limited surveillance programs and lack of diagnostic laboratory testing capacity in many low and middle income Asian countries have made it difficult to validate epidemiological patterns and anticipate future changes in disease risk. In this study, we consider the case of Japanese Encephalitis in Asia and examine how populations of human hosts and animal reservoirs are expected to change over the next three decades. Growth was modelled at the sub-national level for rural and urban areas to estimate where high-density, susceptible populations will potentially overlap with populations of the virus' amplifying host. High-risk areas based on these projections were compared to the current distribution of Japanese Encephalitis, and known immunization activities in order to identify areas of highest priority for concern. Results indicated that mapping JE risk factors at the sub-national level is an effective way to contextualize and supplement JE surveillance data. New patterns of risk factor change occurring in Southeast Asia were identified, including around major urban areas experiencing both urbanization and growth in pig populations. A hotspot analysis of pig-to-population ratio found a significant spatial cluster extending northward through Southeast Asia and interior China. Mapping forecasted changes in risk factors for JE highlights regions vulnerable to emerging zoonoses and may be an important tool for developing effecting transnational health policies.

  7. The representation of women in Japanese written media The representation of women in Japanese written media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiko Yasumoto


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the representation of women in Japanese society in relation to men with respect to the use of language. One selected section of the published media has been used to determine if the Japanese language still propagates the traditional role of women as being different to and beneath that of men or if there has been some change. The traditional relationship of women to men is called in Japanese dan-son jo-hi and dates back to before the Meiji era. dan-son jo-hi involves the idea that men should be respected and not women, that women have lower status than men in society. As a case study, the magazine AERA that purports to be the “Time magazine of Japan” was selected. Thirty articles published between 2000 and 2002 from “Josei” the women’s section of AERA, were examined by using three analytical techniques: Content analysis; Foregrounding analysis; Gender control and Gender image analysis. These three analyses show that the messages about a woman’s role vary from one of promoting historical traditional attitudes through to more current “Western attitudes” with respect to equal status for women. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the representation of women in Japanese society in relation to men with respect to the use of language. One selected section of the published media has been used to determine if the Japanese language still propagates the traditional role of women as being different to and beneath that of men or if there has been some change. The traditional relationship of women to men is called in Japanese dan-son jo-hi and dates back to before the Meiji era. dan-son jo-hi involves the idea that men should be respected and not women, that women have lower status than men in society. As a case study, the magazine AERA that purports to be the “Time magazine of Japan” was selected. Thirty articles published between 2000 and 2002 from “Josei” the women’s section

  8. GIS Education at Geographical Departments in Japanese Universities in Relation to the Japan Standard GIS Core Curriculum (United States)

    Sasaki, Midori; Oguchi, Takashi; Okabe, Atsuyuki; Sadahiro, Yukio


    Geographic information system (GIS) education in Japan lags far behind that in Western developed countries. As such the development of systematic GIS education in Japanese universities, including the preparation of a GIS standard curriculum, becomes an urgent issue. This article examines the present situation and recent trends of GIS education in…

  9. The Japanese Smart Grid Initiatives, Investments, and Collaborations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaidono Masao


    Full Text Available A smart grid delivers power around the country and has an intelligent monitoring system, which not only keeps track of all the energy coming in from diverse sources but also can detect where energy is needed through a two-way communication system that collects data about how and when consumers use power. It is safer in many ways, compared with the current one-directional power supply system that seems susceptible to either sabotage or natural disasters, including being more resistant to attack and power outages. In such an autonomic and advanced-grid environment, investing in a pilot study and knowing the nation’s readiness to adopt a smart grid absolves the government of complex intervention from any failure to bring Japan into the autonomic-grid environment. This paper looks closely into the concept of the Japanese government’s ‘go green’ effort, the objective of which is to make Japan a leading nation in environmental and energy sustainability through green innovation, such as creating a low-carbon society and embracing the natural grid community. This paper paints a clearer conceptual picture of how Japan’s smart grid effort compares with that of the US. The structure of Japan’s energy sources is describe including its major power generation plants, photovoltaic power generation development, and a comparison of energy sources between Japan and the US. Japan’s smart community initiatives are also highlighted, illustrating the Japanese government planned social security system, which focuses on a regional energy management system and lifestyle changes under such an energy supply structure. This paper also discusses Japan’s involvement in smart grid pilot projects for development and investment, and its aim of obtaining successful outcomes. Engagement in the pilot projects is undertaken in conjunction with Japan’s attempt to implement a fully smart grid city in the near future. In addition, major smart grid awareness

  10. Women's Attitudes and Behaviors in American, Japanese, and Cross-National Marriages. (United States)

    Minatoya, Lydia Yuriko; Higa, Yoshimitsu


    Conducted comparative analysis of marriage and childrearing among Japanese women married to Japanese men, American women married to American men, and Japanese-born women married to American-born men (JA). Data from 428 women reflected differences between American and Japanese cultural values. JA women's attitudes and behaviors toward marriage…

  11. Development of Framework in K-12 Japanese as a Second Language. (United States)

    Kite, Yuriko K.; Nunan, David

    The origins and design of a framework for Japanese second language instruction and curriculum development, created for use in international schools in Japan, are described. The effort was part of a Japanese Language Project undertaken by the Japanese Council for International Schools and funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education. The guiding…

  12. The Japanese Assistant Teacher Program in Western Australia: A Consideration of the Pros and Cons (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi


    It is quite common for Australian schools introducing Japanese as a foreign language to engage native Japanese volunteers to assist in the classroom using a collaborative team-teaching approach. These volunteer Japanese assistant teachers, commonly referred to as Japanese Assistant Teachers (JATs), are an indispensable asset to school language…

  13. Acquisition and Utilization of Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce in Europe and USA : Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information at the University of Warwick (United States)

    Miyakawa, Takayasu; Miwa, Makiko; Kanda, Toshihiko

    Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce which was organized by the British Library, being supported by NTIS and JICST, at the University of Warwick on 1-4 September 1987. Topics discussed include, US policy on Japanese information, EEC/Japan-Info Project, various private initiatives, language barrier and translation, education of Japanese language and personnel exchange programme, quality and usage of Japanese secondary materials, original document delivery, Japanese produced databases and foreign access to them, requests upon JICST and other Japanese information services.

  14. An Analysis of the Contribution of Japanese Business Terms to Corporate Sustainability: Learnings from the “Looking-Glass” of the East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lozano


    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been increasing research on Corporate Sustainability, whereby most of such research was undertaken in the Western world. This paper is aimed at analysing the contribution of Japanese Business terms to Corporate Sustainability. The paper analyses, using Grounded Theory, 28 Japanese business terms through a Corporate Sustainability framework based on the four dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental, social, and time, the company system (operations and processes, strategy and management, organisational systems, procurement and marketing, and assessment and communication, and stakeholders (internal, interconnecting, and external. The underpinning principles of the Japanese business terms provide complementary approaches to Western views on corporate sustainability by offering a more holistic perspective by linking the company system and its stakeholders to the four dimensions of sustainability. The paper proposes that Corporate Sustainability can learn from Japanese business approaches through: (1 the interaction and alignment of the factory, the firm, and inter-firm network; (2 the relationships between management and employees; (3 the inter-linkages between the company system elements; and (4 how Japanese companies remained competitive, even under the stress of a long-term major economic crisis. However, the analysis indicates that the relationship with external stakeholders and communicating with them through assessment and reporting is lacking in Japanese business management practice. Japanese businesses and their management can also learn from the Corporate Sustainability of the West by: (1 considering the four dimensions of sustainability and how they interact; (2 taking a holistic and systemic approach to Corporate Sustainability; (3 engaging in more Corporate Sustainability research; and (4 making Corporate Sustainability part of a company’s culture and activities. Businesses in the East and

  15. Dental fear of Japanese residents in the United States. (United States)

    Domoto, P.; Weinstein, P.; Kamo, Y.; Wohlers, K.; Fiset, L.; Tanaka, A.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate dental fear in a sample of Japanese adults and to make preliminary comparisons with a previously described US sample. The survey instrument was translated into Japanese and then translated back into English and was sent to 839 Japanese residing in the Seattle area. A total of 419 (49.9%) usable questionnaires were returned. Results indicate a level of fear higher than the US population (only 17.9% were not at all afraid). Fear level did not vary by age; most respondents (73.3%) acquired their fear in early childhood. While reported utilization was lower than the American sample, the percentage of Japanese respondents who reported being hurt at the last appointment was high (68.0%). Japanese respondents indicated that 35% of dentists appeared to be in a hurry, hurry being associated with being hurt. Japanese coping practices appeared to differ from the American sample. For example, 14.7% of the Japanese whereas 28.2% of the US sample requested the dentist to stop treatment. PMID:1814250

  16. Pattern Based Term Extraction Using ACABIT System

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Koyama, Teruo; Daille, Béatrice; Romary, Laurent


    In this paper, we propose a pattern-based term extraction approach for Japanese, applying ACABIT system originally developed for French. The proposed approach evaluates termhood using morphological patterns of basic terms and term variants. After extracting term candidates, ACABIT system filters out non-terms from the candidates based on log-likelihood. This approach is suitable for Japanese term extraction because most of Japanese terms are compound nouns or simple phrasal patterns.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromu; Takashima, Yuya; Ishiguri, Futoshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuo; Yokota, Shinso


    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  18. Tradition, Modernity and the Role of Confucianism in the Creation of the Japanese Nation-State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Culiberg


    Full Text Available The paper explores the development of Confucian thought in Japan, showing that Confucianism, with its key concept of the Way, remained the foundation of Japanese intellectual circles even as it underwent numerous transformations and reinterpretations. The universal Way as a natural Principle was transformed into a product of the sages within the framework of the kogaku school, whereas the kokugaku school applied the concept of the Way to the Japanese Shinto tradition. The adherents of the rangaku school, on the other hand, adopted Western science and technology in the Confucian intellectual universe. The new nation-state built by the Meiji revolutionaries thus became a mixture of all these intellectual currents. The Meiji state was a modern, industrial and technologically advanced state that identified itself with the imperial system and native Shinto tradition while being held together institutionally by a firm Confucian ideology.

  19. Japanese encephalitis virus infection decrease endogenous IL-10 production: correlation with microglial activation and neuronal death. (United States)

    Swarup, Vivek; Ghosh, Joydeep; Duseja, Rachna; Ghosh, Soumya; Basu, Anirban


    The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and acts to limit clinical symptoms of stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, meningitis, and the behavioral changes that occur during bacterial infections. Expression of IL-10 is critical during the course of most major diseases in the CNS and promotes survival of neurons and all glial cells in the brain by blocking the effects of proinflammatory cytokines and by promoting expression of cell survival signals. In order to assess functional importance of this cytokine in viral encephalitis we have exploited an experimental model of Japanese encephalitis (JE). We report for the first time that in Japanese encephalitis, there is a progressive decline in level of IL-10. The extent of progressive decrease in IL-10 level following viral infection is inversely proportional to the increase in the level of proinflammatory cytokines as well as negative consequences that follows viral infection.

  20. Granular cell tumor of the common bile duct: A Japanese case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junko Saito; Michiko Kitagawa; Hiroshi Kusanagi; Nobuyasu Kano; Eiji Ishii; SO Nakaji; Nobuto Hirata


    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the biliary system is rare.It is reported that it occurs more commonly in young black women.We report here our seldom experience of a Japanese case in whom icterus was found as a first symptom just after a caesarean operation.A 36-year-old Japanese woman developed icterus after delivery by the Caesarean operation.A surgical operation was performed without can deny that there was a tumor-related change in a bile duct as a result of examination for various images.As a result of pathological evaluation,GCT was diagnosed.By the preoperative organization biomicroscopy result,it was not able to be attachd a right diagnosis.It was thought that this tumor,although rare,should be considered as one of the causes of biliary stenosis in the younger population.