WorldWideScience

Sample records for after-school program targeting

  1. HISD After-School Opportunities Programs Description 1990-91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Nanda D.; And Others

    This report describes after-school programs available in the Houston (Texas) Independent School District (HISD). Fifty-nine sites offer either after-school child care or instruction to elementary school students in the HISD. Magnet's Extended Instructional Day program is the largest and the Houston Committee for Private Sector Initiatives'…

  2. The Association between Socio-Ecological Factors and Having an After-School Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Ragnar; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Martelaer, Kristine; Seghers, Jan; De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Background: After-school physical activity (PA) programs promote PA among youth. Few studies have used socio-ecological health models to identify barriers and facilitators of after-school PA programs. This study examined which socio-ecological factors are associated with having an after-school PA program. Methods: A questionnaire was administered…

  3. Evaluation of Children's After-School Programs in Taiwan: FAHP Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy H. I.; Yang, Chih-Neng; Lin, Chun-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The need of after-school programs has become urgent for school-age children in many industrialized countries due to social structure changes. This research develops a hierarchical framework to evaluate after-school programs from two distinct aspects--service quality from parents' perspectives and marketing strategy from operators'…

  4. Efectos academicos de programas extracurriculares (Academic Effects of After-School Programs). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee

    The current emphasis on performance standards and testing has led schools to look to the after-school hours as time that can be spent developing children's academic skills. This Spanish-language digest describes types of after-school programs and discusses recent research on who participates and the effects of participation on children's school…

  5. Explore! Materials for Sharing Earth and Space Science in Libraries and After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B.; Shipp, S.

    2008-03-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute's Explore! team trains library and after-school program staff through workshops and Web casts, to engage families and children in their communities in Earth and space science through hands-on actvities.

  6. Student Engagement in After-School Programs, Academic Skills, and Social Competence among Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Grogan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the relationship between after-school program participation and student outcomes has been mixed, and beneficial effects have been small. More recent studies suggest that participation is best characterized as a multidimensional concept that includes enrollment, attendance, and engagement, which help explain differences in student outcomes. The present study uses data from a longitudinal study of after-school programs in elementary schools to examine staff ratings of student engagement in after-school activities and the association between engagement and school outcomes. The factor structure of the staff-rated measure of student engagement was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Multiple regression analyses found that student engagement in academic, youth development, and arts after-school program activities was significantly related to changes in teacher ratings of academic skills and social competence over the course of the school year and that students with the greatest increase in academic skills both were highly engaged in activities and attended the after-school program regularly. The results of this study provide additional evidence regarding the benefits of after-school programs and the importance of student engagement when assessing student outcomes.

  7. Pedometers and Aerobic Capacity: Evaluating an Elementary After-School Running Program

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Wanless; Judge, Lawrence W.; Shannon T. Dieringer; David Bellar; James Johnson; Sheli Plummer

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity affects 1 of every 6 youth in the United States. One contributing factor to this statistic is a lack of physical activity (PA). Demands related to accountability which are placed on educators to demonstrate academic achievement often result in resistance to allocating time during the school day for PA. One possible solution is to consider utilizing time after school to integrate PA programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a 12-week after-school pedomet...

  8. Pattern of Internet Usage in Planning after-School Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shahjafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research studies the pattern of the Internet usage by the third grade students of middle schools in the school year 2012-13 in Tehran. For this purpose, the needs of Iranian teenagers in virtual and cyber space have been identified and studied through an interdisciplinary approach. A researcher-made questionnaire and interviews with specialists and scholars in the fields of curriculum planning, educational technology, educational planning, information technology and communication were used based on an interdisciplinary approach. Finally, the needs of the students were divided and categorized into two factors of knowledge and skill, and individual and social characteristics on the basis of factor analysis method; the pattern of the Internet usage, including leisure factors and accessibility to information and sources, was designed and presented. Also, the results indicate that these factors have no direct effect on the network features and this effect occurs in relation to leisure factors through the location of the programs. Students’ interest in the Internet was mainly for the purposes of downloading videos and music and also playing online games and entertainment programs. This implies the necessity of attention on the part of planners to preparing and providing videos, games and educational, scientific and entertaining programs.

  9. STEM after school programming: The effect on student achievement and attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Vanessa Dale

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) curriculum has become a major component in to 21st century teaching and learning. STEM skills and STEM careers are in demand globally. Disadvantaged and minority students continue to have an achievement gap in STEM classes. They do not perform well in elementary and middle school and frequently do not pursue STEM-based studies in high school or careers in the field. One innovation in STEM education is after-school programming to increase student interest, attitudes, and achievement. This mixed-methods study examines the Discovery Place After-School STEM Program to compare the achievement levels of participants to non-participants in the program and provides recommendations for STEM after-school programming across the district. As part of the study, teachers were interviewed to examine attitudes and perceptions about the program. This study was conducted at an elementary school in a large urban school district in the southeastern United States which has a unique STEM-based after-school program. Student performance data indicated a significant difference in achievement between participants and non-participants in the program as measured by fifth grade science End-of-Grade test. Data from the seven units of study in the program showed significant achievement for three of the seven units.

  10. Community-Based Education and Social Capital in an Urban After-School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined how social capital development was facilitated in an urban after-school program. Specific attention was devoted to identifying structures and strategies that helped student participants develop social capital, the types of social networks that were developed through program participation, and the outcomes that…

  11. Advantages of Gardening as a Form of Physical Activity in an After-School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Joshua; Hermann, Janice R.; Parker, Stephany P.; Denney, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Children who normally abstain from physical activity may view gardening as a viable non-competitive alternative. The study reported here evaluated the effect of an Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service after-school gardening program on self-reported physical activity level of children in 3rd through 5th grade using the ACTIVITY self-report…

  12. After-School Program Implementation in Urban Environments: Increasing Engagement among Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcher, Allison; Rajan, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Background: After-school programs (ASPs) play a crucial role in supplementing the present school day. However, implementing ASPs in the urban environment and among adolescents (grades 6-12) poses unique challenges. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify evidence-based barriers and facilitators to…

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7. Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<.001. Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program.

  14. Putting It All Together: Guiding Principles for Quality After-School Programs Serving Preteens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Rachel A.; Goldsmith, Julie; Arbreton, Amy J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Successfully navigating early adolescence depends, in large part, on the availability of safe and engaging activities and supportive relationships with adults, yet many preteens have limited access to positive supports and opportunities such as high-quality after-school programs that could put them on a path to success. Funders, policymakers and…

  15. Globalization and science education in a community-based after-school program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhart, Margaret

    2008-04-01

    What are the effects of globalization and how are these manifested in local communities and in the learning of science there? These questions are unpacked within one local community in the United States, a place called "Uptown" where I examine the educational opportunities and pathways in science that are available for low-income Black American girls. The data comes from eight years of work both as an after-school science education program director and researcher in Uptown. The results suggest that globalization is taking hold, both in the social and economic circumstances of the community and in the everyday lives of the girls who live there. Further, there is possible evidence of globalization in the micro-dynamics of the after-school program. Yet opportunities for science education that could prepare the girls and their community for a globalizing world lag far behind.

  16. Activities, engagement, and emotion in after-school programs (and elsewhere).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Shernoff, David J; Pierce, Kim M; Bolt, Daniel M; Dadisman, Kimberly; Brown, B Bradford

    2005-01-01

    Experiences that are deeply engaging and enjoyable, engender full concentration, and present a balance between challenge and skill promote children's development. This chapter describes a study that sought to identify the kinds of settings and activities that foster engagement and, by extension, positive youth development. The after-school experiences of 191 ethnically diverse youth living in three states, some of whom participated in after-school programs and some of whom did not, were studied. Youth were equipped with logbooks and watches that were programmed to signal at random times. When signaled, youth recorded their location, social partners, activity, and feelings. The study found pervasive differences in the experiences at programs and elsewhere. Youth spent more time in academic and arts enrichment, organized sports and physical activities, community service, and homework at programs versus elsewhere, and they spent less time eating and watching TV at programs. They also reported higher levels of motivation, engagement, and positive affect at programs. At the same time, there were few differences in activities, emotions, effort, or motivation of program participants and nonparticipants when both groups were elsewhere. The similarities in these experiences while elsewhere suggest that the program context, not differences in youth characteristics or interests, was responsible for the feelings of engagement that were reported at programs. PMID:15943140

  17. STEM after School: How to Design and Run Great Programs and Activities. A Guidebook for Program Leaders, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This guidebook was prepared by TASC (The After-School Corporation) and their Frontiers in Urban Science Education (FUSE) programs. FUSE is TASC's initiative to help more out-of-school-time programs and expanded learning time schools offer kids engaging, exciting and inspiring activities that promote science inquiry. The guidebook offers a a…

  18. The Impact of Length of Engagement in After-School STEM Programs on Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Garth Meichel

    An underrepresentation of females exists in the STEM fields. In order to tackle this issue, work begins early in the education of young women to ensure they are interested and have the confidence to gain a career in the STEM fields. It is important to engage girls in STEM opportunities in and out of school to ignite their interest and build their confidence. Brigid Barron's learning ecology perspective shows that girls pursuing STEM outside of the classroom is critical to their achievement in the STEM pipeline. This study investigated the impact after-school STEM learning opportunities have on middle school girls by investigating (a) how the length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the confidence of female students in their science and math abilities; (b) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the interest of female students in attaining a career in STEM; (c) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect interest in science and math classes; and (d) how length of engagement can affect how female students' view gender parity in the STEM workforce. The major findings revealed no statistical significance when comparing confidence in math or science abilities or the perception that gender plays a role in attaining a career in STEM. The findings revealed statistical significance in the areas when comparing length of engagement in the girls' interest in their math class and attaining a career in three of the four STEM fields: science, technology, and engineering. The findings showed that multiple terms of engagement in the after-school STEM programs appear to be an effective catalyst to maintain the interest of girls pursuing STEM-related careers, in addition to allowing their interest in a topic to provide a new lens for the way they see their math work during the school day. The implications of this study show that schools must engage middle school girls who are interested in STEM in a multitude of settings

  19. The journey of a science teacher: Preparing female students in the Training Future Scientists after school program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Hill, Rona M.

    What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed through a constructivist perspective, using dialogic engagement, coinciding with Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory. This action research project used mixed methods research design, targeted urban adolescent females who were members of Boys & Girls Club of Greater St. Louis (BGCGSTL) after-school program. The data collection measures were three qualitative instruments (semi-structured interviews, reflective journal entries and attitudinal survey open-ended responses) and two quantitative instruments (pre-test and posttests over the content from the Buckle-down Curriculum and attitudinal survey scaled responses). The goal was to describe the impact the Training Future Scientist (TFS) after-school program has on the girls' scientific content knowledge, attitude toward choosing a science career, and self-perception in science. Through the TFS after-school program participants had access to a secondary science teacher-researcher, peer leaders that were in the 9th--12th grade, and Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) role models from Washington University Medical School Young Scientist Program (YSP) graduate and medical students and fellows as volunteers. The program utilized the Buckle-down Curriculum as guided, peer-led cooperative learning groups, hands-on labs and demonstrations facilitated by the researcher, trained peer leaders and/or role models that used constructivist science pedagogy to improve test-taking strategies. The outcomes for the TFS study were an increase in science content knowledge, a positive trend in attitude change, and a negative trend in choosing a science career. Keywords: informal

  20. Identifying Sources of Children’s Consumption of Junk Food in Boston After-School Programs, April–May 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Erica L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine M; Lee, Rebekka M; Davison, Kirsten K.; Steven L. Gortmaker

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children’s dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received progra...

  1. Pedometers and Aerobic Capacity: Evaluating an Elementary After-School Running Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wanless

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity affects 1 of every 6 youth in the United States. One contributing factor to this statistic is a lack of physical activity (PA. Demands related to accountability which are placed on educators to demonstrate academic achievement often result in resistance to allocating time during the school day for PA. One possible solution is to consider utilizing time after school to integrate PA programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a 12-week after-school pedometer-focused PA program on aerobic capacity and to examine the relationship between step count and aerobic capacity in elementary school aged children. A group of elementary students (n=24; 9.5±0.9 years participated in a 12-week pedometer-focused PA program that included pretraining and posttraining fitness testing via the 20-meter version of the PACER test. Paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between the pretest (M=21.0 laps, SD=9.9 and posttest (M=25.2 laps, SD=12.2 scores (t=4.04, P≤0.001. A Pearson correlation revealed no significant relationship between individual step count and the difference between PACER pre- and posttest (r=0.318, P=0.130. The program improved aerobic capacity, but an increase in pedometer-calculated step count was not a predictor.

  2. Pedometers and aerobic capacity: evaluating an elementary after-school running program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Elizabeth; Judge, Lawrence W; Dieringer, Shannon T; Bellar, David; Johnson, James; Plummer, Sheli

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity affects 1 of every 6 youth in the United States. One contributing factor to this statistic is a lack of physical activity (PA). Demands related to accountability which are placed on educators to demonstrate academic achievement often result in resistance to allocating time during the school day for PA. One possible solution is to consider utilizing time after school to integrate PA programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a 12-week after-school pedometer-focused PA program on aerobic capacity and to examine the relationship between step count and aerobic capacity in elementary school aged children. A group of elementary students (n = 24; 9.5 ± 0.9 years) participated in a 12-week pedometer-focused PA program that included pretraining and posttraining fitness testing via the 20-meter version of the PACER test. Paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between the pretest (M = 21.0 laps, SD = 9.9) and posttest (M = 25.2 laps, SD = 12.2) scores (t = 4.04, P ≤ 0.001). A Pearson correlation revealed no significant relationship between individual step count and the difference between PACER pre- and posttest (r = 0.318, P = 0.130). The program improved aerobic capacity, but an increase in pedometer-calculated step count was not a predictor. PMID:24723803

  3. Explore Locally, Excel Digitally: A Participatory Learning After-School Program for Enriching Citizenship On- and Offline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Laurel J.; Vartabedian, Vanessa; Literat, Ioana; Mehta, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a participatory culture pedagogy in the context of a pilot after-school program at LAUSD's Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools. Ethnographic fieldnotes, instructor and student reflections, photographs, video recordings, and student work illustrate the program's culture of participatory…

  4. Analysis of the Dynamics among Tutors in an After-School Tutoring Program in a Homeless Shelter for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Goode, Gretchen S.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers of after-school tutoring primarily focus on educational outcomes with little attention to the social dynamics of such programs. In our qualitative case study, we examined the nature of interactions among tutors in a tutoring program at a homeless shelter for families. Employing Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and…

  5. The Summer Treatment Program Meets the South Side of Chicago: Bridging Science and Service in Urban After-School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stacy L; Chacko, Anil; Van Gessel, Christine; O'Boyle, Caroline; Pelham, William E

    2012-05-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes efforts to apply the principles and strategies of an empirically-supported treatment for children with disruptive behaviour problems to a park after-school program serving children in urban poverty. METHOD: Collaboration with staff proceeded in stages: (1) relationship building, needs assessment, and resource mapping; (2) intervention adaptation and implementation; and (3) implementation support, problem-solving, and sustainability. RESULTS: Four tools capitalised on inherent strengths of the parks, accommodated child and staff needs, and emerged as feasible and effective: Group Discussion, Good Behaviour Game, Peers as Leaders, and Good News Notes. CONCLUSIONS: Recreational settings offer opportunities for mental health promotion for children in urban poverty.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of an After-School Prosocial Behavior Program in an Area of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Liam; Biggart, Andy; Kerr, Karen; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a prosocial behavior after-school program called Mate-Tricks for 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents living in an area of significant socioeconomic disadvantage. The children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 220) or a control group (n = 198). Children were…

  7. Students’ Attitudes Toward Science as Predictors of Gains on Student Content Knowledge: Benefits of an After-School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Alana D.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory L.; Moreno, Nancy P.; Zientek, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    High-quality after-school programs devoted to science have the potential to enhance students’ science knowledge and attitudes, which may impact their decisions about pursuing science-related careers. Due to the unique nature of these informal learning environments, an understanding of the relationships among aspects of students’ content knowledge acquisition and attitudes toward science may aid in the development of effective science-related interventions. We investigated the impact of a semester-long after-school intervention utilizing an inquiry-based infectious diseases curriculum (designed for use after-school) on 63 urban students’ content knowledge and aspects of their attitudes towards science. Content knowledge increased 24.6% from pre- to posttest. Multiple regression analyses indicated suggested that the “self-directed effort” subscale of the Simpson-Troost Attitude Questionnaire - Revised best predicted increases in students’ science content knowledge. The construct “science is fun for me” served as a suppressor effect. These findings suggest that future after-school programs focusing on aspects of attitudes toward science most closely associated with gains in content knowledge might improve students’ enthusiasm and academic preparedness for additional science coursework by improving student attitudes towards their perceptions of their self-directed effort. PMID:26778859

  8. Integrating the Digital Literacies into an After-School Program: A Structural Analysis of Teachers' Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Kathleen; McDermott, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The structure of lessons where teachers integrated the digital literacies is examined here. Twelve graduate teachers participating in an after-school practica were observed over a six-week period. This manuscript identifies the structure of their lessons and describes the kinds of digital literacies children learned when completing them. Teachers…

  9. Students’ Attitudes Toward Science as Predictors of Gains on Student Content Knowledge: Benefits of an After-School Program

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Alana D.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory L.; Moreno, Nancy P.; Zientek, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    High-quality after-school programs devoted to science have the potential to enhance students’ science knowledge and attitudes, which may impact their decisions about pursuing science-related careers. Due to the unique nature of these informal learning environments, an understanding of the relationships among aspects of students’ content knowledge acquisition and attitudes toward science may aid in the development of effective science-related interventions. We investigated the impact of a seme...

  10. Improving overweight among at-risk minority youth: results of a pilot intervention in after-school programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, Wendelin M; Sharif, Mienah Z; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Kinsler, Janni J; Collin, Daniel; Prelip, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity disproportionately affect low-income communities. Most school-based health promotion efforts occur during the school day and are limited in scope. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an after-school program among 3rd-5th graders (n=121; 73% 8 to 9 years old; 57% female; 60% Asian) at eight study sites (four intervention, four comparison). After-school staff were trained on implementing the Catch Kids Club Curriculum on nutrition and physical activity. Data were collected on students' nutrition and physical activity knowledge and behavior, and their height and weight measurements. Using Stata 10.1/SE, cross-lagged regression models assessed changes over time. Results showed a reduction in overweight and obesity (defined as body mass index >85th percentile for age and sex) among children in the intervention group, but mixed results regarding diet and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Enhancing after-school physical activity opportunities through evidence-based programs can potentially improve overweight and obesity among low-income children. PMID:23727961

  11. Significance of after-school programming for immigrant children during middle childhood: opportunities for school social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2014-07-01

    School social workers and other school personnel can find meeting the educational and social needs of immigrant children a challenge, particularly if these children are also experiencing poverty and other educational barriers, including limited English language proficiency. Quality after-school programming has been associated with a variety of positive effects such as increased educational attainment and positive social and emotional development and could, therefore, prove significant in the lives of immigrant children. Yet, immigrant children participate less. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways in which school social workers can increase enrollment in after-school programming among immigrant children, six to 12 years of age, by becoming both advocates for children and families and leaders in developing and maintaining these services. School social workers are poised to play a number of roles related to practice, administration, research, and policy. Because this particular age group of children begins to look beyond the family for guidance and support, middle childhood is an opportune time for school social workers to work toward involving children in positive after-school experiences.

  12. Contributions of After School Programs to the Development of Fundamental Movement Skills in Children

    OpenAIRE

    BURROWS, E. JEAN; KEATS, MELANIE R.; KOLEN, ANGELA M.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency or the ability to perform basic skills (e.g., throwing, catching and jumping) has been linked to participation in lifelong physical activity. FMS proficiency amongst children has declined in the previous 15 years, with more children performing FMS at a low-mastery level. These declines may help explain the insufficient levels of participation in health promoting physical activity seen in today’s youth. The after school time period (e.g., 3 to 6 p.m...

  13. Effects of after-school programs with at-risk youth on attendance and externalizing behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P; Maynard, Brandy R; Polanin, Joshua R; Vaughn, Michael G; Sarteschi, Christine M

    2015-03-01

    The popularity, demand, and increased federal and private funding for after-school programs have resulted in a marked increase in after-school programs over the past two decades. After-school programs are used to prevent adverse outcomes, decrease risks, or improve functioning with at-risk youth in several areas, including academic achievement, crime and behavioral problems, socio-emotional functioning, and school engagement and attendance; however, the evidence of effects of after-school programs remains equivocal. This systematic review and meta-analysis, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, examined the effects of after-school programs on externalizing behaviors and school attendance with at-risk students. A systematic search for published and unpublished literature resulted in the inclusion of 24 studies. A total of 64 effect sizes (16 for attendance outcomes; 49 for externalizing behavior outcomes) extracted from 31 reports were included in the meta-analysis using robust variance estimation to handle dependencies among effect sizes. Mean effects were small and non-significant for attendance and externalizing behaviors. A moderate to large amount of heterogeneity was present; however, no moderator variable tested explained the variance between studies. Significant methodological shortcomings were identified across the corpus of studies included in this review. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed. PMID:25416228

  14. Effects of an after-school care-administered physical activity and nutrition protocol on body mass index, fitness levels, and targeted psychological factors in 5- to 8-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Walsh, Stephanie M; Mareno, Nicole; Smith, Kathleen R

    2016-09-01

    Over one third of U.S. youth are overweight or obese. Treatments typically have had unreliable effects, inconsistently incorporating behavior-change theory. After-school care might be a viable setting for health behavior-change programs. We evaluated effects of two consecutive 12-week segments of a revised self-efficacy/social cognitive theory-based physical activity and nutrition treatment on fitness levels, body mass index (BMI), and targeted psychosocial factors in after-school care participants, ages 5-8 years. Changes in physiological measures, exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and physical self-concept over 9 months were contrasted in experimental (n = 72) vs. typical-care (n = 42) groups. Mediation of the group-BMI change relationship by the psychosocial factors was also assessed. Improvements in physiological measures and ESE were significantly greater in the experimental group. ESE change completely mediated the association of treatment type with BMI change. The experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in the physiological measures, with its treatment's theoretical basis and application within after-school care supported.

  15. Effects of an after-school care-administered physical activity and nutrition protocol on body mass index, fitness levels, and targeted psychological factors in 5- to 8-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Walsh, Stephanie M; Mareno, Nicole; Smith, Kathleen R

    2016-09-01

    Over one third of U.S. youth are overweight or obese. Treatments typically have had unreliable effects, inconsistently incorporating behavior-change theory. After-school care might be a viable setting for health behavior-change programs. We evaluated effects of two consecutive 12-week segments of a revised self-efficacy/social cognitive theory-based physical activity and nutrition treatment on fitness levels, body mass index (BMI), and targeted psychosocial factors in after-school care participants, ages 5-8 years. Changes in physiological measures, exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and physical self-concept over 9 months were contrasted in experimental (n = 72) vs. typical-care (n = 42) groups. Mediation of the group-BMI change relationship by the psychosocial factors was also assessed. Improvements in physiological measures and ESE were significantly greater in the experimental group. ESE change completely mediated the association of treatment type with BMI change. The experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in the physiological measures, with its treatment's theoretical basis and application within after-school care supported. PMID:27528524

  16. Family Day Care Check-In Program: After-School Care for Children Aged 10-14. [Introduction and Guide to Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Linda B., Ed.

    The Family Day Care Check-In Program is designed to offer working parents convenient, affordable after school care for their children aged 10 to 14. It provides children with flexible supervision by caring, trained adults and gives them opportunities to grow into responsible, independent teens by planning and participating in activities on their…

  17. An opportunity for success: Understanding motivation and learning from urban youth participation in an after school science program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Janell Nicole

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study that documents through student voice the untold stories of urban student motivation to learn and engage in science through the contexts of an after school science program and the students' in-school science classrooms. The purpose of this study is to add to the literature in science education on motivation of urban youth to learn and engage in science through thick and rich descriptions of student voice. This study addresses issues in educational inequity by researching students who are historically marginalized. The focus of the study is four middle school students. The methodology employed was critical ethnography and case study. The data sources included participant observations and field notes, interviews, student artifacts, Snack and Chat, autophotography, and the researcher's reflective journal. The findings of this study state that motivating factors for urban middle school students' learning and engaging in science include a flexible and engaging curriculum, that students are empowered and motivated to learn when teachers are respectful, that urban middle school science students hold positive images about scientists, themselves and knowing science, and that urban teachers of the dominant culture believe that their urban middle school science students are motivated. In using Sociotransformative Constructivism (STC) and Critical Race Theory (CRT) the researcher informs the issues of inequity and racism that emerge from historical perspectives and students' stories about their experiences inside and outside of school. The implications state that allowing for a flexible curriculum that motivates students to make choices about what and how they want to learn and engage in science are necessary science teaching goals for urban middle school students, it is necessary that teachers are conscious of their interactions with their students, diversifying the science field through educating and empowering all students through

  18. Physical Activity before and after School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a variety of before- and after-school programs (BASPs) that can be implemented from preschool through 12th grade. These programs offer physical activity opportunities before and after school for youths of various ages, skill levels, and socioeconomic levels. In addition, strategies for the director of physical activity to…

  19. Pathways to Youth Empowerment and Community Connectedness: A Study of Youth-Adult Partnership in Malaysian After-School, Co-Curricular Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Krauss, Steven Eric; Kim, Taehan; Collura, Jessica; Abdullah, Haslinda

    2016-08-01

    After-school programs are prevalent across the world, but there is a paucity of research that examines quality within the "black box" of programs at the point of service. Grounded in current theory, this research examined hypothesized pathways between the experience of youth-adult partnership (youth voice in decision-making; supportive adult relationships), the mediators of program safety and engagement, and the developmental outcomes of youth empowerment (leadership competence, policy control) and community connectedness (community connections, school attachment). Surveys were administered to 207 ethnically diverse (47.3 % female; 63.3 % Malay) youth, age 15-16, attending after-school co-curricular programs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results showed that youth voice in program decision-making predicted both indicators of youth empowerment. Neither youth voice nor supportive adult relationships was directly associated with community connectedness, however. Program engagement mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and empowerment. In contrast, program safety mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and community connectedness. The findings indicate that the two core components of youth-adult partnership-youth voice and supportive adult relationships-may operate through different, yet complementary, pathways of program quality to predict developmental outcomes. Implications for future research are highlighted. For reasons of youth development and youth rights, the immediate challenge is to create opportunities for youth to speak on issues of program concern and to elevate those adults who are able and willing to help youth exercise their voice.

  20. Pathways to Youth Empowerment and Community Connectedness: A Study of Youth-Adult Partnership in Malaysian After-School, Co-Curricular Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Krauss, Steven Eric; Kim, Taehan; Collura, Jessica; Abdullah, Haslinda

    2016-08-01

    After-school programs are prevalent across the world, but there is a paucity of research that examines quality within the "black box" of programs at the point of service. Grounded in current theory, this research examined hypothesized pathways between the experience of youth-adult partnership (youth voice in decision-making; supportive adult relationships), the mediators of program safety and engagement, and the developmental outcomes of youth empowerment (leadership competence, policy control) and community connectedness (community connections, school attachment). Surveys were administered to 207 ethnically diverse (47.3 % female; 63.3 % Malay) youth, age 15-16, attending after-school co-curricular programs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results showed that youth voice in program decision-making predicted both indicators of youth empowerment. Neither youth voice nor supportive adult relationships was directly associated with community connectedness, however. Program engagement mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and empowerment. In contrast, program safety mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and community connectedness. The findings indicate that the two core components of youth-adult partnership-youth voice and supportive adult relationships-may operate through different, yet complementary, pathways of program quality to predict developmental outcomes. Implications for future research are highlighted. For reasons of youth development and youth rights, the immediate challenge is to create opportunities for youth to speak on issues of program concern and to elevate those adults who are able and willing to help youth exercise their voice. PMID:26092232

  1. Memories of GAMES: Exploring the Long-Term Impacts of After-School Museum Programming on Girls' Attitudes Towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Sarah Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study is to investigate any lasting impacts of the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History's Girls at the Museum Exploring Science (GAMES) Program. Using assessment document analysis, student focus groups, and adult interviews, this study examined whether students' positive associations with science continue after completion of the program and whether the program affects the academic and career choices of past participants. Results from the analysis suggest that GAMES has a generally positive impact on participant attitudes towards science in both the short- and long-term. These results also support existing research in identifying key factors in the success of the program including hands-on activities, exposure to diverse careers and female role models, and the incorporation of authentic objects and experiences. These factors of success can contribute to the evidence base about the role of informal education programs in increasing science participation among women, as well as ways in which schools and universities can collaborate to effectively serve populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

  2. The Journey of a Science Teacher: Preparing Female Students in the Training Future Scientists after School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Hill, Rona M.

    2013-01-01

    What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed…

  3. The Development of an After-School Music Program for At-Risk Children: Student Musical Preferences and Pre-Service Teacher Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2006-01-01

    An urban university music education department and an outreach organization partnered to provide after-school music classes for at-risk children. Fourteen music education majors were recruited to teach 125 first through fifth graders (6-12 years of age), whose ethnicity was 55 percent Hispanic and 45 percent African-American. Classes included…

  4. Use of SPARK to Promote After-School Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Heidi; Thompson, Hannah; Kinder, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The after-school period is potentially an important venue for increasing physical activity for youth. We sought to assess the effectiveness of the Sports, Play, and Recreation for Youth (SPARK) program to increase physical activity and improve cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status among elementary students after school. Methods:…

  5. Ocean Literacy After-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Ocean Literacy is a topic that is often underrepresented in secondary school science curriculum. To combat this deficit, our School has partnered up with Hudson River Community Sailing (HRCS), a local organization in New York City that offers an after-school program to high-need high school students in the surrounding community. This organization has developed a 9th grade Sail Academy which allows students from participating public high schools to increase their proficiency in math and science by learning basic sailing, navigation, and boat building. Upon successfully completing the 9th grade Sail Academy curriculum, students enter the "First Mates Program" which offers a scaffolded set of youth development experiences that prepare students for college, career, leadership, and stewardship. This program is built in the context of a new Ocean Literacy Curriculum focused around 3 major topics within Ocean Literacy: Marine Debris, Meteorology, and Ecology (specifically water quality). The learning experiences include weekly data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing in the Hudson River adjacent to the HRCS Boathouse. Additionally there are weekly lessons engaging students in the fundamentals of each of the 3 topics and how they are also important in the lens of sailing. During the marine debris portion of the curriculum students identify sources of marine debris, impacts on the local environment, and study how debris can travel along the ocean currents leading in to larger garbage gyres. To supplement the curriculum, students embarked on a day trip to the Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility in Brooklyn, NY to learn how and where NYC receives its drinking water, how wastewater is treated, and how water quality in the local area can be easily influenced. While on the trip, students did their data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing at Newtown Creek, and then they compared their results

  6. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  7. Three High School After-School Initiatives: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sarah; Birmingham, Jennifer; Fornal, Jennifer; Klein, Rachel; Piha, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to older youth in the recent expansion of school-based after-school programs. High school clubs and community-based programs have existed for years, but many have struggled to sustain the participation of teens. Alarmed by the large numbers of high school-age youth who are disengaged at school and leaving high school…

  8. Intensity vs. Duration: Comparing the Effects of a Fluency-Based Reading Intervention Program, in After-School vs. Summer School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Tami; Goldberg, Alyssa; Aryeh, Terry Joffe Ben; Donnelley, Katharine; Wolf, Maryanne

    2013-01-01

    Two versions of RAVE-O, a fluency-based reading intervention were examined over a 2-intervention period: a 9-month, 44-hour afterschool intervention program, and a month long, 44-hour summer intervention program. 80 children in grades 1-3 were tested on the two subtests of the Test of Word-Reading Efficiency and were assigned to one of 6 groups…

  9. Ghana : Improving the Targeting of Social Programs

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This study, a draft of which was shared with the Government of Ghana in November 2009, provides a basic diagnostic of the benefit incidence and targeting performance of a large number of social programs in Ghana. Both broad-based programs (such as spending for education and health, and subsidies for food, oil-related products, and electricity) as well as targeted programs (such as Liveliho...

  10. When It's Just You After School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes When It's Just You After School KidsHealth > For Kids > When It's Just You After School Print A A A ... are sometimes called "latchkey" kids. This nickname got its start in the 1940s, during World War II. ...

  11. Fermilab fixed target program and schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the research program for the Fermilab fixed target facility. The planned experiments concern neutrino interactions, beam dump studies, muon scattering, dimuon production, hadronic jets, direct photon production, hyperon decays, CP violation, polarized proton physics, and heavy quark states. (HSI)

  12. Target developments program to prepare LMJ campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To carry out laser plasma experiments on CEA laser facilities, a R and D program was set up and is still under way to deliver complex targets. For a decade, specific developments are also dedicated to 'Ligne d'Integration Laser' (LIL) in France and Omega facilities (USA). To prepare the targets intended for the first experiments on the Laser 'Megajoule' (LMJ) facility, new developments are required, such as cocktail hohlraum fabrication, gas barrier coating and foam shells developments. For fusion experiments on LMJ, an important program is also under way to elaborate the Cryogenic Target Assembly (CTA), to fill and transport the CTA and to study the conformation process of the DT layer.

  13. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of Junior Achievement Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, John M

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to increase after-school programming indicate the nation's concern about how youth are engaged during out-of-school time. There are clear benefits to extending the learning that goes on during the school day. Research from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice shows that after-school participants do better in school and have stronger expectations for the future than youth who are not occupied after school. And the need is evident: 14.3 million students return to an empty house after school, yet only 6.5 million children are currently enrolled in after-school programs. If an after-school program were available, parents of 15.3 million would enroll their child. JA Worldwide began in 1919 and has been rooted in the afterschool arena from its origins. Its after-school programs teach students about the free enterprise system through curriculum focusing on business, citizenship, economics, entrepreneurship, ethics and character, financial literacy, and career development. At the same time, JA Worldwide incorporates hands-on learning and engagement with adults as role models, both key elements to a successful after-school program. Now focused on developing curriculum emphasizing skills needed for the twenty-first century, JA adopted the key elements laid out for after-school programs by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. To ensure that the next generation of students enters the workforce prepared, America's education system must provide the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Programs such as JA Worldwide serve as models of how to provide the twenty-first century skills that all students need to succeed. PMID:17017264

  14. Out-of-School Research Meets After-School Policy. Out-of-School Time Policy Commentary #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Karen; Yohalem, Nicole; Wilson-Ahlstrom, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The past five years have seen a ground swell in public attention and public policy aimed at increasing the availability of after-school programs for children and young teens during the "risk" hours when safety, supervision and homework are a top concern. Popularly called "after-school," these programs represent a new and growing variation on the…

  15. Marketable Job Skills for High School Students: What We Learned from an Evaluation of after School Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kendra P.; Hirsch, Barton J.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes findings from an experimental evaluation of After School Matters (ASM), a paid, apprenticeship-based, after-school program in Chicago for high school students. Analysis of quantitative data from a mock job interview revealed that ASM participants did not demonstrate more marketable job skills than youth in the control…

  16. Parental After-School Stress and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Rosalind Chait; Gareis, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    The mismatch between employed parents' work schedules and their children's school schedules creates the structural underpinning for an as-yet-unstudied stressor, namely, parental after-school stress, or the degree of parents' concern about their children's welfare after school. We estimate the relationship between parental after-school stress and…

  17. Impact of After-School Nutrition Workshops in a Public Library Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Marjorie R.; Nickell, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if after-school nutrition workshops conducted in public libraries were related to lasting changes in food choice. Methods: "Snack Smart" workshops, based on Social Cognitive Theory, were conducted in 8 branch libraries (49 ethnically diverse children, ages 9 to 14) to assess changes in consumption of targeted food items by…

  18. Objectively measured physical activity in Danish after-school cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Møller, Niels Christian; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard;

    2015-01-01

    Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activity...... level among participants in certified sport after-school cares vs regular after-school cares. The study was carried out in 2011 in 10 after-school cares (5 sport/5 regular) throughout Denmark, whereof 475 children aged 5-11 years participated. PA level was assessed using Actigraph GT3X and GT3X...

  19. The target of a training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No matter the methodology applied to develop a training program or the training tools and devices used by the instructors in administering the subject matter, as well as the talent and expertise of the teachers themselves, there is always a great concern among all organizations interested in the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) about the technical qualification of the operating staff. Since the overall purpose and fundamental objective of the training programs are to provide prospective operators with the technical knowledge and skills, i.e., qualifications, to successfully perform the assigned duties, the question of determining training program effectiveness is of capital importance. At Tecnatom the authors use three different sources of information that provide qualitative data regarding the effectiveness of the training programs for licensed operators: On-the-job performance; Simulator requalification performance; and Worldwide experiences. Data from the first source are collected by a questionnaire, which is annually submitted to the management of each NPP, and an interview with the NPP training department

  20. Fixed Target Beauty Physics Experimental Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current and near term future fixed target physics efforts in observing particles with open beauty are reviewed. This includes a compilation of the non-observation upper limits and the observation of both upsilon and b-states. A short discussion of the theoretical predictions for the hadro-produced beauty pairs is included. The major part of this review is devoted to the techniques and tricks employed, a survey of the current and proposed experiments. A personal summary of the experimental prospects concludes this report. 28 refs., 26 figs

  1. An assessment of bacterial small RNA target prediction programs

    OpenAIRE

    Pain, Adrien; Ott, Alban; Amine, Hamza; Rochat, Tatiana; Bouloc, Philippe; Gautheret, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most bacterial regulatory RNAs exert their function through base-pairing with target RNAs. Computational prediction of targets is a busy research field that offers biologists a variety of web sites and software. However, it is difficult for a non-expert to evaluate how reliable those programs are. Here, we provide a simple benchmark for bacterial sRNA target prediction based on trusted E. coli sRNA/target pairs. We use this benchmark to assess the most recent RNA target predictors as well as ...

  2. After-School Tutoring and the Distribution of Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    As more primary and secondary students worldwide seek after-school tutoring in academic subjects, concerns are being raised about whether after-school tutoring can raise average test scores without widening the variability in student performance, and whether students of certain ability levels may benefit more than others from after-school…

  3. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-06-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5-9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10-19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158

  4. 77 FR 19995 - Funding Opportunity Title: Risk Management Education in Targeted States (Targeted States Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... availability of funds) to fund cooperative agreements under the Risk Management Education in Targeted States... participation of underserved ] communities, and providing risk management education and information. One of RMA... be accepted. Applications submitted for the Risk Management Education in Targeted States Program...

  5. After-school supervision and adolescent cigarette smoking: contributions of the setting and intensity of after-school self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, J A; Crowe, P A; Richardson, J; Flay, B

    1999-02-01

    This paper looks at the independent contributions of the setting and the intensity of after-school self-care to the cigarette smoking behaviors of 2352 ninth graders. We controlled for a variety of correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking that have not been accounted for in existing research. Results indicated that the intensity of the self-care experience was significantly associated with adolescent smoking behavior irrespective of the typical setting of the adolescents' after-school activities. Our findings also indicated that a nonpermissive parenting style, family rule-setting about cigarettes, and especially, in absentia parental monitoring may reduce the likelihood of cigarette smoking among latchkey and nonlatchkey adolescents alike. However, latchkey youth were not any more sensitive to these aspects of parenting than other adolescents. This is consistent with the notion that targeting these aspects of the home lives of all adolescents has the potential to reduce smoking behaviors among latchkey as well as nonlatchkey children.

  6. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  7. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  8. Dynamic programming algorithm for detecting dim infrared moving targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lisha; Mao, Liangjing; Xie, Lijun

    2009-10-01

    Infrared (IR) target detection is a key part of airborne infrared weapon system, especially the detection of poor dim moving IR target embedded in complex context. This paper presents an improved Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm in allusion to low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) infrared dim moving targets under cluttered context. The algorithm brings the dim target to prominence by accumulating the energy of pixels in the image sequence, after suppressing the background noise with a mathematical morphology preprocessor. As considering the continuity and stabilization of target's energy and forward direction, this algorithm has well solved the energy scattering problem that exists in the original DP algorithm. An effective energy segmentation threshold is given by a Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) filter with a regional peak extraction algorithm. Simulation results show that the improved DP tracking algorithm performs well in detecting poor dim targets.

  9. The Quality of School-Age Child Care in After-School Settings. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Priscilla M.

    2007-01-01

    This brief identifies the features of high-quality after-school settings that have emerged from the research and are reflected in program quality tools. It also examines key research linking program quality to positive developmental outcomes; it reviews current practice in program quality assessment; and it offers considerations for policymakers…

  10. Enfoque en las horas despues del dia en escuela para la prevencion de violencia (Focus on After-School Time for Violence Prevention). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Peggy; Robertson, Anne S.

    Perhaps 8 million children spend the after-school hours at home alone. In the absence of adult supervision, many of these youth are likely to engage in delinquent or other high-risk activities. This Spanish-language digest reveals research that suggests after-school programs can help to prevent youths from engaging in these activities in two ways:…

  11. Contribution of the After-School Period to Children's Daily Participation in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Arundell

    % of their daily screen-based sedentary behaviours and 80% of the sedentary behaviour guidelines. After-school MVPA was positively associated with achieving the physical activity guidelines (OR: 1.31, 95%CI 1.18, 1.44, p<0.05, and after-school screen-based sedentary behaviours were negatively associated with achieving the sedentary behaviours guidelines (OR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.97, p<0.05.The after-school period plays a critical role in the accumulation of children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Small changes to after-school behaviours can have large impacts on children's daily behaviours levels and likelihood of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Therefore interventions should target reducing after-school sedentary behaviours and increasing physical activity.

  12. In celebration of the fixed target program with the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey A. Appel et al.

    2001-12-28

    The Tevatron is the world's first large superconducting accelerator. With its construction, we gained the dual opportunities to advance the state of the art in accelerator technology with the machine itself and in particle physics with the experiments that became possible in a higher energy regime. There have been 43 experiments in the Tevatron fixed target program. Many of these are better described as experimental programs, each with a broad range of physics goals and results, and more than 100 collaborating physicists and engineers. The results of this program are three-fold: (1) new technologies in accelerators, beams and detectors which advanced the state of the art; (2) new experimental results published in the refereed physics journals; and (3) newly trained scientists who are both the next generation of particle physicists and an important part of the scientific, technical and educational backbone of the country as a whole. In this book they compile these results. There are sections from each experiment including what their physics goals and results were, what papers were published, and which students have received degrees. Summaries of these results from the program as a whole are quite interesting, but the physics results from this program are too broad to summarize globally. The most important of the results appear in later sections of this booklet.

  13. High School: The Next Frontier for After-School Advocates? Forum Focus. Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohalem, Nicole; Joselowsky, Francine; Davis, Kalisha; Ebbert, Virginia Lee

    2004-01-01

    As the issue of older youth and out-of-school time is gaining new attention across the country in the context of the after-school movement, it is important to remember that there are many programs for teens that operate in the out-of-school hours. This issue of Forum Focus documents a range of promising developments for capitalizing on the…

  14. Using theater arts to engage Latino families in dialogue about adolescent sexual health: the PATH -AT program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Kayla; Zuniga, Martha; Bailer, Bonnie; Ring, Lori; Gil-Trejo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the Promoting Alternatives for Teen Health through Artes Teatro (PATH-AT) program, a peer-led, after-school, abstinence-based education intervention, targeting Latino/a youth at risk for teenage pregnancy and their parents. A distinguishing trait of the program is the use of theater arts to engage program participants with program content. PMID:22643482

  15. Programmed death-1 & its ligands: promising targets for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, Rajeev K; Janik, John E; Abu-Eid, Rasha; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Khleif, Samir N

    2015-01-01

    Novel strategies for cancer treatment involving blockade of immune inhibitors have shown significant progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor immune evasion. The preclinical findings and clinical responses associated with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand pathway blockade seem promising, making these targets highly sought for cancer immunotherapy. In fact, the anti-PD-1 antibodies, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, were recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of unresectable and metastatic melanoma resistant to anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody (ipilimumab) and BRAF inhibitor. Here, we discuss strategies of combining PD-1/PD-ligand interaction inhibitors with other immune checkpoint modulators and standard-of-care therapy to break immune tolerance and induce a potent antitumor activity, which is currently a research area of key scientific pursuit.

  16. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  17. Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of After School Online Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Yalavaç

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes students' and teachers' perceptions of after school online courses (ASOC undertaken by an institutional private middle school, which manages several campuses across Turkey. The aim of ASOC is to support students when they are home by helping them to revise the lessons, practice topics synchronously with hundreds of other students. The results of the survey, interviews, and observations show that both students and teachers prefer face-to-face lessons to online lessons. They think that ASOC can be effective only if it is implemented in small groups with more interaction and sound instructional design with engaging methods and adequate feedback is structured for students and teachers’ needs. This study may contribute to similar future research studies of online education in middle schools by revealing the upsides and downsides of this blended learning environment with recommendations offered.

  18. Native American Education Program, 1982-83. OEE Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Deborah

    During 1982-83, the Native American Education Program provided after-school and summer session instruction and supportive services to approximately 450 Native American grade K-12 students scattered throughout New York City. Goals of visiting and interviewing 50% of the target population were realized, with 220 home visits made. Materials and…

  19. Renaissance of the ~1 TeV Fixed-Target Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Appel, Jeffrey A.; /Fermilab; Arms, Kregg Elliott; /Minnesota U.; Balantekin, A.B.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Conrad, Janet Marie; /MIT; Cooper, Peter S.; /Fermilab; Djurcic, Zelimir; /Columbia U.; Dunwoodie, William M.; /SLAC; Engelfried, Jurgen; /San Luis Potosi U.; Fisher, Peter H.; /MIT; Gottschalk, E.; /Fermilab /Northwestern U.

    2009-05-01

    This document describes the physics potential of a new fixed-target program based on a {approx} TeV proton source. Two proton sources are potentially available in the future: the existing Tevatron at Fermilab, which can provide 800 GeV protons for fixed-target physics, and a possible upgrade to the SPS at CERN, called SPS+, which would produce 1 TeV protons on target. In this paper we use an example Tevatron fixed-target program to illustrate the high discovery potential possible in the charm and neutrino sectors. We highlight examples which are either unique to the program or difficult to accomplish at other venues.

  20. Renaissance of the ~1 TeV Fixed-Target Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, T; Arms, K E; Balantekin, A B; Conrad, J M; Cooper, P S; Djurcic, Z; Dunwoodie, W; Engelfried, J; Fisher, P H; Gottschalk, E; De Gouvêa, A; Heller, K; Ignarra, C M; Karagiorgi, G; Kwan, S; Loinaz, W A; Meadows, B; Moore, R; Morfín, J G; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Pate, S F; Papavassiliou, V; Petrov, A A; Purohit, M V; Ray, H; Russ, J; Schwartz, A J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Schellman, H; Spitz, J; Syphers, M J; Tait, T M P; Vannucci, F

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the physics potential of a new fixed-target program based on a ~1 TeV proton source. Two proton sources are potentially available in the future: the existing Tevatron at Fermilab, which can provide 800 GeV protons for fixed-target physics, and a possible upgrade to the SPS at CERN, called SPS+, which would produce 1 TeV protons on target. In this paper we use an example Tevatron fixed-target program to illustrate the high discovery potential possible in the charm and neutrino sectors. We highlight examples which are either unique to the program or difficult to accomplish at other venues.

  1. Renaissance of the ~ 1-TeV Fixed-Target Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arms, K.E.; /Minnesota U.; Balantekin, A.B.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Conrad, J.M.; /MIT; Cooper, P.S.; /Fermilab; Djurcic, Z.; /Columbia U.; Dunwoodie, W.; /SLAC; Engelfried, J.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Fisher, P.H.; /MIT; Gottschalk, Erik Edward; /Fermilab; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Heller, K.; /Minnesota U.; Ignarra, C.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; /MIT; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab; Loinaz, W.A.; /Amherst Coll.; Meadows, B.; /Cincinnati U.; Moore, R.; Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; Naples, D.; /Pittsburgh U. /St. Mary' s Coll., Minnesota /New Mexico State U. /Michigan U. /Wayne State U. /South Carolina U. /Florida U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Cincinnati U. /Columbia U. /Columbia U. /Northwestern U. /Yale U. /Fermilab /Argonne /Northwestern U. /APC, Paris

    2011-12-02

    This document describes the physics potential of a new fixed-target program based on a {approx}1 TeV proton source. Two proton sources are potentially available in the future: the existing Tevatron at Fermilab, which can provide 800 GeV protons for fixed-target physics, and a possible upgrade to the SPS at CERN, called SPS+, which would produce 1 TeV protons on target. In this paper we use an example Tevatron fixed-target program to illustrate the high discovery potential possible in the charm and neutrino sectors. We highlight examples which are either unique to the program or difficult to accomplish at other venues.

  2. Precision Modeling Of Targets Using The VALUE Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, George A.; Patton, Ronald; Akerman, Alexander

    1989-08-01

    The 1976-vintage LASERX computer code has been augmented to produce realistic electro-optical images of targets. Capabilities lacking in LASERX but recently incorporated into its VALUE successor include: •Shadows cast onto the ground •Shadows cast onto parts of the target •See-through transparencies (e.g.,canopies) •Apparent images due both to atmospheric scattering and turbulence •Surfaces characterized by multiple bi-directional reflectance functions VALUE provides not only realistic target modeling by its precise and comprehensive representation of all target attributes, but additionally VALUE is very user friendly. Specifically, setup of runs is accomplished by screen prompting menus in a sequence of queries that is logical to the user. VALUE also incorporates the Optical Encounter (OPEC) software developed by Tricor Systems,Inc., Elgin, IL.

  3. Current status of JAERI spallation target material program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K.; Sasa, T.; Ishikura, S.; Mukugi, K.; Kai, T.; Ouchi, N.; Ioka, I.

    2001-07-01

    In the joint project of spallation neutron source between JAERI and KEK, material technology has been developed for the mercury target in the neutron source facility, the lead-bismuth target in the transmutation test facility, superconducting accelerator, post-irradiation examination and the ion beam test. Design of target system is progressing for the mercury spallation target: a pressure test of moderator, an impacting test in mercury and a corrosion test have been carried out. For nuclear transmutation with ADS an engineering facility is proposed. A material corrosion test loop is built-up and SS316 and F82H steels are to be tested in a flowing Pb-Bi. Fracture toughness of superconducting cavity material was found to be considerably large at 4 K. Irradiated samples at SINQ are to be transported to JAERI Hot Laboratory. For simulating radiation damage small disk specimens were irradiated in single, dual and triple ion beam modes.

  4. 78 FR 34323 - Funding Opportunity Title: Risk Management Education in Targeted States (Targeted States Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Funding Opportunity Title: Risk Management Education in Targeted States... ] communities, and providing risk management education and information. One of RMA's strategic goals is to... emphasis on risk management strategies and crop insurance education specifically targeted to the...

  5. Appropriate Benefits for Outdoor Programs Targeting Juvenile Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyere, Brett L.

    2002-01-01

    A benefits-based management approach will enable outdoor adventure therapy programs for male adolescent offenders to be built around desired outcomes such as building connections to community, enhancing self-esteem, and establishing intergenerational relationships. Outdoor programs must maintain informal environments, involve participants in…

  6. Target Selection for the LBTI Exozodi Key Science Program

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, Alycia J; Kennedy, Grant M; Roberge, Aki; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip M; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Rieke, George; Bailey, Vanessa P; Danchi, William C; Haniff, Chris; Mennesson, Bertrand; Serabyn, Eugene; Skemer, Andrew J; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Wyatt, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer will survey nearby stars for faint emission arising from ~300 K dust (exozodiacal dust), and aims to determine the exozodiacal dust luminosity function. HOSTS results will enable planning for future space telescopes aimed at direct spectroscopy of habitable zone terrestrial planets, as well as greater understanding of the evolution of exozodiacal disks and planetary systems. We lay out here the considerations that lead to the final HOSTS target list. Our target selection strategy maximizes the ability of the survey to constrain the exozodi luminosity function by selecting a combination of stars selected for suitability as targets of future missions and as sensitive exozodi probes. With a survey of approximately 50 stars, we show that HOSTS can enable an understanding of the statistical distribution of warm dust around various types of stars and is robust to the effects of varying levels ...

  7. [Programmed necrosis: a new target for
ischemia reperfusion injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Ming, Yingzi; Niu, Ying; Liu, Qianwen; Ye, Qifa

    2016-07-01

    Recent years, the researchers have found a new type of cell death, referred to programmed necrosis or necroptosis, which involves the death receptor and the ligand binds and is initiated under the inhibition of apoptosis pathway. Programmed necrosis possesses the morphological features of typical necrosis accompanied by inflammation. The receptor interacting protein kinase 1/3(RIPK1/3) can be inhibited by the specific inhibitors, such as necrostatin-1. RIPK1/3 could regulate programmed necrosis and play a key role in the process. The significance of programmed necrosis in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been attracted great attention at present. Simultaneously, a series of studies have found it also involves in the IRI of heart, kidney, brain and retina. PMID:27592584

  8. Diversion, transition programs target nursing homes' status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Susan C

    2010-01-01

    As millions of Americans age and exercise their preference for long-term care in the least restrictive environment, policymakers search for ways to increase community-based services. A new federal program--Money Follows the Person--is off to a slow but promising start. The program's "downstream" approach moves residents out of nursing homes and into community care settings. For example, states with mature nursing home transition programs have managed to relocate 25-35 percent of their nursing home residents to assisted living. Other programs successfully using "upstream" strategies to keep people out of nursing homes have not been widely copied. The challenge for policymakers is to maintain funding and flexibility so that nursing homes are no longer the default option for older adults and people with disabilities.

  9. Development of the Shuttle target measurement program /STMP/ timelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macurda, H. B.; McNeill, G. R.; Carpenter, R. H.; Vann, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper will define the criteria used to establish orbits and timelines for measurements of Shuttle-ejected targets. These criteria include Shuttle-induced contamination environments, orbital mechanics considerations, viewing geometry needs, and the methods used to overcome these limitations. The limitations on viewing objects of opportunity, such as satellites and missile test launches are also discussed.

  10. The relationship between unsupervised time after school and physical activity in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder John P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising obesity and declining physical activity levels are of great concern because of the associated health risks. Many children are left unsupervised after the school day ends, but little is known about the association between unsupervised time and physical activity levels. This paper seeks to determine whether adolescent girls who are without adult supervision after school are more or less active than their peers who have a caregiver at home. Methods A random sample of girls from 36 middle schools at 6 field sites across the U.S. was selected during the fall of the 2002–2003 school year to participate in the baseline measurement activities of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG. Information was collected using six-day objectively measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity using a three-day recall, and socioeconomic and psychosocial measures. Complete information was available for 1422 out of a total of 1596 respondents. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi square and continuous variables were analyzed by t-tests. The four categories of time alone were compared using a mixed linear model controlling for clustering effects by study center. Results Girls who spent more time after school (≥2 hours per day, ≥2 days per week without adult supervision were more active than those with adult supervision (p = 0.01. Girls alone for ≥2 hours after school, ≥2 days a week, on average accrue 7.55 minutes more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day than do girls who are supervised (95% confidence interval ([C.I]. These results adjusted for ethnicity, parent's education, participation in the free/reduced lunch program, neighborhood resources, or available transportation. Unsupervised girls (n = 279 did less homework (53.1% vs. 63.3%, spent less time riding in a car or bus (48.0% vs. 56.6%, talked on the phone more (35.5% vs. 21.1%, and watched more television (59.9% vs. 52

  11. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  12. Twenty-first century skills for students: hands-on learning after school builds school and life success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Leide

    2006-01-01

    At the core of the movement for twenty-first century skills are students. The growing efforts to increase programs leveraging out-of-school time are focused on giving American youth everything they need to compete in this increasingly complex world. The author is one of many students who have been well served by initiatives imparting twenty-first century skills during after-school hours. Now a senior at Boston Latin School, the author has been helped along the way by Citizen Schools, an after-school education program focused on hands-on learning apprenticeships and homework help. While enrolled in the program as a middle school student, the author took part in projects that exemplified hands-on, inquiry-based learning that helped her develop twenty-first century skills. For example, along with dozens of other students, she advanced her data analysis skills by analyzing statistics about Boston Public high schools, which also helped her select and enroll in one of the city's premier exam schools. Also, she and her peers worked with corporate attorneys who served as writing coaches and whose expertise the author drew from in producing a published essay and greatly improving her writing skills. The author now finds that the public speaking, leadership, organizational, social, and management abilities she built through her participation in Citizen Schools are a great asset to her in high school. The confidence with which she tackles her responsibilities can also be traced back to her experiences in the program. As she looks toward college, the author reflects and realizes that being actively involved in a quality after-school program put her on track for a successful future.

  13. Target behaviors in educational social skills programs for parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarette Matesco Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of Educational Social Skills (THSE training programs offered to parents, highlighting the behaviors that were the focus of intervention. The research was performed in electronic databases (Scielo, Pepsic and Lilacs and the bank of thesis and dissertations of Federal University of São Carlos(UFSCar. Five studies were selected and the results discussed considering the importance of the trained skills for parent-children interaction. It was considered that although there are different models of programs, there are recurence in the selection of some educational social skills, showing that they may be relevant for the parent-children interaction

  14. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Felker, Leslie Kevin [ORNL; Mattus, Catherine H [ORNL

    2014-09-01

    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  15. TARGET SELECTION FOR THE LBTI EXOZODI KEY SCIENCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Alycia J. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Bryden, Geoff; Mennesson, Bertrand; Serabyn, Eugene [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Roberge, Aki; Danchi, William C.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip M.; Rieke, George; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Skemer, Andrew J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Lane, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Millan-Gabet, Rafael [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Haniff, Chris, E-mail: weinberger@dtm.ciw.edu [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer will survey nearby stars for faint emission arising from ∼300 K dust (exozodiacal dust), and aims to determine the exozodiacal dust luminosity function. HOSTS results will enable planning for future space telescopes aimed at direct spectroscopy of habitable zone terrestrial planets, as well as greater understanding of the evolution of exozodiacal disks and planetary systems. We lay out here the considerations that lead to the final HOSTS target list. Our target selection strategy maximizes the ability of the survey to constrain the exozodi luminosity function by selecting a combination of stars selected for suitability as targets of future missions and as sensitive exozodi probes. With a survey of approximately 50 stars, we show that HOSTS can enable an understanding of the statistical distribution of warm dust around various types of stars and is robust to the effects of varying levels of survey sensitivity induced by weather conditions.

  16. Workshop on the AGS fixed-target research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, L; Schewe, P; Wanderer, P; Weisberg, H [eds.

    1978-01-01

    The summarized results of a two day workshop to determine experiment programs for the Brookhaven AGS during the construction period of the ISABELLE storage rings and after are presented. Topics covered include: experiments with low-energy beams; experiments with higher energy beams; neutrino physics; and polarized protons. (GHT)

  17. Turning Kids "Green": Tree Planting Program Targets Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Radha

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Grow-a-Tree Project, which teaches Canadian elementary children the important role of trees in the environment. Students grow trees from seed and learn basic concepts of science and ecology. Last year more than 45,000 children took part in the program and planted over 950,000 seeds. (LP)

  18. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  19. From Droughts to Drones: An After-School Club Uses Drones to Learn about Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Bijan; Gillani, Roya

    2015-01-01

    An after-school enrichment activity offered to sixth-grade students gave a group of 10 students an opportunity to explore the effects of the California drought in their community using an engaging scientific device: the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). Although this activity was specifically designed for a small after-school enrichment group, it…

  20. New NSF S&T program targets technical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    A new National Science Foundation venture is to provide an alternative path to skilled jobs in the science and technology fields for students who do not plan to attend 4-year college. The Advanced Technological Education Program (ATE), an outgrowth of the agency's expanded role in education, was announced at a news conference in Washington, D.C., on September 2 by NSF's Assistant Director for Education and Human Resources, Luther Williams.“The program responds to the national need for a well-educated technical workforce,” Williams said, adding that “there is a growing recognition that if we want to improve the quality of our workforce, we have to pay attention to the quality of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education at 2-year institutions.”

  1. Programming Native CRISPR Arrays for the Generation of Targeted Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Alexander P.; Labrie, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adaptive immune system of prokaryotes, called CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated genes), results in specific cleavage of invading nucleic acid sequences recognized by the cell’s “memory” of past encounters. Here, we exploited the properties of native CRISPR-Cas systems to program the natural “memorization” process, efficiently generating immunity not only to a bacteriophage or plasmid but to any specifically chosen DNA sequence. PMID:27143383

  2. After-school enrichment and the activity theory: How can a management service organization assist schools with reducing the achievement gap among minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Reagan D.

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how a management service organization can assist schools with reducing the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours. Developing a strategic plan through creating a program that provides support services for the implementation of hands-on activities in STEM for children during the after-school hours was central to this purpose. This Project Demonstrating Excellence (PDE), a social action project, also presents historical and current after-school program developments in the nation. The study is quantitative and qualitative in nature. Surveys were utilized to quantitatively capture the opinions of participants in the social action project on three specific education related issues: (1) disparity in academic motivation of students to participate in after-school STEM enrichment programs; (2) whether teachers and school administrators saw a need for STEM after-school enrichment; and (3) developing STEM after-school programs that were centered on problem-solving and higher-order thinking skills to develop students' interest in STEM careers. The sample consisted of 50 participants comprised of students, teachers, and administrators. The focus groups and interviews provided the qualitative data for the study. The qualitative sample consisted of 14 participants comprised of students, parents and teachers, administrators, an education consultant, and a corporate sponsor. The empirical data obtained from the study survey, focus groups, and interviews provided a comprehensive profile on the current views and future expectations of STEM after-school enrichment, student and school needs, and community partnerships with STEM companies. Results of the study and review of the implementation of the social action project, C-STEM (communication, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Teacher and Student Support

  3. Community based prevention programs targeting all injuries for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, A; Turner, C; McClure, R; Nixon, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Community based models for injury prevention have become an accepted part of the overall injury control strategy. This systematic review of the scientific literature examines the evidence for their effectiveness in reducing all-cause injury in children 0–14 years of age. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was performed using the following study selection criteria: community based intervention study; children under 14 years; outcome measure was injury rates; and either a community control or an historical control was used in the design. Quality assessment and data abstraction were guided by a standardized procedure and performed independently by two authors. Data synthesis was in tabular and text form with meta-analysis not being possible due to the discrepancy in methods and measures between the studies. Results: Thorough electronic and library search techniques yielded only nine formally evaluated community based all-cause child injury prevention programs that have reported actual injury outcomes. Of these nine studies, seven provided high level evidence where contemporary control communities were used for comparison; the remaining two used a pre and post-design or time trend analysis where historical data from the community were used as the comparison. Only three of the seven studies with contemporary control communities found significant effect of the intervention; the two studies without controls noted significant reductions in injury rates after the intervention period. Conclusion: There is a paucity of research from which evidence regarding the effectiveness of community based childhood injury prevention programs can be obtained and hence a clear need to increase the effort on developing this evidence base. PMID:15178676

  4. Does Information Improve the Health Behavior of Adults Targeted by a Conditional Transfer Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types,…

  5. Does Elite Capture Matter? Local Elites and Targeted Welfare Programs in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Vivi Alatas; Abhijit Banerjee; Rema Hanna; Benjamin A. Olken; Ririn Purnamasari; Matthew Wai-Poi

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of elite capture on the allocation of targeted government welfare programs in Indonesia, using both a high-stakes field experiment that varied the extent of elite influence and non-experimental data on a variety of existing government transfer programs. Conditional on their consumption level, there is little evidence that village elites and their relatives are more likely to receive aid programs than non-elites. However, this overall result masks stark diffe...

  6. Nutrition policy, food and drinks at school and after school care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Poùlsen, J

    2005-01-01

    sent to all private and public schools and all after school care institutions in Denmark. The participation rate was 70 at schools and 66 at after school care institutions. RESULTS: In total, 3% of schools and 4% of after school care institutions have a written policy on nutrition. All Danish children....... CONCLUSION: The paper highlights the important aspects of the institutional level as one of six important levels as regards the prevention of obesity and an important level at which to act to increase nutrition habits in school children....

  7. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rowley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous

  8. Nutrition policy, food and drinks at school and after school care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Poùlsen, J

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the paper is to describe food and drinks available in food stands or cantina at Danish schools and food and drinks provided at after school care institutions in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The survey was performed in 1999 and self-administered postal questionnaires were...... have access to milk at school and they can choose between milk with low and high content of fat. Vending machines are rare at schools and are not present at all at after school care institutions. Only 10% of schools offer children sugared carbonated drinks at food stands. Fruit is available daily in 35......% of schools, at food stands, and in 18% of the schools, fruit is available on prescription. In after school care institutions, sweets and sugared carbonated drinks are rare. However, juice is served daily in 47% of after school care institutions. Most schools run the food stand at school for profit...

  9. Increasing specificity of correlate research: exploring correlates of children's lunchtime and after-school physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Stanley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lunchtime and after-school contexts are critical windows in a school day for children to be physically active. While numerous studies have investigated correlates of children's habitual physical activity, few have explored correlates of physical activity occurring at lunchtime and after-school from a social-ecological perspective. Exploring correlates that influence physical activity occurring in specific contexts can potentially improve the prediction and understanding of physical activity. Using a context-specific approach, this study investigated correlates of children's lunchtime and after-school physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from 423 South Australian children aged 10.0-13.9 years (200 boys; 223 girls attending 10 different schools. Lunchtime and after-school physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Correlates were assessed using purposely developed context-specific questionnaires. Correlated Component Regression analysis was conducted to derive correlates of context-specific physical activity and determine the variance explained by prediction equations. RESULTS: The model of boys' lunchtime physical activity contained 6 correlates and explained 25% of the variance. For girls, the model explained 17% variance from 9 correlates. Enjoyment of walking during lunchtime was the strongest correlate for both boys and girls. Boys' and girls' after-school physical activity models explained 20% variance from 14 correlates and 7% variance from the single item correlate, "I do an organised sport or activity after-school because it gets you fit", respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing specificity of correlate research has enabled the identification of unique features of, and a more in-depth interpretation of, lunchtime and after-school physical activity behaviour and is a potential strategy for advancing the physical activity correlate research field. The findings of this study could be used to

  10. The Effects of Texas's Targeted Pre-Kindergarten Program on Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney J. Andrews; Paul Jargowsky; Kristin Kuhne

    2012-01-01

    There has been a resurgence in research that investigates the efficacy of early investments as a means of reducing gaps in academic performance. However, the strongest evidence for these effects comes from experimental evaluations of small, highly enriched programs. We add to this literature by assessing the extent to which a large-scale public program, Texas's targeted pre-Kindergarten (pre-K), affects scores on math and reading achievement tests, the likelihood of being retained in grade, a...

  11. Evaluating Additionality of an Innovation Subsidy Program Targeted at SMEs: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Radas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effectiveness of a recently introduced innovation subsidy program targeted at SMEs in Croatia. Three aspects of program additionality were evaluated: input, output and behavioral aspects. Both qualitative and survey research was employed, and four case studies with selected recipient companies were conducted. This study is a response to the policy-makers’ need for early program assessment. It attempts to show that even with early evaluation and small population of recipients it is possible to gain insight into program effectiveness. The analysis suggests that the effects of programs targeted at innovative SMEs might need to be evaluated differently than general subsidies. This is especially evident in the evaluation of input additionality. The analysis indicates that SMEs which started with a higher R&D capability tend to increase R&D intensity while participating in the program. The program raised R&D and innovation capability of the participating SMEs, but commercialization of project results remains a concern.

  12. TARGETED RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY WITHIN NASA'S LIVING WITH A STAR PROGRAM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, J. T.; Antiochos, Spiro; Baker, Kile; Bellaire, Paul; Blake, Bern; Crowley, Geoff; Eddy, Jack; Goodrich, Charles; Gopalswamy, Nat; Hesse, Michael; Hurlburt, Neal; Jackman, Charles; Kozyra, Janet; Labonte, Barry; Lean, Judith; Linker, Jon; Mazur, Joe; Onsager, Terry; Sibeck, David

    2003-07-10

    NASA’s Living With a Star (LWS) initiative is a systematic, goal-oriented research program targeting those aspects of the Sun-Earth system that affect society. The Targeted Research and Technology (TR&T) component of LWS provides the theory, modeling, and data analysis necessary to enable an integrated, system-wide picture of Sun-Earth connection science with societal relevance. Recognizing the central and essential role that TR&T would have for the success of the LWS initiative, the LWS Science Architecture Team (SAT) recommended that a Science Definition Team (SDT), with the same status as a flight mission definition team, be formed to design and coordinate a TR&T program having prioritized goals and objectives that focused on practical societal benefits. This report details the SDT recommendations for the TR&T program.

  13. Re-programming tumour cell metabolism to treat cancer: no lone target for lonidamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutia, Yangzom D.; Babu, Ellappan; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2016-01-01

    Tumour cell metabolism is very different from normal cell metabolism; cancer cells re-programme the metabolic pathways that occur in normal cells in such a manner that it optimizes their proliferation, growth and survival. Although this metabolic re-programming obviously operates to the advantage of the tumour, it also offers unique opportunities for effective cancer therapy. Molecules that target the tumour cell-specific metabolic pathways have potential as novel anti-cancer drugs. Lonidamine belongs to this group of molecules and is already in use in some countries for cancer treatment. It has been known for a long time that lonidamine interferes with energy production in tumour cells by inhibiting hexokinase II (HKII), a glycolytic enzyme. However, subsequent studies have uncovered additional pharmacological targets for the drug, which include the electron transport chain and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, thus expanding the pharmacological effects of the drug on tumour cell metabolism. A study by Nancolas et al. in a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal identifies two additional new targets for lonidamine: the pyruvate transporter in the mitochondria and the H+-coupled monocarboxylate transporters in the plasma membrane (PM). It is thus becoming increasingly apparent that the anti-cancer effects of lonidamine do not occur through a single target; the drug works at multiple sites. Irrespective of the molecular targets, what lonidamine does in the end is to undo what the tumour cells have done in terms of re-programming cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function. PMID:27234586

  14. Mothers and Children -as Targets for Two Nutrition Supplementation Programs in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Executive summary Background: South Africa is affected by the nutrition transition as one of many countries, with high prevalence of both over and undernutrition. Differences are sharp throughout the population, rural and poor suffering most frequently from underweight, stunting, vitamin A deficiency and hunger. Several initiatives have been implemented in order to improve the nutrition status. Among these are i) the Nutrition Supplementation Program, which targets children with growth pr...

  15. Programmed activation of cancer cell apoptosis: A tumor-targeted phototherapeutic topoisomerase I inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Weon Sup; Han, Jiyou; Kumar, Rajesh; Lee, Gyung Gyu; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Jong Seung

    2016-07-01

    We report here a tumor-targeting masked phototherapeutic agent 1 (PT-1). This system contains SN-38—a prodrug of the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan. Topoisomerase I is a vital enzyme that controls DNA topology during replication, transcription, and recombination. An elevated level of topoisomerase I is found in many carcinomas, making it an attractive target for the development of effective anticancer drugs. In addition, PT-1 contains both a photo-triggered moiety (nitrovanillin) and a cancer targeting unit (biotin). Upon light activation in cancer cells, PT-1 interferes with DNA re-ligation, diminishes the expression of topoisomerase I, and enhances the expression of inter alia mitochondrial apoptotic genes, death receptors, and caspase enzymes, inducing DNA damage and eventually leading to apoptosis. In vitro and in vivo studies showed significant inhibition of cancer growth and the hybrid system PT-1 thus shows promise as a programmed photo-therapeutic (“phototheranostic”).

  16. Confronting Barriers to Teaching Elementary Science: After-School Science Teaching Experiences for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Tina; Smith, Suzanne; Hallar, Brittan

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the transition of eight elementary preservice teachers into student teaching after participating in a science methods course that included a significant amount of teaching after-school science to elementary grade students. These eight participants had a chance to practice teaching inquiry-based science and to reform…

  17. Children and Media outside the Home: Playing and Learning in After-School Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Karen Orr

    2008-01-01

    Karen Orr Vered demonstrates how children's media play contributes to their acquisition of media literacy. Theorizing after-school care as intermediary space, a large-scale ethnographic study informs this theory-rich and practical discussion of children's media use beyond home and classroom.

  18. Designing After-School Learning Using the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular for engaging students in a range of learning goals, both in the classroom and the after-school space. In this article, I discuss a specific genre of video game, the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMO), which has been identified as a dynamic environment for encountering 21st-century workplace…

  19. Finding a Space for Professional Development: Creating Thirdspace through After-School Writing Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Robert; Coyle, Deborah; Walden, Anne; Healey, Conniem; Larson, Kim; Laughridge, Virginia; Ridder, Kim; Williams, Molly; Williams, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a teacher study group focusing on After School Writing Circles for elementary students as a site of Thirdspace professional development. Borrowing the concept of Thirdspace from postmodern geographer Edward Soja, the authors argue that professional development works best when teachers engage in the dual work of imagining and…

  20. Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Predictors of Middle School Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristi M.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Brown, Stephen L.; Partridge, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Children's participation in after-school physical activity can attenuate the overweight and obesity rates among rural, low socioeconomic status (SES) children. Children's individual determination, as well as social and environmental factors, can influence their behaviors. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine if a difference…

  1. After-School Care as Investment in Human Capital--From Policy to Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandell, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    After-school reform in Finland is analysed as a case of state intervention in childhood and of inscribing political goals in an activity with children. The paper asks what understandings of children and childhood are communicated in and through the reform and its dispersed implementation. Theoretically, the paper is informed by new ways of…

  2. Transiting Exoplanet Studies and Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; "Enabling Transiting Exoplanet Science with JWST" workshop attendees

    2016-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely revolutionize transiting exoplanet atmospheric science; however, it is unclear precisely how well it will perform and which of its myriad instruments and observing modes will be best suited for transiting exoplanet studies. We will describe a prefatory JWST Early Release Science (ERS) Cycle 1 program that focuses on testing specific observing modes to quickly give the community the data and experience it needs to plan more efficient and successful transiting exoplanet characterization programs in later cycles. We will also present a list of "community targets" that are well suited to achieving these goals. Since most of the community targets do not have well-characterized atmospheres, we have initiated a preparatory HST + Spitzer observing program to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes within their atmospheres. Measurable spectroscopic features are needed to establish the optimal resolution and wavelength regions for exoplanet characterization. We will present preliminary results from this preparatory observing program and discuss their implications on the pending JWST ERS proposal deadline in mid-2017.

  3. Transiting Exoplanet Studies and Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Bean, Jacob L; Beichman, Charles; Fraine, Jonathan; Kilpatrick, Brian M; Krick, J E; Lothringer, Joshua D; Mandell, Avi M; Valenti, Jeff A; Agol, Eric; Angerhausen, Daniel; Barstow, Joanna K; Birkmann, Stephan M; Burrows, Adam; Cowan, Nicolas B; Crouzet, Nicolas; Cubillos, Patricio E; Curry, S M; Dalba, Paul A; de Wit, Julien; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Doyon, Rene; Dragomir, Diana; Ehrenreich, David; Fortney, Jonathan J; Munoz, Antonio Garcia; Gibson, Neale P; Gizis, John E; Greene, Thomas P; Harrington, Joseph; Heng, Kevin; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza M -R; Knutson, Heather; Kreidberg, Laura; Lafreniere, David; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Line, Michael R; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline V; Rocchetto, Marco; Schlawin, Everett; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Shporer, Avi; Sing, David K; Todorov, Kamen O; Tucker, Gregory S; Wakeford, Hannah R

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will revolutionize transiting exoplanet atmospheric science due to its capability for continuous, long-duration observations and its larger collecting area, spectral coverage, and spectral resolution compared to existing space-based facilities. However, it is unclear precisely how well JWST will perform and which of its myriad instruments and observing modes will be best suited for transiting exoplanet studies. In this article, we describe a prefatory JWST Early Release Science (ERS) program that focuses on testing specific observing modes to quickly give the community the data and experience it needs to plan more efficient and successful future transiting exoplanet characterization programs. We propose a multi-pronged approach wherein one aspect of the program focuses on observing transits of a single target with all of the recommended observing modes to identify and understand potential systematics, compare transmission spectra at overlapping and neighboring wavelength regions...

  4. Policies and programs to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosarin Sruamsiri

    Full Text Available Increasing access to clinically beneficial targeted cancer medicines is a challenge in every country due to their high cost. We describe the interplay of innovative policies and programs involving multiple stakeholders to facilitate access to these medicines in Thailand, as well as the utilization of selected targeted therapies over time.We selected two medicines on the 2013 Thai national list of essential medicines (NLEM [letrozole and imatinib] and three unlisted medicines for the same indications [trastuzumab, nilotinib and dasatinib]. We created timelines of access policies and programs for these products based on scientific and grey literature. Using IMS Health sales data, we described the trajectories of sales volumes of the study medicines between January 2001 and December 2012. We compared estimated average numbers of patients treated before and after the implementation of policies and programs for each product.Different stakeholders implemented multiple interventions to increase access to the study medicines for different patient populations. During 2007-2009, the Thai Government created a special NLEM category with different coverage requirements for payers and issued compulsory licenses; payers negotiated prices with manufacturers and engaged in pooled procurement; pharmaceutical companies expanded patient assistance programs and lowered prices in different ways. Compared to before the interventions, estimated numbers of patients treated with each medicine increased significantly afterwards: for letrozole from 645 (95% CI 366-923 to 3683 (95% CI 2,748-4,618; for imatinib from 103 (95% CI 72-174 to 350 (95% CI 307-398; and for trastuzumab from 68 (95% CI 45-118 to 412 (95% CI 344-563.Government, payers, and manufacturers implemented multi-pronged approaches to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies for the Thai population, which differed by medicine. Routine monitoring is needed to assess clinical and economic impacts of these

  5. A Preliminary Controlled Comparison of Programs Designed to Reduce Risk of Eating Disorders Targeting Perfectionism and Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M.; Durbridge, Mitchell R.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to find out whether programs targeting perfectionism and media literacy are more effective than control classes in reducing eating disorder risk factors. Finding reveals that perfectionism programs are well suited to individuals of mid- to late adolescent age and shows the importune of making prevention programs developmentally…

  6. Transiting Exoplanet Studies and Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Bean, Jacob L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Fraine, Jonathan; Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Krick, J. E.; Lothringer, Joshua D.; Mandell, Avi M.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Agol, Eric; Angerhausen, Daniel; Barstow, Joanna K.; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Greene, Thomas P.; Line, Michael R.; Wakeford, Hanna R.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely revolutionize transiting exoplanet atmospheric science, due to a combination of its capability for continuous, long duration observations and its larger collecting area, spectral coverage, and spectral resolution compared to existing space-based facilities. However, it is unclear precisely how well JWST will perform and which of its myriad instruments and observing modes will be best suited for transiting exoplanet studies. In this article, we describe a prefatory JWST Early Release Science (ERS) Cycle 1 program that focuses on testing specific observing modes to quickly give the community the data and experience it needs to plan more efficient and successful transiting exoplanet characterization programs in later cycles. We propose a multi-pronged approach wherein one aspect of the program focuses on observing transits of a single target with all of the recommended observing modes to identify and understand potential systematics, compare transmission spectra at overlapping and neighboring wavelength regions, confirm throughputs, and determine overall performances. In our search for transiting exoplanets that are well suited to achieving these goals, we identify 12 objects (dubbed community targets'') that meet our defined criteria. Currently, the most favorable target is WASP-62b because of its large predicted signal size, relatively bright host star, and location in JWST's continuous viewing zone. Since most of the community targets do not have well-characterized atmospheres, we recommend initiating preparatory observing programs to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes within their atmospheres. Measurable spectroscopic features are needed to establish the optimal resolution and wavelength regions for exoplanet characterization. Other initiatives from our proposed ERS program include testing the instrument brightness limits and performing phase-curve observations. The latter are a unique challenge

  7. Innovative Program Targets Five Common Pain Syndromes With Non-opioid Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    To combat the prescription opioid problem, St. Joseph's Healthcare System in Paterson, NJ, has developed a new program that gives providers options they can use to effectively alleviate pain without resorting to highly addictive medication. Launched in January 2016 in the ED at St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center (SJRMC), the Alternatives to Opioids (ALTO) program utilizes protocols that primarily target five common conditions: renal colic, sciatica, headaches, musculoskeletal pain, and extremity fractures. Administrators say they have successfully treated more than 300 patients under the new program, and they see ALTO as a model other hospitals can duplicate. Among the alternative therapies called for in the ALTO program are trigger point injections, nitrous oxide, and ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. ALTO medications are specifically chosen because of how they affect the pain receptor sites for each different pain syndrome. While the primary goal of the program is to use alternatives to opioids when-ever possible, another important underlying goal is to stop acute pain from becoming chronic. While ALTO therapies typically take a bit longer to deliver than prescribing opioids, administrators note that this has not adversely affected patient flow in the ED.

  8. Innovative Program Targets Five Common Pain Syndromes With Non-opioid Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    To combat the prescription opioid problem, St. Joseph's Healthcare System in Paterson, NJ, has developed a new program that gives providers options they can use to effectively alleviate pain without resorting to highly addictive medication. Launched in January 2016 in the ED at St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center (SJRMC), the Alternatives to Opioids (ALTO) program utilizes protocols that primarily target five common conditions: renal colic, sciatica, headaches, musculoskeletal pain, and extremity fractures. Administrators say they have successfully treated more than 300 patients under the new program, and they see ALTO as a model other hospitals can duplicate. Among the alternative therapies called for in the ALTO program are trigger point injections, nitrous oxide, and ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. ALTO medications are specifically chosen because of how they affect the pain receptor sites for each different pain syndrome. While the primary goal of the program is to use alternatives to opioids when-ever possible, another important underlying goal is to stop acute pain from becoming chronic. While ALTO therapies typically take a bit longer to deliver than prescribing opioids, administrators note that this has not adversely affected patient flow in the ED. PMID:27295817

  9. The Role of After-School Digital Media Clubs in Closing Participation Gaps and Expanding Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Jacqueline Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers how after-school digital media clubs, as an example of informal learning, can provide meaningful opportunities for youth to participate in the creation of interest-driven learning ecologies through media production. Ethnographic research was conducted in two after-school digital media clubs at a large, ethnically diverse,…

  10. Targeting Of Subsidized Fertilizer Under Kenya’s National Accelerated Agricultural Input Access Program (NAAIAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Sheahan, Megan; Olwande, John; Kirimi, Lilian; Jayne, Thom S.

    2014-01-01

    A new wave of “market smart” modern input subsidy schemes has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa over the past decade with the promise of increasing input use and grain yields while building or complementing private sector efforts. We study the extent to which geographic and household level targeting under Kenya’s National Accelerated Agricultural Input Access Program (NAAIAP) has remained true to its “market smart” objectives using household level panel data from before and during the initial yea...

  11. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Dire need for targeted left ventricular lead placement and optimal device programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sokratis; Pastromas; Antonis; S; Manolis

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy(CRT) effected via biventricular pacing has been established as prime therapy for heart failure patients of New York Heart Association functional class Ⅱ, Ⅲ and ambulatory Ⅳ, reduced left ventricular(LV) function, and a widened QRS complex. CRT has been shown to improve symptoms, LV function, hospitalization rates, and survival. In order to maximize the benefit from CRT and reduce the number of non-responders, consideration should be given to target the optimal site for LV lead implantation away from myocardial scar and close to the latest LV site activation; and also to appropriately program the device paying particular attention to optimal atrioventricular and interventricular intervals. We herein review current data related to both optimal LV lead placement and device programming and their effects on CRT clinical outcomes.

  12. Powerlifting: A Suitable High School Elective and After-School Intramural Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, Francis M.; Brusseau, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Although weightlifting is part of most high school physical education curricula, the sport of powerlifting is a relatively overlooked activity that men and women of all ages can practice as a lifetime sport. This activity consists of three lifts: squat, bench press, and deadlift. This article describes the benefits of teaching powerlifting as a…

  13. Transiting Exoplanet Studies and Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Bean, Jacob L.; Beichman, Charles; Fraine, Jonathan; Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Krick, J. E.; Lothringer, Joshua D.; Mandell, Avi M.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Agol, Eric; Angerhausen, Daniel; Barstow, Joanna K.; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Crouzet, Nicolas; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Curry, S. M.; Dalba, Paul A.; de Wit, Julien; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Doyon, René; Dragomir, Diana; Ehrenreich, David; Fortney, Jonathan J.; García Muñoz, Antonio; Gibson, Neale P.; Gizis, John E.; Greene, Thomas P.; Harrington, Joseph; Heng, Kevin; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Knutson, Heather; Kreidberg, Laura; Lafrenière, David; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Line, Michael R.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline V.; Rocchetto, Marco; Schlawin, Everett; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Shporer, Avi; Sing, David K.; Todorov, Kamen O.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Wakeford, Hannah R.

    2016-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely revolutionize transiting exoplanet atmospheric science, due to a combination of its capability for continuous, long duration observations and its larger collecting area, spectral coverage, and spectral resolution compared to existing space-based facilities. However, it is unclear precisely how well JWST will perform and which of its myriad instruments and observing modes will be best suited for transiting exoplanet studies. In this article, we describe a prefatory JWST Early Release Science (ERS) Cycle 1 program that focuses on testing specific observing modes to quickly give the community the data and experience it needs to plan more efficient and successful transiting exoplanet characterization programs in later cycles. We propose a multi-pronged approach wherein one aspect of the program focuses on observing transits of a single target with all of the recommended observing modes to identify and understand potential systematics, compare transmission spectra at overlapping and neighboring wavelength regions, confirm throughputs, and determine overall performances. In our search for transiting exoplanets that are well suited to achieving these goals, we identify 12 objects (dubbed “community targets”) that meet our defined criteria. Currently, the most favorable target is WASP-62b because of its large predicted signal size, relatively bright host star, and location in JWST's continuous viewing zone. Since most of the community targets do not have well-characterized atmospheres, we recommend initiating preparatory observing programs to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes within their atmospheres. Measurable spectroscopic features are needed to establish the optimal resolution and wavelength regions for exoplanet characterization. Other initiatives from our proposed ERS program include testing the instrument brightness limits and performing phase-curve observations. The latter are a unique challenge

  14. Tuning in to Kids: an effectiveness trial of a parenting program targeting emotion socialization of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine R; Havighurst, Sophie S; Harley, Ann E

    2012-02-01

    This article reports on an effectiveness trial of the Tuning in to Kids (TIK) parenting program. TIK aims to improve emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children; it is a universal prevention program that teaches parents the skills of emotion coaching and also targets parents' own emotion awareness and regulation. The present study followed a 2 × 2 (Treatment Condition × Time) design. One hundred twenty-eight parents of children ages 4.0-5.11 years were recruited from preschools and randomized into intervention and waitlist conditions. Parents in the intervention condition (n = 62) attended a six-session group parenting program delivered by community practitioners who followed intervention fidelity protocols. Parents and preschool teachers completed questionnaires twice during the preschool year: at preintervention and at follow-up (approximately 7 months later). Parents reported on their emotion socialization beliefs and practices, other parenting practices, and on child behavior. Teachers reported on child behavior (Social Competence and Anger-Aggression). Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. At follow-up, compared to the control group, intervention parents were significantly less emotionally dismissive in their beliefs, less dismissive and more coaching in their practices in response to children's negative emotions, and more positively involved. Although there were improvements in both conditions over time for parent-reported child behavior and teacher-reported social competence, compared to the waitlist group, intervention parents reported a significantly greater reduction in number of behavior problems. This trial demonstrates the potential for community agencies and practitioners in real-world settings to deliver a new parenting program that targets emotional communication in parent-child relationships.

  15. Preliminary Mark-18A (Mk-18A) Target Material Recovery Program Product Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages an inventory of materials that contains a range of long-lived radioactive isotopes that were produced from the 1960s through the 1980s by irradiating targets in production nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One reactor was operated in a high-flux mode to produce heavy isotopes for defense purposes, DOE programmatic use, scientific research, and industrial and medical applications. In this reactor, eighty-six Mk-18A (Mk-18A) targets were subjected to long-term high neutron fluxes 47 years ago. Twentyone targets of these were processed to recover 244Pu, heavy curium (i.e., curium rich in 246-248Cm), and 252Cf. The plutonium fraction, which was rich in 244Pu, was electromagnetically enriched in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) calutrons to produce gram quantities of 244Pu. This high-purity 244Pu was portioned out to scientists for basic research and for nuclear nonproliferation safeguards programs. The recovered tails (designated as FP-33) contain 244Pu isotopic purities below 20% and are stored at ORNL. The processing of these 21 Mk-18A targets provided the supply of 244Pu and heavy curium in use today. The remaining 65 unprocessed targets are currently in a storage pool at SRS; they contain the world’s remaining supply of unseparated 244Pu and heavy curium.

  16. Preparing Students for Middle School Through After-School STEM Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory; Newell, Alana D.; Burnett, Christopher A.

    2016-09-01

    The middle school years are a crucial time for cultivating students' interest in and preparedness for future STEM careers. However, not all middle school children are provided opportunities to engage, learn and achieve in STEM subject areas. Engineering, in particular, is neglected in these grades because it usually is not part of science or mathematics curricula. This study investigates the effectiveness of an engineering-integrated STEM curriculum designed for use in an after-school environment. The inquiry-based activities comprising the unit, Think Like an Astronaut, were intended to introduce students to STEM careers—specifically engineering and aerospace engineering—and enhance their skills and knowledge applicable related to typical middle school science objectives. Results of a field test with a diverse population of 5th grade students in nine schools revealed that Think Like an Astronaut lessons are appropriate for an after-school environment, and may potentially help increase students' STEM-related content knowledge and skills.

  17. After-School Spaces: Looking for Learning in All the Right Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittka, Christine G.; Evans, Michael A.; Won, Samantha G. L.; Drape, Tiffany A.

    2016-06-01

    After-school settings provide youth with homework support, social outlets and fun activities, and help build self-confidence. They are safe places for forming relationships with caring adults. More after-school settings are starting to integrate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) topics. What science skills and concepts might youth learn in engineering design-based after-school settings? Traditional assessments often fail to capture the ways youth learn in informal settings, and deep science understandings are notoriously difficult to measure. In this study, we examined three after-school settings where 65 youth were learning science through engineering design challenges. In this informal setting, we examined storyboards, social networking forum (SNF) chat logs, videos of whole-class interactions, interviews with groups and single participants, and traditional multiple-choice pre- and posttest results. As we looked for evidence of learning, we found that the social networking forum was rich with data. Interviews were even more informative, much more so than traditional pencil and paper multiple-choice tests. We found that different kinds of elicitation strategies adopted by site leaders and facilitators played an important role in the ways youth constructed knowledge. These elicitation strategies also helped us find evidence of learning. Based on findings, future iterations of the curricula will involve tighter integration of social networking forums, continued use of videotaped interviews for data collection, an increased focus on training site leaders and facilitators in elicitation strategies, and more open-ended pencil and paper assessments in order to facilitate the process of looking for learning.

  18. The relation between third graders' after-school care and social, academic, and emotional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, D L; Corasaniti, M A

    1988-08-01

    Outcome differences associated with types of after-school care were explored among 150 white, predominantly middle-class third graders from a suburban school system. Children returned home to their mothers, attended day-care centers, stayed with sitters, or returned home alone or with siblings. No differences were found between latchkey and mother-care children in terms of their classroom sociometric nominations, academic grades, standardized test scores, conduct grades, self-reports of self-competence, or parent and teacher ratings of the children. Significant differences were found for children who attended day-care centers after school. These children received more negative peer nominations, made lower academic grades, and had lower standardized test scores than either mother-care or latchkey children. The children who stayed with sitters after school received more negative peer nominations than the latchkey and mother-care children but, in other areas, resembled these groups. These outcome differences were apparent in both divorced and intact families. Factors contributing to these differences are examined.

  19. Age Targeting of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs Using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts to scale up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention in priority countries over the last five years, implementation has faced important challenges. Seeking to enhance the effect of VMMC programs for greatest and most immediate impact, the U. S. President's Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR supported the development and application of a model to inform national planning in five countries from 2013-2014.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT 2.0 is a simple compartmental model designed to analyze the effects of client age and geography on program impact and cost. The DMPPT 2.0 model was applied in Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the impact and cost of scaling up age-targeted VMMC coverage. The lowest number of VMMCs per HIV infection averted would be produced by circumcising males ages 20-34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 15-34 in Swaziland. The most immediate impact on HIV incidence would be generated by circumcising males ages 20-34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 20-29 in Swaziland. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence over a 15-year period would be achieved by strategies focused on males ages 10-19 in Uganda, 15-24 in Malawi and South Africa, 10-24 in Tanzania, and 15-29 in Swaziland. In all countries, the lowest cost per HIV infection averted would be achieved by circumcising males ages 15-34, although in Uganda this cost is the same as that attained by circumcising 15- to 49-year-olds.The efficiency, immediacy of impact, magnitude of impact, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up are not uniform; there is important variation by age group of the males circumcised and countries should plan accordingly.

  20. Age Targeting of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs Using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT) 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Opuni, Marjorie; Schnure, Melissa; Sgaier, Sema; Castor, Delivette; Reed, Jason; Stover, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite considerable efforts to scale up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in priority countries over the last five years, implementation has faced important challenges. Seeking to enhance the effect of VMMC programs for greatest and most immediate impact, the U. S. President’s Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supported the development and application of a model to inform national planning in five countries from 2013–2014. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT) 2.0 is a simple compartmental model designed to analyze the effects of client age and geography on program impact and cost. The DMPPT 2.0 model was applied in Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the impact and cost of scaling up age-targeted VMMC coverage. The lowest number of VMMCs per HIV infection averted would be produced by circumcising males ages 20–34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 15–34 in Swaziland. The most immediate impact on HIV incidence would be generated by circumcising males ages 20–34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 20–29 in Swaziland. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence over a 15-year period would be achieved by strategies focused on males ages 10–19 in Uganda, 15–24 in Malawi and South Africa, 10–24 in Tanzania, and 15–29 in Swaziland. In all countries, the lowest cost per HIV infection averted would be achieved by circumcising males ages 15–34, although in Uganda this cost is the same as that attained by circumcising 15- to 49-year-olds. Conclusions The efficiency, immediacy of impact, magnitude of impact, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up are not uniform; there is important variation by age group of the males circumcised and countries should plan accordingly. PMID:27410966

  1. A review of targeted therapies evaluated by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program for osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eSampson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor of childhood, is a high grade primary bone sarcoma that occurs mostly in adolescence. Standard treatment consists of surgery in combination with multi-agent chemotherapy regimens. The development and approval of imatinib for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in children and the fully human monoclonal antibody, anti-GD2, as part of an immune therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients have established the precedent for use of targeted inhibitors along with standard chemotherapy backbones. However, few targeted agents tested have achieved traditional clinical end points for osteosarcoma. Many biological agents demonstrating anti-tumor responses in preclinical and early phase clinical testing have failed to reach response thresholds to justify randomized trials with large numbers of patients. The development of targeted therapies for pediatric cancer remains a significant challenge. To aid in the prioritization of new agents for clinical testing, the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP has developed reliable and robust preclinical pediatric cancer models to rapidly screen agents for activity in multiple childhood cancers and establish pharmacological parameters and effective drug concentrations for clinical trials. In this article, we examine a range of standard and novel agents that have been evaluated by the PPTP, and we discuss the preclinical and clinical development of these for the treatment of osteosarcoma. We further demonstrate that committed resources for hypothesis-driven drug discovery and development are needed to yield clinical successes in the search for new therapies for this pediatric disease.

  2. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  3. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  4. Time spent playing outdoors after school and its relationship with independent mobility: a cross-sectional survey of children aged 10–12 years in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time spent outdoors is positively associated with physical activity and has been suggested as a proxy for physical activity of children. The role of children's independence in physical activity and time spent outdoors is less understood. This study aimed to assess how much time children spent playing outdoors after school, and to explore the relationship between outdoor play and independence among children aged 10–12 years. Method Children recorded how much time they spent playing outdoors or watching TV/videos or playing computer games after school using a five-day diary, and also reported whether they were allowed to walk on their own in their neighbourhood as an indicator of their independent mobility. Parents were surveyed on family demographics and perception of neighbourhood safety. The surveys were conducted in late 2006 as part of the Central Sydney Walk to School program which involved 1975 children and their parents from 24 primary schools. Factors associated with time spent playing outdoors were determined by logistic regression modelling. Results Thirty-seven per cent of children spent less than half an hour a day playing outdoors after school, and 43% spent more than 2 hours a day watching TV, videos or playing computer games. Forty-eight per cent of children were allowed to walk on their own near where they lived. Children's independent mobility was significantly associated with outdoor play after adjusting for other confounders. Compared with those who were never allowed to walk on their own near where they lived, students who were allowed to walk on their own were significantly more likely to spend more than half an hour a day playing outdoors after school with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.6, 95% CI 1.84–3.58, P Conclusion The findings that a significant proportion of children spend less than half an hour a day playing outdoors after school and have excessive screen time have important implications for

  5. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  6. Targeting Socially Isolated Older Adults: A Process Evaluation of the Senior Centre Without Walls Social and Educational Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, Nancy E G; Menec, Verena H

    2015-12-01

    The Seniors Centre Without Walls (SCWOW) program provides free social and educational programming for older adults via telephone. The target population for SCWOW is socially isolated older adults, a hard to reach population. The aim of this process evaluation was to examine whether SCWOW was reaching its target population and to gather participant feedback about program implementation and the perceived satisfaction and impact of the program. Telephone interviews were conducted with 26 participants (92% females; aged 57-85 years). Forty-two percent of the sample was socially isolated and more than half reported being lonely. Participants reported having no difficulty using the telephone system. On average, participants were very satisfied with the program and reported that SCWOW had several positive effects (e.g., connecting to the larger community, affecting mental well-being). Importantly, no barriers to participation were identified. The study suggests that telephone-based programs can successfully reach socially isolated older adults.

  7. RESIN, a FORTRAN IV program for determining the area of influence of samples or drill holes in resource target search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program that calculates the area of influence of drill holes or samples with respect to the size and shape of elliptical or circular resource targets is presented. Program options include determination of the degree to which areas within a region have been explored and estimation of probabilities that points are centers of undiscovered deposits. Errors of recognition can be utilized in the program input. ?? 1976.

  8. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  9. Secondary Effects of an Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Students and/or Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-08-01

    The secondary effects of an alcohol prevention program (PAS) on onset of weekly smoking and monthly cannabis use are examined among >3000 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.64) randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention (PI), 2) student intervention (SI), 3) combined intervention (CI) and 4) control condition (CC). Rules about alcohol, alcohol use, and adolescents' self-control were investigated as possible mediators. PI had a marginal aversive effect, slightly increasing the risk of beginning to smoke at T1, and increased the likelihood of beginning to use cannabis use at T1 and T2. SI delayed the onset of monthly cannabis use at T3. CI increased the risk to use cannabis at T3. No mediational processes were found. In conclusion, though this study show mixed results, negative side effects of the PI were found, particularly at earlier ages. Moreover, these results indicate the need for multi-target interventions. PMID:27296663

  10. Draft Science Topics for ROSES 2017 NASA Living with a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Mark; Zesta, Eftyhia

    2016-05-01

    The NASA Living with a Star Targeted Research and Technology (LWS TR&T) steering committee would like to present a draft of the TR&T science topics being developed for ROSES 2017 to the science community for comment at this conference. These topics will be drafted before this conference at the May 2016 steering committee meeting, based on community input and LWS TR&T goals. The committee is seeking community comment on these draft topics before the topics are finalized at the committee's summer meeting and sent to NASA in the committee's 2016 report. The full text of these draft topics will be presented at this poster, and we aim to hold a town hall for community discussion of these topics during this conference. Please see http://lwstrt.gsfc.nasa.gov for more information on the TR&T program, the steering committee and the draft topics.This work was supported by the NASA Living with a Star program.

  11. The effect of after-school classes on private tuition, mental health, and academic outcomes: evidence from Korea*

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Carr; Liang Choon Wang

    2015-01-01

    Using quasi-randomised data from South Korea’s high school equalisation policy area, we show that school-provided after-school classes reduce students’ time spent in private tuition and the associated household expenditure, as well as increase their likelihood of college attendance without any negative mental health impact. Though high and low income groups use a different mix of unassisted study and private tuition to substitute for after-school class, both consume less private tuition as af...

  12. Associations between home environment and after-school physical activity and sedentary time among 6th grade children

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Y. Lau; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Dowda, Marsha; Forthofer, Melinda; Saunders, Ruth P.; Russell R. Pate

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations of various elements of the home environment with after-school physical activity and sedentary time in 671 sixth-grade children (Mage = 11.49 ± 0.5 years). Children’s after-school total physical activity (TPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were measured by accelerometry. Parents completed surveys assessing elements of the home social and physical environment. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to examine the associatio...

  13. Noncontingent Reinforcement in After-School Settings to Decrease Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Christina R; Getch, Yvette Q

    2016-09-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is the response-independent delivery of a reinforcer (Vollmer, Iwata, Zarcone, Smith, and Mazaleski in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 26: 9-21 1993). Two staff members (preservice education majors) implemented NCR procedures for two students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who exhibited problem behavior and attended an after-school program. The amount of training on NCR and procedural fidelity was measured for each staff member, and the effects of the treatment on problem behavior were evaluated. Results indicate NCR is a low-effort procedure that reduced problem behavior of two participants with ASD. • NCR can both reduce problem behaviors of clients who engage in difficult behaviors (Carr, Severtson, & Lepper, 2009). • NCR can be used for clients for whom extinction-induced behaviors are dangerous (Tucker, Sigafoos, and Bushell in Behavior Modification, 22: 529-547, 1998). • Nonbehavioral providers can implement NCR with high fidelity, making it a good procedure to use when collaborating with other professionals (teachers, SLP, parents, etc.; Matson, 2009). • NCR can be used when clinicians first begin working with a client until more detailed interventions are created. PMID:27622132

  14. Adolescent girls' and parents' views on recruiting and retaining girls into an after-school dance intervention: implications for extra-curricular physical activity provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Jane

    2011-08-01

    strategies for recruiting and retaining girls in an after-school dance programme. These factors are consistent with well-established theories of individual behaviour change such as self-determination theory and social cognitive theory. Recruitment and retention campaigns that are targeted to address theoretically derived mediators of behaviour may be more effective than traditional approaches.

  15. Design choices made by target users for a pay-for-performance program in primary care: an action research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirschner Kirsten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International interest in pay-for-performance (P4P initiatives to improve quality of health care is growing. Current programs vary in the methods of performance measurement, appraisal and reimbursement. One may assume that involvement of health care professionals in the goal setting and methods of quality measurement and subsequent payment schemes may enhance their commitment to and motivation for P4P programs and therefore the impact of these programs. We developed a P4P program in which the target users were involved in decisions about the P4P methods. Methods For the development of the P4P program a framework was used which distinguished three main components: performance measurement, appraisal and reimbursement. Based on this framework design choices were discussed in two panels of target users using an adapted Delphi procedure. The target users were 65 general practices and two health insurance companies in the South of the Netherlands. Results Performance measurement was linked to the Dutch accreditation program based on three domains (clinical care, practice management and patient experience. The general practice was chosen as unit of assessment. Relative standards were set at the 25th percentile of group performance. The incentive for clinical care was set twice as high as the one for practice management and patient experience. Quality scores were to be calculated separately for all three domains, and for both the quality level and the improvement of performance. The incentive for quality level was set thrice as high as the one for the improvement of performance. For reimbursement, quality scores were divided into seven levels. A practice with a quality score in the lowest group was not supposed to receive a bonus. The additional payment grew proportionally for each extra group. The bonus aimed at was on average 5% to 10% of the practice income. Conclusions Designing a P4P program for primary care with involvement of

  16. RELATIONS OF SELF-APPRAISAL AND MOOD CHANGES WITH VOLUNTARY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CHANGES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN PREADOLESCENTS IN AN AFTER-SCHOOL CARE INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing prevalence of overweight in preadolescents that predicts physical problems over the lifespan. Physical inactivity has been implicated as an associated factor, with African American youth being at an increased risk. Based on social cognitive theory, and proposed correlates of physical activity in youth, changes over 12 weeks in measures of self-appraisal (general self, physical appearance, physical self-concept, exercise barriers self-efficacy and mood (tension, vigor, and their relations with voluntary physical activity changes, were assessed within an after-school care physical activity intervention. Participants were volunteers recruited from children already registered for a 12-week segment of YMCA after-school care. The treatment group consisted of 146 African American preadolescents with the control group comprised of 123 African American preadolescents who were scheduled to receive the program during the next sequence that it was offered. Results indicated the intervention group reported significantly more positive self-appraisals, reduced tension, and enhanced vigor. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicated that when each of the 4 self-appraisal and 2 mood factors were simultaneously entered into a regression equation, 36% of the variance in voluntary physical activity was explained. Findings support the treatment's association with theoretically based correlates of physical activity in the present sample, and suggest directions for physical activity interventions for youth

  17. Engineering Design Education and Its Supporting System to Encourage After School Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yoichi; Matsuishi, Masakatsu; Tani, Masashi

    Kanazawa Institute of Technology started education reform in 1995. In the education up to that time the emphasis was laid to cram knowledge to students rather than to let them apply such knowledge to make products. The main purpose of the education reform was to cultivate students' ability to acquire necessary knowledge and information to produce technical fruits. To attain this purpose first of all curricula were completely changed and new subject “Engineering Design” was developed. At the same time education supporting system to encourage students' after school activities was introduced. In the following authors describe the contents of “Engineering Design” together with the activities of “Factory for Dreams and Ideas” which was established to help students' creative activity at any time when they have spare time.

  18. Visiting nursery, kindergarten and after-school day care as astronomy for development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    One of the frontiers of astronomy for development is astronomy education for young children. Note that it is not too-much-going-ahead education nor education for so-called gifted children. It is for all children in various situations. As an example, I present "Uchu no O-hanashi," a visiting activity which includeds slide show, story telling, and enjoying pictures on large sheets for children. Not only just for young children, but this activity also aims at intercultural understanding. Sometimes guest educator from abroad join the activity. Video letter exchange was successful even though there is a language barrier. For assessment of the activity, I have recorded the voice of children. I will present various examples of written records and their analysis of activites, at nursery, kindergarten, preschool, after-school day care for primary school children, and other sites. I hope exchanging the record will make a worldwide connection among educators for very young children.

  19. Identifying Target Audiences for Graduate Programs among Mid-Career Communications Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra A.; Rose, Patricia B.

    1994-01-01

    A study of 308 communications professionals in south Florida investigated interest in graduate programs, both formal degree programs and professional continuing education. Results indicate the primary reason for enrollment in a formal degree program is not economic but perceived benefit to the employer. More minority group members wanted formal…

  20. Concept od State Target Economic Program for Nuclear Energy Development up to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the state target economic program of nuclear energy development till 2020 is maintenance of power safety, improvement of population life quality and increase of national economy competitiveness due to effective and competitive manufacture electricity and thermal power by nuclear power complex (NPC) of Ukraine in the volumes stipulated on document 'Energy Strategy of Ukraine till 2030'. Energy strategy foreseen uniform power units for new site. It is possible on new NPP sites units construction with light water reactor under pressure (WWER/PWR according IAEA classification), or with heavy water reactor (PHWR) during the period till 2020. Achievement of nuclear power complex parameters planned by Energy Strategy essentially probably as with existing level of preservation of domestic infrastructural maintenance, and with its full-scale development. Possible ways of planning parameters achievement analyzed on following variants of activity: Variant 1. Full-scale development of NPC domestic infrastructure maintenance, development of national nuclear power unit designs in cooperation with world developers of light and heavy water reactor installations, expansion of new nuclear capacities construction under these designs by forces of developed domestic infrastructure and light water reactor (WWER/PWR) units commission till 2020; Variant 2. Full-scale development of NPC domestic infrastructure maintenance, development of national nuclear power units designs in cooperation with world developers of light and heavy water reactor installations, expansion of new nuclear capacities construction under these designs by forces of developed domestic infrastructure and heavy water reactor (PHWR) units commission till 2020; Variant 3. Preservation of existing level of NPC domestic infrastructure maintenance, definition of foreign reactor unit suppliers by results of international tenders for each new NPP, expansion of new nuclear capacities construction with light and

  1. Cognitive, Behavioral and Emotional Empathy in Pharmacy Students: Targeting Programs for Curriculum Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra A. Tamayo

    2016-04-01

    greater role than cognitive and behavioral empathy in this group of students. Targeted programs that promote volunteerism and activities that foster responsiveness to patient needs may attenuate self-serving behavior and medical authoritarianism and, therefore, improve empathy levels in pharmacy students.

  2. The impact of a conditional cash transfer program on the utilization of non-targeted services: Evidence from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Foshanji, Abo Ismael

    2016-03-01

    While existing research suggests that health-related conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have positive impacts on the utilization of CCT-targeted health services, little is known as to whether they also influence the utilization of non-targeted health services-defined as general health services for which program participants are not financially motivated. Based on a sample of 6649 households in a CCT program that took place in May 2009-June 2011 in Afghanistan, we evaluate the impact of the receipt of CCTs on the utilization of non-targeted health services both by women, who were direct beneficiaries of the program, and by members of their households. We estimate the outcomes of interest through four probit models, accounting for potential endogeneity of the CCT receipt and dealing with lack of credible exclusion restrictions in different ways. In comparison with the control group, the receipt of CCTs is found to be associated with an increase in the probability of utilizing non-targeted services among household members across regression models. The results are mixed, with regard to the utilization by women, suggesting that there exist non-economic barriers to health care, unique to women, that are not captured by the data. The results confirm the importance of accounting for direct as well as indirect effects in policy evaluation and suggest that future studies investigate more deeply the role of community health workers in removing non-economic barriers for Afghan women and the possibility of introducing an incentive structure to motivate them to contribute more actively to population health in Afghanistan. PMID:26851407

  3. Running to Achieve: Engaging Students in Literacy and Physical Activity through an After-School Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzandt, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this participant-observation study is to describe rural, southern, 3rd-5th grade children's engagement in running and writing in an after-school learning community called "Running to Achieve." This study provides insights into links between physical activity and writing by using one to engage students in the other. Three…

  4. Successful After-School Physical Activity Clubs in Urban High Schools: Perspectives of Adult Leaders and Student Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel L.; Kaseta, Michele; Maljak, Kim; Whalen, Laurel; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study was to examine leaders' and students' perspectives of factors that contribute to effective voluntary after-school physical activity clubs. Data were collected over two-years via field observations (n= 115) and interviews with students (n= 278) and adult leaders (n= 126).…

  5. Programmed activation of cancer cell apoptosis: A tumor-targeted phototherapeutic topoisomerase I inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Weon Sup Shin; Jiyou Han; Rajesh Kumar; Gyung Gyu Lee; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Jong-Hoon Kim; Jong Seung Kim

    2016-01-01

    We report here a tumor-targeting masked phototherapeutic agent 1 (PT-1). This system contains SN-38—a prodrug of the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan. Topoisomerase I is a vital enzyme that controls DNA topology during replication, transcription, and recombination. An elevated level of topoisomerase I is found in many carcinomas, making it an attractive target for the development of effective anticancer drugs. In addition, PT-1 contains both a photo-triggered moiety (nitrovanillin) and a ...

  6. Branding MBA Programs: The Use of Target Market Desired Outcomes for Effective Brand Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Louise A.; Nadeau, John

    2010-01-01

    Branding is about delivering on desired outcomes. The importance of positioning program offerings on the basis of outcomes sought in the education market is illustrated in this study of choice of an MBA program by prospective students. MBA fair attendees were surveyed and multiple methods were employed to determine the importance of desired…

  7. Near-infrared Spectroscopy Of NEOs: Characterization Of Targets Of The ExploreNEOs (Spitzer) Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, Joshua P.; Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E.; Dave, R.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to complement the ExploreNEOs program, we are characterizing surface compositions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (0.7 to 2.5 microns). The core ExploreNEOs program is an ambitious exploration of the history of near-Earth space using NASA's Spitzer space t

  8. Research and Teaching: Association of Summer Bridge Program Outcomes with STEM Retention of Targeted Demographic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasko, David L.; Ridgway, Judith S.; Waller, Rocquel J.; Olesik, Susan V.

    2016-01-01

    Retention of students to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major has been studied for four cohorts participating in a summer bridge program supported by the National Science Foundation. Students participated in a 6-week program prior to their first term of enrollment at a research-intensive land grant university. Comparisons…

  9. A Pilot Evaluation of Small Group Challenging Horizons Program (CHP): A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Smith, Bradley H.; Bogle, Kristin E.; Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Cole, Wesley R.; Pender, Carolyn A. S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of an after-school program, the Challenging Horizons Program (CHP), that met four days a week and focused on improving organization, academic skills, and classroom behavior. The CHP was compared with a community control that included involvement in a district-run after-school program that met one to three days a…

  10. Injected Internal Target Technique, (IT)2, diagnostic development program. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work performed by JAYCOR on the development of the Injected Internal Target Technique, (IT)2, diagnostic system during the period from 1 September 1983 to 31 August 1985. The (IT)2 apparatus was developed to provide a means for making localized measurements of the electron density and electron temperature of a hot electron plasma. The measurement process is based on the local enhancement of x-ray emission (bremsstrahlung) when a beam of high-atomic-number target atoms are injected into a hot electron plasma. Also, characteristic x-ray emission at the K-alpha energy of the injected target atoms is produced if the energy of the colliding plasma electrons exceeds the threshold energy for K-shell ionization. Spectral energy analysis of the bremsstrahlung and K-shell emission data yields the electron temperature and electron density, respectively. 3 refs., 7 figs

  11. Assessing Risks to Non-Target Species during Poison Baiting Programs for Feral Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Buckmaster; Dickman, Christopher R.; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the ba...

  12. GROWTH MANAGEMENT TOOLS AND PROGRAMS TARGETING SPECIFIC OUTCOMES WITH NON-MARGINAL INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Patricia E.

    2003-01-01

    Communities across the country are struggling to accommodate population growth and economic development while limiting negative impacts of associated land development patterns.. At federal, state and local levels, policies and programs are being implemented in an attempt to mitigate the negative impacts of growth. Many of these programs are united under the concept of Smart Growth. There are numerous resources available that explain and describe applications of tens, if not hundreds, of smart...

  13. Program LATTICE for Calculation of Parameters of Targets with Heterogeneous (Lattice) Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Soloviev, A G; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    Program LATTICE, with which help it is possible to describe lattice structure for the program complex CASCAD, is created in the C++ language. It is shown that for model-based electronuclear system on a basis of molten salt reactor with graphite moderator at transition from homogeneous structure to heterogeneous at preservation of a chemical compound there is a growth of k_{eff} by approximately 6 %.

  14. Structural basis for small molecule targeting of the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Krzysztof M.; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Guzik, Katarzyna; Zieba, Bartosz J.; Musielak, Bogdan; Dömling, Alexander; Dubin, Grzegorz; Holak, Tad A.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immunologic checkpoint with monoclonal antibodies has provided unprecedented results in cancer treatment in the recent years. Development of chemical inhibitors for this pathway lags the antibody development because of insufficient structural information. The first nonpeptid

  15. First results of the irradiation program of inert matrices, targets and fuels for minor actinides transmutation in fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnerot, Jean-Marc; Ferroud-Plattet, Marie-Pierre; Lamontagne, Jerome [CEA Cadarache, Nuclear Energy Direction, Saint-Paul les Durance Cedex, 13108 (France); Warin, Dominique [CEA Valrho, Nuclear Energy Direction, DRCP, Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex, 30207 (France); Gosmain, Lionel [CEA Saclay, Nuclear Energy Direction, DMN, Gif sur Yvette, 91190 (France)

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive irradiation program was started in France in 1992 to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the transmutation of minor actinides in current and future nuclear reactors, by means of inert support targets or dedicated fuels. The first step of the program (MATINA program) consisted in the irradiation of various inert materials intended as support matrix for transmutation targets, in the fast reactor Phenix, to select the best candidates. These inert materials included as well oxide and nitride ceramics - MgO, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} and TiN - as refractory metals - W, Nb, Cr and V- and were irradiated under fast neutron flux at temperatures ranged between 650 and 1040 deg. C. The results show that in comparison to MgO, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inert matrices irradiated alone, the composite pellets containing UO{sub 2} particles, showed very different behaviors under irradiation. The swelling of MgO pellets is enhanced in the presence of fissile material whereas it is lowered for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-UO{sub 2} pellets. MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-UO{sub 2} pellets remained stable. The second step of the program aimed at testing the behavior of inert support targets containing americium. A new experiment ECRIX H involving composite pellets with an MgO matrix and AmO{sub 2-x} particles was performed in Phenix and completed in 2006. A rather low elongation of the pellet stack was observed and no significant diameter deformation of cladding was detected after irradiation. The analysis of the filling gas of the pin after puncturing, revealed that respectively 28% and 5% of the He and Xe+Kr created under irradiation were released in the expanding volume of the pin. ECRIX H, which is the first experiment on Am base target in Phenix, will undoubtedly represent a very important step in the general design approach about inert matrix support targets once the complete results should be available by the end of

  16. Distance Learning and the Web: Are Advertising Programs Missing the Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Louis K.; Rehman, Sharaf; Foster, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    Discusses survey results that examined whether distance education programs at universities offering courses in advertising and/or public relations make use of the Internet/Web pages to inform potential students about courses taught via distance education. The survey and list of Association of Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC)…

  17. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  18. Substance Abuse Education for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Target Approach to Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelin, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure pre and post-test knowledge in response to an educational intervention. This program evaluation was completed on 68 undergraduate nursing students to determine if education related to substance use, alcohol poisoning and high risk behavior had an impact on knowledge base. The educational intervention was…

  19. An Innovative Continuing Nursing Education Program Targeting Key Geriatric Conditions for Hospitalized Older People in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Shen, Jun; Wu, Haifeng; Ding, Fu; He, Xizhen; Zhu, Yueping

    2013-01-01

    A lack of knowledge in registered nurses about geriatric conditions is one of the major factors that contribute to these conditions being overlooked in hospitalized older people. In China, an innovative geriatric continuing nursing education program aimed at developing registered nurses' understanding of the complex care needs of hospitalized…

  20. Targeting the EWS-ETS transcriptional program by BET bromodomain inhibition in Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Tim; Giorgi, Chiara; Schmidt, Oxana; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Neff, Frauke; Buch, Thorsten; Niggli, Felix K; Schäfer, Beat W; Burdach, Stefan; Richter, Günther H S

    2016-01-12

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant bone or soft tissue tumors. Genetically, ES are defined by balanced chromosomal EWS/ETS translocations, which give rise to chimeric proteins (EWS-ETS) that generate an oncogenic transcriptional program associated with altered epigenetic marks throughout the genome. By use of an inhibitor (JQ1) blocking BET bromodomain binding proteins (BRDs) we strikingly observed a strong down-regulation of the predominant EWS-ETS protein EWS-FLI1 in a dose dependent manner. This was further enhanced by co-treatment with an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway. Microarray analysis further revealed JQ1 treatment to block a typical ES associated expression program. The effect on this expression program was mimicked by RNA interference with BRD3 or BRD4 expression, indicating that the EWS-FLI1 mediated expression profile is at least in part mediated via such epigenetic readers. Consequently, contact dependent and independent proliferation of different ES lines was strongly inhibited. Mechanistically, treatment of ES resulted in a partial arrest of the cell cycle as well as induction of apoptosis. Tumor development was suppressed dose dependently in a xeno-transplant model in immune deficient mice, overall indicating that ES may be susceptible to treatment with epigenetic inhibitors blocking BET bromodomain activity and the associated pathognomonic EWS-ETS transcriptional program.

  1. Targeting AIDS through information, education, and communications programs: implications for Africa and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, W B

    1989-01-01

    IEC campaigns targeted at acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) must seek to achieve the maximum impact within a contest of extremely limited resources. This implies a careful assessment of population groups and behaviors that carry the highest risk. Rather than expending large sums of money on mass media campaigns, the approach should be to target IEC activities at the social networks of those most at risk. This may include, for example, prostitutes, homosexual men, hotel and tourist employees, students, and military personnel. Once epidemiologic studies have identified the at-risk population, volunteers form these groups should be recruited and trained to reach their peers through the networks available to them. This education component of IEC work takes priority. The second step involves information diffusion to health providers who are likely to come into contact with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, especially those who have access to pregnant women and mothers. Some of these providers are not aware of the risks involved in the reuse of immunization needles. The third step--communication with the general public--is aimed at making the population aware of the factors that place people at risk of HIV infection. Radio seems to be the media capable of reaching the greatest numbers, although traditional means of communication should not be neglected. The IEC effort should consider options at the community, institutional, and individual levels and address those factors that enable, reinforce, and predispose appropriate health behaviors. PMID:2641232

  2. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  3. The impact of patient support programs on adherence, clinical, humanistic, and economic patient outcomes: a targeted systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguli A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arijit Ganguli,1 Jerry Clewell,2 Alicia C Shillington3 1Department of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, 2Department of Medical Affairs, AbbVie, North Chicago, IL, USA; 3EPI-Q Inc., Oak Brook, IL, USA Background: Patient support programs (PSPs, including medication management and counseling, have the potential to improve care in chronic disease states with complex therapies. Little is known about the program’s effects on improving clinical, adherence, humanistic, and cost outcomes. Purpose: To conduct a targeted review describing medical conditions in which PSPs have been implemented; support delivery components (eg, face-to-face, phone, mail, and internet; and outcomes associated with implementation. Data sources: MEDLINE – 10 years through March 2015 with supplemental handsearching of reference lists. Study selection: English-language trials and observational studies of PSPs providing at minimum, counseling for medication management, measurement of ≥1 clinical outcome, and a 3-month follow-up period during which outcomes were measured. Data extraction: Program characteristics and related clinical, adherence, humanistic, and cost outcomes were abstracted. Study quality and the overall strength of evidence were reviewed using standard criteria. Data synthesis: Of 2,239 citations, 64 studies met inclusion criteria. All targeted chronic disease processes and the majority (48 [75%] of programs offered in-clinic, face-to-face support. All but 9 (14.1% were overseen by allied health care professionals (eg, nurses, pharmacists, paraprofessionals. Forty-one (64.1% reported at least one significantly positive clinical outcome. The most frequent clinical outcome impacted was adherence, where 27 of 41 (66% reported a positive outcome. Of 42 studies measuring humanistic outcomes (eg, quality of life, functional status, 27 (64% reported significantly positive outcomes. Only 15 (23.4% programs reported cost or utilization-related outcomes, and, of

  4. A Combination Regimen Design Program Based on Pharmacodynamic Target Setting for Childhood Tuberculosis: Design Rules for the Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shashikant; Deshpande, Devyani; Pasipanodya, Jotam G.; Thomas, Tania; Swaminathan, Soumya; Nuermberger, Eric; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-01-01

    Children with tuberculosis are treated with drug regimens copied from adults despite significant differences in antibiotic pharmacokinetics, pathology, and the microbial burden between childhood and adult tuberculosis. We sought to develop a new and effective oral treatment regimen specific to children of different ages. We investigated and validated the concept that target drug concentrations associated with therapy failure and death in children are different from those of adults. On that basis, we proposed a 4-step program to rapidly develop treatment regimens for children. First, target drug concentrations for optimal efficacy are derived from preclinical models of disseminated tuberculosis that recapitulate pediatric pharmacokinetics, starting with monotherapy. Second, 2-drug combinations were examined for zones of synergy, antagonism, and additivity based on a whole exposure–response surface. Exposures associated with additivity or synergy were then combined and the regimen was compared to standard therapy. Third, several exposures of the third drug were added, and a 3-drug regimen was identified based on kill slopes in comparison to standard therapy. Fourth, computer-aided clinical trial simulations are used to identify clinical doses that achieve these kill rates in children in different age groups. The proposed program led to the development of a 3-drug combination regimen for children from scratch, independent of adult regimens, in <2 years. The regimens and doses can be tested in animal models and in clinical trials. PMID:27742637

  5. Targets and results of the Brazilian Biodiesel Incentive Program – Has it reached the Promised Land?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We test the assumptions that justified the Brazilian Biodiesel Production Program. ► The “Promised Land” has not been reached, particularly from a socioeconomic standpoint. ► The generation of jobs in the agricultural sector has been much lower than expected. -- Abstract: This study tests the assumptions that justified the establishment of the Brazilian Biodiesel Production Program (PNPB), to see whether this program has achieved its promised results. Given the connection between socioeconomic, political, technological and environmental issues, the study performs an analysis covering these different dimensions. From the socioeconomic standpoint, findings of the study show that the generation of jobs in the agricultural sector has been much lower than the expected 1.3-million-job creation figure. From the standpoint of reducing the outflow of foreign exchange because of potentially lower demand for imported diesel, the option for the methanol instead of ethanol production route has led to an increased net outflow, as the greater need to import methanol to produce biodiesel more than offsets the lesser need to import mineral diesel. Nevertheless, even though the “Promised Land” has not been reached, particularly from a socioeconomic standpoint, the premises of energy efficiency and the potential to mitigate GHG emissions appear to be on solid ground. In this respect, the input/output energy ratio of producing soy-based biodiesel and the GHG mitigation potential of pure biodiesel justify the continuing effort to improve the PNPB to achieve more promising results in relation to the other indicators.

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Kids Living Fit[TM] Program: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroni, Karen Gabel; Earley, Cynthia; Atherton, Martin

    2007-01-01

    After-school programs can be implemented by school nurses to facilitate healthy lifestyle choices in children with the goal of decreasing obesity. Kids Living Fit[TM] (KLF), an after-school program designed by community hospital nurses, was implemented in elementary schools and focused on best lifestyle choices regarding foods consumed and…

  7. The Principal's Guide to Afterschool Programs, K-8: Extending Student Learning Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    2007-01-01

    After-school programs are popular with parents and the community, but are a lot of extra work for headteachers and the staff involved. This book will provide headteachers and administrators with the guidance they need to build a successful and sustainable after-school program. Based on a national study conducted by the author, this hands-on…

  8. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Mounkaila; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Bakoné, Lalle; Amazigo, Uche V.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Stolk, Wilma A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis), lymphatic filariasis (LF), and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs) and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported. PMID:26401658

  9. Implementation of a Targeted Screening Program to Detect Airflow Obstruction Suggestive of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease within a Presurgical Screening Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Robitaille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted spirometry screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been studied in primary care and community settings. Limitations regarding availability and quality of testing remain. A targeted spirometry screening program was implemented within a presurgical screening (PSS clinic to detect undiagnosed airways disease and identify patients with COPD/asthma in need of treatment optimization.

  10. It's All Happening at the Zoo: Children's Environmental Learning after School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jason A.; Katz, Cindi

    2009-01-01

    Pairing dynamic out-of-school-time (OST) programs with zoos can encourage young people's relationships with and sense of responsibility for animals and the environment. The project presented in this article, Animal Rescuers, gave the authors the opportunity to examine how such a pairing can work. OST programs enable learning in settings that are…

  11. Healthy Pokes: After-School Education and Mentoring to Enhance Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Shiver, Victoria; Kinder, Christopher; Guseman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity and related health consequences are currently considered some of the most important health challenges in our nation today. Early intervention programs designed to teach healthy lifestyle choices and behaviors are imperative to addressing this issue. Evidence suggests that intervention programs offered at an earlier age may reduce…

  12. How can we improve targeting of frail elderly patients to a geriatric day-hospital rehabilitation program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Allen R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal patient selection of frail elderly persons undergoing rehabilitation in Geriatric Day Hospital (GDH programs remains uncertain. This study was done to identify potential predictors of rehabilitation outcomes for these patients. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of patients admitted to the rehabilitation program of our GDH, in Montreal, Canada, over a five year period. The measures considered were: Barthel Index, Older Americans Resources and Services, Folstein Mini Mental Status Exam, Timed Up & Go (TUG, 6-minute walk test (6 MWT, Gait speed, Berg Balance, grip strength and the European Quality of life - 5 Dimensions. Successful improvement with rehabilitation was defined as improvement in three or more tests of physical function. Logistic regression analysis using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC was employed to select the optimal model for making predictions of rehabilitation success. Results A total of 335 patients were studied, but only 233 patients had a complete data set suitable for the predictive model. Average age was 81 years and patients attended the GDH an average of 24 visits. Significant changes were found in several measures of physical performance for many patients ranging from improved gait speed in 21.3% to improved TUG in 62.7% of the cohort. Fifty-eight percent of patients attained successful improvement with rehabilitation by our criteria. This group was characterized by lower test scores on admission. Using BIC, the best predictor model was the 6 MWT [OR: 0.994 per meter walked (95% CI: 0.990-0.997]. Conclusions The GDH rehabilitation program is effective in improving patients' physical performance. Although no single measure was found to be sufficiently predictive to help target candidates appropriately, the 6 MWT showed a trend to significance. Further research will be done to elucidate the utility of a composite 'rehab appropriateness index' and the role of

  13. Evolutionary programming CLEAN algorithm for UWB localization images of contiguous targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yong; LU Ying-hua

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a novel scattering center extraction method using genetic algorithm is proposed to deal with the ultra-wideband (UWB) localization image, which is called evolutionary programming (EP) CLEAN algorithm. Because of the UWB characters, the ideal point scattering model and EP method are used in the algorithm for optimizing the UWB localization images. After introducing the algorithm detail, the actual model is used to realize the EP CLEAN algorithm. Compared with the conventional localization imaging algorithm, this algorithm has advantages fitting the UWB characters such as accuracy, robustness, and better resolution, which are verified by the numerical simulations. Therefore the EP CLEAN algorithm could improve localization image performance to expand the UWB technique application.

  14. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorders and Obesity among Female College Students: 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy…

  15. Targeted interventions of the Avahan program and their association with intermediate outcomes among female sex workers in Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainkar Mandar M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative has been a partner supporting targeted interventions of high risk populations under India’s National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO since 2004 in the state of Maharashtra. This paper presents an assessment of the Avahan program among female sex workers (FSWs in Maharashtra, its coverage, outcomes achieved and their association with Avahan program. Methods An analytical framework based on the Avahan evaluation design was used, addressing assessment questions on program implementation, intermediate outcomes and association of outcomes with Avahan. Data from routine program monitoring, two rounds of cross-sectional Integrated Behavioural and Biological Assessments (IBBAs conducted in 2006 (Round 1- R1 and 2009 (Round 2 – R2 and quality assessments of program clinics were used. Bi-variate and multivariate analysis were conducted using the complex samples module in SPSS 15® (IBM, Somers NY. Results The Avahan program achieved coverage of over 66% of FSWs within four years of implementation. The IBBA data showed increased contact by peers in R2 compared to R1 (AOR:2.34; p=0.001. Reported condom use with clients increased in R2 and number of FSWs reporting zero unprotected sex acts increased from 76.2% (R1 to 94.6% (R2 [AOR: 5.1, p=0.001]. Significant declines were observed in prevalence of syphilis (RPR (15.8% to 10.8%; AOR:0.54; p=0.001, chlamydia (8% to 6.2%; AOR:.0.65; p=0.010 and gonorrohoea (7.4% to 3.9; AOR:.0.60; p=0.026 between R1 and R2. HIV prevalence increased (25.8% to 27.5%; AOR:1.29; p=0.04. District-wise analysis showed decline in three districts and increase in Mumbai and Thane districts. FSWs exposed to Avahan had higher consistent condom use with occasional (94.3% vs. 90.6%; AOR: 1.55; p=0.04 and regular clients (92.5% vs. 86.0%; AOR: 1.95, p=0.001 compared to FSWs unexposed to Avahan. Decline in high titre syphilis was associated with Avahan exposure. Conclusion The Avahan

  16. Target Diagnostic Technology Research and Development for the LLNL ICF and HED Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, P; Bennett, C; Holder, J; Kimbrough, J; Landen, O; Lerche, D; Lowry, M; McDonald, J; Perry, T; Turner, B; Weber, F

    2003-08-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at LLNL for the Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. It will be used for experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Ignition, High Energy Density (HED) science, and basic science. Many issues confront experimentalists who wish to design, fabricate, and install diagnostics on the NIF. To foster this process the ICF and HED programs at LLNL have formed a diagnostic research and development group to look at issues outside the charter of facility diagnostics (core diagnostics). We will present data from instrumentation and associated technology that is being developed by this group. A major portion of our instrumentation work is on improvements for readout systems. We have several efforts related to CCD device development. Work has been done in collaboration with the University of Arizona to backthin a large format CCD device (36mm{sup 2}). This work has shown good results. The device has very high quantum efficiency, low noise readout and high charge transfer efficiency. The device is being fielded in direct optical, direct x-ray and 13-15 RV electron readout applications. In addition to readout device development we have completed work on a CCD readout system. With a commercial vendor we have developed a large format, compact, Ethernet addressable CCD camera system. This system fits in shoebox size volume, is thermal electrically cooled, supports a variety of CCD devices and can be run from remote locations via TCP/IP protocol. We are also doing work to improve streak camera systems. We have coupled our large format CCD system to an MK2 Kentech streak tube. Improvements have been made to the resolution and dynamic range of the system. Similar improvements have been made to the LLNL optical streak camera systems. We will present data from the optical and x-ray streak camera work. In addition we will present data from single shot high-speed, high dynamic range data link work. In

  17. Development, Implementation, and Outcomes of an Equitable Computer Science After-School Program: Findings from Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouza, Chrystalla; Marzocchi, Alison; Pan, Yi-Cheng; Pollock, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Current policy efforts that seek to improve learning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) emphasize the importance of helping all students acquire concepts and tools from computer science that help them analyze and develop solutions to everyday problems. These goals have been generally described in the literature under the…

  18. School-Age Care and After-School Programs: Developing a Responsive Curriculum--Revisited 25 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Rich

    2004-01-01

    In 1979 and 1980 "Child Care Information Exchange" ran a series of five articles about what was then called school-age day care: "Getting It Off the Ground," "Designing an Effective Structure," "Developing a Responsive Curriculum," "Selecting and Motivating Staff," and "Managing the Money." These articles from 25 years ago captured the essence of…

  19. A Critical Pedagogy Approach for Engaging Urban Youth in Mobile App Development in an After-School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    To understand the digital divide as a matter of social justice, I identify access to computational fluency as a civil rights issue. "Access" refers to material as well as social resources, including meaningful learning opportunities that create the conditions for urban youth to engage in computational thinking. In this article, I explore…

  20. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  1. Sleep duration, schedule and quality among urban Chinese children and adolescents: associations with routine after-school activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. METHODS: Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4-8 living in Shanghai, China, conducted in 2011. Self-reported data were collected on students' sleep duration and timing, sleep quality, habitual after-school activities (i.e. homework, leisure-time physical activity, recreational screen time and school commuting time, and potential correlates. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration of this sample (mean age: 11.5-years; 48.6% girls was 9 hours. Nearly 30% of students reported daytime tiredness. On school nights, girls slept less (p<0.001 and went to bed later (p<0.001, a sex difference that was more pronounced in older students. Age by sex interactions were observed for both sleep duration (p=0.005 and bedtime (p=0.002. Prolonged time spent on homework and mobile phone playing was related to shorter sleep duration and later bedtime. Adjusting for all other factors, with each additional hour of mobile phone playing, the odds of daytime tiredness and having difficulty maintaining sleep increased by 30% and 27% among secondary students, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in sleep duration, schedule and quality. Habitual activities had small but significant associations with sleep hygiene outcomes especially among secondary school students. Intervention strategies such as limiting children's use of electronic screen devices after school are implicated.

  2. Results of a Feasibility and Acceptability Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program Targeting Young Adult Nondaily Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Berg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B, end of treatment (EOT, and six-week followup (FU. We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (P<.001 in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (P<.05; however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population.

  3. Lessons from the Literacy Club: Hamlet Meets the Lion King After-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a model of an academic intervention and support program in literacy that focuses on the needs of individual students and revalues them as readers, goals that are of extreme importance when working with adolescents who have repeatedly experienced academic failure and view themselves as poor readers. This…

  4. Service Use by At-Risk Youths after School-Based Suicide Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Marrocco, Frank A.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kleinman, Marjorie; Amakawa, Lia; Altschuler, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youths and parents. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youths identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools…

  5. Modeling the Impact of Uganda’s Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N.; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15–49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program’s progress, and to refine the implementation approach. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20–34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10–19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15–34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Conclusion Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda’s SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10–34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund’s new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence. PMID:27410234

  6. Programming by Choice: Urban Youth Learning Programming with Scratch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, John; Peppler, Kylie; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes Scratch, a visual, block-based programming language designed to facilitate media manipulation for novice programmers. We report on the Scratch programming experiences of urban youth ages 8-18 at a Computer Clubhouse--an after school center--over an 18-month period. Our analyses of 536 Scratch projects collected during this…

  7. Implementation of a Targeted Screening Program to Detect Airflow Obstruction Suggestive of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease within a Presurgical Screening Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Robitaille; Esther Dajczman; Hirsch, Andrew M; David Small; Pierre Ernst; Dana Porubska; Mark Palayew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Targeted spirometry screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been studied in primary care and community settings. Limitations regarding availability and quality of testing remain. A targeted spirometry screening program was implemented within a presurgical screening (PSS) clinic to detect undiagnosed airways disease and identify patients with COPD/asthma in need of treatment optimization.OBJECTIVE: The present quality assurance study evaluated airflow obstruc...

  8. One-hour after-school exercise ameliorates central adiposity and lipids in overweight Chinese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ming-xiao; SHI Xiao-cai; LI Jian; XIE Min-hao; HUANG Xiu-qing; YAN Yi; LI Bo-wen; ZHONG Wei-juan; CHEN Jun-fei; ZHANG Yi-min; WANG Zheng-zhen; WANG Lu

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents was increasing during the past few decades. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of after-school exercise with or without diet restriction on total and central obesity, fitness level, and metabolic profile in overweight Chinese adolescents.Methods A ten-week weight loss trial was performed using a 2×2 block design (exercisexdiet). Ninety-three overweight adolescents (average age:(13.6±0.7) years; body mass index (BMI): 22.4-34.1 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to four groups:1) diet (D); 2) exercise (EX); 3) diet plus exercise (DEX); and 4) overweight control (C). Caloric intake recipes were enacted based on individual age and corresponding ideal body weight. One-hour after-school exercise was performed once per day, four days per week for ten weeks. Changes of anthropometry, body composition, aerobic fitness,and metabolic biomarkers were determined.Results Groups D, EX and DEX had a significant decrease in BMI (P<0.01) after the intervention. The percentage of body and truncal fat, and waist circumference were independently reduced by exercise (P<0.05 and P <0.01), but not diet. The decrease in body fat percentage was positively related with the exercise compliance (r=0.34,P=0.01). Exercise decreased truncal fat percentage and waist circumference, suggesting a reduction of central adiposity, but did not significantly affect body weight and BMI. Exercise significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.037), which was positively correlated with decreases of truncal fat percentage (r=0.222, P=0.048). No significant effects of interventions on insulin sensitivity, early insulin release index, and aerobic fitness were observed.Conclusion At least twice a week of one-hour after-school exercise significantly attenuated central adiposity and had a significant impact on lipid profiles in overweight Chinese adolescents.

  9. Service Use by At-Risk Youth after School-Based Suicide Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program, and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youth and parents. Method We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youth identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools in New York State. The at-risk teenagers and their parents were interviewed approximately two years after the initial screen to assess service use during the intervening period and identify barriers that may have interfered with seeking treatment. Results At the time of the screen, 72% of the at-risk students were not receiving any type of mental health service. Of these students, 51% were deemed in need of services and subsequently referred by us to a mental health professional. Nearly 70% followed through with the screening’s referral recommendations. Youth and their parents reported perceptions about mental health problems, specifically relating to the need for treatment, as the primary reasons for not seeking service. Conclusions Screening appears to be effective in enhancing the likelihood that students at risk for suicidal behavior will get into treatment. Well developed and systematic planning is needed to ensure that screening and referral services are coordinated so as to facilitate access for youth into timely treatment. PMID:19858758

  10. Effect of a comprehensive intervention program targeting general practice staff on quality of life in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo, C.M.; Frijling, B.D.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Bernsen, M.R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Prins, A.; Wouden, J.C. van der

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We implemented a comprehensive intervention program targeting general practice staff, that proved successful in optimizing practice organization and clinical decision-making. In this paper, health-related quality of life (HRQL) is investigated as a clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluat

  11. Eye-Rollers, Risk-Takers, and Turn Sharks: Target Students in a Professional Science Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Milne, Catherine; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    In classrooms from kindergarten to graduate school, researchers have identified target students as students who monopolize material and human resources. Classroom structures that privilege the voice and actions of target students can cause divisive social dynamics that may generate cliques. This study focuses on the emergence of target students,…

  12. Effect of microRNA-21 on the proliferation of human degenerated nucleus pulposus by targeting programmed cell death 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21 on the proliferation of human degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4 tumor suppressor. NP tissues were collected from 20 intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD patients, and from 5 patients with traumatic spine fracture. MiR-21 expressions were tested. NP cells from IDD patients were collected and divided into blank control group, negative control group (transfected with miR-21 negative sequences, miR-21 inhibitor group (transfected with miR-21 inhibitors, miR-21 mimics group (transfected with miR-21 mimics and PDCD4 siRNA group (transfected with PDCD4 siRNAs. Cell growth was estimated by Cell Counting Kit-8; PDCD4, MMP-2,MMP-9 mRNA expressions were evaluated by qRT-PCR; PDCD4, c-Jun and p-c-Jun expressions were tested using western blot. In IDD patients, the expressions of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA were respectively elevated and decreased (both P<0.05. The miR-21 expressions were positively correlated with Pfirrmann grades, but negatively correlated with PDCD4 mRNA (both P<0.001. In miR-21 inhibitor group, cell growth, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expressions, and p-c-Jun protein expressions were significantly lower, while PDCD4 mRNA and protein expressions were higher than the other groups (all P<0.05. These expressions in the PDCD4 siRNA and miR-21 mimics groups was inverted compared to that in the miR-21 inhibitor group (all P<0.05. MiR-21 could promote the proliferation of human degenerated NP cells by targeting PDCD4, increasing phosphorylation of c-Jun protein, and activating AP-1-dependent transcription of MMPs, indicating that miR-21 may be a crucial biomarker in the pathogenesis of IDD.

  13. Integrated Implementation of Programs Targeting Neglected Tropical Diseases through Preventive Chemotherapy: Identifying Best Practices to Roll Out Programs at National Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Christy; Weaver, Angela; Zoerhoff, Kathryn L.; Kabore, Achille; Linehan, Mary; Doherty, Amy; Engels, Dirk; Savioli, Lorenzo; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) established the Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Program to support national governments in developing successful, cost-efficient NTD programs that integrate disease-specific programs into coordinated national initiatives, in accord with the World Health Organization recommendations. A 3-stage “roll-out package” has been developed for effectively integrating and scaling up such programs to full-national scale. Stage-1 lays ...

  14. Target efficiency of lifeline electricity pricing and other energy subsidy programs: a survey-based policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulmin, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates three types of subsidy programs designed to aid low-income residential electricity customers. The three programs are a lifeline rate system, which extends a lifeline of 450 kWh per month of low-cost electricity to consumers for essential uses: a payments to suppliers program; and a price discount program. Using a telephone survey of nine hundred District of Columbia residents, the study employs a path analysis, calculations of income elasticities, and estimates of the number of poor and nonpoor customers consuming above and below the lifeline breakpoint to evaluate the horizontal and vertical equity of the three programs. The path analysis utilizes twelve independent variables: appliance stock; insulation quality; conservation attitude; physical size of dwelling; number of persons home during the day; household size; age, sex, race, and education of billpayer; home ownership; and annual household income. The dependent variable is annual kWh consumption. The path analysis shows that the direct effect of income on kWh consumption is 0.225 (standardized beta weight), and the indirect effect is 0.105. Rating the three programs in terms of vertical and horizontal equity shows that all programs have substantial drawbacks. Recommendations include the abolition of the lifeline and price discount programs, the alteration of the payments to suppliers program to include more program eligibles, and the changing of the payments to suppliers program into a direct cash grant program.

  15. Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  16. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended.

  17. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended. PMID:26376177

  18. PLOTGEOMX: a program for display of a neutron target assembly by means of a GHOST plotting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program PLOTGEOM has been modified to work on the A.E.R.E., Harwell IBM 370-167 computer using the GHOST graphics package. The control data routine has been altered to permit free format input and the program has been compiled and stored using the extended-H FORTRAN optimising compiler. (author)

  19. RRR for NNN—a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Chelsea E.; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C.; Eric A Ottesen; Patrick J Lammie

    2016-01-01

    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)—lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma—are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, resear...

  20. Laser Coupling to Reduced-Scale Targets at the Early Light Program of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, D E; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Bower, D; Campbell, K M; Celeste, J R; Compton, S; Costa, R; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S; Eckart, M J; Eder, D C; Edwards, M J; Ellis, A; Emig, J; Froula, D H; Glenzer, S H; Hargrove, D; Haynam, C A; Heeter, R F; Holder, J P; Holtmeier, G; James, L; Jancaitis, K S; Kalantar, D H; Kauffman, R L; Kimbrough, J; Kirkwood, R K; Koniges, A E; Kamperschroer, J; Landen, O L; Landon, M; Langdon, A B; Lee, F D; MacGowan, B J; MacKinnon, A J; Manes, K R; May, M J; McDonald, J W; Munro, D H; Murray, J R; Niemann, C; Pellinen, D; Rekow, V; Ruppe, J A; Schein, J; Shepherd, R; Singh, M S; Springer, P T; Still, C H; Suter, L J; Turner, R E; Wallace, R J; Warrick, A; Watts, P; Weber, F; Williams, E A; Young, B K; Young, P E

    2004-11-18

    A platform for analysis of material properties under extreme conditions, where a sample is bathed in radiation with a high temperature, is under development. This hot environment is produced with a laser by depositing maximum energy into a small, high-Z can. Such targets were recently included in an experimental campaign using the first four of the 192 beams of the National Ignition Facility, under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These targets demonstrate good laser coupling, reaching a radiation temperature of 340 eV. In addition, there is a unique wavelength dependence of the Raman backscattered light that is consistent with Brillouin backscatter of Raman forward scatter [A. B. Langdon and D. E. Hinkel, Physical Review Letters 89, 015003 (2002)]. Finally, novel diagnostic capabilities indicate that 20% of the direct backscatter from these reduced-scale targets is in the polarization orthogonal to that of the incident light.

  1. High-throughput profiling of off-target DNA cleavage reveals RNA-programmed Cas9 nuclease specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Vikram; Lin, Steven; Guilinger, John P.; MA, ENBO; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Liu, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The RNA-programmable Cas9 endonuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA at sites complementary to a 20-base-pair guide RNA. The Cas9 system has been used to modify genomes in multiple cells and organisms, demonstrating its potential as a facile genome-engineering tool. We used in vitro selection and high-throughput sequencing to determine the propensity of eight Cas9:guide RNA complexes to cleave each of 10^12 potential off-target DNA sequences. The selection results predicted five off-target site...

  2. Successful recruitment strategies for prevention programs targeting children of parents with mental health challenges: An international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesum, K.T.M. van; Riebschleger, J.; Carroll, J.; Grové , C.; Lauritzen, C.; Mordoch, E.; Skerfving, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research substantiates children of parents with mental disorders including substance abuse face increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Although evidence suggests that support programs for children enhance resiliency, recruiting children to these groups remains problematic. This study

  3. How can we improve targeting of frail elderly patients to a geriatric day-hospital rehabilitation program?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Allen R; Joseph Lawrence; Chevalier Stephanie; Turner Alyson; Chiu Wendy; Pereira Silvia RM; Morais Jose A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The optimal patient selection of frail elderly persons undergoing rehabilitation in Geriatric Day Hospital (GDH) programs remains uncertain. This study was done to identify potential predictors of rehabilitation outcomes for these patients. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of patients admitted to the rehabilitation program of our GDH, in Montreal, Canada, over a five year period. The measures considered were: Barthel Index, Older Americans Resources an...

  4. A Method for Guiding a Salvo of guided Projectiles to a Target, a System and a Computer Program Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruizenaar, M.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of guiding a salvo of guided projectiles to a target. The method comprises the steps of generating a beam defining a common reference coordinate system, determining the position of each projectile relative to the beam, and providing to each projectile: position info

  5. Deformation of dry and wet sandstone targets during hypervelocity impact experiments, as revealed from the MEMIN Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Elmar; Poelchau, Michael H.; Dresen, Georg; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact experiments on dry and water-saturated targets of fine-grained quartz sandstone, performed within the MEMIN project, have been investigated to determine the effects of porosity and pore space saturation on deformation mechanisms in the crater's subsurface. A dry sandstone cube and a 90% water-saturated sandstone cube (Seeberger Sandstein, 20 cm side length, about 23% porosity) were impacted at the Fraunhofer EMI acceleration facilities by 2.5 mm diameter steel spheres at 4.8 and 5.3 km s-1, respectively. Microstructural postimpact analyses of the bisected craters revealed differences in the subsurface deformation for the dry and the wet target experiments. Enhanced grain comminution and compaction in the dry experiment and a wider extent of localized deformation in the saturated experiment suggest a direct influence of pore water on deformation mechanisms. We suggest that the pore water reduces the shock impedance mismatch between grains and pore space, and thus reduces the peak stresses at grain-grain contacts. This effect inhibits profound grain comminution and effective compaction, but allows for reduced shock wave attenuation and a more effective transport of energy into the target. The reduced shock wave attenuation is supposed to be responsible for the enhanced crater growth and the development of "near surface" fractures in the wet target.

  6. Examining the Impact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program on Brain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Missouri's Bright Flight Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James R.; Muñoz, José; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of state-funded merit-based aid programs has become increasingly popular among policy-makers, particularly in the southeastern part of the United States. One of the primary rationales of state-funded merit-based aid is to provide scholarships to the best and brightest students as a means to retain high quality human capital in the…

  7. Tissue-specific direct targets of Caenorhabditis elegans Rb/E2F dictate distinct somatic and germline programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kudron, Michelle; Niu, Wei; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Guilin; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael; Reinke, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background The tumor suppressor Rb/E2F regulates gene expression to control differentiation in multiple tissues during development, although how it directs tissue-specific gene regulation in vivo is poorly understood. Results We determined the genome-wide binding profiles for Caenorhabditis elegans Rb/E2F-like components in the germline, in the intestine and broadly throughout the soma, and uncovered highly tissue-specific binding patterns and target genes. Chromatin association by LIN-35, th...

  8. Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemenz, Matthew C.; Kadauke, Stephan; Lieberman, David B.; Roth, David B.; Zhao, Jianhua; Watt, Christopher D.; Daber, Robert D.; Morrissette, Jennifer J.D.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2). For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage...

  9. Support for Career Development in Youth: Program Models and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinda, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines four influential programs--Citizen Schools, After School Matters, career academies, and Job Corps--to demonstrate the diversity of approaches to career programming for youth. It compares the specific program models and draws from the evaluation literature to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each. The article highlights…

  10. Offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling are targets of in utero programming following exposure to maternal overweight during gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of obesity in adult-life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal overweight (OW) increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal OW in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via to...

  11. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Krotneva (Stanimira P.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); M. Noma (Mounkaila); H.G.M. Zouré (Honorat G.); L. Bakoné (Lalle); U.V. Amazigo (Uche); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); W.A. Stolk (Wilma)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSince its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other c

  12. microProtein Prediction Program (miP3): A Software for Predicting microProteins and Their Target Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klein, Niek; Magnani, Enrico; Banf, Michael; Rhee, Seung Yon

    2015-01-01

    An emerging concept in transcriptional regulation is that a class of truncated transcription factors (TFs), called microProteins (miPs), engages in protein-protein interactions with TF complexes and provides feedback controls. A handful of miP examples have been described in the literature but the extent of their prevalence is unclear. Here we present an algorithm that predicts miPs and their target TFs from a sequenced genome. The algorithm is called miP prediction program (miP3), which is implemented in Python. The software will help shed light on the prevalence, biological roles, and evolution of miPs. Moreover, miP3 can be used to predict other types of miP-like proteins that may have evolved from other functional classes such as kinases and receptors. The program is freely available and can be applied to any sequenced genome. PMID:26060811

  13. microProtein Prediction Program (miP3: A Software for Predicting microProteins and Their Target Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niek de Klein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging concept in transcriptional regulation is that a class of truncated transcription factors (TFs, called microProteins (miPs, engages in protein-protein interactions with TF complexes and provides feedback controls. A handful of miP examples have been described in the literature but the extent of their prevalence is unclear. Here we present an algorithm that predicts miPs and their target TFs from a sequenced genome. The algorithm is called miP prediction program (miP3, which is implemented in Python. The software will help shed light on the prevalence, biological roles, and evolution of miPs. Moreover, miP3 can be used to predict other types of miP-like proteins that may have evolved from other functional classes such as kinases and receptors. The program is freely available and can be applied to any sequenced genome.

  14. Fuel and target programs for the transmutation at Phenix and other reactors; Programmes combustibles et cibles pour la transmutation dans Phenix et autres reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard-Groleas, G

    2002-07-01

    The fuels and targets program for transmutation, performed in the framework of the axis 1 of the December 1991 law about the researches on the management of long-lived radioactive wastes, is in perfect consistency with the transmutation scenario studies carried out in the same framework. These studies put forward the advantage of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in the incineration of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. The program includes exploratory and technological demonstration studies covering the different design options. It aims at enhancing our knowledge of the behaviour of materials under irradiation and at ensuring the mastery of processes. The goals of the different experiments foreseen at Phenix reactor are presented. The main goal is to supply a set of results allowing to precise the conditions of the technical feasibility of minor actinides and long-lived fission products incineration in FBRs. (J.S.)

  15. RRR for NNN-a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Chelsea E; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C; Ottesen, Eric A; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)-lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma-are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs. PMID:26940303

  16. The impact of patient support programs on adherence, clinical, humanistic, and economic patient outcomes: a targeted systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguli A; Clewell J; Shillington AC

    2016-01-01

    Arijit Ganguli,1 Jerry Clewell,2 Alicia C Shillington3 1Department of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, 2Department of Medical Affairs, AbbVie, North Chicago, IL, USA; 3EPI-Q Inc., Oak Brook, IL, USA Background: Patient support programs (PSPs), including medication management and counseling, have the potential to improve care in chronic disease states with complex therapies. Little is known about the program’s effects on improving clinical, adherence, humanistic, and cost ou...

  17. HTCAP: a FORTRAN IV program for calculating coated-particle operating temperatures in HFIR target irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is presented of HTCAP, a computer code that calculates in-reactor operating temperatures of loose coated ThO2 particles in the HFIR target series of irradiation tests. Three computational models are employed to determine the following: (1) fission heat generation rates, (2) capsule heat transfer analysis, and (3) maximum particle surface temperature within the design of an HT capsule. Maximum particle operating temperatures are calculated at daily intervals during each irradiation cycle. The application of HTCAP to sleeve CP-62 of HT-15 is discussed, and the results are compared with those obtained in an earlier thermal analysis on the same capsule. Agreement is generally within +-5 percent, while decreasing the computational time by more than an order of magnitude. A complete FORTRAN listing and summary of required input data are presented in appendices. Included is a listing of the input data and a tabular output from the thermal analysis of sleeve CP-62 of HT-15

  18. Systematic Development of the YouRAction program, a computer-tailored Physical Activity promotion intervention for Dutch adolescents, targeting personal motivations and environmental opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Richard G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity (PA among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based computer-tailored intervention, YouRAction, which targets individual and environmental factors determining PA among adolescents. Design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, in order to define clear program objectives, theoretical methods and practical strategies, ensure systematic program planning and pilot-testing, and anticipate on implementation and evaluation. Two versions of YouRAction were developed: one that targets individual determinants and an extended version that also provides feedback on opportunities to be active in the neighbourhood. Key determinants that were targeted included: knowledge and awareness, attitudes, self-efficacy and subjective norms. The extended version also addressed perceived availability of neighbourhood PA facilities. Both versions aimed to increase levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA among adolescents. The intervention structure was based on self-regulation theory, comprising of five steps in the process of successful goal pursuit. Monitoring of PA behaviour and behavioural and normative feedback were used to increase awareness of PA behaviour; motivation was enhanced by targeting self-efficacy and attitudes, by means of various interactive strategies, such as web movies; the perceived environment was targeted by visualizing opportunities to be active in an interactive geographical map of the home environment; in the goal setting phase, the adolescents were guided in setting a goal and developing an action plan to achieve this goal; in the phase of active goal pursuit adolescents try to achieve their goal and in the evaluation phase the achievements are evaluated. Based on the results

  19. IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets (INVEST: Defining the New Goals of an International Drilling Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Inagaki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The INVEST conference, an international meeting to define the scientific goals and required technology for a new ocean drilling program, was held at the University of Bremen on 22–25 September 2009. Based on the large attendance and vigorous engagement of scientists in the discussion of new science/technology ideas, INVEST was extremely successful. Initially 400 participants were expected, but the INVEST steering and organization committees were thrilled to see a much larger number of scientists flock to Bremen to demonstrate their support and enthusiasm for the continuation of an international scientific ocean drilling program. In all, 584 participants, including sixty-four students, from twenty-one nations and >200 institutions and agencies attended the INVEST conference. Contributions to INVEST included 103 submitted white papers that were posted on the INVEST webpage (http://www.marum.de/iodp-invest. html, and breakout discussions in fifty working groups that focused on a range of topics during the course of the conference. In addition, students and early career scientists, as well as national funding agency managers and platform providers, presented a total of eighty-six posters. Interspersed with the working group and plenary sessions were twelve keynote lectures, chosen to highlight overarching themes and new directions in research and technology.

  20. mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Gregory C; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e., to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and (iv) lingering concerns about "off-target" effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and cotransformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and nonessential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme-dubbed mCAL for " M: ultiplexing of C: as9 at A: rtificial L: oci"-can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly

  1. 如何利用放学后时间促进儿童发展*--美国放学后项目的功能及启示%How to use after-school time to further students’ development A study on the United States’ practices and experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金燕; 邹雪

    2015-01-01

    Using students’ after-school time to further their development as growing opportunities is concerned much in China currently. This paper introduces the United State’s experiences of their after-school programs practices, of which programs’ purposes can be classiifed as for students’ socialization, improving academic performance, cultivating interests and skills, and preparing for college or job. As for their impacts, it is found that after-school programs function well for students’ socialization but not much for improving academic performances except for students’ from low-income or immigrant families, and who are at-risk. Such ifndings provide meaningful experiences, such as developing socialization courses and serving for the immigrant and left-over children in China.%如何利用放学后时间促进儿童发展是现代社会的新兴议题。本文对美国放学后项目的功能和实践经验进行了梳理。将美国放学后项目的课程和活动分为社会化功能、提高学业成绩功能,培养兴趣和技艺功能,以及为升学就业做准备等四个方面。评估研究发现,美国放学后项目在社会化教育功能上成效显著;在提高学业成绩功能上虽然有争议,但对低收入家庭子女、移民家庭的子女、学困生的学业成绩却影响显著。这为中国开展放学后项目提供了启示。

  2. The CareWell-primary care program: design of a cluster controlled trial and process evaluation of a complex intervention targeting community-dwelling frail elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruikes Franca GH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing age and longevity, the rising number of frail elders with complex and numerous health-related needs demands a coordinated health care delivery system integrating cure, care and welfare. Studies on the effectiveness of such comprehensive chronic care models targeting frail elders show inconclusive results. The CareWell-primary care program is a complex intervention targeting community-dwelling frail elderly people, that aims to prevent functional decline, improve quality of life, and reduce or postpone hospital and nursing home admissions of community dwelling frail elderly. Methods/design The CareWell-primary care study includes a (cost- effectiveness study and a comprehensive process evaluation. In a one-year pragmatic, cluster controlled trial, six general practices are non-randomly recruited to adopt the CareWell-primary care program and six control practices will deliver ‘care as usual’. Each practice includes a random sample of fifty frail elders aged 70 years or above in the cost-effectiveness study. A sample of patients and informal caregivers and all health care professionals participating in the CareWell-primary care program are included in the process evaluation. In the cost-effectiveness study, the primary outcome is the level of functional abilities as measured with the Katz-15 index. Hierarchical mixed-effects regression models / multilevel modeling approach will be used, since the study participants are nested within the general practices. Furthermore, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated as costs per QALY gained and as costs weighed against functional abilities. In the process evaluation, mixed methods will be used to provide insight in the implementation degree of the program, patients’ and professionals’ approval of the program, and the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Discussion The CareWell-primary care study will provide new insights into the (cost

  3. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Stocker, Claire J.; Wargent, Edward T.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Garfield, Alastair S.; Jovanovic, Zorica; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Cawthorne, Michael A.; Arch, Jonathan R. S.; Heisler, Lora K.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus of in utero growth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist. PMID:26769798

  4. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata S. Martin-Gronert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC. We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus of in utero growth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist.

  5. Thioredoxin-2 Modulates Neuronal Programmed Cell Death in the Embryonic Chick Spinal Cord in Basal and Target-Deprived Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Pirson

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-2 (Trx2 is a mitochondrial protein using a dithiol active site to reduce protein disulfides. In addition to the cytoprotective function of this enzyme, several studies have highlighted the implication of Trx2 in cellular signaling events. In particular, growing evidence points to such roles of redox enzymes in developmental processes taking place in the central nervous system. Here, we investigate the potential implication of Trx2 in embryonic development of chick spinal cord. To this end, we first studied the distribution of the enzyme in this tissue and report strong expression of Trx2 in chick embryo post-mitotic neurons at E4.5 and in motor neurons at E6.5. Using in ovo electroporation, we go on to highlight a cytoprotective effect of Trx2 on the programmed cell death (PCD of neurons during spinal cord development and in a novel cultured spinal cord explant model. These findings suggest an implication of Trx2 in the modulation of developmental PCD of neurons during embryonic development of the spinal cord, possibly through redox regulation mechanisms.

  6. Success of the International Year of the Planet Earth through Targeted High-impact Programs at the American Geological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P.

    2007-12-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) is one of the 12 founding partners of the International Year of the Planet Earth (IYPE) and as such AGI serves on its governing board. AGI is a nonprofit federation of 44 geoscientific and professional associations that represents more than 120,000 geologists, geophysicists, and other earth scientists. AGI provides information services to geoscientists, serves as a voice of shared interests in our profession, plays a major role in strengthening geoscience education, and strives to increase public awareness of the vital role the geosciences play in society's use of resources, resilience to natural hazards, and the health of the environment. The outreach and educational opportunities afforded by IYPE provide AGI with an international venue to promote the role of the geosciences in the daily life of society. AGI's successful release of the 4-part television series entitled Faces of Earth done in partnership with the Discovery Communications is a hallmark example of an outreach product that is technically accurate but designed to engage the non-scientific audience in the wonderment of our science. The series focuses on building the planet, shaping the planet, assembling America, and the human world. Custom short cuts have been produced for special purposes and one of these may be used as part of an IYPE-launch event in Europe. AGI's news magazine, Geotimes will highlight appropriate IYPE events to increase the awareness of the American geoscience community. In addition, Geotimes will promote IYPE by using its logo routinely and through publishing advertisements reminding its professional and public readership of the importance of the IYPE triennium. Similarly, as part of AGI's K-12 educational efforts and teacher training and through its development of Earth Science Week materials, the goals, accomplishments, and importance of IYPE will be incorporated into the targeted educational audiences. IYPE activities will be highlighted

  7. Targeting Medication Non-Adherence Behavior in Selected Autoimmune Diseases: A Systematic Approach to Digital Health Program Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor van Mierlo

    Full Text Available 29 autoimmune diseases, including Rheumatoid Arthritis, gout, Crohn's Disease, and Systematic Lupus Erythematosus affect 7.6-9.4% of the population. While effective therapy is available, many patients do not follow treatment or use medications as directed. Digital health and Web 2.0 interventions have demonstrated much promise in increasing medication and treatment adherence, but to date many Internet tools have proven disappointing. In fact, most digital interventions continue to suffer from high attrition in patient populations, are burdensome for healthcare professionals, and have relatively short life spans.Digital health tools have traditionally centered on the transformation of existing interventions (such as diaries, trackers, stage-based or cognitive behavioral therapy programs, coupons, or symptom checklists to electronic format. Advanced digital interventions have also incorporated attributes of Web 2.0 such as social networking, text messaging, and the use of video. Despite these efforts, there has not been little measurable impact in non-adherence for illnesses that require medical interventions, and research must look to other strategies or development methodologies. As a first step in investigating the feasibility of developing such a tool, the objective of the current study is to systematically rate factors of non-adherence that have been reported in past research studies.Grounded Theory, recognized as a rigorous method that facilitates the emergence of new themes through systematic analysis, data collection and coding, was used to analyze quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies addressing the following autoimmune diseases: Rheumatoid Arthritis, gout, Crohn's Disease, Systematic Lupus Erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies were only included if they contained primary data addressing the relationship with non-adherence.Out of the 27 studies, four non-modifiable and 11 modifiable risk factors were

  8. Caspase dependent programmed cell death in developing embryos: a potential target for therapeutic intervention against pathogenic nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Das Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful embryogenesis is a critical rate limiting step for the survival and transmission of parasitic worms as well as pathology mediated by them. Hence, blockage of this important process through therapeutic induction of apoptosis in their embryonic stages offers promise for developing effective anti-parasitic measures against these extra cellular parasites. However, unlike in the case of protozoan parasites, induction of apoptosis as a therapeutic approach is yet to be explored against metazoan helminth parasites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the first time, here we developed and evaluated flow cytometry based assays to assess several conserved features of apoptosis in developing embryos of a pathogenic filarial nematode Setaria digitata, in-vitro as well as ex-vivo. We validated programmed cell death in developing embryos by using immuno-fluorescence microscopy and scoring expression profile of nematode specific proteins related to apoptosis [e.g. CED-3, CED-4 and CED-9]. Mechanistically, apoptotic death of embryonic stages was found to be a caspase dependent phenomenon mediated primarily through induction of intracellular ROS. The apoptogenicity of some pharmacological compounds viz. DEC, Chloroquine, Primaquine and Curcumin were also evaluated. Curcumin was found to be the most effective pharmacological agent followed by Primaquine while Chloroquine displayed minimal effect and DEC had no demonstrable effect. Further, demonstration of induction of apoptosis in embryonic stages by lipid peroxidation products [molecules commonly associated with inflammatory responses in filarial disease] and demonstration of in-situ apoptosis of developing embryos in adult parasites in a natural bovine model of filariasis have offered a framework to understand anti-fecundity host immunity operational against parasitic helminths. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations have revealed for the first time, that induction of apoptosis in

  9. Youth Sport Programs: An Avenue to Foster Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Thomas, Jessica L.; Cote, Jean; Deakin, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Concern about the growth in adolescent problem behaviours (e.g. delinquency, drug use) has led to increased interest in positive youth development, and a surge in funding for "after school programs." We evaluate the potential of youth sport programs to foster positive development, while decreasing the risk of problem behaviours. Literature on the…

  10. Selecting Educational Software for Teenagers in After-School Settings: A Toolkit from the America Connects Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Meloy,Teresa; Flores, Emilio; Jeffers, Laura; Llorente, Carlin; Weagle, Valerie; Burns, Melissa, Ed.; Davis-Kay, Jen, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Educational software can be an effective way for teens to enhance their learning skills in out-of-school settings. Many software programs provide subject-specific content and tools to support conceptual learning and skills development. They allow for individual, self-paced learning experiences as well as collaborative projects. In addition,…

  11. TransQUAL Online User's Guide: Improving Student Transitions to Life after School. Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, David

    2006-01-01

    TransQUAL Online is designed to assist school districts collaborate with others and continuously improve their transition practices for youth. TransQUAL incorporates New York State Education Department Transition Quality Indicators (TQI), based on the work of Paula Kolher from Western Michigan University. The TQI assesses program structure,…

  12. Identifying cost-minimizing strategies for guaranteeing target dairy income over feed cost via use of the Livestock Gross Margin dairy insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvekar, M; Cabrera, V E; Gould, B W

    2010-07-01

    Milk and feed price volatility are the major source of dairy farm risk. Since August 2008 a new federally reinsured insurance program has been available to many US dairy farmers to help minimize the negative effects of adverse price movements. This insurance program is referred to as Livestock Gross Margin Insurance for Dairy Cattle. Given the flexibility in contract design, the dairy farmer has to make 3 critical decisions when purchasing this insurance: 1) the percentage of monthly milk production to be covered, 3) declared feed equivalents used to produce this milk, and 3) the level of gross margin not covered by insurance (i.e., deductible). The objective of this analysis was to provide an optimal strategy of how a dairy farmer could incorporate this insurance program to help manage the variability in net farm income. In this analysis we assumed that a risk-neutral dairy farmer wants to design an insurance contract such that a target guaranteed income over feed cost is obtained at least cost. We undertook this analysis for a representative Wisconsin dairy farm (herd size: 120 cows) producing 8,873 kg (19,545 lb) of milk/cow per year. Wisconsin statistical data indicates that dairy farms of similar size must require an income over feed cost of at least $110/Mg ($5/cwt) of milk to be profitable during the coverage period. Therefore, using data for the July 2009 insurance contract to insure $110/Mg of milk, the least cost contract was found to have a premium of $1.22/Mg ($0.055/cwt) of milk produced insuring approximately 52% of the production with variable monthly production covered during the period of September 2009 to June 2010. This premium represented 1.10% of the desired IOFC. We compared the above optimal strategy with an alternative nonoptimal strategy, defined as a contract insuring the same proportion of milk as the optimal (52%) but with a constant amount insured across all contract months. The premium was found to be almost twice the level obtained

  13. 反兴奋剂教育要从青少年运动员抓起%Anti-Doping Education Program Should Target at Young Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珂珂; 王新宅

    2012-01-01

    青少年是一个国家的希望,我国一向重视青少年运动员反兴奋剂教育工作。中共中央国务院《关于加强青少年体育增强青少年体质的意见》中明确指出:“广大青少年身心健康、体魄强健、意志坚强、充满活力,是一个民族旺盛生命力的体现。是社会文明进步的标志,是国家综合实力的重要方面。”由于青少年运动员年龄小,对反兴奋剂知识了解较少,对使用兴奋剂的行为缺乏鉴别能力,容易发生兴奋剂问题。%Young athletes are the future of sports as a cause of our country, and play an important role in the transfer of China from a big sport country to a strong sport country. China attaches great importance to anti-doping program targeting at young athletes, by carrying out science and research programs, holding all kinds of educational activities, and developing educational materials attractive to young athletes. The aim of the program is to help athletes build up good value against doping, and guarantee their healthy development.

  14. The effect of a music therapy social skills training program on improving social competence in children and adolescents with social skills deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F

    2011-01-01

    Three separate studies were conducted in school, residential and after-school care settings to test the effectiveness of a music therapy-based social skills intervention program on improving social competence in children and adolescents. A total of 45 children (n = 12; n = 13; n = 20) aged 6-17 years with social skills deficits participated in a group-based five session intervention program. The same curriculum, adapted to be age appropriate, was used at all 3 sites. Specific deficits within the social skills areas of peer relations and self-management skills were targeted. Active interventions like music performance, movement to music and improvisation were used. Cognitive-behavioral techniques like modeling, feedback, transfer training and problem solving were also incorporated. Data on social functioning were collected before, during, and after the music therapy intervention from participants, appropriate adult personnel and via behavioral observations. Results indicated that significant improvements in social functioning were found in (a) school participant pre and post self-ratings, (b) researcher pre and post ratings of school participants, (c) case manager's pre and post treatment ratings for the residential participants, (d) after-school care participants' pre and post self-ratings, and (e) behavioral observations at all three settings. Additional changes, although not significant, were noted in teacher ratings, residential participant self- and peer ratings, and after-school case manager ratings. Results from these studies suggest that the music therapy intervention was effective in improving social competence in children and adolescents with social deficits. More research is warranted to provide additional guidance about the use of music therapy interventions to improve social functioning.

  15. For the Love of Music: The Influence of After-School Music Programs on the Academic and Non-Cognitive Development of Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    A variety of recent research has shown that the academic achievement gap has been growing between low- and middle-income students. Socioeconomic status has proven to have a large influence on academic attainment as well as the educational opportunities that a child is offered. This paper argues that, because poverty significantly affects children…

  16. A Comparison of Two After School Strategies for Improving the Parenting Knowledge and Parenting Perceptions of Preschool Families Enrolled in a Title 1 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rae Ette Veronna

    2013-01-01

    A parent is a child's first educator in communication, social/emotional skills, motor development, and academics. As the achievement expectations placed on schools increase and the schooling population continually diversifies, the need to increase the overall parental involvement in schools and their ability to assist with academics in the home…

  17. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  18. Feasibility and effectiveness of a targeted diabetes prevention program for 18 to 60-year-old South Asian migrants: design and methods of the DH!AAN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaar Everlina MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Asian migrants are at particularly high risk of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have shown that intensive lifestyle interventions may prevent the onset of diabetes. Such interventions have not been culturally adapted and evaluated among South Asians in industrialized countries. Therefore, we have set up a randomized controlled trial to study the effectiveness of a targeted lifestyle intervention for the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors among 18 to 60-year-old Hindustani Surinamese (South Asians in The Hague, the Netherlands. Here we present the study design and describe the characteristics of those recruited. Methods Between May 18, 2009 and October 11, 2010, we screened 2307 Hindustani Surinamese (18–60 years old living in The Hague. We sent invitations to participate to those who had an impaired fasting glucose of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, an impaired glucose tolerance of 7.8-11.0 mmol/L, a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.0% or more and/or a value of 2.39 or more for the homeostasis model assessment of estimated insulin resistance. In total, 536 people (56.1% of those eligible participated. People with a higher level of education and a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to participate. The control and intervention groups were similar with regard to important background characteristics. The intervention group will receive a culturally targeted intervention consisting of dietary counseling using motivational interviewing and a supervised physical activity program. The control group will receive generic lifestyle advice. To determine the effectiveness, a physical examination (anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory test, lipid profile, and measures of oral glucose tolerance, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin and interview (physical activity, diet, quality of life, and intermediate outcomes were carried out at baseline and will be repeated at 1 year and 2 years. The process and the

  19. Results and tasks of the implementation of federal target programs aimed at overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents and catastrophes in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major results are presented on the implementation of federal target programs on overcoming the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, radiation accidents and incidents at the 'Mayak' Industrial Association, nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site in the period of 1992-2000. The status of the standards and legislation regulating the activities aimed at population protection and rehabilitation of territories is analyzed. The current state of the problem is evaluated. The proposals are laid down for major directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents for the period until 2010, and the outlook for the efforts in the above domain and the above period is given. About 130 thousand square kilometers of the territories of 20 Russian Federation subjects with a population of around 4 million people were affected by accidents at nuclear fuel cycle sites/facilities, and nuclear and hydrogen weapons tests. The accidents entailed a host of grave radioecological, medical, demographic, and socio-economic consequences, exerted a significant unfavorable impact upon the socio-economic development of the affected territories. (author)

  20. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  1. Design and methods of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP), a multicomponent targeted intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients: efficacy and cost-effectiveness in Dutch health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbos, Marije; Steunenberg, Bas; Mast, Roos van der; Inouye, Sharon; Schuurmans, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) has been shown to be highly efficient and (cost-)effective in reducing delirium incidence in the USA. HELP provides multicomponent protocols targeted at specific risk factors for delirium and introduces a different view on care organization, with trained volunt

  2. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  3. The implementation of the target program for electric motors: the evolution of the energy efficiency minimal indexes; A implementacao do programa de metas de motores eletricos: a evolucao dos indices minimos de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Michel Goncalves; Soares, George Alves; Pedroso, Alquindar [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Leonardo; Leme, Alexandre Paes [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial - INMETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, Fernando; Furtado, Heloisa [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leonelli, Paulo Augusto; Tarso, Paulo de [Ministerio das Minas e Energia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Three-phase induction motors were the first products to be ever regulated for minimum performance standards because they account for a significant consumption of energy in addition to having the database that has been derived from labelling since 1992. As part of the regulation it was expected that the Target Program would indicate the minimum performance standards of motors. In 2005 it was issued and the minimum standards equaled those of high performance. The minimum levels of energy efficiency of the Target Program are similar to the ones in effect in Europe and the USA. Some of the supporting actions done by institutions of the Technical Committee of Motors are, among others, consolidating importation procedures, studying the steel market of motors, setting inspecting programs and integrating with PROCEL Industry. The government's role is not restricted to the issuing of the Target Program, but is also related to supporting actions and following-up after its implementation so as to accelerate changes in the market. (author)

  4. The All-in-One Human Resource Policy of Taiwan's Hand-in-Hand Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-fu; Lin, Liang-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The Taiwan Government launched the Hand-in-Hand After-School Care Program in 2006 with several goals: In addition to providing disadvantaged students with supplemental learning opportunities, this highly ambitious government program hopes to provide increased employment opportunities for substitute teachers and low-income college students, and…

  5. The Time to Begin Looking for Community Rehabilitation Programs Offering Vocational Services Is... Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Parents and caregivers are often faced with the daunting task of assisting students with disabilities in selecting a work program to attend after graduation. Finding the right program to suit the unique needs of each individual can be trying and frustrating as parents and teachers attempt to prepare students for life after school by providing work…

  6. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  7. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  8. Three Essays on Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Multidimensional Poverty Change in Zimbabwe; Long-Term Impact of Cash Transfers in Niger; and Targeting Efficiency of Social Protection Programs in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeffler, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on identifying the poor in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the potential of social assistance programs to address their condition. Each essay is related to one particular key step of the poverty alleviation agenda: poverty definition and measurement in Zimbabwe; targeting poor households in Cameroon; and impact evaluation of anti-poverty interventions in Niger. The first essay explores changes in poverty across multiple dimensions in a period of dramatic economic cri...

  9. Sputter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  10. Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program overview describes the following resources and facilities; laser facilities, main laser room, target room, energy storage, laboratory area, building support systems, general plant project, and the new trailer complex

  11. Best Practices Article: Hitting the Target with Transition to Teaching in Mississippi's Poorest School Districts: High Retention Rates through Program Support, Resources, and Strategic Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggan, Matthew K.; Jayroe, Teresa; Alexander, Ben

    2016-01-01

    In order to assist in alleviating the teaching shortage in poor, rural school districts, also known as Local Education Agencies (LEA's), faculty in the College of Education at Mississippi State University sought funding that would provide financial support for a new alternate route teaching program. This program, known as Learning and Educating…

  12. STIS target acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich

    1997-01-01

    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  13. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline.

  14. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline. PMID:26970137

  15. The landscape of host transcriptional response programs commonly perturbed by bacterial pathogens: towards host-oriented broad-spectrum drug targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yared H Kidane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug-resistant pathogen strains and new infectious agents pose major challenges to public health. A promising approach to combat these problems is to target the host's genes or proteins, especially to discover targets that are effective against multiple pathogens, i.e., host-oriented broad-spectrum (HOBS drug targets. An important first step in the discovery of such drug targets is the identification of host responses that are commonly perturbed by multiple pathogens. RESULTS: In this paper, we present a methodology to identify common host responses elicited by multiple pathogens. First, we identified host responses perturbed by each pathogen using a gene set enrichment analysis of publicly available genome-wide transcriptional datasets. Then, we used biclustering to identify groups of host pathways and biological processes that were perturbed only by a subset of the analyzed pathogens. Finally, we tested the enrichment of each bicluster in human genes that are known drug targets, on the basis of which we elicited putative HOBS targets for specific groups of bacterial pathogens. We identified 84 up-regulated and three down-regulated statistically significant biclusters. Each bicluster contained a group of pathogens that commonly dysregulated a group of biological processes. We validated our approach by checking whether these biclusters correspond to known hallmarks of bacterial infection. Indeed, these biclusters contained biological process such as inflammation, activation of dendritic cells, pro- and anti- apoptotic responses and other innate immune responses. Next, we identified biclusters containing pathogens that infected the same tissue. After a literature-based analysis of the drug targets contained in these biclusters, we suggested new uses of the drugs Anakinra, Etanercept, and Infliximab for gastrointestinal pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Helicobacter pylori kx2 strain, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia

  16. Code Club: bringing programming to UK primary schools through Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Neil; Sutcliffe, Clare; Sandvik, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Code Club is a network of after-school programming clubs for primary (US: elementary) schoolchildren, run by technically-competent volunteers in conjunction with (generally technically-unskilled) teachers. The main motivation of Code Club is to inspire children with a sense of fun and achievement for programming and digital creativity. This paper reports on the first year of Code Club in 1000 UK schools. The results were extremely positive, but some children had difficulty understanding the c...

  17. Using Multiple Youth Programming Delivery Modes to Drive the Development of Social Capital in 4-H Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how 4-H youth participants are building social capital, or connections among individuals and community members, through their 4-H experiences. These experiences can be seen through the lens of such 4-H delivery modes as the traditional 4-H club, after-school programs, and school enrichment programs. In addition, other…

  18. Genome-wide ChIP-seq profiling of PPARγ/RXR target sites and gene program during adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ronni; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Hagenbeek, Dik;

    directly a large number of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Using ChIP combined with deep sequencing we have generated a genome-wide map of PPARγ-RXR binding to chromatin as well as the activation of associated target genes during differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our analysis shows that...

  19. The Targeted Reading Intervention: A Classroom Teacher Professional Development Program to Promote Effective Teaching for Struggling Readers in Kindergarten and First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the overall Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI) was to help the classroom teacher acquire the key reading diagnostic strategies (e.g., Cooter, 2003; Desimone, 2009; Garet et al., 2001; Timperley & Phillips, 2003) relevant to K-1 struggling readers (e.g., Desimone, 2009; Garet et al., 2001; Guskey, 2002; Joyce & Showers, 2002;…

  20. Active summers matter: evaluation of a community-based summertime program targeting obesogenic behaviors of low-income, ethnic minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy M; Ward, Amanda K; Burdette, Kimberly A; Silton, Rebecca L; Dugas, Lara R

    2014-01-01

    Low-income minority females are disproportionately affected by obesity. The relevance of summer months to weight gain is often overlooked. Some evidence suggests that summer programming, such as day camps, may offer increased opportunities for structured physical activities resulting in less weight gain. This study examined the effectiveness of Girls in the Game, a six-hour four-week sports and fitness summer camp program, in increasing physical activity (PA) and reducing body mass index and media use. Statistically significant increases were observed in four physical activity measures including total PA, MVPA, average number of ten-minute bouts of MVPA, and minutes participants spent in bouts of at least ten minutes of MVPA. This chapter highlights the importance of investigating the potential relationships among weight, physical activity, sedentary time, media use, and participation in summer camp programming. PMID:25530244

  1. Using process evaluation for program improvement in dose, fidelity and reach: the ACT trial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzman-Ulrich Heather

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how formative program process evaluation was used to improve dose and fidelity of implementation, as well as reach of the intervention into the target population, in the "Active by Choice Today" (ACT randomized school-based trial from years 1 to 3 of implementation. Methods The intervention integrated constructs from Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to enhance intrinsic motivation and behavioral skills for increasing long-term physical activity (PA behavior in underserved adolescents (low income, minorities. ACT formative process data were examined at the end of each year to provide timely, corrective feedback to keep the intervention "on track". Results Between years 1 and 2 and years 2 and 3, three significant changes were made to attempt to increase dose and fidelity rates in the program delivery and participant attendance (reach. These changes included expanding the staff training, reformatting the intervention manual, and developing a tracking system for contacting parents of students who were not attending the after-school programs regularly. Process outcomes suggest that these efforts resulted in notable improvements in attendance, dose, and fidelity of intervention implementation from years 1 to 2 and 2 to 3 of the ACT trial. Conclusion Process evaluation methods, particularly implementation monitoring, are useful tools to ensure fidelity in intervention trials and for identifying key best practices for intervention delivery.

  2. Strand Analysis, a free online program for the computational identification of the best RNA interference (RNAi targets based on Gibbs free energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Campos Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The RNA interference (RNAi technique is a recent technology that uses double-stranded RNA molecules to promote potent and specific gene silencing. The application of this technique to molecular biology has increased considerably, from gene function identification to disease treatment. However, not all small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are equally efficient, making target selection an essential procedure. Here we present Strand Analysis (SA, a free online software tool able to identify and classify the best RNAi targets based on Gibbs free energy (deltaG. Furthermore, particular features of the software, such as the free energy landscape and deltaG gradient, may be used to shed light on RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC activity and RNAi mechanisms, which makes the SA software a distinct and innovative tool.

  3. Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is an important functional target of the microRNA miR-21 in breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa; Christoffersen, Nanna R; Jacobsen, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cancer-related processes. The miR-21 microRNA is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers and has been causally linked to cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. Inhibition of mir-21 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells causes reduced cell...... and demonstrated that PDCD4 is a functionally important target for miR-21 in breast cancer cells....

  4. Systematic Development of the YouRAction program, a computer-tailored Physical Activity promotion intervention for Dutch adolescents, targeting personal motivations and environmental opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Prins Richard G; van Empelen Pepijn; Beenackers Marielle A; Brug Johannes; Oenema Anke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based computer-tailored intervention, YouRAction, which targets individual and environmental factors determining PA among adolescents. Design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping p...

  5. Targeted Cue-lure Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: An area wide IPM approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression was undertaken as part of a Hawaii state-wide program funded by USDA-ARS Area Wide Initiative. Methods: A grid of 1 cuelure trap/ km2 over 40 km2 was established in Kamuela, HI to pinpoint ...

  6. Targeted Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    An area wide integrated pest management approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression in Kamuela, Hawaii, was undertaken as part of a larger state-wide program by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Area Wide Initiative. After a...

  7. EnVesting in an Agricultural Legacy: Design and Implementation of a Targeted Young and Beginning Farmer Loan Program in Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Goeringer, L. Paul; Goodwin, Harold L., Jr.; Dixon, Bruce L.; Popp, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. agriculture has seen a decrease in of producers under the age of 35 entering agriculture for the past thirty years. This paper will explore the design and possible implementation of an innovative loan program designed give qualifying new young and beginning producers concessionary interest rates and loan fees for implementing of practices designed to improve on-farm profitability.

  8. The Interaction Effects of Program Training, Dosage, and Implementation Quality on Targeted Student Outcomes for The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria Regina; Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how training, dosage, and implementation quality of a social and emotional learning program, The RULER Approach, were related to students' social and emotional competencies. There were no main effects for any of the variables on student outcomes, but students had more positive outcomes when their teachers (a) attended more…

  9. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  10. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008, including market overview and federal role, program vision, mission, design and structure, and goals and multi-year targets.

  11. Comorbidity and lack of education countered participation in the “Ready to Act” self-management program targeted people with early dysglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Kirkevold, Marit;

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To investigate socio-economic and disease-related predictors for non-participation in the ‘Ready to Act’ program offering self-management support to people with screen-detected dysglycaemia. Background. Screening for type 2 diabetes followed by support to people’s selfmanagement strategies...... is increasingly being offered in primary care. Due to nonparticipation in self-management programs, healthcare providers often miss the opportunity to provide the basic knowledge and skills resulting in uninformed selfmanagement decisions. Methods. A prospective cohort-study was conducted in 2010 within...... the framework of the Danish part of the Anglo–Danish–Dutch study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION). A total of 322 43- to 75-year-old screen-detected patients, receiving GP-multi-faceted intensive treatment were invited to an additional interdisciplinary...

  12. 1982 laser program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report covers the following eight sections: (1) laser program review, (2) laser systems and operation, (3) target design, (4) target fabrication, (5) fusion experiments program, (6) Zeus laser project, (7) laser research and development, and (8) energy applications

  13. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  14. Targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis in the prevention of RhD immunisation--outcome of a new antenatal screening and prevention program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonor Tiblad

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of RhD immunisation after implementation of first trimester non-invasive fetal RHD screening to select only RhD negative women carrying RHD positive fetuses for routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a population-based prospective observational cohort study with historic controls including all maternity care centres and delivery hospitals in the Stockholm region, Sweden. All RhD negative pregnant women were screened for fetal RHD genotype in the first trimester of pregnancy. Anti-D immunoglobulin (250-300 µg was administered intramuscularly in gestational week 28-30 to participants with RHD positive fetuses. Main outcome measure was the incidence of RhD immunisation developing during or after pregnancy. RESULTS: During the study period 9380 RhD negative women gave birth in Stockholm. Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma was performed in 8374 pregnancies of which 5104 (61% were RHD positive and 3270 (39% RHD negative. In 4590 pregnancies with an RHD positive test the women received antenatal anti-D prophylaxis. The incidence of RhD immunisation in the study cohort was 0.26 percent (24/9380 (95% CI 0.15-0.36% compared to 0.46 percent (86/18546 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.56% in the reference cohort. The risk ratio (RR for sensitisation was 0.55 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.87 and the risk reduction was statistically significant (p = 0.009. The absolute risk difference was 0.20 percent, corresponding to a number needed to treat (NNT of 500. CONCLUSIONS: Using first trimester non-invasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD to target routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis selectively to RhD negative women with RHD positive fetuses significantly reduces the incidence of new RhD immunisation. The risk reduction is comparable to that reported in studies evaluating the outcome of non selective RAADP to all RhD negative women. The cost-effectiveness of this

  15. The effects of a group based stress treatment program (the Kalmia concept) targeting stress reduction and return to work. A randomized, wait-list controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Friebel, Lene; Ladegaard, Yun Katrine

    2012-01-01

    of an integrative approach of group psychotherapy for 2.5 hours per week and Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) with mindfulness meditation for 1.5 hours per week, which runs in a parallel process supplemented with workplace dialogue; the treatment-as-usual control group (TAUCG, 71 participants), who received 12......Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a group based multidisciplinary stress treatment program on reductions in symptom levels and the return to work (RTW) rate. Methods General practitioners referred 199 patients with persistent work related stress symptoms...... to the project. The inclusion criteria included being employed and being on sick leave. Using a randomized wait- list control design, the participants were randomized into three groups: the intervention group (IG, 70 participants) was treated using the Stress Therapy Concept of Kalmia, which consists...

  16. Bristol girls dance project (BGDP): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of an after-school dance programme to increase physical activity among 11–12 year old girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many children do not meet current UK physical activity (PA) guidelines. Girls are less active than boys throughout childhood, and the age-related decline in PA, particularly from early adolescence, is steeper for girls than for boys. Dance is the favourite form of PA among UK secondary school aged girls. Delivering dance sessions after school could make a significant contribution to girls’ PA. Therefore, after-school dance sessions may be an appropriate and cost-effective activity through which adolescent girls’ PA levels can be increased. Design Two-arm cluster randomised control trial and economic evaluation conducted in 18 secondary schools across the greater Bristol area. All Year 7 girls in participating schools will receive a 'taster’ dance session and subsequently be invited to participate in the project. There is space for up to 33 girls to participate in each school. Schools will be randomly assigned in equal numbers to intervention or control arms after baseline data has been collected. The nine intervention schools will receive a 20 week after-school dance-based intervention, consisting of 40 × 75 minute sessions, delivered by external dance instructors. Control schools will not receive the dance intervention. All measures will be assessed at baseline (time 0), at the end of the intervention period (time 1) and six months after the intervention has ended (time 2). Our primary interest is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention to affect the objectively-assessed (accelerometer) mean weekday minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) accumulated by Year 7 girls one year after the baseline measurement (time 2). Discussion This paper describes the protocol for the Bristol Girls Dance Project cluster randomized controlled trial and economic evaluation, which is attempting to increase MVPA among Year 7 girls in UK secondary schools. Trial registration ISRCTN52882523. PMID:24152257

  17. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rehn, Moa; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Kuhlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Wallensten, Anders; Sparen, Par; Netterlid, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born >= 1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-l...

  18. Evaluation of an Extended School Day Program for African American Males in the Context of Single Gender Schooling and Schoolwide Reform: A Case for Extending the School Day for African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of the 2nd-year evaluation of an after-school program designed for an extended school day program serving African American middle school students in the city of Baltimore, Maryland (ACCESS-West). This study describes the effects of schoolwide reform especially as it relates to single-gender schools, educating…

  19. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  20. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A.C.F.; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5–9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10–19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided t...

  1. Imported bancroftian filariasis: diethylcarbamazine response and benzimidazole susceptibility of Wuchereria bancrofti in dynamic cross-border migrant population targeted by the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis in South Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, A; Pechgit, P; Koyadun, S; Siriaut, C; Yongyuth, P

    2010-02-01

    The implementation on the Thailand-Myanmar border of annual mass drug administration (MDA) of a single 6 mg/kg dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) plus 400mg albendazole, part of the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELF), has been challenging. In particular, chain migration of cross-border Myanmar workers at risk for nocturnally periodic Wuchereria bancrofti infection can lead to imported bancroftian filariasis (IBF) in Thailand. IBF is targeted for multiple-dose MDA with 300 mg DEC, in addition to what is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The dynamic Myanmar migrants in Phang-nga, southern Thailand were sampled to test whether the responsible W. bancrofti has a genetic predisposition of benzimidazole exposure, and IBF exhibits DEC susceptibility. The long-term migrants had more access to DEC. IBF in W. bancrofti antigenemic (microfilaremic vs. amicrofilaremic) short-term migrants exhibited susceptibility to a 300-mg single-dose DEC treatment. During the course of a 3-month follow-up, antigenemia was significantly reduced, but microfilaremia was fluctuated. Surprisingly, a newly recognized Mansonella infection co-existing among W. bancrofti-affected Myanmar migrants elicited microfilaremia clearance within a month after treatment. As a result of the presence of genetically stable W. bancrofti beta-tubulin (Wbtubb) gene responsible for benzimidazole susceptibility, IBF did not possess a genetic predisposition for benzimidazole exposure. Point mutations at positions Phe167Tyr and Phe200Tyr were not detected by Wbtubb locus-specific nested PCR and sequencing. This study has the potential to help guide not only the Thai/Myanmar PELF surveillance and monitoring of mass treatment impacts on W. bancrofti, but also the other endemic countries allied with the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). PMID:19835831

  2. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  3. Expanded Learning (Afterschool) Leaders' Perceptions Regarding Most Important Elements for Program Quality and Use of Self-Assessment Tools for Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Julie Anne

    2014-01-01

    California allocates $550 million to expanded learning through After School Education and Safety (ASES) state grants, and $140 million of federal money in 21st Century Community Learning Center grants each year; more than all other states combined. Much variability exists in program quality, and research has identified mixed results as to the…

  4. Diabetes Awareness of Low-Income Middle School Students Participating in the Help a Friend, Help Yourself Youth Diabetes Awareness Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroten, Kathryn; Reames, Elizabeth S.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the effectiveness of the LSU AgCenter Help a Friend, Help Yourself youth diabetes education curriculum to increase knowledge and awareness of diabetes and its symptoms in low-income middle school students participating in the Boys and Girls Club after-school program. The curriculum includes four lessons with…

  5. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...

  6. Strategically targeting MYC in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posternak, Valeriya; Cole, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    MYC is a major driver of cancer cell growth and mediates a transcriptional program spanning cell growth, the cell cycle, metabolism, and cell survival. Many efforts have been made to deliberately target MYC for cancer therapy. A variety of compounds have been generated to inhibit MYC function or stability, either directly or indirectly. The most direct inhibitors target the interaction between MYC and MAX, which is required for DNA binding. Unfortunately, these compounds do not have the desired pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for in vivo application. Recent studies report the indirect inhibition of MYC through the development of two compounds, JQ1 and THZ1, which target factors involved in unique stages of transcription. These compounds appear to have significant therapeutic value for cancers with high levels of MYC, although some effects are MYC-independent. These approaches serve as a foundation for developing novel compounds to pharmacologically target MYC-driven cancers. PMID:27081479

  7. MAJOR OUTCOMES OF THE WORK PERFORMED BY ST. PETERSBURG RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RADIATION HYGIENE AFTER PROFESSOR P. V. RAMZAEV ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL TARGETED PROGRAM “MITIGATION OF THE RADIATION ACCIDENTS’CONSEQUENCES UNTIL 2015” AND OF THE “JOINT ACTIVITIES PROGRAM ON MITIGATION OF THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER WITHIN THE UNION STATE FOR THE PERIOD UNTIL 2016“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents major results of the work performed by St. Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P. V. Ramzaev on public contracts signed within the implementation of the Federal targeted program “ Mitigation of the radiation accidents’ consequences for the period until 2015” ( Direction IV “ Streamlining of monitoring systems and their elements and situation forecasting on radioactively contaminated territories paragraph 14 “The analyses and comprehensive evaluation of radiation situation changes on radioactively contaminated territories “ aimed at compilation of radioactively contaminated zones’ settlements list and Direction VI “Awareness raising and social -psychological rehabilitation of radiation- affected residents”, paragraph 20 “Creation of unified informational system on ensuring population’s radiation safety and overcoming radiation accidents’ consequences via development of the federal and regional informational resources’ systems” and “ Joint activities program on mitigation of the Chernobyl disaster within the Union State for the period until 2016” ( Direction II “ Streamlining of unified radiation protection system in radioactively contaminated territories” paragraph 2.1 “ The harmonization of requirements, methods and technologies aimed at mitigation of Russian and Belorussian population’s internal and external exposure, the development of radiation control and monitoring unified system”, sub-paragraph 2.1.1 “The development of unified assessment and forecast system for population exposure doses and rationing of radionuclide – containing foodstuffs, agricultural products and forest preserves based on the international approaches” over the period from 2011 to 2015.

  8. ORION laser target diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  9. ORION laser target diagnosticsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; Wright, M. J.; Hood, B. A.; Kemshall, P.

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  10. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

  11. Influence Factors of Deaf College Students' after School Sports Exercise in Nanjing City%南京市聋人大学生课余体育锻炼的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐五所

    2011-01-01

    为了体现对残疾人群的关爱与教育公平,现针对南京市聋人大学生课余体育锻炼的影响因素情况进行调耷与分析,我们可以较为全面地了解影响聋人大学生课余体育锻炼的诸多因素,为残疾人体育教育改革提供参考依据。聋人大学生为目前高校残疾学生的主要组成部分,具有较强的代表性。一方面这些学生和健听学生一样担负着繁重的。%In order to reflect the care of disabled people with education fairness, now in Nanjing deaf college students after school physical exercise influence factors of the survey and analysis, we can more fully understand the impact deaf college students atter school physical exercise of the many factors for handicapped sports education reform, to provide the reference.

  12. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  13. Bruce NGS rehabilitation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the status at the time of writing of the program to rehabilitate the 4-unit Bruce A Nuclear Generating Station. The aim of the program was to restore the target 85% capacity factor by repair and proactive maintenance

  14. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market" (Vaughan C. Judd); (3)…

  15. The Greenfoot Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based…

  16. 1982 laser program annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Grow, G.R. (eds.)

    1983-08-01

    This annual report covers the following eight sections: (1) laser program review, (2) laser systems and operation, (3) target design, (4) target fabrication, (5) fusion experiments program, (6) Zeus laser project, (7) laser research and development, and (8) energy applications. (MOW)

  17. Laser program. Annual report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the entire program is given. The overview previews the report, highlights progress in 1978, and summarizes the facilities and resources of the laser program. The Argus, Shiva, and Nova facilities are described. The theory of fusion target design is discussed along with specialized techniques of target fabrication

  18. Laser program. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1979-03-01

    An overview of the entire program is given. The overview previews the report, highlights progress in 1978, and summarizes the facilities and resources of the laser program. The Argus, Shiva, and Nova facilities are described. The theory of fusion target design is discussed along with specialized techniques of target fabrication. (MOW)

  19. The Greenfoot Programming Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kölling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based object-oriented programming language. This article first describes Greenfoot and then goes on to discuss design goals and motivations, strengths and...

  20. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  1. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  2. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and

  3. 普通高校课余体育训练应重视的几个问题%Several Problems College After-school Sports Training Should Focus on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗刚

    2014-01-01

    Through the use of spare time training team, team, etc., there are certain aspects of the organization in sports and hobbies to students for training, to fully develop students' physical and mental qualities, effectively enhance physical fitness, students' team spirit, and improve athletic skills. And through training or participate in various competitions, have a positive impact on all students, to enhance the popularity and awareness of sports in school and community members, to promote the development of sport has an important significance. After-school sports training effect will be affected by many factors, if fully considered all cases, handled properly, will achieve good results, otherwise, may not achieve the desired effect even cause a negative impact. The author attends school by repeatedly led, city and provincial competitions to summarize, for your reference.%利用课余时间通过训练队、代表队等形式,组织在体育方面有一定才能和爱好的学生进行训练,能全面发展学生身心素质,有效增强体质,培养学生团队意识,提高运动技术水平。并通过训练或参加各类竞赛活动,对全体学生产生积极的影响,对普及和增强在校学生及社会成员体育运动意识、推动体育运动的发展有重要的意义。课余体育训练的效果会受到多种因素的影响,如果对各种情况充分考虑,处理得当,必将取得好的效果,否则,可能达不到预期效果甚至会造成负面影响。笔者通过对多次带队参加校、市、省级比赛的情况进行总结,供大家参考。

  4. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausborn, Natalie L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Le, Quynh Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Saha, Debabrata [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simko, Jeff [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Story, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Torossian, Artour [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Lu, Bo, E-mail: bo.lu@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  5. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  6. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper the author reviews recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  7. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper we review recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  8. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-target organisms. 156.85 Section 156.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Non-target organisms. (a) Requirement. Where a hazard exists to non-target organisms, EPA may...

  9. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dimi OFILEANU

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  10. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  11. The Targeting of Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Iyer; David Soberman; J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2005-01-01

    An important question that firms face in advertising is developing effective media strategy. Major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media vehicles allow firms to precisely target advertising to consumer segments within a market. This paper examines advertising strategy when competing firms can target advertising to different groups of consumers within a market. With targeted advertising, we find that firms advertise more to consumers who have a st...

  12. Target Price Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  13. An actionable climate target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  14. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  15. Antihyperlipidemic therapies targeting PCSK9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Michael; Frishman, William H

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease despite the availability of first-line cholesterol-lowering agents such as statins. A new therapeutic approach to lowering low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) acts by blocking LDL-receptor degradation by serum proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9). Human monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 and its interaction with the LDL receptor are now in clinical trials (REGN727/SAR23653, AMG145, and RN316). These agents are administered by either subcutaneous or intravenous routes, and have been shown to have major LDL-C and apolipoprotein B effects when combined with statins. A phase III clinical trial program evaluating clinical endpoints is now in progress. Other PCSK9-targeted approaches are in early stages of investigation, including natural inhibitors of PCSK9, RNA interference, and antisense inhibitors.

  16. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program. (MOW)

  17. 76 FR 38577 - Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Issuer to only invest inside the CDFI Fund Target Market that it was certified to serve? 2. Use of Funds... would enable the program to target businesses and residents in rural areas, and discuss whether...

  18. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program

  19. Targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of radiotherapy critically depends on the activation of intrinsic cell death programs in cancer cells. This implies that evasion of cell death, a hallmark of human cancers, can contribute to radioresistance. Therefore, novel strategies to reactivate cell death programs in cancer cells are required in order to overcome resistance to radiotherapy. Since Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are expressed at high levels in multiple cancers and block cell death induction at a central point, therapeutic targeting of IAP proteins represents a promising approach to potentiate the efficacy of radiotherapy. The current review discusses the concept of targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

  20. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  1. Comparison of broadcast and wet-blade applications of 2,4-D and triclopyr for control of woody species and off target impacts on Conservation Reserve Program lands in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowing every 2 to 3 yrs is not controlling woody plant species on Interior Alaska Conservation Reserve Program lands, therefore alternative methods for managing these plant species need to be developed. A new application technology, the wet-blade mower, which pumps herbicide out to the mower blades ...

  2. Target studies for surface muon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2016-02-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  3. 28 CFR 31.500 - Program purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... funding for technology, equipment, and training to assist prosecutors in identifying and expediting the... justice programs that target young firearms offenders through the establishment of juvenile gun courts...

  4. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  5. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  6. Experiences in the New York Academy of Sciences STEM Mentoring Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomposi, C.; Thompson, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the Fall of 2010, The New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS) established an after school STEM Mentoring Program. The program recruits both current graduate students and postdocs to teach an after school curriculum to 4th-8th graders in any of the following areas: genetics, human body systems, space science, earth science, robotics, or math. Since its inception, the program has grown and now has branches in New York City, Newark (NJ), and other locations. My talk will focus on my experiences within the NYAS STEM Mentoring program during both the Fall of 2012 and the Fall of 2013 (expected teaching fellow). As a teaching fellow, I not only developed a unique curriculum in Earth Science Education, along with my teaching partner, but also delivered the lectures and executed various laboratory exercises to maintain a hands-on learning environment for the students. I will discuss the development of a coherent earth science curriculum, focused around the theme of ';Natural Disasters' and culminating in our semester-end project in which the students completed an AGU-style presentation for community members. I plan to describe how the students' perception of earth science changed from the program's beginning to its end 10 weeks later. Best practices of the inquiry-based, student-centered curriculum will be discussed, with the hope that they can be applied across similar educational and outreach opportunities.

  7. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  8. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    CERN Document Server

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  9. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  10. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  11. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  12. Laser Program annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laser Program Annual Report is part of the continuing series of reports documenting the progress of the unclassified Laser Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). As in previous years, the report is organized programmatically. The first section is an overview of the basic goals and directions of the LLNL Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, and highlights the year's important accomplishments. Sections 2 through 7 provide the detailed information on the various program elements: Laser Systems and Operations, Target Design, Target Fabrication, Laser Experiments and Advanced Diagnostics, Advanced Laser Development, and Applications of Inertial Confinement Fusion. Individual sections will be indexed separately. 589 refs., 333 figs., 25 tabs

  13. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  14. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  15. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  16. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  17. PREP program final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The overall goal of the project partially funded by DOE was to encourage a greater number of the targeted high school students to acquire the necessary skills to succeed in rigorous college academic programs and to enter science-based disciplines. These goals were met and the program was judged to be a success. Students participating in the program were involved in a rigorous daily academic program of formal instruction. Participants lived in the residence halls and participated in many aspects of college life, including planned recreational activities. Students were also involved in academic year activities to maintain a heightened awareness and interest in science-based fields. The program sought to provide students with the following hands on laboratory and field site learning experiences as well as minority role models--scientists and engineers, resident advisors, and tutors. Curricular focal points were environmental science, supported by courses and labs in mathematics, technical writing, and chemistry. The 1994 summer program was the second year of the environmental science focus. Students chose topics relevant to New Mexico such as Coal Mining, Landfills, and Tribal Water Rights. The program was judged to have succeeded in the overall goal of encouraging targeted precollege students to acquire the necessary skills to succeed in rigorous college academic programs and to enter science-based disciplines.

  18. 48 CFR 52.219-21 - Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program... Competitiveness Demonstration Program. As prescribed in 19.1008(c), insert the following provision: Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

  19. Laser program. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1979-03-01

    This volume details the year's experiments, data, and analysis. The technology development programs required for the high performance needed in target diagnostic instrumentation and in solid state laser components are reviewed. (MOW)

  20. Laser program. Annual report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume details the year's experiments, data, and analysis. The technology development programs required for the high performance needed in target diagnostic instrumentation and in solid state laser components are reviewed

  1. Target Improves Efficiency in New Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Target Corporation partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  2. Latino Movement: A Target for Harassment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Members of the Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan (MEChA), which translates to Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan, report that their movement is being targeted by school administrators across the country due to its demands for Chicano/Latino studies programs and protests against anti-immigration and anti-affirmative action movements.…

  3. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Brindal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001 and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001. Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (−0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant, triglycerides (−0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (−0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040 and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure −5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001 were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001. Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks.

  4. Fixed target electroweak and hard scattering physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities for future physics and experiments involving weak and electromagnetic interactions, neutrino oscillations, general hard scattering and experiments involving nuclear targets were explored. The studies were limited to the physics accessible using fixed target experimentation. While some of the avenues explored turn out to be relatively unrewarding in the light of competition elsewhere in the world, there are a number of positive conclusions reached about experimentation in the energy range available to the Main Injector and Tevatron. Some of the experiments would benefit from the increased intensity available from the Tevatron utilizing the Main Injector, while some require this increase. Finally, some of the experiments would use the Main Injector low energy, high intensity extracted beams directly. A program of electroweak and hard scattering experiments at fixed target energies retains the potential for important contributions to physics. The key to major parts of this program would appear to be the existence of the Main Injector. 115 refs, 17 figs

  5. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  6. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  7. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  8. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and disadvantages of…

  9. The impact of STEM enrichment programs on California's high school Latino/a seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrotzki, Gretchen

    This study seeks to determine if Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) enrichment programs, such as summer camp programs, after-school programs, or STEM-based high schools motivate Latino high school graduates to enter into STEM bachelor programs in college as compared to those students enrolled in non-STEM enrichment programs. A mixed-methods approach consisting of pre- and post- surveys and focus group interviews were used to determine students' level of interest in STEM, confidence in their ability to do well in STEM subjects, consideration to pursue advanced courses in STEM, and consideration to pursue a job in STEM. An average change (Post-Pre) across survey questions was calculated for each student. This provided an overall change across all variables and allowed for one variable called "Total Interest" to be derived.

  10. Nuclear target development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces thin foil targets needed for experiments performed at the ATLAS and Dynamitron accelerators. Targets are not only produced for the Physics Division but also for other divisions and occasionally for other laboratories and universities. In the past year, numerous targets were fabricated by vacuum evaporation either as self-supporting foils or on various substrates. Targets produced included Ag, Au, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 138}Ba, Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 155,160}Gd, {sup 76}Ge, In, LID, {sup 6}LiH, Melamine, Mg, {sup 142,150}Nd, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 206,208}Pb, {sup 194}Pt, {sup 28}Si, {sup 144,148}Sm, {sup 120,122,124}Sn, Ta, {sup 130}Te, ThF{sub 4}, {sup 46,50}Ti, TiH, U, UF{sub 4}, {sup 182}W and {sup 170}Yb. Polypropylene and aluminized polypropylene, along with metallized Mylar were produced for experiments at ATLAS. A number of targets of {sup 11}B of various thickness were made for the DEP 2-MeV Van de Graff accelerator. An increased output of foils fabricated using our small rolling mill included targets of Au, C, {sup 50}Cr, Cu, {sup 155,160}Gd, Mg, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 105,110}Pd. Sc, Ti, and {sup 64,66}Zn.

  11. Image characterization and target recognition in the surf zone environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevis, Andrew J.

    1996-05-01

    The surf zone environment represents a very difficult challenge for electro-optic surveillance programs. Data from these programs have been shown to contain dense clutter from vegetation, biological factors (fish), and man-made objects, and is further complicated by the water to land transition which has a significant impact on target signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Also, targets can be geometrically warped from the sea surface and by occlusion from sand and breaking waves. The Program Executive Office Mine Warfare (PMO-210) recently sponsored a test under the Magic Lantern Adaptation (MLA) program to collect surf zone data. Analysis of the data revealed a dilemma for automatic target recognition algorithms; threshold target features high enough to reduce high false alarm rates from land clutter or low enough to detect and classify underwater targets. Land image typically have high SNR clutter with crisp edges while underwater images have lower SNR clutter with blurred edges. In an attempt to help distinguish between land and underwater images, target feature thresholds were made to vary as a function of the SNR of image features within images and as a function of a measure of the edge crispness of the image features. The feasibility of varying target feature thresholds to reduce false alarm rates was demonstrated on a target recognition program using a small set of MLA data. Four features were developed based on expected target shape and resolution: a contrast difference measure between circular targets and their local backgrounds, a signal-to-noise ratio, a normalized correlation, and a target circularity measure. Results showed a target probability of detection and classification (Pdc) of 50 - 78% with false alarms per frame of less than 4%.

  12. Cell survival studies for moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 330 patients with static tumors have been treated at GSI with a scanned C-12 beam. For targets that are subject to respiratory motion, treatment is not yet possible because target motion and scanning motion interfere. GSI is developing a motion compensation system to compensate target motion by adaptation of each individual Bragg peak position. Within this project, the GSI treatment planning software TRiP was extended to calculate physical dose distributions in the presence of motion. These motion extensions were experimentally validated. Recently we included the calculation of cell survival for moving targets. To validate the software, a program of experimental studies with biological samples has been started. In a first set of experiments, living cell cultures were placed on a periodically moving table and irradiated with and without motion compensation. Results are compared to reference cell cultures that were static during standard irradiations. Furthermore, measured cell survival distributions are compared to calculated distributions for all irradiation schemes

  13. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  14. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  16. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be untrue. Possible side effects from targeted therapies include: Diarrhea Liver problems Skin problems such as rash, dry skin, and nail changes Problems with blood clotting and wound healing High blood pressure As with any treatment, you ...

  17. 嵌入数据结构信息的单类支持向量机及其线性规划算法%Embedding Target Data's Structural Distribution Information into One-Class SVM and Its Linear Programming Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯爱民; 刘学军; 孙廷凯

    2009-01-01

    针对现有基于超平面的单类分类器未同时考虑目标数据全局与局部信息的不足,通过在单类支持向量机One-Class SVM(OCSVM)算法中加入类内散度以反应目标数据的全局信息,提出了结构化单类支持向量机Structured OCSVM(SOCSVM),不仅使之具有全局与局部化学习的特点,同时也为诸多的SVM算法嵌入数据内在结构这类先验信息提供了统一框架.为进一步提高运算效率,在SOCSVM二次规划求解基础上,通过最小化目标数据均值到超平面的函数距离,提出了线性规划算法,同时也避免了SOCSVM必须以原点作为负类代表的不足.人工和真实数据集上的实验结果验证了嵌入目标数据结构信息的SOCSVM及其线性规划算法的有效性.%In order to distinguish the target class from outliers accurately, One-Class Classifier ( OCC) should take into account the prior knowledge of the target class. However, One-Class SVM ( OCSVM), the state-of-the-art OCC, neglects the data's distribution information while finding the optimal hyper-plane. Structured OCSVM (SOCSVM) , the novel proposed OCC, alleviates this problem by embedding the within-class scattered matrix of the target data into OCSVM. As a result, SOCSVM not only overcomes the above disadvantage of the OCSVM, but also provides a unified framework for the present SVM algorithms how to consider intrinsic structure of the data. Moreover, to improve the efficiency of SOCSVM , linear programming algorithm called SlpOCSVM is proposed to instead of the quadratic programming solving for SOCSVM. Through minimizing the functional distance of the data's mean to the hyperplane, the optimal hyperplane is attracted automatically to the place of the minimum positive half space without borrowing the origin as a representative of the outlier anymore . The experiment results on toy problem and real data sets demonstrate the advantage of SOCSVM and its linear programming algorithm.

  18. Liposomes for cardiovascular targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Tatyana S; Hartner, William C; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-04-01

    Liposome-based pharmaceuticals used within the cardiovascular system are reviewed in this article. The delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents by plain liposomes and liposomes with surface-attached targeting antibodies or polyethylene glycol to prolong their circulation time and accumulation at vascular injuries, ischemic zones or sites of thrombi are also discussed. An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of liposome-mediated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo targeting is presented, including discussion of the targeting of liposomes to pathological sites on the blood vessel wall and a description of liposomes that can be internalized by endothelial cells. Diagnostic liposomes used to target myocardial infarction and the relative importance of liposome size, targetability of immunoliposomes and prolonged circulation time on the efficiency of sealing hypoxia-induced plasma membrane damage to cardiocytes are discussed as a promising approach for therapy. The progress in the use of targeted liposomal plasmids for the transfection of hypoxic cardiomyocytes and myocardium is presented. Stent-mediated liposomal-based drug delivery is also reviewed briefly. PMID:22834079

  19. Radar target detection simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Ibrahim Osman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard radar detection process requires that the sensor output is compared to a predetermined threshold. The threshold is selected based on a-priori knowledge available and/or certain assumptions. However, any knowledge and/or assumptions become in adequate due to the presence of multiple targets with varying signal return and usually non stationary background. Thus, any predetermined threshold may result in either increased false alarm rate or increased track loss. Even approaches where the threshold is adaptively varied will not perform well in situations when the signal return from the target of interest is too low compared to the average level of the background .Track-before-detect techniques eliminate the need for a detection threshold and provide detecting and tracking targets with lower signal-to-noise ratios than standard methods. However, although trackbefore-detect techniques eliminate the need for detection threshold at sensor's signal processing stage, they often use tuning thresholds at the output of the filtering stage .This paper presents a computerized simulation model for target detection process. Moreover, the proposed model method is based on the target motion models, the output of the detection process can easily be employed for maneuvering target tracking.

  20. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  1. Optimization of in-target yields for RIB production: Part 1: direct targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the EURISOL-DS project and within Task-11, we have performed in-target yield calculations for different configurations of thick direct targets. The target materials tested are Al2O3, SiC, Pb(molten), Ta and UC3. The target was irradiated with protons of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 GeV. The production rates have been computed using the MCNPX transport/generation code, coupled with the CINDER-90 evolution program. The yield distributions as a function of charge number Z and mass number A have been evaluated. Their production rates have been optimized for 11 selected elements (Li, Be, Ne, Mg, Ar, Ni, Ga, Kr, Hg, Sn and Fr) and 23 of their isotopes of interest. Finally, the isotopic distributions for each of these 11 elements have been optimized in terms of the target material, its geometry, and incident proton energy

  2. Laser program annual report 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Rufer, M.L.; Murphy, P.W. (eds.)

    1984-06-01

    In the 1983 Laser Program Annual Report we present the accomplishments and unclassified activities of the Laser Program at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) for the year 1983. It should be noted that the report, of necessity, is a summary, and more detailed expositions of the research can be found in the many publications and reports authored by staff members in the Laser Program. The purpose of this report is to present our work in a brief form, but with sufficient depth to provide an overview of the analytical and experimental aspects of the LLNL Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. The format of this report is basically the same as that of previous years. Section 1 is an overview and highlights the important accomplishments and directions of the Program. Sections 2 through 7 provide the detailed information on the various major parts of the Program: Laser Systems and Operations, Target Design, Target Fabrication, Fusion Experiments, Laser Research and Development, and Energy Applications.

  3. Laser program annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1983 Laser Program Annual Report we present the accomplishments and unclassified activities of the Laser Program at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) for the year 1983. It should be noted that the report, of necessity, is a summary, and more detailed expositions of the research can be found in the many publications and reports authored by staff members in the Laser Program. The purpose of this report is to present our work in a brief form, but with sufficient depth to provide an overview of the analytical and experimental aspects of the LLNL Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. The format of this report is basically the same as that of previous years. Section 1 is an overview and highlights the important accomplishments and directions of the Program. Sections 2 through 7 provide the detailed information on the various major parts of the Program: Laser Systems and Operations, Target Design, Target Fabrication, Fusion Experiments, Laser Research and Development, and Energy Applications

  4. The relationship between target quality and interference in sound zones

    OpenAIRE

    Baykaner, K; Coleman, P.; Mason, R.; Jackson, PJB; Francombe, J; Olik, M; Bech, S

    2015-01-01

    Sound zone systems aim to produce regions within a room where listeners may consume separate audio programs with minimal acoustical interference. Often, there is a trade-off between the acoustic contrast achieved between the zones, and the fidelity of the reproduced audio program (the target quality). An open question is whether reducing contrast (i.e. allowing greater interference) can improve target quality. The planarity control sound zoning method can be used to improve spatial reproducti...

  5. Maximisation of Expected Target Damage Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Deep

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The weabon assignment problem has been modelled as a nonlinear integer programming problem'. The problem is to assign weapons to the targets to maximise the optimum-target damagevalue. There are constsainfs on various types of weapons available and on minimum number of weapons by types to be assigned to various targets. The objective function is nonlinear, theconstraints are linear in nature, and the,decision variables are restricted to be integers.The results obtained by Bracken and McCormick' should not be applied to solve t h e problem ofweapon assignment to target to maximise the optimum target damage value, because firstly, the results violate the constraints, and secondly, instead of using the integer programming techniques, the crude method of rounding off has been used,to obtain the sglution.-In this study, the I-GRST algorithm developed by ~ c eapnd Pant2.'h as been used to solve the weapon 3ssignnient problem. The results obtained are better than the results ohrn~nedb y Bracken ;~ndM cCormick'nnd also do not violate any constraints.

  6. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  7. Inexact Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Muhammad Yasir

    2012-01-01

    Two types of fuzzy linear programming i.e. fuzzy number linear programming and interval number linear programming are used for optimization problems. In interval form of linear programming we convert the inequalities from the feasible region, containing intervals as coefficients, to two groups of inequalities characterized by real, exact coefficients values. Then classical programming has been used to achieve an optimal solution in the feasible region. In fuzzy number linear programming, α‐cu...

  8. Selecting Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (STRIDE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Sandborn, W; Sands, B E;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Selecting Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (STRIDE) program was initiated by the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IOIBD). It examined potential treatment targets for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to be used for a "treat-t...

  9. Dynamic response of the target container under pulsed heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liping Ni [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The structural mechanics of a liquid target container for pulsed spallation sources have been simulated using both a commercial code and a PSI-developed program. Results from the transient thermal-structural analysis showed that, due to inertia effects, the dynamic stress in the target container is contributed mainly from direct heating in the initial time stage, and later from the pressure wave in the target liquid once it reaches the wall. (author) figs., tab., refs.

  10. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  11. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  12. Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Lars E.O. Svensson

    1996-01-01

    Inflation targeting is shown to imply inflation forecast targeting: the central bank's inflation forecast becomes an intermediate target. Inflation forecast targeting simplifies both implementing and monitoring of monetary policy. The inflation forecast is actually an ideal intermediate target: it is most correlated with the goal, easier to control than the goal, more observable than the goal, and very transparent. Money growth targeting generally leads to higher inflation variability than in...

  13. Phoenix Color Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  15. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  16. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses...... how the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish...

  17. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  18. Targeting peroxiredoxins against leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Xu; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Yin, Qian-Qian; Wu, Ying-Li; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2013-01-15

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx), a family of small non-seleno peroxidases, are important regulators for cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to many signaling pathways and pathogenesis of diseases. Targeting redox homeostasis is being developed as a promising therapeutic strategy for many diseases such as cancers. This mini-review attempts to focus on our recent discoveries on adenanthin as the first natural molecule to specifically target the resolving cysteines of Prx I and Prx II and thus inhibit their peroxidase activities, and its role in differentiation induction in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemic cells.

  19. Achieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Olabode ABDULKADRI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica Abstract: The high cost of energy in Jamaica, one of the highest in the Caribbean region, is usually cited as a hindrance to industrial development and efficiency, especially in the manufacturing sector. High energy cost is also considered to be a national energy security issue and the government is taking steps to ensure adequate supply of energy at affordable prices. In the current National Development Plan, the government has set a target for renewable energy sources to supply 20% of the country's energy need by the year 2030. Using a linear programing model of energy planning, we examine how realistically this target could be achieved. Our findings indicate that the 20% renewable energy target is technically achievable with the optimal plan showing a mixture of wind power, hydropower and bagasse power but no solar power. However, when the timeline for investment in new generating capacities that will ensure the attainment of the target is considered, it becomes highly improbable that the target will be met. This study fills the gap that exists in evidence-based analysis of energy policy in Jamaica.

  20. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program™) How to Apply for Funding Lupus Science & Medicine™ Local Chapters About Us What We Do Who ... program aggressively seeks to advance the science and medicine of lupus and to improve the quality of ...

  1. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Loved Ones with Lupus Ask the Experts Educational Programs Transcripts from Previous Expert Q&As Q& ... Trials National Institutes of Health PARTNERS About PARTNERS Research Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) Glossary of Terms Find ...

  2. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... POINT Program™) How to Apply for Funding Lupus Science & Medicine™ Local Chapters About Us What We Do ... a cruel mystery. Video | Nov. 08, 2012 Advancing Science - Improving Lives Our national lupus research program aggressively ...

  3. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Finzi Program Scientific Initiatives to Advance Lupus Drug Development LFA-REAL LFA Collective Data Analysis Initiative ... are the common symptoms of lupus? Are chemotherapy drugs used to treat people with lupus? How is ...

  4. COS FUV Target Acquisition Algorithm Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, David

    2009-07-01

    Verify the ability of the COS FSW to place an isolated point source at the center of the aperture, both for the BOA and PSA, using dispersed light from the object using the FUV gratings. The various options for target centering should be exercised and shown to work properly. This test is for acquisitions in dispersed-light mode only. This program is modeled from SMOV activity summary COS28.This program should be executed two or more weeks after visit 12 of 11469, and after the SIAF update, so that we have confirmed that NUV imaging acquisitions work properly with the BOA.

  5. NATURAL BARRIERS TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-07-27

    This booklet contains project descriptions of work performed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International's (OST&I) Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust during Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust is part of OST&I's Science and Technology Program which supports the OCRWM mission to manage and dispose of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a manner that protects health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. In general, the projects described will continue beyond FY 2004 assuming that the technical work remains relevant to the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and sufficient funding is made available to the Science and Technology Program.

  6. Major Targets for 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  7. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  8. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  9. Cancer immunotherapy targeting neoantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F

    2016-02-01

    Neoantigens are antigens encoded by tumor-specific mutated genes. Studies in the past few years have suggested a key role for neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Here we review the discoveries of neoantigens in the past two decades and the current advances in neoantigen identification. We also discuss the potential benefits and obstacles to the development of effective cancer immunotherapies targeting neoantigens.

  10. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  11. Path To Ignition: US Indirect Target Physics (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, M.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    The United States ICF Program has been pursuing an aggressive research program in preparation for an ignition demonstration on the National Ignition Facility. Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories have collaborated on resolving indirect drive target physics issues on the Nova laser at Livermore National Laboratory. This combined with detailed modeling of laser heated indirectly driven targets likely to achieve ignition, has provided the basis for planning for the NIF. A detailed understanding of target physics, laser performance, and target fabrication is required for developing robust ignition targets. We have developed large-scale computational models to simulate complex physics which occurs in an indirectly driven target. For ignition, detailed understanding of hohlraum and implosion physics is required in order to control competing processes at the few percent level. From crucial experiments performed by Los Alamos and Livermore on the Nova laser, a comprehensive indirect drive database has been assembled. Time integrated and time dependent measurements of radiation drive and symmetry coupled with a detailed set of plasma instability measurements have confirmed our ability to predict hohlraum energetics. Implosion physics campaigns are focused on underdstanding detailed capsule hydrodynamics and instability growth. Target fabrication technology is also an active area of research at Los Alamos, Livermore, and General Atomics for NIF. NIF targets require developing technology in cryogenics and manufacturing in such areas as beryllium shell manufacture. Descriptions of our NIF target designs, experimental results, and fabrication technology supporting NIF target performance predictions will be given.

  12. 1996 ICF program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuing objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is the demonstration of thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. The underlying theme of all ICF activities as a science research and development program is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Defense Programs (DP) science-based Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SSM) Program. The extension of current program research capabilities in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is necessary for the ICF Program to satisfy its stewardship responsibilities. ICF resources (people and facilities) are increasingly being redirected in support of the performance, schedule, and cost goals of the NIF. One of the more important aspects of ICF research is the national nature of the program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) ICF Program falls within DOE's national ICF Program, which includes the Nova and Beamlet laser facilities at LLNL and the OMEGA, Nike, and Trident laser facilities at the University of Rochester (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, UR/LLE), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), respectively. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA) and Saturn pulsed-power facilities are at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). General Atomics, Inc. (GA) develops and provides many of the targets for the above experimental facilities. LLNL's ICF Program supports activities in two major interrelated areas: (1) target physics and technology (experimental, theoretical, and computational research); and (2) laser science and optics technology development. Experiments on LLNL's Nova laser primarily support ignition and weapons physics research. Experiments on LLNL's Beamlet laser support laser science and optics technology development. In addition, ICF sciences and technologies, developed as part of the DP mission goals, continue to support additional DOE objectives. These objectives are (1) to achieve diversity in energy sources

  13. 1996 ICF program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correll, D

    1996-09-30

    The continuing objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is the demonstration of thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. The underlying theme of all ICF activities as a science research and development program is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Defense Programs (DP) science-based Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SSM) Program. The extension of current program research capabilities in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is necessary for the ICF Program to satisfy its stewardship responsibilities. ICF resources (people and facilities) are increasingly being redirected in support of the performance, schedule, and cost goals of the NIF. One of the more important aspects of ICF research is the national nature of the program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) ICF Program falls within DOE's national ICF Program, which includes the Nova and Beamlet laser facilities at LLNL and the OMEGA, Nike, and Trident laser facilities at the University of Rochester (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, UR/LLE), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), respectively. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA) and Saturn pulsed-power facilities are at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). General Atomics, Inc. (GA) develops and provides many of the targets for the above experimental facilities. LLNL's ICF Program supports activities in two major interrelated areas: (1) target physics and technology (experimental, theoretical, and computational research); and (2) laser science and optics technology development. Experiments on LLNL's Nova laser primarily support ignition and weapons physics research. Experiments on LLNL's Beamlet laser support laser science and optics technology development. In addition, ICF sciences and technologies, developed as part of the DP mission goals, continue to support additional DOE objectives. These objectives are (1) to

  14. Cherokee Choices: a diabetes prevention program for American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Jeffrey J; Lefler, Lisa J; Reed, Lori; McCoy, Tara; Bailey, Robin; Bell, Ronny

    2006-07-01

    In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provided Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health 2010 (REACH 2010) funds to the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians to develop a community-based intervention to improve the health of this rural, mountainous community in North Carolina. During the first year of the Cherokee Choices program, team members conducted formative research, formed coalitions, and developed a culturally appropriate community action plan for the prevention of type 2 diabetes, particularly among children. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians has higher rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes than the U.S. and North Carolina general populations. The Cherokee Choices program includes three main components: elementary school mentoring, worksite wellness for adults, and church-based health promotion. A social marketing strategy, including television advertisements and a television documentary series, supports the three components. School policy was altered to allow Cherokee Choices to have class time and after-school time devoted to health promotion activities. School staff have shown an interest in improving their health through attendance at fitness sessions. The credibility of the program has been validated through multiple invitations to participate in school events. Participants in the worksite wellness program have met dietary and physical activity goals, had reductions in body fat, and expressed enthusiasm for the program. A subcoalition has been formed to expand the worksite wellness component and link prevention efforts to health care cost reduction. Participants in the church program have walked more than 31,600 miles collectively.

  15. [Molecular alterations in melanoma and targeted therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourah, Samia; Lebbé, Céleste

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer whose incidence is increasing steadily. The recent discovery of frequent and recurrent genetic alterations in cutaneous melanoma allowed a molecular classification of tumors into distinct subgroups, and paved the way for targeted therapy. Several signaling pathways are involved in the progression of this disease with oncogenic mutations affecting signaling pathways: MAPK, PI3K, cAMP and cyclin D1/CDK4. In each of these pathways, several potential therapeutic targets have been identified and specific inhibitors have already been developed and have shown clinical efficacy. The use of these inhibitors is often conditioned by tumors genotyping. In France, melanomas genotyping is supported by the platforms of the National Cancer Institute (INCA), which implemented a national program ensuring access to innovation for personalized medicine. The identification of new targets in melanoma supplies a very active dynamic development of innovative molecules contributing to changing the therapeutic landscape of this pathology. PMID:25776766

  16. [Molecular alterations in melanoma and targeted therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourah, Samia; Lebbé, Céleste

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer whose incidence is increasing steadily. The recent discovery of frequent and recurrent genetic alterations in cutaneous melanoma allowed a molecular classification of tumors into distinct subgroups, and paved the way for targeted therapy. Several signaling pathways are involved in the progression of this disease with oncogenic mutations affecting signaling pathways: MAPK, PI3K, cAMP and cyclin D1/CDK4. In each of these pathways, several potential therapeutic targets have been identified and specific inhibitors have already been developed and have shown clinical efficacy. The use of these inhibitors is often conditioned by tumors genotyping. In France, melanomas genotyping is supported by the platforms of the National Cancer Institute (INCA), which implemented a national program ensuring access to innovation for personalized medicine. The identification of new targets in melanoma supplies a very active dynamic development of innovative molecules contributing to changing the therapeutic landscape of this pathology.

  17. Tumor-Targeted Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBayoumi, Tamer A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of drug delivery systems can be enhanced by making them target-specific via the attachment of various ligands. We attempted to enhance tumor accumulation and therapeutic effect of doxorubicin-loaded long-circulating PEGylated liposomes (Doxil®, ALZA Corp.) by coupling to their surface the anti-cancer monoclonal antibody 2C5 (mAb 2C5) with nuclesome (NS)-restricted activity, that can recognize the surface of various tumor but not normal cells and specifically targets pharmaceutical carriers to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Following earlier in vitro results with various cancer cell lines, the mAb 2C5-liposomes were studied in vivo vs. plain and non-specific IgG-liposomes. Experimental design Antibody coupling to Doxil® was performed via the “post-insertion” technique. Using 111In-labeled liposomes, the tissue biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile were studied, as well as their accumulation in tumors in mice was followed by the whole-body γ-scintigraphic imaging. Therapeutic efficacy of mAb 2C5-targeted Doxil® vs. non-specific IgG-modified and original Doxil® controls was followed by registering live tumor growth and determining tumor weights upon mice sacrifice. Results mAb2C5 antibody-targeted liposomes demonstrate enhanced accumulation in tumors, and the in vivo therapeutic activity of the mAb 2C5-Doxil® treatment was found to be significantly superior, resulting in final tumor weights of only 25-40% compared to all Doxil® control treatments, when tested against the subcutaneous primary murine tumors of 4T1 and C26 and human PC3 tumor in nude mice. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the remarkable capability of 2C5-targeted Doxil® to specifically deliver its cargo into various tumors significantly increasing the efficacy of therapy. PMID:19276264

  18. Customized Job Training and Credit Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robert G.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the similarities and differences between traditional degree programs and industrial training programs and offers suggestions for colleges initiating industrial training efforts, covering areas such as administrative responses, the target group, internal communication, faculty, instructional implications, program delivery, finances,…

  19. Inertial fusion target development for ignition and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target needs of the next ICF experiments that will lead toward ignition and energy are different from those of today's experiments. The future experiments on OMEGA Upgrade, GEKKO XII Upgrade, the National Ignition Facility and Megajoule will need large, precise, cryogenic targets. Development is needed on a number of aspects of these targets, including shell fabrication, characterization, cryogenic layering and target handling. However, coordinated R and D programs are in place and work is in process to carry out the needed development. It is vital to the success of inertial fusion that this work be sustained. Coordinated effort, like the National Cryogenic Target Program in the USA, will help make the development activities as efficient and effective as possible, and should be encouraged

  20. Nova program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At LLNL, successful experimental work is being performed with the Nova laser facility, a solid state laser system using neodymium-doped glass laser technology. Nova is the primary U.S. facility devoted to the study of the indirect drive approach to inertial fusion. In this concept, energy from a laboratory driver is converted to radiation that is used to implode and heat the fusion fuel in an inertial fusion capsule. Nova's principial objective is to demonstrate that laser-driven hohlraums (chambers that trap electromagnetic radiation) can meet the conditions of driver/target coupling efficiency, driver irradiation symmetry, driver pulse-shaping, target preheat, and hydrodynamic stability required by hot spot ignition and by fuel compression in order to realize net fusion gain (fusion energy released/driver energy delivered). Major results within the Nova Program fall within the areas of laser performance, target diagnostics, and implosion experiments. (author) 2 figs

  1. Ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.M.; Lindl, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    The goal of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to produce significant thermonuclear burn from a target driven with a laser or ion beam. To achieve that goal, the national ICF Program has proposed a laser capable of producing ignition and intermediate gain. The facility is called the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This article describes ignition targets designed for the NIF and their modeling. Although the baseline NIF target design, described herein, is indirect drive, the facility will also be capable of doing direct-drive ignition targets - currently being developed at the University of Rochester.

  2. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  3. Evolution with Drifting Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kanade, Varun; Vaughan, Jennifer Wortman

    2010-01-01

    We consider the question of the stability of evolutionary algorithms to gradual changes, or drift, in the target concept. We define an algorithm to be resistant to drift if, for some inverse polynomial drift rate in the target function, it converges to accuracy 1 -- \\epsilon , with polynomial resources, and then stays within that accuracy indefinitely, except with probability \\epsilon , at any one time. We show that every evolution algorithm, in the sense of Valiant (2007; 2009), can be converted using the Correlational Query technique of Feldman (2008), into such a drift resistant algorithm. For certain evolutionary algorithms, such as for Boolean conjunctions, we give bounds on the rates of drift that they can resist. We develop some new evolution algorithms that are resistant to significant drift. In particular, we give an algorithm for evolving linear separators over the spherically symmetric distribution that is resistant to a drift rate of O(\\epsilon /n), and another algorithm over the more general prod...

  4. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...... will need to make efforts to recover all recyclable fractions, and that the increased recycling efforts of only selected municipalities will not be sufficient to reach the target.......Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22...

  5. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  6. Gene Targeting in Neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlish, Michael; De Angelis, Roberto; Götz, Viktoria; Boehm, Ulrich

    2015-09-20

    Research in neuroendocrinology faces particular challenges due to the complex interactions between cells in the hypothalamus, in the pituitary gland and in peripheral tissues. Within the hypothalamus alone, attempting to target a specific neuronal cell type can be problematic due to the heterogeneous nature and level of cellular diversity of hypothalamic nuclei. Because of the inherent complexity of the reproductive axis, the use of animal models and in vivo experiments are often a prerequisite in reproductive neuroendocrinology. The advent of targeted genetic modifications, particularly in mice, has opened new avenues of neuroendocrine research. Within this review, we evaluate various mouse models used in reproductive neuroendocrinology and discuss the different approaches to generate genetically modified mice, along with their inherent advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss a variety of versatile genetic tools with a focus on their potential use in reproductive neuroendocrinology.

  7. Targeting fragile X

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, Ilse; Kooy, R. Frank

    2002-01-01

    Ten years after the identification of the gene responsible for fragile X syndrome, recent studies have revealed a list of mRNAs bound by the fragile X gene product and have identified specific sequences required for the interaction between the fragile X protein and its targets. These results are a breakthrough in understanding why absence of the fragile X protein leads to mental retardation.

  8. Follicular penetration and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated.

  9. Bridging Differences -- how Social Relationships and Racial Diversity Matter in a Girls' Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekelis, Linda S.; Ancheta, Rebecca Wepsic; Heber, Etta; Countryman, Jeri

    In this article, we explore an understudied dimension of girls' single-sex education - how social relationships and racial diversity impact the educational environment for girls, and how teachers may best address these concerns. Findings are presented from a 3-year qualitative study of girls' experiences in a single-sex technology program. Girls valued the all-girls aspect of the programs, and friendships formed the foundation of their social experiences. Girls' friendship groups influenced their experiences and eventually their success in the after school technology programs. When friendship groups were observed to be racially homogeneous, they created challenges for including and supporting a racially diverse student membership. Our responses to the challenges that cultural differences and tensions present are outlined, along with recommendations for helping girls bridge these differences.

  10. Bone targeting for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Tessa; Germershaus, Oliver; Groll, Jürgen; Meinel, Lorenz

    2012-07-20

    Osteoporosis represents a major public health burden especially considering the aging populations worldwide. Drug targeting will be important to better meet these challenges and direct the full therapeutic potential of therapeutics to their intended site of action. This review has been organized in modules, such that scientists working in the field can easily gain specific insight in the field of bone targeting for the drug class they are interested in. We review currently approved and emerging treatment options for osteoporosis and discuss these in light of the benefit these would gain from advanced targeting. In addition, established targeting strategies are reviewed and novel opportunities as well as promising areas are presented along with pharmaceutical strategies how to render novel composites consisting of a drug and a targeting moiety responsive to bone-specific or disease-specific environmental stimuli. Successful implementation of these principles into drug development programs for osteoporosis will substantially contribute to the clinical success of anti-catabolic and anabolic drugs of the future.

  11. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  12. Using the Innovation Adoption Diffusion Model to Target Educational Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Timothy

    1993-01-01

    A telephone survey of 200 farm operators regarding adoption of innovations found 52% were early adopters or early majority adopters and 48% were late majority adopters or laggard. Importance of scientific research, learning about new concepts, and use of sources other than extension were factors distinguishing the categories. (SK)

  13. CONTEMPORARY FORMAT OF TARGET-ORIENTED URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya Yurevna

    2012-10-01

    In the context accepted by the authors, attainment of the above objective will involve fulfillment of each of the aforementioned requirements. They are to assure the concentration of resources and comprehensive satisfaction of the needs of the urban population in terms of the most popular items of real estate within a particular time span.

  14. 'Mujeres': destinatarias privilegiadas de los planes sociales de inicios del siglo XXI - reflexiones desde una perspectiva crítica de género 'Women': privileged targets for the early 21th century social programs - reflections from a critical gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Anzorena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde fines de los 1990 tanto en Argentina como en Latinoamérica, se han introducido planes sociales destinados a atenuar las condiciones de pobreza producto del modelo neoliberal. Estos procesos afectan de modo particular a las mujeres en cuanto las ubica como 'destinatarias' privilegiadas de estas medidas. En este ensayo buscamos explorar en que sentido en que algunos supuestos de la Nueva Economía de la Familia (NEF promueven la naturalización del rol reproductivo y doméstico para las mujeres, y las define como funcionales a los objetivos de las políticas sociales paliativas de los 1990. Esta visión, que promueve el aprovechamiento de las supuestas 'virtudes maternales' de las mujeres, reproduce la discriminación de género y clases, y refuerza la supuesta naturalidad de la división sexual del trabajoSince the late '90s, social programs to ameliorate the poverty conditions provoked by the neoliberal model have been applied in Argentina and in Latin America. These processes particularly affect women, as they are the privileged 'target' of those measures. This essay explores the ways in which the New Economics of the Family (NEF, in 90's social programs, promotes the naturalization of women's responsibility as homemakers, and defines them as functional to the objectives of palliative social policies. Such a vision profits from supposed natural 'motherly virtues', and far from promoting more egalitarian relations between women and men, reproduces gender and class discrimination by reinforcing the supposedly natural sexual division of labor

  15. Parenting Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martín-Quintana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at emphasizing the importance of using parenting programs to promote parental competences. There is a need for this support taking into account the complexity of the parenting task in our modern societies. Following the European recommendation on positive parenting, those parenting programs are considered important measures to support parents in their educational role. Forward, several generations of parenting programs at the international context were briefly described and some examples of programs within the national context, as well. This paper provides some reflection on three models of parental education, and shows the results of an experiential parenting programs addressed to parents in psychosocial risk situation in two Spanish communities. A new program “Crecer felices en familia”, still in the implementation phase, was also described. As a conclusion, the paper emphasized the importance of evaluating programs in order to know more about their efficacy and to improve the way of implementation in real settings.

  16. Laser Program annual report 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufer, M.L.; Murphy, P.W. (eds.)

    1985-06-01

    The Laser Program Annual Report is part of the continuing series of reports documenting the progress of the unclassified Laser Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). As in previous years, the report is organized programmatically. The first section is an overview of the basic goals and directions of the LLNL Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, and highlights the year's important accomplishments. Sections 2 through 7 provide the detailed information on the various program elements: Laser Systems and Operations, Target Design, Target Fabrication, Laser Experiments and Advanced Diagnostics, Advanced Laser Development, and Applications of Inertial Confinement Fusion. Individual sections will be indexed separately. 589 refs., 333 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Low intensity beam target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    This is a wheel fitted with many targets around its periphery (each with three longitudinally arranged thin rods) of which one is placed into the beam via a rotation of the wheel. Upstream of each target is placed a luminescent screen, aligbed on each target axis and viewed with a TV camera, to make sure that one is hitting the target. This target unit was probably used to study target's behaviour (like beam heating). Gualtiero Del Torre stands on the left, Pierre Gerdil on the right.

  18. Target Housing Material Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  19. 75 FR 8902 - Funding Opportunity Title: Crop Insurance Education in Targeted States (Targeted States Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... established farmers or ranchers who are converting production and marketing systems to pursue new markets. D... of marketing and financial tools; How to make informed decisions on crop insurance prior to the sales... partnership; a determination of a violation of applicable ethical standards; a determination of...

  20. 76 FR 34953 - Funding Opportunity Title: Risk Management Education in Targeted States (Targeted States Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... offering Federal crop insurance products through a network of private-sector partners, overseeing the...; Common Crop Insurance Policy Basic Provisions (``COMBO''); Enterprise Units, and Specialty Crops; Maine... are available at the address and telephone number listed in Section VII, Agency Contact....

  1. A Note on Inflation Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a pedagogical graphical exposition to illustrate the stabilizing effect of price target zones. Finds that authorities' commitment to defend a price target zone affects the public's inflation expectations and, in turn, reduces actual inflation. (RLH)

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on polarized targets in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.J. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    Polarization phenomena have played an increasingly important part in the study of nuclei and nucleons in recent years. Polarization studies have been hampered by the relatively few and rather fragile polarized targets which are presently available. The concept of polarized gas targets in storage rings opens a much wider range of possibilities than is available in the external target geometry. This novel method will represent a considerable advance in nuclear physics and will continue to receive much attention in plans for future facilities. An internal, polarized-target station is being planned for the cooler ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Internal targets are compatible with recent designs of electron accelerators proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Southeastern Universities Research Association. The key to nuclear-science programs based on internal targets pivots on recent developments in polarized atomic beam methods, which include the more recent laser-driven polarized targets. The workshop drew together a unique group of physicists in the fields of high-energy, nuclear and atomic physics. The meeting was organized in a manner that stimulated discussion among the 58 participants and focused on developments in polarized target technology and the underlying atomic physics. An impressive array of future possibilities for polarized targets as well as current developments in polarized target technology were discussed at the workshop. Abstracts of individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base.

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on polarized targets in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarization phenomena have played an increasingly important part in the study of nuclei and nucleons in recent years. Polarization studies have been hampered by the relatively few and rather fragile polarized targets which are presently available. The concept of polarized gas targets in storage rings opens a much wider range of possibilities than is available in the external target geometry. This novel method will represent a considerable advance in nuclear physics and will continue to receive much attention in plans for future facilities. An internal, polarized-target station is being planned for the cooler ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Internal targets are compatible with recent designs of electron accelerators proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Southeastern Universities Research Association. The key to nuclear-science programs based on internal targets pivots on recent developments in polarized atomic beam methods, which include the more recent laser-driven polarized targets. The workshop drew together a unique group of physicists in the fields of high-energy, nuclear and atomic physics. The meeting was organized in a manner that stimulated discussion among the 58 participants and focused on developments in polarized target technology and the underlying atomic physics. An impressive array of future possibilities for polarized targets as well as current developments in polarized target technology were discussed at the workshop. Abstracts of individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  4. Frnakenstein: multiple target inverse RNA folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyngsø Rune B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA secondary structure prediction, or folding, is a classic problem in bioinformatics: given a sequence of nucleotides, the aim is to predict the base pairs formed in its three dimensional conformation. The inverse problem of designing a sequence folding into a particular target structure has only more recently received notable interest. With a growing appreciation and understanding of the functional and structural properties of RNA motifs, and a growing interest in utilising biomolecules in nano-scale designs, the interest in the inverse RNA folding problem is bound to increase. However, whereas the RNA folding problem from an algorithmic viewpoint has an elegant and efficient solution, the inverse RNA folding problem appears to be hard. Results In this paper we present a genetic algorithm approach to solve the inverse folding problem. The main aims of the development was to address the hitherto mostly ignored extension of solving the inverse folding problem, the multi-target inverse folding problem, while simultaneously designing a method with superior performance when measured on the quality of designed sequences. The genetic algorithm has been implemented as a Python program called Frnakenstein. It was benchmarked against four existing methods and several data sets totalling 769 real and predicted single structure targets, and on 292 two structure targets. It performed as well as or better at finding sequences which folded in silico into the target structure than all existing methods, without the heavy bias towards CG base pairs that was observed for all other top performing methods. On the two structure targets it also performed well, generating a perfect design for about 80% of the targets. Conclusions Our method illustrates that successful designs for the inverse RNA folding problem does not necessarily have to rely on heavy biases in base pair and unpaired base distributions. The design problem seems to become more

  5. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph, an......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  6. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  7. Some Issues in Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Haldane

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to the implementation of an inflation-targeting regime. In particular it focuses on: whether inflation targeting is 'new'; whether (and how) the forward-looking nature of inflation-targeting helps to prevent instabilities in inflation; whether inflation-targeting potentially destabilises output; and whether it requires too much knowledge on the part of the authorities. The paper argues that none of these propositions is in general c...

  8. Electromagnetic targeting of guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogue, E.W.; Boat, R.M.; Holden, D.N.; Lopez, J.R. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signals produced from explosives being fired have been reported in the literature for fifty years. When a gun is fired it produces an EMP muzzle blast signal. The strength and nature of these signals was first analyzed in the early 1970s, while the results were interesting, no follow-up studies were conducted. With modern detection and signal processing technology, we believe that these signals could be used to instantaneously locate guns of virtually all calibers as they fire. The objective of our one-year project was to establish the basic nature of these signals and their utility in the concept of electromagnetic targeting of guns.

  9. An Impact Evaluation of Chile's Progressive Housing Program

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Marcano; Inder J. Ruprah

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates Progressive Housing Program; a public housing program that facilitates the purchase of a new home. The evaluation finds that the program’s package (savings requirement, voucher and mortgage) design is inappropriate if the program is targeted to the poor. In fact the pro-poor targeting of the program was poor with high under-coverage and high leakage. Further, the benefit, a minimum quality new house, was not sustainable as many households slipped back into the housing sho...

  10. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  11. Programming F#

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With th

  12. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Missailidis, Sotiris

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  13. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2012-01-01

    rheumatologists who have recently formed a research network - the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using...

  14. Interdisciplinary Programs Focused Populations: The Case of Health Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Yavich, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The Ariel University has a unique interdisciplinary program in healthcare management that targets experienced healthcare professionals who wish to earn an academic degree. Only one academic study has been held so far on the integration of graduates of an academic university-level school in healthcare management in the field. In the current study,…

  15. Design of the next generation target at Lujan center, LANSCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferres, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-27

    This is a presentation given at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the design of the next generation target at Lujan center, LANSCE. The motivation for this design is to enable new nuclear physics experiments (defense program applications (DANCE)) that are currently limited by neutron intensity or energy resolution available at LANSCE. The target is being redesigned so that the Flight Paths in the upper tier provide a higher intensity in the epithermal and medium energy ranges.

  16. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  17. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2014-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  18. The RERTR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program was established in 1978 at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) by the Department of Energy (DOE), which continues to fund the program and to manage it in coordination with the Department of State (DOS), the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The primary objective of the program is to develop the technology needed to use Low-Enrichment Uranium (LEU) instead of High-Enrichment Uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors, and to do so without significant penalties in experiment performance, economic, or safety aspects of the reactors. Research and test reactors utilize nearly all the HEU that is used in civil nuclear programs, either in their fuel or in irradiation targets for the production of medical radioisotopes. Eliminating the continuing need of research and test reactors for HEU supplies and usage would remove a serious nuclear proliferation concern, and has been for many years an integral part of U.S. nonproliferation policy. This paper reviews the main accomplishments of the program through the years, emphasizing last year's progress and the next planned activities. (author)

  19. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  20. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  1. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  2. The GPD program at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sandacz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The 160 GeV polarised muon beam available at CERN, with positive or negative charge, makes COMPASS a unique place for GPD studies. The first GPD related COMPASS results come from exclusive vector meson production on transversely polarised protons and deuterons. The data were taken in 2003-2010 with large solid-state polarised targets, although without detection of recoil particles. Results on various transverse target spin dependent azimuthal asymmetries are presented and their relations to GPDs are discussed. The dedicated COMPASS GPD program started in 2012 with commissioning of a new long liquid hydrogen target and new detectors such as the large recoil proton detector and the large-angle electromagnetic calorimeter. It was followed by a short pilot 'DVCS run'. The performance of the setup and first results on DVCS and exclusive $\\pi ^0$ channels have been demonstrated. The full data taking for the GPD program approved within COMPASS-II proposal is planned for 2016 and 2017.

  3. Fitness Programs for the Aged: A Study of College and University Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William F.; Lyon, Lesley B.

    1983-01-01

    A national survey identified innovative physical fitness programs for older adults at colleges and universities. Survey results concerning program area, type of activities, target population, and whether programs focus on the healthy elderly or on rehabilitation are reported. (PP)

  4. Impacting Children’s Health and Academic Performance through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. BRUSSEAU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with numerous academic and health benefits. Furthermore, schools have been identified as an ideal location to promote physical activity as most youth attend school regularly from ages 5-18. Unfortunately, in an effort to increase academic learning time, schools have been eliminating traditional activity opportunities including physical education and recess. To combat physical inactivity in you, numerous organizations are promoting a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program to encourage academic achievement and overall health. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs include five components and should be centered around 1 quality physical education, 2 physical activity before and after school, 3 physical activity during school (both recess and classroom activity, 4 staff involvement, and 5 family and community engagement.

  5. A true challenge for any superhero: an evaluation of a comic book obesity prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj; Wang, Lihshing Leigh; Wilson, Bradley R A; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test the Comics for Health program, a theory-based nutrition and physical activity intervention for children. Twelve after-school programs were randomized to either a theory-based (n = 37) or a knowledge-based (n = 34 children) version of the intervention. Pretests, posttests, and 3-month follow-up tests were administered to evaluate the programmatic effects on body mass index percentile, obesity-related behaviors, and constructs of social cognitive theory. Both interventions found significant, yet modest effects for fruit and vegetable consumption (P < .005), physical activities (P < .004), and water and sugar-free beverage consumption (P < .001) and self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (P < .015) and physical activities (P < .009).

  6. Review of calorimetry in Fermilab fixed-target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fixed-target program at Fermilab comprises as many as thirteen simultaneous experiments in ten separate beamlines using beams of primary protons, pions, kaons, electrons, neutrinos, and muons. The fixed target beamlines were last in operation in the latter half of 1991, shutting down in 1992. The next fixed target run is scheduled for early 1996. This article describes some of the wide variety of calorimetric devices that were in use in the past run or to be used in the coming run. Special attention is devoted to the new devices currently under construction

  7. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  8. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described

  9. Mitochondria: a target for bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Elodie; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Arnould, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells developed strategies to detect and eradicate infections. The innate immune system, which is the first line of defence against invading pathogens, relies on the recognition of molecular patterns conserved among pathogens. Pathogen associated molecular pattern binding to pattern recognition receptor triggers the activation of several signalling pathways leading to the establishment of a pro-inflammatory state required to control the infection. In addition, pathogens evolved to subvert those responses (with passive and active strategies) allowing their entry and persistence in the host cells and tissues. Indeed, several bacteria actively manipulate immune system or interfere with the cell fate for their own benefit. One can imagine that bacterial effectors can potentially manipulate every single organelle in the cell. However, the multiple functions fulfilled by mitochondria especially their involvement in the regulation of innate immune response, make mitochondria a target of choice for bacterial pathogens as they are not only a key component of the central metabolism through ATP production and synthesis of various biomolecules but they also take part to cell signalling through ROS production and control of calcium homeostasis as well as the control of cell survival/programmed cell death. Furthermore, considering that mitochondria derived from an ancestral bacterial endosymbiosis, it is not surprising that a special connection does exist between this organelle and bacteria. In this review, we will discuss different mitochondrial functions that are affected during bacterial infection as well as different strategies developed by bacterial pathogens to subvert functions related to calcium homeostasis, maintenance of redox status and mitochondrial morphology.

  10. 1981 laser program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is published in sections that correspond to the division of technical activity in the Program. Section 1 provides a Program Overview, presenting highlights of the technical accomplishments of the elements of the Program, a summary of activities carried out under the Glass Laser Experiments Lead Laboratory Program, as well as discussions of Program resources and facilities. Section 2 covers the work on solid-state Nd:glass lasers, including systems operations and Nova and Novette systems development. Section 3 reports on target-design activities, plasma theory and simulation, code development, and atomic theory. Section 4 presents the accomplishments of the Target Fabrication group, Section 5 contains the results of our diagnostics development, and Section 6 reports the results of laser-target experiments conducted during the year, along with supporting research and development activities. Section 7 presents the results from laser research and development, including solid-state R and D and the theoretical and experimental research on advanced lasers. Section 8 contains the results of studies in areas of energy and military applications, including those relating to electrical energy production by inertial-confinement fusion systems

  11. 1981 laser program annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    This report is published in sections that correspond to the division of technical activity in the Program. Section 1 provides a Program Overview, presenting highlights of the technical accomplishments of the elements of the Program, a summary of activities carried out under the Glass Laser Experiments Lead Laboratory Program, as well as discussions of Program resources and facilities. Section 2 covers the work on solid-state Nd:glass lasers, including systems operations and Nova and Novette systems development. Section 3 reports on target-design activities, plasma theory and simulation, code development, and atomic theory. Section 4 presents the accomplishments of the Target Fabrication group, Section 5 contains the results of our diagnostics development, and Section 6 reports the results of laser-target experiments conducted during the year, along with supporting research and development activities. Section 7 presents the results from laser research and development, including solid-state R and D and the theoretical and experimental research on advanced lasers. Section 8 contains the results of studies in areas of energy and military applications, including those relating to electrical energy production by inertial-confinement fusion systems.

  12. Computer Assisted Parallel Program Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Parallel computation is widely employed in scientific researches, engineering activities and product development. Parallel program writing itself is not always a simple task depending on problems solved. Large-scale scientific computing, huge data analyses and precise visualizations, for example, would require parallel computations, and the parallel computing needs the parallelization techniques. In this Chapter a parallel program generation support is discussed, and a computer-assisted parallel program generation system P-NCAS is introduced. Computer assisted problem solving is one of key methods to promote innovations in science and engineering, and contributes to enrich our society and our life toward a programming-free environment in computing science. Problem solving environments (PSE) research activities had started to enhance the programming power in 1970's. The P-NCAS is one of the PSEs; The PSE concept provides an integrated human-friendly computational software and hardware system to solve a target ...

  13. ICF target positioning robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the function analysis of target positioner for inertial confinement fusion, a kind of ICF target positioning robot system is designed to realize the adjustment and the alignment of a target. The robot system includes a target storage sub-system, a target exchange subsystem, a target transport subsystem and a 6-degree of freedom precision parallel robot subsystem, the structure and principle of every subsystem are dissertated. The system realizes micro scale position by parallel structure which is in the front of the system, and has the advantages of low mass, high stiffness, small cone angle, small volume and high precision. The robot system can position a target into a very small micro scale scope around the center of the target chamber whose diameter is several meters, the precision of the position reaches micro scale. Motion parameter of the positioning robot system has been tested. Experiment proves that the robot system has realized precision target position and target exchange on the condition of vacuum. (authors)

  14. Windowless target: Design of the XT-ADS spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the XT-ADS spallation target is performed within the European integrated project EUROTRANS (FP6 Contract FI6W-516520) that has started in April 2005. At the current status of the spallation target design process, the boundary conditions for the spallation target loop with respect to the XT-ADS performance requirements and the design of the subcritical core and primary system have been established. The next steps will concentrate on further development of the spallation target nozzle, the vacuum and spallation product confinement system and the pumping, LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and cooling system

  15. Scientific program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerich, C. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams is organized jointly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Physics International Company. As in the previous conferences in this series, the program includes the following topics: high-power, electron- and ion-beam acceleration and transport; diode physics; high-power particle beam interaction with plasmas and dense targets; particle beam fusion (inertial confinement); collective ion acceleration; particle beam heating of magnetically confined plasmas; and generation of microwave/free-electron lasers.

  16. Programming Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  17. After-School Literacy Engagements with Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Susan V.; Duncan, Lonnie E.

    2012-01-01

    Parental incarceration, poverty, urban violence, and drug use can be underlying factors of academic achievement gaps between Black urban males and their counterparts. These risk factors have the potential to position low-income urban students as struggling readers. Two qualitative case studies obtained from a larger mixed methods study illustrate…

  18. How Do You Keep Children Moral After School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shires, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    Characterizes American folk wisdom about the teaching of moral behavior. Compares the moral education offered in the Soviet Union, Japan, and India. Reviews Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development and concludes with speculations on the moral development role of religion, autonomy, and the environment. (JDH)

  19. The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

  20. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  1. The OLYMPUS internal hydrogen target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, J.C., E-mail: bernauer@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Henderson, B.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ihloff, E.; Kelsey, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Lenisa, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Milner, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Schmidt, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Statera, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-08-01

    An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

  2. The OLYMPUS Internal Hydrogen Target

    CERN Document Server

    Bernauer, J C; Ciullo, G; Henderson, B S; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Lenisa, P; Milner, R; Schmidt, A; Statera, M

    2014-01-01

    An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

  3. Oxide Fiber Targets at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Carminati, D; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Correia, J G; Crepieux, B; Dietrich, M; Elder, K; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Georg, U; Giles, T; Joinet, A; Jonsson, O C; Kirchner, R; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Maier, H J; Mishin, V I; Oinonen, M; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L; Rinaldi, T; Santana-Leitner, M; Wahl, U; Weissman, L

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxyde fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxyde fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce...

  4. Overseas programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Subprograms of the Overseas Program of the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources are presented and discussed. Topics addressed in the subprograms include volcanology, the geology and geophysics of Southwest Pacific island arcs and structural basins, and antarctic paleomagnetism and geology.

  5. Targeting Nominal Income: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth D. West

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares nominal income and monetary targets in a standard aggregate demand - aggregate supply framework. If the desirability of policies is measured by their effect on the unconditional variance of output, nominal income targeting is preferable if and only if the aggregate elasticity of demand for real balances is greater than one. This is precisely the opposite of the condition that in Bean (1984) is sufficient to make nominal income targeting preferable.This points out the impor...

  6. Nominal Income and Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Arayssi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a macro- economic model in the area of monetary policy game theory is extended to one-sided dismissal rules concerning observed nominal output and inflation targets for the central banker. These rules specify firing the central banker if some observed policy targets have been exceeded. Such rules are shown to reduce inflationary bias if the central banker perceives her reappointment chances as being strong and is preferred to discretionary monetary policy. Various policy targets...

  7. Target properties and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the properties of the target on nuclear data was shown. In the case of targets consisting of fissionable material, this influence was demonstrated in experiments involving fission cross-section, average number of neutrons, and prompt fission neutron spectrum. The experimental methods for determining certain corrections were analysed. The method of tritium density determination for a solid target used as neutron source was likewise demonstrated. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  8. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  9. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  10. 'Inflation Targeting and Inflation Persistence'

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Bratsiotis; Jakob Madsen; Christopher Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the adoption of an inflation target reduces the persistence of inflation. We develop the theoretical literature on inflation persistence by introducing a Taylor rule for monetary policy into a model of persistence and showing that inflation targets reduce inflation persistence. We investigate changes in the time series properties of inflation in seven countries that introduced inflation targets in the late 1980s or early 1990s. We find that the persistenc...

  11. [Mentoring program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N

    2001-11-01

    Due to drastic changes in the business environment and prolonged recession, stress management practices in business organizations have been encountering two kinds of problems: budget cuts and difficulties in the delivery of services. The feasibility of mentoring programs to cope with these two problems is discussed. Through an extensive review of the literature, it becomes clear that mentoring programs have the following features and advantages; (1) One to one relationship between elder mentor and younger protégé has a favorable effect on the both mentor and protégé's mental health. (2) Formal mentoring programs are widely used in the U.S. for the prevention of juvenile delinquency, professional education, and human resource development in business settings. (3) Mentoring programs, in general, are practiced with the cooperation of kindred volunteers and professionals who monitor the mentor-protégé relationships. (4) Since a mentoring program utilizes a wide range of human resources in work organizations, it is able to overcome the "budget and delivery" problems. Further discussions are about the comparison with listener programs as well as the relationship with the total human resource management system. PMID:11802451

  12. Data Mining for Target Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Nissan; Zahavi, Jacob

    Targeting is the core of marketing management. It is concerned with offering the right product/service to the customer at the right time and using the proper channel. In this chapter we discuss how Data Mining modeling and analysis can support targeting applications. We focus on three types of targeting models: continuous-choice models, discrete-choice models and in-market timing models, discussing alternative modeling for each application and decision making. We also discuss a range of pitfalls that one needs to be aware of in implementing a data mining solution for a targeting problem.

  13. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  14. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  15. Limits of Inflation Targeting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Niculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the trade-off between output volatility and the variability of the inflation rate around its target (Romanian case. The optimal choice for National Bank of Romania (NBR, in our opinion, is the flexible inflation targeting. For this purpose, NBR must explain the loss function and the optimal monetary policy rule. We then argued that this Romanian authority – NBR – can substantially improve its credibility under inflation targeting policy regime by becoming more accountable and transparent. Is the direct inflation targeting the best choice for the monetary policy regime in Romanian economy?

  16. Inflation Targeting and Inflation Persistence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GEORGE; J.BRATSIOTIS; JAKOB; MADSEN; CHRISTOPHER; MARTIN

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the adoption of an inflation target reduces the persistence of inflation.We develop the theoretical literature on inflation persistence by introducing a Taylor Rule for monetary policy into a model of persistence and showing that inflation targets reduce inflation persistence.We investigate changes in the time series properties of inflation in seven countries that introduced inflation targets in the late 1980s or early 1990s.We find that the persistence of inflation is greatly reduced or eliminated following the introduction of inflation targets.

  17. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT, which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination

  18. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  19. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  20. Transverse target spin asymmetries on a proton target at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Transversity and transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are been measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) by using a transversely polarized target at the COMPASS experiment. COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at the CERN M2 beamline, which provides a 160GeV/c polarized m+ beam. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS has collected data with a transversely polarized deuteron 6LiD target. In 2007, COMPASS has used for the first time a proton NH3 target. To access transversity COMPASS has used three different quark polarimeters: the Collins effect, responsible for an azimuthal asymmetry in the single hadron distribution, azimuthal target spin asymmetries of charged hadron pairs and the transverse polarisation of L hyperons. Beside this also the Sivers asymmetry arising from the correlation between the transverse nucleon spin and the quark intrinsic transverse momentum was measured. European