Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E
We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.
Heiney, Sue P; Adams, Swann Arp; Wells, Linda M; Johnson, Hiluv; King, Jennifer M
African American women with breast cancer face obstacles such as transportation and family obligations when attending standard support groups. Teleconference support circumvents barriers such as transportation to participation, but few evaluations have been reported about teleconference support. The purpose of this article was to describe the format of a teleconference group and to provide a descriptive account of the participants' feedback about a teleconference group intervention. A descriptive design was used. Participants completed the Overall Support Group Evaluation tool at the end of the 10th group session. Teleconference group participants' feedback indicated that they perceived they had gained knowledge about breast cancer and coping. The participants expressed that the group helped them to reach out and ask for support and improved family and work relationships. Also, participants rated the group highly for the presence of therapeutic factors. On a scale of 1 to 4, with 4 being the highest, mean scores ranged from 3.97 to 3.56. The participants gave high ratings of satisfaction in terms of knowledge gained, leadership style, and benefits. The participants perceived that the group increased their knowledge about cancer, improved family connections, and increased their ability to deal with their cancer. Using teleconferencing technology to deliver a support group to African American breast cancer patients is a beneficial method to reach a disadvantaged population that may be unable to attend face-to-face groups.
Amankwaa, Linda Clark
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.
Peters Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and
Sheppard, Vanessa B; Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n = 13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n = 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community.
Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Hayes, Sharonne; Parker, Monica; Halyard, Michele; Enders, Felicity; Albertie, Monica; Pinn, Vivian; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen
This study examined the effect of message framing on African American women's intention to participate in health-related research and actual registration in ResearchMatch (RM), a disease-neutral, national volunteer research registry. A community-engaged approach was used involving collaboration between an academic medical center and a volunteer service organization formed by professional women of color. A self-administered survey that contained an embedded message framing manipulation was distributed to more than 2,000 African American women attending the 2012 national assembly of The Links, Incorporated. A total of 391 surveys were completed (381 after exclusion: 187 containing the gain-framed message and 194 containing the loss-framed message). The majority (57%) of women expressed favorable intentions to participate in health-related research, and 21% subsequently enrolled in RM. The effect of message framing on intention was moderated by self-efficacy. There was no effect of message framing on RM registration; however, those with high self-efficacy were more than 2 times as likely as those with low self-efficacy to register as a potential study volunteer in RM (odds ratio = 2.62, 95% confidence interval [1.29, 5.33]). This investigation makes theoretical and practical contributions to the field of health communication and informs future strategies to meaningfully and effectively include women and minorities in health-related research.
BeLue, R; Taylor-Richardson, K D; Lin, J; Rivera, A T; Grandison, D
To explore gender differences in perceptions of 1) barriers and motivators to participation in clinical trials and perceived need of clinical trials and 2) perceptions of risks and benefits of participation in clinical trials in African American men and women. Focus groups were conducted among African American participants by gender. A total of 67 African American participated in the focus groups. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was performed by combining the key elements of grounded theory and content analysis with the assistance of the qualitative software ATLAS.ti 5.0. Different themes emerged for men versus women. The business and economic of research were important to male participants. The researcher-participant relationship emerged as one of the strongest themes related to potential female participation in research. Focus group results indicate that African American men and women present different preferences, beliefs and barriers to participation. Men expressed the desire to know information on funding issues, financial benefit and impact of the research. Women expressed the desire to be treated respectfully and as an individual as opposed to just a study subject. Integrating gender preferences into researcher-participant interactions, advertisement, informed consent delivery and advertisement of research studies may lead to increased participation rates. Discussing and presenting relevant information on clinical research funding mechanisms, and the business of clinical research with potential participants may be helpful in building trust with the researcher and the research team. Creating a process for information exchange and methods to minimize the power imbalance between the researcher and participant may also build trust and help participants feel more comfortable to participate in research.
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hamade, Hiam; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Palamisono, Gloria; Zambrana, Ruth E.
Introduction We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Methods Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 20...
Hinson, Tyonne D; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Spatz, Diane L
To examine cultural and socioenvironmental factors that affect breastfeeding initiation among African American women. Qualitative descriptive design and conventional content analysis. A large, inner-city, primary care center affiliated with a 500-bed children's hospital within a large, Northeastern U.S. city. Participants were 34 U.S.-born African American mothers of healthy term infants 0 to 3 months of age. Six focus groups were conducted using a 16-question, scripted interview guide. A number of complex factors that influenced breastfeeding initiation included certain cultural beliefs about sexuality, the influence of family and peer networks, information sources, intentions, and a variety of other barriers and facilitators. Our findings suggest that the decision to initiate breastfeeding is not solely determined by the woman within the African American community. Because this decision is contingent on multiple factors external to the woman, it is important to recognize the role that partners, grandmothers, communities, information sources, and health care providers/organizations play in women's decisions. Implementation of multilevel strategies is critical to increase breastfeeding initiation among African American mothers. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A
The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.
Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M.
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, ...
Marie N Fongwa
Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors
Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L
African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.
Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel
The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.
Paranjape, Anuradha; Tucker, Alyce; Mckenzie-Mack, LaTasha; Thompson, Nancy; Kaslow, Nadine
Objective Little is known about how older African American women define family violence (FV) and what FV survivors might expect from their healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to understand how these women define FV, where they seek help for FV, and what barriers they face in these efforts. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups with 30 African American women over the age of 50, including some FV survivors, at a large, inner-city public hospital. Results Participants defined FV broadly, citing examples of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional and financial) and neglect. Spiritual sources were cited over physicians as being available to help FV survivors. Barriers to receiving assistance included negative encounters with physicians, lack of trust in the system and dearth of age-appropriate resources. Conclusions For older African American women, FV takes many forms of which many may not be obvious during the clinical encounter. Like younger FV survivors, they expect physicians to serve as a resource for FV. Practice implications Physicians caring for older African American women need to remember to ask them about FV, and when making referrals for abuse and neglect, consider offering referrals to pastoral care if appropriate. PMID:17644300
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Pate, David; Lazar, Katie; Paul, Nelly; Pritchard, Kathleen; Morris, George
Infant mortality is a major public health issue in the United States that disproportionally affects African Americans. Evidence suggests reducing stress on African American women and engaging African American fathers may improve health and social outcomes for families. This study sought to understand the experiences of African American fathers through a positivistic lens and to inform future interventions that support father engagement. A descriptive, qualitative study using the Person, Environment, Occupation-Performance (PEO-P) model as a framework for analysis was conducted involving 45 fathers participating in four focus groups and one member-checking group. An initial content analysis was followed by constant comparative methods to identify categories related to the PEO-P model. Transcripts revealed a range of factors that enable or inhibit fathers' occupational performance and engagement including environmental barriers such as societal expectations and perceptions. Occupational therapy practitioners may utilize population health approaches to support African American fathers' occupational engagement.
Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise
Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma.
Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun
African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218
Genkinger, Jeanine M; Jehn, Megan L; Sapun, Marcella; Mabry, Iris; Young, Deborah Rohm
Many African-American women fail to participate in regular physical activity. Weight status may influence physical activity barriers. This study examined the frequency and type of barriers. Participants in this study were enrolled in Project EXE-L (Exercising Ladies Excel), a six-month, church-based, randomized trial of moderate-intensity physical activity based in Baltimore city and county in Maryland. Participants were composed of African-American women who attended one of the participating churches, had friends who were church members, or who lived in neighborhoods surrounding one of the churches. Individuals who were between the ages of 25 and 70 years, were not regularly physically active (defined as not engaging in moderate-intensity activity more than three times per week), and were able to participate in moderate-intensity activity met eligibility criteria to participate in the trial. Barriers to physical activity were evaluated with the Steinhardt/Dishman Barriers for Habitual Physical Activity Scale at baseline. One hundred twenty women were classified as normal weight (body mass index [BMI]: or = 30 kg/m2). Obese participants were more likely to report "lack of motivation" as a barrier compared with normal-weight participants (63% vs 31%). Normal-weight and overweight participants were more likely to report no barriers compared with the obese (31%, 0%, 5%, respectively, P<.05). Barriers for African-American women may vary by BMI status. By defining these unique barriers, effective physical activity interventions can be developed.
James, Delores C. S.; Harville, Cedric, II
Background: African American women (AAW) are in a unique position to be recruited into mobile (mHealth) weight management research and programs due to their high rates of obesity and their high ownership of smartphones. Aim: This study examined smartphone usage, social media engagement, and willingness to participate in mHealth weight management…
Muzny, Christina A; Sunesara, Imran R; Austin, Erika L; Mena, Leandro A; Schwebke, Jane R
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a frequent cause of vaginal discharge that may be more common among women reporting sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of BV and predictors of infection among a sample of African American WSW. African American WSW aged 18 years or older presenting to the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic between 2009 and 2010 and reporting a history of sexual activity with a female partner during the preceding year were invited to participate. A survey on sexual history and sexual behavior characteristics was completed. Bacterial vaginosis was defined by Amsel criteria. Associations with participant characteristics were determined using logistic regression analysis. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 93 (47.4%) of 196 women. Bisexual identity (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.66; P = 0.04), douching within the past 30 days (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.09-3.43; P = 0.02), age 18 years or less at first sexual encounter with a female partner (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.16-8.71; P = 0.02), and report of more than 1 lifetime male sexual partners (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.74; P = 0.04) were significant predictors of BV in bivariate analysis. Bacterial vaginosis was less common among women who reported more than 1 lifetime female sexual partner (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76; P = 0.01). In multivariable analysis, age 18 years or less at first sex with a female partner approached significance, while report of 1 lifetime female sexual partner remained strongly associated with BV. Bacterial vaginosis was common in this sample of African American WSW and significantly associated with report of 1 lifetime female sexual partner.
Hensley Alford, Sharon; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B; Merajver, Sofia D
Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973-2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American women. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women.
Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne
The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.
Ahye, Brenda A; Devine, Carol M; Odoms-Young, Angela M
This grounded theory investigation aimed to understand intergenerational family roles and the food management strategies of African American women from a social-ecological perspective. Thirty women from 10 low/moderate-income 3-generation urban families participated in interviews covering roles, health, nutrition, and food management strategies. Four dynamic family systems for managing food and nutrition emerged from qualitative data analysis. Participants expressed values of responsibility, social connections, caretaking, reward, and equal opportunity, and fulfilling responsibilities for family care, connections, and finances. These values and systems provide a basis for culturally appropriate, interpersonal-level nutrition interventions among African American women that build on family structures, needs, and resources.
Taha, Farah; Zhang, Huaiyu; Snead, Kara; Jones, Ashley D; Blackmon, Brittane; Bryant, Rachel J; Siegelman, Asher E; Kaslow, Nadine J
This study examined (a) the relative efficacy of a culturally sensitive empowerment group intervention (Nia) aimed at increasing 3 protective factors-self-esteem, hopefulness, and effectiveness of obtaining resources-versus treatment as usual (TAU) for low-income, abused African American women who recently had attempted suicide and (b) the impact of participants' readiness to change with regard to their abusive relationship and suicidal behavior on their levels of each protective factor in the 2 conditions. The sample included 89 African American women who reported intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and a recent suicide attempt. Multivariate general linear modeling revealed that those in Nia showed greater improvements in self-esteem, but not in hopefulness or effectiveness of obtaining resources. However, significant interactions emerged in which participants who were "less ready to change" (i.e., earlier in the stages of change process) their IPV situation and suicidal behavior endorsed greater levels of hopefulness and perceived effectiveness of obtaining resources, respectively, following Nia. Findings suggest that abused, suicidal African American women who are more reluctant initially to changing their abusive situation and suicidal behavior may benefit from even a brief, culturally informed intervention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Simons, Ronald L; Beach, Steven R H
We examined the mediational role of symptoms of anxiety in accounting for the association of discrimination and chronic health conditions among African-American women. Participants were 646 African-American women who completed self-report measures of perceived racial discrimination, symptoms of anxiety, and diagnosed chronic health problems. We examined the mediation hypothesis using a path analytic procedure. Mediational analyses indicated that, above and beyond symptoms of depression, age, and education status, anxiety symptoms were associated with both racial discrimination (β = .03, SE = .01, p role of symptoms of anxiety in the process that occurs from an individual's perception of discrimination to reported chronic health outcomes. Future research expanding our understanding of the interconnection of psychosocial stressors, discrimination, and their biological sequelae is needed.
Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Street, Darlene J
To explore issues related to initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African American women. Qualitative design using focus groups, guided by Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality. Three different regions of a southeastern state in the United States. Fifteen self-identified African American women who had recently breastfed were recruited by lactation consultants and by word of mouth. Three focus groups were conducted with initial guiding questions. New ideas that emerged were fully explored in the group and included as a guiding question for the next group. Categories identified from the data were reasons to start and stop breastfeeding, advice about breastfeeding that was useful or not useful, and cultural issues related to breastfeeding that were perceived to be unique among African Americans. Three overall themes were identified that cut across categories: perceived lack of information about benefits and management of breastfeeding, difficulties breastfeeding in public, and lack of a support system for continued breastfeeding. Women need to be taught early in their pregnancies about the benefits of breastfeeding and offered continuing support and teaching once breastfeeding is established. Peer support groups for breastfeeding African American women should be established. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Wickline, Virginia B; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen
The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students (15 men, 15 women). The participants determined emotions in African American and European American faces and voices. Results showed an in-group advantage-sometimes by culture, less often by race-in recognizing facial and vocal emotional expressions. African international students were generally less accurate at interpreting American nonverbal stimuli than were European American, African American, and European international peers. Results suggest that, although partly universal, emotional expressions have subtle differences across cultures that persons must learn.
López, Ivette A; Boston, Patricia Q; Dutton, Matthew; Jones, Chauneva Glenn; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Vilme, Helene
To explore causal explanations of obesity among African-American women of diverse weight across the life spectrum. In-depth interviews were conducted with adult African-American women of healthy weight (N = 10), overweight (N = 10), and obese weight (N = 20) to evaluate the relationship between causal explanations of obesity and weight. Generally overlooked dimensions of health definitions were discovered. Differences in weight definitions were detected between women of different weights. Terminology, symptoms, and solutions to obesity were detected between the women of different weights and public health recommendations. Identified causal discrepancies will help bridge the disconnection between public health recommendations and African-American women's perceptions with tailored interventions.
Gibson, Lynette M
The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations.
Brooks Greaux, Lisa
Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…
Gardner, Keeba G.
This study will examine the relationship between career success outcomes of African American women and early familial factors, as well as personality traits. Using a cross-sectional case-control design. the study will use participants who self-identified as African American with two African American parents. They will be randomly selected from a…
Yu, E W; Putman, M S; Derrico, N; Abrishamanian-Garcia, G; Finkelstein, J S; Bouxsein, M L
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have increased fracture risk. We found that African-American women with DM2 have increased cortical porosity and lower cortical bone density at the radius than non-diabetic controls. These cortical deficits are associated with hyperglycemia and may contribute to skeletal fragility associated with DM2. Fracture risk is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) despite normal areal bone mineral density (aBMD). DM2 is more common in African-Americans than in Caucasians. It is not known whether African-American women with DM2 have deficits in bone microstructure. We measured aBMD at the spine and hip by DXA, and volumetric BMD (vBMD) and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia by HR-pQCT in 22 DM2 and 78 non-diabetic African-American women participating in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). We also measured fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. Age, weight, and aBMD at all sites were similar in both groups. At the radius, cortical porosity was 26% greater, while cortical vBMD and tissue mineral density were lower in women with DM2 than in controls. There were no differences in radius total vBMD or trabecular vBMD between groups. Despite inferior cortical bone properties at the radius, FEA-estimated failure load was similar between groups. Tibia vBMD and microarchitecture were also similar between groups. There were no significant associations between cortical parameters and duration of DM2 or HOMA-IR. However, among women with DM2, higher fasting glucose levels were associated with lower cortical vBMD (r=-0.54, p=0.018). DM2 and higher fasting glucose are associated with unfavorable cortical bone microarchitecture at the distal radius in African-American women. These structural deficits may contribute to the increased fracture risk among women with DM2. Further, our results suggest that hyperglycemia may be involved in mechanisms of skeletal fragility associated with DM2.
Sprauve-Holmes, Nancy E; Gaughan, John; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Abstract Background Family violence among older women encompasses intimate partner violence (IPV) and elder maltreatment, both linked to poor health status. Little is known about the association between family violence and the health status of older innercity African American women. Methods One hundred fifty-eight African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in the ambulatory clinics of a large public hospital. Lifetime family violence exposure as an adult was measured by the Family Violence against Older Women (FVOW) scale; physical and mental health status were measured by the physical and mental component summary scores of the Short Form 8® scale. Results Mean participant age was 61.5 years (SD 7.1). Participants with FVOW scores in the top quartile were considered to have high lifetime family violence exposure. Participants with higher family violence exposure and those younger, unemployed, or disabled reported worse physical and mental health status. Lower income and not having Medicare were associated with worse physical and mental health status, respectively. Using stepwise linear regression techniques, only employment status and high family violence exposure were associated with worse physical (F = 7.16, p = 0.0011) and mental health (f = 7.09, p = 0.0012) status. Women with high FVOW scores reported physical and mental component summary scores that were 4.18 and 4.6 points lower, respectively, than those of women with lower FVOW scores. Conclusions Among older, innercity, African American women, lack of employment and high levels of family violence exposure as an adult are associated with worse physical and mental health status. Clinicians caring for older African American women need to be cognizant of the role both current and prior violence exposure may play in their patients' current health status. PMID:19183088
.... During Year 02, we conducted technical analyses of completed Phase 1 interviews that were obtained from African American women who were eligible to receive, but who chose to decline, free screening mammograms...
Brawner, Bridgette M
Disproportionate HIV/AIDS rates among African American women have been examined extensively, primarily from an individual-centered focus. Beyond individual behaviors, factors such as the hyperincarceration of African American men and geographically concentrated disadvantage may better explain inequitable disease burden. In this article I propose a conceptual model of individual, social, and structural factors that influence HIV transmission among African American women. The model can be used to develop comprehensive assessments and guide prevention programs in African American communities. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
.... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
.... The purpose of the current study was to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
.... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
James, Delores C. S.; Efunbumi, Orisatalabi; Harville, Cedric; Sears, Cynthia
The goals of the study were to identify the barriers and motivators for physical activity (PA) and to assess whether these factors vary by weight status. A self-administered survey was completed by 413 African American women. Each woman provided verbal informed consent and was weighed and measured by a research team member. The participants' mean…
Galloway, Stephanie Nicole
African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with
Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M
This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives.
Joseph, Natalie Pierre; Clark, Jack A; Bauchner, Howard; Walsh, Jared P; Mercilus, Glory; Figaro, Jean; Bibbo, Caroline; Perkins, Rebecca B
Black women have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of HPV vaccination than White women in the United States, and Haitians may be an especially vulnerable subgroup of Black women. To reduce these disparities, understanding differences among subgroups of Black women is crucial. The objective of our study was to assess similarities and differences in the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices toward HPV vaccination and actual vaccination rates among African-American and Haitian immigrant women and their daughters. We used validated surveys of HPV knowledge, trust in physicians, acculturation, and constructs of the health belief model: Perceived susceptibility, severity, and barriers. We probed women's thought processes about vaccination using open-ended questions. We then reviewed medical records to determine vaccination rates. Nineteen African Americans and 51 Haitians participated. Although 75% of Haitians and 63% of African Americans intended to vaccinate their daughters, only 47% of African-American and 31% of Haitian daughters were vaccinated. African Americans were more knowledgeable than Haitians and had more prior experience with HPV disease. Most African Americans felt that vaccination fell within the parental role, whereas many Haitians felt uncomfortable vaccinating against sexually transmitted infections because they felt children should not be having sex. Both ethnic groups wanted more information about HPV vaccines. Cultural differences between African-American and Haitian immigrant mothers revealed distinct barriers for vaccine acceptance. Improving HPV vaccine rates in Black women may require culturally competent and sensitive approaches that address ethnic-specific barriers. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Mathis, LaTanya; Hooker, Steven P; Keller, Colleen
We examined the cultural relevance of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) in the design of a physical activity intervention for African-American women. A qualitative study design was used. Twenty-five African-American women (Mean age = 38.5 years, Mean BMI = 39.4 kg·m2) were enrolled in a series of focus groups (N = 9) to elucidate how 5 SCT constructs (ie, Behavioral Capability, Outcome Expectations, Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, Social Support) can be culturally tailored in the design of a physical activity program for African-American women. For the construct of Behavioral Capability, participants were generally unaware of the amount, intensity, and types of physical activity needed for health benefits. Outcome Expectations associated with physical activity included increased energy, improved health, weight loss, and positive role modeling behaviors. Constructs of Self-efficacy and Self-regulation were elicited through the women perceiving themselves as a primary barrier to physical activity. Participants endorsed the need of a strong social support component and identified a variety of acceptable sources to include in a physical activity program (ie, family, friends, other program participants). Findings explicate the utility of SCT as a behavioral change theoretical basis for tailoring physical activity programs to African-American women.
Taha, Farah; Zhang, Huaiyu; Snead, Kara; Jones, Ashley D.; Blackmon, Brittane; Bryant, Rachel J.; Siegelman, Asher E.; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Background This study examined 1) the relative efficacy of a culturally-sensitive empowerment group intervention (Nia) aimed at increasing three protective factors—self-esteem, hopefulness, and effectiveness of obtaining resources—versus treatment as usual (TAU) for low-income, abused African American women who recently had attempted suicide and 2) the impact of participants’ readiness to change with regard to their abusive relationship and suicidal behavior on their levels of each protective factor in the two conditions. Methods The sample included 89 African American women who reported intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and a recent suicide attempt. Results Multivariate general linear modeling revealed that those in Nia showed greater improvements in self-esteem, but not in hopefulness or effectiveness of obtaining resources. However, significant interactions emerged in which participants that were “less ready to change” (i.e., earlier in the stages of change process) their IPV situation and suicidal behavior endorsed greater levels of hopefulness and perceived effectiveness of obtaining resources, respectively, following Nia. Conclusion Findings suggest that abused, suicidal African American women who are more reluctant initially to changing their abusive situation and suicidal behavior may benefit from even a brief, culturally-informed intervention. PMID:25403027
McDonald, Jasmine A; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Guerra, Carmen E; Troxel, Andrea B; Domchek, Susan; Bowen, Deborah; Shea, Judy A; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
Understanding genetic factors that contribute to racial differences in cancer outcomes may reduce racial disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality. Achieving this goal will be limited by low rates of African American participation in cancer genetics research. We conducted a qualitative study with African American adults (n = 91) to understand attitudes about participating in cancer genetics research and to identify factors that are considered when making a decision about participating in this type of research. Participants would consider the potential benefits to themselves, family members, and their community when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. However, concerns about exploitation, distrust of researchers, and investigators' motives were also important to participation decisions. Individuals would also consider who has access to their personal information and what would happen to these data. Side effects, logistical issues, and the potential to gain knowledge about health issues were also described as important factors in decision making. African Americans may consider a number of ethical, legal, and social issues when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. These issues should be addressed as part of recruitment efforts.
Henry-Okafor, Queen; Cowan, Patricia A; Wicks, Mona N; Rice, Muriel; Husch, Donna S; Khoo, Michelle S C
Obesity is a growing health care concern with implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity and CVD morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent among African American women. This pilot study examined the association between obesity and the traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in a sample of African American women. Participants comprised 48 women (27 obese, 21 normal weight) aged 18-45. with no known history of CVD. The women completed demographic and 7-day physical activity recall questionnaires. Height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI). Hypertension risk was assessed using the average of two resting blood pressure (BP) measurements. Lipid profile, blood glucose, fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and E-selectin (eSel) levels were assessed using fasting blood samples. Laboratory findings were interpreted using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III reference guidelines as well as manufacturers' reference ranges for the novel CVD risk factors. The most common traditional risk factors were physical inactivity (72.9%), positive family history of CVD (58.3%), and obesity (56.3%). Obese individuals had elevated systolic BP (p = .0002), diastolic BP (p = .0007) and HDL-cholesterol (p = .01), triglyceride (p = .02), hs-CRP (p = .002), and fibrinogen (p = .01), when compared with normal-weight women. The findings suggest an association between obesity and higher prevalence of both traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in young African American women.
Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M
To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for
Johnson, Michael; Mills, Terry L; Deleon, Jessica M; Hartzema, Abraham G; Haddad, Judella
Research evidence points to the existence of racial-ethnic disparities in both access to and quality of mental health services for African Americans with panic disorder. Current panic disorder evaluation and treatment paradigms are not responsive to the needs of many African Americans. The primary individual, social, and health-care system factors that limit African Americans' access to care and response to treatment are not well understood. Low-income African American women with panic disorder participated in a series of focus-group sessions designed to elicit (1) their perspectives regarding access and treatment barriers and (2) their recommendations for designing a culturally consistent panic treatment program. Fear of confiding to others about panic symptoms, fear of social stigma, and lack of information about panic disorder were major individual barriers. Within their social networks, stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and the mentally ill, discouragement about the use of psychiatric medication, and perceptions that symptoms were the result of personal or spiritual weakness had all interfered with the participants' treatment seeking efforts and contributed to a common experience of severe social isolation. None of the focus-group members had developed fully effective therapeutic relationships with either medical or mental health providers. They described an unmet need for more interactive and culturally authentic relationships with treatment providers. Although the focus-group sessions were not intended to be therapeutic, the women reported that participation in the meetings had been an emotionally powerful and beneficial experience. They expressed a strong preference for the utilization of female-only, panic disorder peer-support groups as an initial step in the treatment/recovery process. Peer-support groups for low-income African American women with panic disorder could address many of the identified access and treatment barriers.
Frierson, Georita M; Pinto, Bernardine M; Denman, Deanna C; Leon, Pierre A; Jaffe, Alex D
Lack of African American females in breast cancer research has been receiving substantial attention. This study seeks to identify research perceptions and motivating factors needed to increase racial/ethnic minority participation in breast cancer research. A total of 57 African American women (Σ = 47.8 years), from Rhode Island and Texas, completed a questionnaire and focus group. While many participants were not breast cancer survivors, they reported knowledge of their racial group's risk for breast cancer. One major finding that could be seen as both a facilitator and barrier is racial concordance between participant and researcher. Cultural sensitivity and trust building is recommended to increase minority participation.
Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.
Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…
Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T
African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.
Sartor, Carolyn E.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Calvert, Wilma J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Objective The aim of the current study was to determine whether the higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) but lower rates of cigarette smoking in African-American vs. European-American women can be explained in part by a lower magnitude of association between CSA and smoking in African-American women. Methods Data were drawn from a same-sex female twin study of substance use (n=3,521; 14.3% African-American). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA to predict smoking initiation and progression to regular smoking were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Co-twin status on the smoking outcome was used to adjust for familial influences on smoking (which may overlap with family-level influences on CSA exposure). Results After adjusting for co-twin status, CSA was associated with smoking initiation in European Americans (hazards ratio (HR)=1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.26–1.62) and with smoking initiation ≤16 in African Americans (HR=1.70, CI: 1.26–2.29). CSA was associated with regular smoking onset ≤15 in European Americans (HR=1.63, CI:1.21–2.18), with no change in HR after adjusting for co-twin status. In the African-American subsample, the HR for CSA was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for co-twin status (from HR=3.30, CI:1.23–8.89 to HR=1.16, CI:0.71–1.92 for regular smoking ≤15). Conclusions CSA is associated with moderate elevation in risk for initiating smoking among African-American and European-American women. By contrast, CSA is associated with elevated risk for (adolescent onset) regular smoking only in European-American women. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between risk conferred by CSA and familial influences on regular smoking in African-American but not European-American women. PMID:27131220
Murphy, Pamala J; Williams, Roger L
African-American women are more overweight and have greater difficulty maintaining weight loss than do Caucasian women. Evidence suggests that African-American women are more successful with culturally tailored weight-loss programs. Begun in 2005, an 18-month randomized clinical trial, Project Take HEED (Healthy Eating and Exercise Decisions), culturally adapted an evidence-based dietary approach and exercise program to fit the female African-American population in an attempt to improve program attrition rates. The study was conducted with 223 African-American women (120 women in the experimental group; 103 controls), age 35 to 65 years, with a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or higher. The experimental group received education and instruction at 24 group sessions and were asked to record their daily food intake and physical activity. Cultural adaptation included social and spiritual components. Controls received usual care (referral to a dietitian). After 18 months, Project Take HEED demonstrated the following outcomes: ATTRITION: the treatment group consisted of 12 African-American women at the end of month 18-(an attrition rate of 87%). (It had been 70% at the end of month 15.)FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ATTRITION INCLUDED: caregiver responsibilities, transportation difficulties, work schedules, and others. Those clients that did remain, however, provided the impetus for our next study. The remaining participants had, by and large, begun the study as being low in self-efficacy regarding weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Initial Findings: The high self-efficacy that some women had at the beginning of the intervention did not translate into the desired behavior change. The inverse relationship seen in this study suggests that treatments that improve participants' self-efficacy may result in greater weight loss. New Directions: A new study, commencing in 2013, will use at-home Web-based and virtual reality technology (avatars) in an attempt to enhance client
Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann
In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.
Wyatt, G E; Riederle, M
This study examined the relationship between sexual harassment in work, educational, and social settings and sexual abuse in childhood and/or adulthood in a stratified community sample of 248 African-American and white American women. The cumulative impact of sexual victimization on women's sense of general well-being was also examined. Those most likely to be sexually harassed in work and social settings were women with contact sexual abuse histories, regardless of ethnicity. The work status of harassers of women with sexual abuse histories differed significantly by ethnic group. Although women with prior sexual abuse experiences from both ethnic groups most frequently reported a response to sexual harassment at work, they least frequently did so in social settings. A history of childhood sexual abuse was more negatively associated with African- American women's well-being than were repeated experiences of sexual violence. Future research should address the implications of ethnic and cultural issues on the cumulative impact of incidents of sexual violence on women of color.
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
Hood, Kristina B; Shook, Natalie J; Belgrave, Faye Z
This study examined which characteristics of persuasive communications are most effective in changing African American women's condom use attitudes. Focus groups were convened with 40 African American women (M age = 25.54, SD = 4.67) to assess their opinions on current effective strategies used to promote condom use among their peers. Participants discussed effective characteristics of messaging campaigns (i.e., source, message type, channel) and how these could be used in future prevention messages. Findings revealed that making messages that are fun, catchy, and informative, delivered frequently through social media, TV, or radio by a peer or celebrity would be perceived as most effective in changing young African American women's attitudes. Other themes that emerged were that condom use is more strongly associated with pregnancy prevention than HIV prevention and that sexual partners were perceived to have negative condom use attitudes. Recommendations centered on increasing exposure of HIV prevention messages by placing messages on the Internet and including a funny phrase or jingle in the message so that it is easy to remember and could potentially serve as a conversation starter for discussing safe sex with partners.
Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.
del Bene, Susan B
More African American grandmothers are becoming caregivers for their grandchildren when the parents are unable or unwilling to provide care. This qualitative study used hermeneutic phenomenology based on in-dept interviews with 15 African American women who have assumed the role of caregivers. The following themes, with subthemes emerged regarding this new role for the grandmothers: Finding a Voice to Match Medical Needs, The Role of the Confidante: The Power of the Group, The Relationship with the Biological Parents, and Legal Issues. These finding provide rich understand. These findings provide rich understanding of the African American women and the challenges they face related to culture, race, lack of political voice and power, and limited resources--in essence, the impact of marginalization in society. The underlying point is the potential impact on this population and the degree to which the health profession can draw on an interdisciplinary model to frame, analyze and dress future health care problems in marginalized African American women.
James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A
The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R
To describe African American and White women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy and to explore differences in perceptions by race. Qualitative interview study. Two Ob/Gyn clinics in South Carolina, USA. Thirty pregnant women (15 African American, 15 White) between 20 and 30 weeks gestation, equally represented across pre-pregnancy BMI categories (10 normal weight, 10 overweight, and 10 obese). White women more frequently described intentions to meet weight gain, physical activity, and dietary guidelines in pregnancy than African American women. African American women were more concerned with inadequate weight gain while White women more commonly expressed concerns about excessive weight gain. More White women discussed the importance of physical activity for weight management. Regardless of race, few women described risks of excessive weight gain or benefits of physical activity as it relates to the baby's health. The primary cited barrier of healthy eating was the high cost of fresh produce. Several knowledge gaps as well as race differences were identified in women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy. Future interventions should seek to educate women about common misperceptions. It may be necessary to culturally tailor gestational weight gain interventions to optimise health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Villarruel, Antonia M; Ronis, David L
Poor patient-provider interaction among racial/ethnic minorities is associated with disparities in health care. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we examine African American women's perspectives and experiences of patient-provider interaction (communication and perceived discrimination) during their initial prenatal visit and their influences on perceptions of care received and prenatal health behaviors. Pregnant African American women (n = 204) and their providers (n = 21) completed a pre- and postvisit questionnaire at the initial prenatal visit. Women were also interviewed face to face at the subsequent return visit. Women perceived high quality patient-provider communication (PPC) and perceived low discrimination in their interaction with providers. Multiple regression analyses showed that PPC had a positive effect on trust in provider (p prenatal care satisfaction (p prenatal health behaviors. Findings suggest that quality PPC improves the prenatal care experience for African American women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Parada, Humberto; Sun, Xuezheng; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A; Conway, Kathleen
To examine racial differences in smoking rates at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent survival among African American and non-African American women in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (Phases I/II), a large population-based North Carolina study. We interviewed 788 African American and 1,020 Caucasian/non-African American women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1993 to 2000, to assess smoking history. After a median follow-up of 13.56 years, we identified 717 deaths using the National Death Index; 427 were breast cancer-related. We used Cox regression to examine associations between self-reported measures of smoking and breast cancer-specific survival within 5 years and up to 18 years after diagnosis conditional on 5-year survival. We examined race and estrogen receptor status as potential modifiers. Current (vs never) smoking was not associated with 5-year survival; however, risk of 13 year conditional breast cancer-specific mortality was elevated among women who were current smokers at diagnosis (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.25), compared to never smokers. Although smoking rates were similar among African American (22.0%) and non-African American (22.1%) women, risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was elevated among African American (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.85), but only weakly elevated among non-African American (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.70-2.14) current (vs. never) smokers (P Interaction = 0.30). Risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was also elevated among current (vs never) smokers diagnosed with ER - (HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.35-4.93), but not ER + (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.69-1.78) tumors (P Interaction = 0.17). Smoking may negatively impact long-term survival following breast cancer. Racial differences in long-term survival, as related to smoking, may be driven by ER status, rather than by differences in smoking patterns.
Sekaquaptewa, Denise; Waldman, Andrew; Thompson, Mischa
A preliminary study and main experiment tested the hypothesis that racial solo status (being the only member of one's race in a group) increases racial self-construal among African Americans. The preliminary study showed that African American men and women reported greater collectivist (i.e., group-based) over individualist self-construal under solo compared to nonsolo status, whereas Whites did not. The main experiment showed that the increased collectivism among African American solo women appears to be strongly reflected in racial identity becoming a salient aspect of self-construal. African American participants were also more likely than Whites to perceive that their anticipated performance would be generalized to their race, to feel like representatives of their race, and to show greater performance apprehension (indirectly evidenced by increased self-handicapping) when in racial solo status. The implications of solo status for African Americans in evaluative situations (such as academic testing sessions) are discussed. 2007 APA
Yancey, A K; Miles, O L; McCarthy, W J; Sandoval, G; Hill, J; Leslie, J J; Harrison, G G
To assess patterns of recruitment into a community-based NCI-funded physical activity and dietary lifestyle change program targeting African-American women. Acquisition of a convenience sample to be screened for participation in a randomized, controlled prevention intervention. African-American-owned and -operated health club located in an area of Los Angeles in which African Americans are concentrated. 893 African-American women. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES: Social networking/word-of-mouth, staff presentations, mass and targeted media, and physician referral. Completion of screening questionnaire indicating a desire to enroll in the study. Screening questionnaire domains included self-reported height and weight, recent participation in organized weight loss programs, ability to walk one mile unassisted, current medication use, smoking status, personal medical history of cancer, sociodemographic variables, and recruitment source. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics distinguished between respondents obtained through different recruitment strategies. In particular, women with a higher body mass index (BMI) were more likely than those with lower BMIs (P = .014) to be recruited through more personalized methods (eg, social networking). Culturally tailored recruitment strategies are critical in securing the participation of members of "hard-to-reach" populations, who are both under-represented in health promotion research and at high risk for chronic diseases.
Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith
Background: There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic.…
Danielle Taana Smith
This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS), and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I us...
Squires, Stephanie Michelle
This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will
Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...
Research from the last two decades indicates that African-American women have faced extreme mental health challenges in overcoming experiences of isolation, depression and somatization. Unfortunately, the sources of these stressors are largely attributed to racial and gender discrimination and societal expectations and norms associated with African-American women. Additionally, minimal research has been conducted to determine the most effective counseling approaches to aid this population. A ...
Lackey, N R; Gates, M F; Brown, G
To describe the experiences of African American women living with breast cancer following the primary diagnosis and while undergoing initial treatment. Phenomenologic. 13 African American women (ages 30-66) purposefully selected from two oncology clinics in the mid-South. Phenomenologic interviews (transcribed verbatim) and field notes were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of phenomenologic description and analysis. Experience Trajectory, Femininity, and Spirituality were the three major themes. The Experience Trajectory subthemes were finding the lump, getting the diagnosis, undergoing surgery and adjuvant treatment. The Femininity subthemes were loss of all or part of the breast, loss of hair, and sexual attractiveness to a man. Spirituality was reflected as a reliance on God. Telling the story of their experience trajectory during their breast cancer experience is valuable in assessing African American women's feelings, emotions, and fears of body changes that occur during surgery and treatment. Their spirituality helps them through this experience. Research involving both African American women and their partners would provide greater insight into specific relationship patterns and communication related to sexuality during this experience. Nurses need to listen to the stories of African American women about the initial experience of discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer so they can be more informed advocates for these women. African American women need more information from healthcare providers regarding the whole experience trajectory.
Kulka, Tamar Ringel; Jensen, Elizabeth; McLaurin, Sue; Woods, Elizabeth; Kotch, Jonathan; Labbok, Miriam; Bowling, Mike; Dardess, Pamela; Baker, Sharon
OBJECTIVE: Lack of support for breastfeeding mothers has been consistently identified in the literature as a barrier for breastfeeding across racial and ethnic groups. Using a community-based participatory approach, academic and community-based partners conducted an iterative process to assess barriers, facilitators and potential mediating interventions for breastfeeding in the African-American community in Durham, North Carolina. METHODS: Eight focus groups were conducted with African-American mothers, fathers and grandmothers. Researchers transcribed and coded each focus group and analyzed using Atlas ti. 5.2. Patterns and themes that emerged informed the development of community stakeholder interviews; 41 interviews were conducted with community representatives. These findings informed the development of a support group pilot intervention. The pilot support groups were evaluated for increase in knowledge of attendees. RESULTS: Focus group and community interviews indicate that African Americans may disproportionately experience inadequate support for breastfeeding. This lack of support was reported in the home, the workplace, among peers, and from healthcare providers. The pilot support groups resulted in increased knowledge of breastfeeding among group participants OR=3.6 (95% CI: 2.5, 5.2). CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this research underscore the importance of a multi-level approach to breastfeeding support for African American women to address breastfeeding disparities.
Muhammad, Robin Dearmon
The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners during this period but they were routinely denied adequate facilities, including toilets, locker rooms, and dining facilities throughout the railroad system. By raising the issues of facilities, workers' rights, and public health, these women shaped federal policy and widened the agenda of the WSS to include a direct attack on segregated workplaces. This article argues that African American women car cleaners launched an industrial campaign that wove together concerns about racism, sexism, and health issues, and successfully removed barriers to women working in a predominately male industry.
Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rana, Aadia; Rosengard, Cynthia
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women, or the social, structural and behavioural factors influencing concurrency. We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioural factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships, guided by grounded theory. Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors included social normalisation of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners' concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting partners. Lack of trust was the most commonly cited reason that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners' dependence on women for economic support and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioural factors included alcohol and cocaine use. Social, structural and behavioural factors strongly influenced these African American women's concurrent sexual partnerships. Many HIV interventions disseminated by the CDC focus largely on behavioural factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women's sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women's HIV risks are urgently needed.
Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.
This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.
Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge
Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…
Doctor, Jason N.
Objectives. We studied if both observed and unobserved maternal health in African American women in hospitals or communities were associated with cesarean delivery of infants. Methods. We examined the relationship between African American race and cesarean delivery among 493 433 women discharged from 255 Californian hospitals in 2010 using administrative data; we adjusted for patient comorbidities and maternal, fetal, and placental risk factors, as well as clustering of patients within hospitals. Results. Cesarean rates were significantly higher overall for African American women than other women (unadjusted rate 36.8% vs 32.7%), as were both elective and emergency primary cesarean rates. Elevated risks persisted after risk adjustment (odds ratio generally > 1.27), but the prevalence of particular risk factors varied. Although African American women were clustered in some hospitals, the proportion of African Americans among all women delivering in a hospital was not related to its overall cesarean rate. Conclusions. To address the higher likelihood of elective cesarean delivery, attention needs to be given to currently unmeasured patient-level health factors, to the quality of provider–physician interactions, as well as to patient preferences. PMID:25790391
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi
African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
Luke, Sabrina; Salihu, Hamisu M; Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Jeffers, Dee; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Mishkit, Vanessa R
Data on risk factors for major antenatal depression among African American women are scant. In this study, we seek to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women receiving prenatal services through the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start (CHHS). Women were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff of > or =13 as positive for risk of major antenatal depression. In total, 546 African American women were included in the analysis. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for major antenatal depression. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology consistent with major antenatal depression was 25%. Maternal age was identified as the main risk factor for major antenatal depression. The association between maternal age and risk for major antenatal depression was biphasic, with a linear trend component lasting until age 30, at which point the slope changed markedly tracing a more pronounced likelihood for major depression with advancing age. Women aged > or =30 were about 5 times as likely to suffer from symptoms of major antenatal depression as teen mothers (OR = 4.62, 95% CI 2.23-9.95). The risk for major antenatal depression increases about 5-fold among low-income African American women from age 30 as compared to teen mothers. The results are consistent with the weathering effect resulting from years of cumulative stress burden due to socioeconomic marginalization and discrimination. Older African American mothers may benefit from routine antenatal depression screening for early diagnosis and intervention.
Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer
Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes
James E. Christensen; John F. Dwyer
The "marginality" explanation of differences between the outdoor recreation participation of African Americans and Whites was evaluated using demographic standardization of age, income, and education for a sample of African American and White Illinois residents. After standardization, African America/White differences in outdoor recreation participation were...
Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell
To provide an understanding of the experiences of three generations of African American women in the transition to motherhood. Hermeneutic phenomenology from an Afrocentric feminist perspective is the methodological approach used in this study. Using the snowball technique, a purposive sample of 18 African American women from three generations who were mostly middle class, partnered, and educated was recruited. Individual open-ended interviews were used to identify information-rich cases that would provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Generation 1 included seven women, between the ages of 65 and 83 years, who became mothers between 1950 and 1970, prior to the Civil Rights Movement. Generation 2 included five women, between the ages of 51 and 58 years, who became mothers between 1971 and 1990, after the Civil Rights Movement. There were six women in Generation 3, between the ages of 30 and 41 years, who became mothers between 1991 and 2003. Three constitutive patterns and their associated themes were identified. The first pattern, It Took Me a Minute, had three themes: Finding Out, Realizing What Mothers Do, and Way Tricked! The second pattern, Preserving Our Home, had four themes: Mothering Within the isms: Racism, Classism, and Sexism, I Did the Best I Could, Mothers and Others, and Spiritual Mothers. Eat the Meat, Throw Away the Bone, the third pattern, had two themes: The Ways in Which We Learn and Someone Who Looks Like Me. The results of this study reveal some consistency with current descriptions of maternal identity and becoming a mother and add to our understanding of the complexities that racism, classism, and sexism play in the lives of African American mothers and their families. The data from this study also suggest that future development of theoretical frameworks and analytical tools, used to assess the effects of stress and other psychosocial factors on health, need to be grounded in a historic understanding of the African American
Barbosa, Cecilia E; Masho, Saba W; Carlyle, Kellie E; Mosavel, Maghboeba
Positive deviant individuals practice beneficial behaviors in spite of having qualities characterizing them as high risk for unhealthy behaviors. This study aimed to identify and understand factors distinguishing low-income African American women who breastfeed the longest (positive deviants) from those who breastfeed for a shorter duration or do not breastfeed. Seven mini-focus groups on infant-feeding attitudes and experiences were conducted with 25 low-income African American women, grouped by infant-feeding practice. Positive deviants, who had breastfed for 4 months or more, were compared with formula-feeding participants who had only formula fed their babies and short-term breastfeeding participants who had breastfed for 3 months or less. Positive deviant women had more schooling, higher income, breastfeeding intention, positive breastfeeding and unfavorable formula-feeding attitudes, higher self-efficacy, positive hospital and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children experiences, more exclusive breastfeeding, and greater comfort breastfeeding in public. Short-term breastfeeding women varied in breastfeeding intention and self-efficacy, seemed to receive insufficient professional breastfeeding support, and supplemented breastfeeding with formula. Some showed ambivalence, concern with unhealthy behaviors, and discomfort with breastfeeding in public. Formula-feeding women intended to formula feed, feared breastfeeding, thought their behaviors were incompatible with breastfeeding, were comfortable with and found formula convenient, and received strong support to formula feed. Tapping into the strengths of positive deviants; tailoring interventions to levels of general and breastfeeding self-efficacy; increasing social, institutional, and community supports; and removing inappropriate formula promotion may offer promising strategies to increase breastfeeding among low-income African American women.
Rosenberg, Lynn; Kipping-Ruane, Kristen L; Boggs, Deborah A; Palmer, Julie R
Obesity occurs more commonly among African-American women than among other racial/ethnic groups, and most weight gain occurs before middle age. The study prospectively investigated the relationship of vigorous exercise and brisk walking to the incidence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) among African-American women aged American women who were aged obese at baseline. BMI, exercise, and walking were assessed at baseline and on biennial follow-up questionnaires. Data for BMI were collected through 2009. Data for exercise and walking were collected through 2007. Validation and reproducibility data indicated that reporting was more accurate for vigorous exercise than for brisk walking. Cox proportional hazards models estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs of incident obesity for hours/week of vigorous exercise and walking relative to "little or no exercise" (obesity decreased with increasing vigorous exercise; the IRR was 0.77 (95% CI=0.69, 0.85) for ≥ 7 hours/week relative to little or no exercise; the IRRs were reduced both among women with a healthy weight (BMI obesity among young African-American women. Results for brisk walking were inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia; Todem, David; Templin, Thomas N
Functional breast cancer literacy was assessed among African-American women and measured at the domain level over time. We used the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention to educate 161 African-American women on three domains of breast cancer literacy: (i) cancer awareness, (ii) knowledge of breast cancer screening modalities and (iii) cancer prevention and control. A breast cancer literacy assessment was administered pre- and post-educational intervention at two time points followed by another assessment 12 months after the second intervention. Generalized estimating equations were specified to predict the probability of correctly answering questions in each domain over time. Domain-level literacy differentials exist; at baseline, women had higher test scores in the breast cancer prevention and control domain than the cancer awareness domain (odds ratio = 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.34). After Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, African-American women consistently improved their breast cancer literacy in all domains over the five time stages (P < 0.001) though at different rates for each domain. Differences in domain-level breast cancer literacy highlight the importance of assessing literacy at the domain level. Interventions to improve African-American women's breast cancer literacy should focus on knowledge of breast cancer screening modalities and cancer awareness domains.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
Abstract Background Family violence (FV), spirituality, and social support are salient psychosocial determinants of health. FV is associated with poor health among older African American women. The effect of spirituality and social support levels on the health of older African American women is unknown. Methods To assess the role of spirituality and social support as culturally relevant determinants of health status for older African American women independent of FV levels, we used a cross-sectional observational study. Two hundred twelve African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in two urban primary care practices. The measures used were (1) Family Violence Against Older Women (FVOW) scale, (2) Physical and Mental Composite Scores of the Short-Form 8® scale, (3) Medical Outcomes of Social Support survey (MOSS), and (4) Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Spearman correlation coefficients estimated to test associations among lifetime FV exposure, spirituality, social support, and health status outcomes and multivariate regression models were used to examine the independent effect of spirituality and social support on physical and mental health status, controlling for FV and significant demographic variables. Results Mean participant age was 63.9 years. Higher spirituality levels were significantly associated with better physical health status after adjusting for FV levels and demographic factors (F = 6.17, p = 0.0001). Similarly, higher levels of spirituality and social support both significantly correlated with better mental health status in the multivariate model (F = 13.45, p < 0.0001) that controlled for lifetime FV levels and demographic factors. Conclusions Spirituality and social support are two potentially modifiable determinants of health for older African American women. Culturally appropriate mechanisms to enhance social support and spirituality levels need to be explored as potential inteventions to improve the health of those
Joseph, Rodney P.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E
A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systemati...
Walker, Janiece L; Thorpe, Roland J; Harrison, Tracie C; Baker, Tamara A; Cary, Michael; Szanton, Sarah L; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E
Older African Americans consistently report diminished capacities to perform activities of daily living (ADL) compared with other racial groups. The extent to which bodily pain is related to declining abilities to perform ADL/ADL disability in African Americans remains unclear, as does whether this relationship exists to the same degree in African American men and women. For nurses to provide optimal care for older African Americans, a better understanding of the relationship between bodily pain and ADL disability and how it may differ by sex is needed. The aim of this study was to examine whether pain, age, education, income, marital status and/or comorbid conditions were associated with ADL disabilities in older African American women and men. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample included 598 participants (446 women, 152 men) from the first wave of the Baltimore Study on Black Aging. African American women (odds ratio [OR] = 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.63-6.26) and African American men (OR = 6.44; 95% CI = 2.84-14.57) who reported bodily pain had greater ADL disability than those who did not report bodily pain. Having two or more comorbid conditions also was significantly associated with ADL disability in African American women (OR = 3.95; 95% CI: 2.09-7.47). Further work is needed to understand pain differences between older African American women and men to develop interventions that can be tailored to meet the individual pain needs of both groups. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...
Jackson, Alicia D.
African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…
Weiss, Nicole H; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Duke, Aaron A; Sullivan, Tami P
African American women are at heightened risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and its negative consequences, including health-compromising behaviors. Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is one clinically-relevant behavior that has been understudied among African American women generally and those with exposure to IPV in particular. To date, no studies have examined factors that may account for the relationship between IPV and DSH. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations among IPV (physical, psychological, and sexual), PTSD, and DSH history and versatility, and the potentially mediating role of PTSD symptoms in the IPV-DSH relation. Participants were 197 African American community women currently experiencing IPV. Sixty participants (31%) reported a history of DSH. Among participants who reported DSH, there was an average endorsement of 2.3 unique forms of deliberate self-harm (i.e., DSH versatility). Significant positive associations were detected among physical IPV severity, psychological IPV severity, PTSD symptom severity, and DSH history and versatility. PTSD symptom severity mediated the relationships between physical and psychological IPV severity and DSH history and versatility. Results highlight the relevance of PTSD symptoms to DSH and suggest that treatments targeting PTSD symptoms may be useful in reducing DSH among IPV-exposed African American women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cornelius, Judith B; Whitaker-Brown, Charlene D
Guided by the relational cultural theory, we conducted a qualitative study to examine the relationship experiences of African American transgender women living in North Carolina. A convenience sample of 15 transgender women participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, guided by an investigator-developed interview guide, were used to explore the personal experiences of transgender women on individual, family, and organizational levels. The findings provide a scheme for understanding the process through which transgender women's relationships hinder or enhance their ability to connect with individuals, family, and organizations. Nurses can use these findings to better understand the connectedness that occurs or does not occur in transgender women's relationships and provide culturally competent care to empower them to become resilient.
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.
Fowler, Barbara A
The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity.
Affuso, Olivia; Cox, Tiffany L; Durant, Nefertiti H; Allison, David B
More than 60% of African American adults do not meet recommendations for moderate physical activity. We sought to discover the extent to which health attitudes and beliefs are associated with leisure-time physical activity in this population. Cross-sectional study. African American adults were asked about their health attitudes and beliefs during a national survey. Participants were 807 African American men and women aged 18 years and older. Random-digit dialing was employed, sampling telephone numbers by geographical region, area code, and population size. Participants were asked six health belief questions on the importance of exercise and body weight in health. Logistic regression was used to determine which of these factors were associated with physical activity participation. The percent of respondents participating in some form of physical activity during the past month was 87.1% in men and 82.9% in women. Factors associated with previous month physical activity in men were perceived personal importance of exercise (P importance of exercise (P important to exercise or be physically active for health predicts physical activity participation in both African American men and women. Creating a sense of importance of physical activity to relieve stress and foster good health may stimulate physical activity participation in African American adults.
Banks, Angela D; Malone, Ruth E
Understand the meaning of delayed treatment seeking in African-American women with unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Phenomenologic analysis of in-depth interview data and field notes on 12 African-American women hospitalized with unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Women's interpretation of and response to symptoms were informed by experiences of marginalization and their self-understanding as people who were strong and who had endured life's hardships. When hospitalized, some women experienced trivialization of their complaints by clinicians and a focus on technological procedures over respectfully attending to their concerns, which provided further disincentives to seeking care. Three major themes emerged: misrecognition and discounting of symptoms, enduring, and influence of faith. Experiences of marginalization shape responses to symptoms, care-seeking behavior, and interpretation of subsequent care experiences for African-American women with cardiac disease, who may experience different symptoms as well as interpret them differently than members of other groups.
Durant, Nefertiti H; Joseph, Rodney P; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J
Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population.
Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie
To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors toward HIV testing among African American and East African immigrant women in Washington, D.C.: Implications for targeted HIV testing promotion and communication strategies
De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia
Objectives The objective of the study was to examine and compare the HIV testing attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors between African American and East African immigrant women in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan area. Methods Adopting an inductive, qualitative methodological approach, we conducted a total of 40 in-depth, semi-structured interviews between October 2012 and March 2013. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Overall, African American women held more favorable views toward HIV testing than East African immigrant women. Very few East African immigrant women sought HIV testing intentionally. The majority of East African participants were tested inadvertently, while others tested for immigration- or employment-related purposes. There were many barriers that impede women from seeking an HIV test including: negative assumptions (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test implies that I am HIV positive’); negative emotions (e.g., ‘Fear of being diagnosed with HIV and what this will mean for me’); and potential negative reactions from partner or others (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test can signal distrust, disrespect, or infidelity’). There were nuances in how each group articulated some of these barriers and East African women expressed unique concerns that originated from experiences in their home countries. Conclusions The study shed light into the complexity of factors that constrain women from presenting themselves voluntarily for an HIV test and highlighted the nuances between African American and East African perceptions. Implications of findings for effective targeted HIV screening promotion and communication strategies among these groups of women are discussed. PMID:25897146
Attitudes, perceptions and behaviours towards HIV testing among African-American and East African immigrant women in Washington, DC: implications for targeted HIV testing promotion and communication strategies.
De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia
The objective of the study was to examine and compare the HIV testing attitudes, perceptions and behaviours between African-American and East African immigrant women in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Adopting an inductive, qualitative methodological approach, we conducted a total of 40 in-depth, semistructured interviews between October 2012 and March 2013. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Overall, African-American women held more favourable views towards HIV testing than East African immigrant women. Very few East African immigrant women sought HIV testing intentionally. The majority of East African participants were tested inadvertently, while others tested for immigration-related or employment-related purposes. There were many barriers that impede women from seeking an HIV test including negative assumptions (eg, "Getting an HIV test implies that I am HIV positive"), negative emotions (eg, "Fear of being diagnosed with HIV and what this will mean for me") and potential negative reactions from partner or others (eg, "Getting an HIV test can signal distrust, disrespect, or infidelity"). There were nuances in how each group articulated some of these barriers and East African women expressed unique concerns that originated from experiences in their home countries. The study shed light into the complexity of factors that constrain women from presenting themselves voluntarily for an HIV test and highlighted the nuances between African-American and East African perceptions. Implications of findings for effective targeted HIV screening promotion and communication strategies among these groups of women are discussed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka; Mahadevan, Meena; Opara, Ijeoma; Rodriguez, Monica; Trusdell, Megan; Kelly, Jessica
Project THANKS, (Turning HIV/AIDS into Knowledge for Sisters), is an evidence-based intervention that utilizes a community-based participatory and empowerment building approach for African American female substance abusers living with HIV and other chronic diseases. This qualitative study sought to gain insight from women living with HIV on how to improve Project THANKS. African American women living with substance abuse disorders, HIV, and other comorbidities were recruited from three community based health centers in New Jersey (N = 31). Ninety minute focus group sessions were implemented in each health center. The focus group sessions were designed to understand the perceived factors influencing the participants' ability to self-manage their health conditions and challenges they are currently facing regarding their diagnoses. The barriers and suggestions presented by participants included addressing stigmatization, managing mental health symptoms, improving physician-patient trust, accessing health education, educating community members, and proper nutrition. In addition, an engaged and trusting relationship with their healthcare provider and having positive sources of support were cited as motivators to adhering to their HIV treatment regimen. Participants living with HIV/AIDS also expressed more concern with difficulty treating their comorbidities than participants with only HIV/AIDS. Receiving input from African American women living with HIV related comorbidities was essential in improving the intervention to include a behavioral and primary health approach. Future programmatic interventions of Project THANKS will include a targeted focus on addressing mental health needs in women by offering meditation services and mental health referrals. In addition, Project THANKS will incorporate activities to improve communication with physicians, families, and media outlets to empower women to take an active role in their primary and social support needs.
Gittner, Lisaann S; Gittner, Kevin B
Assess the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy Consumption of Fruit and Vegetable Scale (F/V scale) in African American women. Midwestern Health Maintenance Organization. 221 African American women age 40-65 with BMI≥30 MEASURES: F/V scale was compared to eating efficacy/availability subscale reported on the WEL and mean micronutrient intake (vitamins A, C, K, folate, potassium, and beta-carotene reported on 3-day food records. F/V scale construct validity and internal consistency were assessed and compared to: 1) the original scale validation in Chinese women, 2) WEL scale, and 3) to micronutrient intake from 3-day food records. Total scale scores differed between African American women (μ=1.87+/-0.87) and Chinese (μ=0.41). In a Chinese population, F/V scale factored into two subscales; the F/V factored into one subscale in African American women. Construct validity was supported with correlation between the F/V scale and the eating efficacy WEL subscale (r 2 =-0.336, p=0.000). There was not a significant correlation between dietary consumption of micronutrients representative of fruit and vegetable intake and the F/V scale. The F/V scale developed for Chinese populations can be reliably used with African American women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stewart, Jennifer M
To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…
Taylor, Jerome; Belay, Brook; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Dietz, William
This study examines the relationships between participation in the African American church and overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg/m2). This cross-sectional analysis was based on the National Survey of American Life 2001-2003 and included 2,689 African American Protestant (AAP) adults. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overweight/obesity. Two practices were examined--frequency of participation in church activities (excluding services) and frequency of church service attendance. Each practice was analyzed in separate models. Each model included the following covariates: age, marital status, education, poverty, smoking, and region of country. We also adjusted models for sex. After adjustment, African American Protestant men (AAPM) who participated in church activities at least weekly were more likely to be overweight/obese (aOR=2.17; 95% CI = 1.25, 3.77) compared to AAPM who did not participate in church activities. There was no statistically significant association between overweight/obesity and participation in church activities for AAPW. There was no association between overweight/obesity and attendance of church services for AAP men and women combined. For AAPM, participation in church activities was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Further studies are required to determine why this association occurs in AAPM but not AAPW. Studies looking at the wider application of the several successful health initiatives targeting the AAP community should also be considered.
Black, Angela Rose; Peacock, Nadine
Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the "strong Black woman" (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Using the search term "strong Black woman," we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management ("please the masses"), emotional suppression ("game face"), and postponement of self-care ("last on the list") incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources.
Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria
Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. © The Author(s) 2015.
Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.
Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…
Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V
Obesity is considered a risk factor for breast cancer. Modifying life styles that reduce obesity offers the potential for prevention and improved outcomes from cancer. The effects of obesity and breast cancer among African-American women and Hispanic women have been explored in a limited number of studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity with breast cancer in a minority cohort. This was a cross-sectional study of 471 African-American and Hispanic women with and without breast cancer in South Los Angeles. Data regarding body mass index (BMI) and clinical factors were obtained by medical record abstraction. Data were assessed using logistic regression with multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess disease-free survival. Women with breast cancer were more likely to be obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) than women without breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; P = .01). There was a significant association of being overweight or obese and breast cancer among postmenopausal women (OR, 2.3 [P = .03] and 2.9 [P obesity and breast cancer was significant only among African-American women (OR, 2.70; P American women (OR, 4.8; P obesity and later disease stage at diagnosis (P = .06). An association also was observed between higher BMI (for cutoff points of both 30 kg/m(2) and 28 kg/m(2)) and poorer disease-free survival (P = .045 and P = .019, respectively). The current data suggested an association between obesity and breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and most significantly in the African-American cohort. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.
Lisa M. Tussing-Humphreys
Full Text Available We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.
Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.
African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…
Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.
Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458
Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B
Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oser, Carrie B; Pullen, Erin; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea L; Havens, Jennifer R; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl G
This study uses data from 564 African American women to examine the correlates of lifetime prevalence of a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Specifically, we test the effects of perceptions about the availability of African American males, five partner characteristics, and drug history. At the bivariate-level, women with an STI diagnosis were significantly more likely to have dated a man who was married, older, had sex with another man, involved in concurrent partnerships, and had been incarcerated. About half of the participants stated it was difficult to find an eligible African American male and attributed the limited pool of same-race partners to drug trafficking, a lack of monogamy, and high rates of incarceration. Multivariate analyses revealed having dated a man who had concurrent sexual partnerships or had been incarcerated, as well as drug use during sex were positively associated with ever having an STI. Individual and contextual implications are addressed.
The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…
Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Klassen, Ann C
Improving mammography initiation and maintenance among African American women has been suggested as a strategy for reducing breast cancer mortality in this population. We examined cultural values in relation to self-reported breast cancer screening among 572 low-income, urban, African American women. Cultural values examined included time orientation, family authority, employment aspirations, value of past vs modern life, and reliance on medical professionals. Also, implications for continued development of culturally tailored health interventions and opportunities for the consideration of cultural values in health communication are discussed. Bivariate analyses showed that more traditional values were associated with worse screening histories and lower intentions for future screening. In multivariate analyses, two interactions were observed between cultural values and age: for younger women, more traditional values were associated with lower odds of having ever received a mammogram, and for older women, more traditional values were associated with lower odds of intentions to receive a mammogram in the next 2 years. This study adds to the evidence that cultural constructs, such as values, are associated with secondary prevention of breast cancer and supports the consideration of cultural constructs as important in increasing mammography and reducing breast cancer disparities for African American women.
Holden, Kisha B; Hall, Stephanie P; Robinson, Maryam; Triplett, Sharra; Babalola, Dolapo; Plummer, Valens; Treadwell, Henrie; Bradford, L DiAnne
African American women are faced with many challenges regarding their historical, cultural, and social structural position in the United States that may heighten their vulnerability for depression, one of the most prevalent disorders that can engender poor functionality. The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to foster greater understanding about the occurrence and correlates of depressive symptoms among a diverse convenience sample of 63 African American women recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic (n = 23), a small private academic institution (n = 25), and an urban community setting (n = 15). Self-report data concerning selected psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors were collected. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results indicated several similarities and differences among the 3 groups of women concerning levels of depressive symptoms and their correlates. Among the total sample, symptoms of depression were mild among 65% of the women. Depressive symptoms were significant and positively associated with negative and ruminative thinking (r = 0.79, p indication of chronic diseases (r = 0.34, p data concerning contributors to depressive symptoms for African American women.
Steele, Sharon L; Lewis-Jack, Ometha
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. national figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. National figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Ross, Levi; Johnson, Jarrett; Hastrup, Janice L; Green, B Lee; Kohler, Connie L
A major challenge facing contemporary cancer educators is how to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer prevention and control information to African American women in the Deep South who are believed to be cancer free. The purpose of this research was to provide insight into the breast cancer information-acquisition experiences of African American women in Alabama and Mississippi and to make recommendations on ways to better reach members of this high-risk, underserved population. Focus group methodology was used in a repeated, cross-sectional research design with 64 African American women, 35 years old or older who lived in one of four urban or rural counties in Alabama and Mississippi. Axial-coded themes emerged around sources of cancer information, patterns of information acquisition, characteristics of preferred sources, and characteristics of least-preferred sources. It is important to invest in lay health educators to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer information to African American women who are believed to be cancer free in the Deep South.
Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C
African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.
Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wong, Michelle S; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y
The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity among African American women. An agent-based model was developed in 2016 to represent resource-limited Washington, DC, communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African American women under different circumstances. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African American women had a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations were accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreased the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African American women to exercise to 37.5% further increased the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). These simulations showed that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e., economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Richter, Donna L; Sowell, Richard
HIV disproportionately impacts African American women of childbearing age residing in the southern United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the quantity and quality of life for people living with HIV and produced viable and safe reproduction possibilities for women living with HIV. However, little is known about reproductive decision-making processes for African American women living with HIV. The overall goal of our study was to qualitatively explore perspectives related to reproduction and motherhood in HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity. HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity in South Carolina (N = 42) participated in in-depth interviews. Our respondents held positive views about pregnancy and motherhood, despite nonsupportive pregnancy messages from interpersonal influences, including health care providers. Study findings uncovered the need for programs and interventions to support women's reproductive autonomy and focus on reducing conception- and pregnancy-related transmission risks to infants and uninfected sexual partners. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533
Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Graves, Kristi D.; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n=13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n= 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community. PMID:24186304
Csokmay, John M; Hill, Micah J; Maguire, Marcy; Payson, Mark D; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Armstrong, Alicia Y
To determine whether frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer pregnancy rates (PR) are lower in African-American compared with white women. Retrospective review of frozen blastocyst cycles. University-based assisted reproductive technology (ART) program. All patients who underwent a frozen blastocyst transfer between 2003 and 2008. None. Live birth rate. One hundred sixty-nine patients underwent transfer of a frozen-thawed blastocyst. African-American women had a higher incidence of leiomyoma (40% vs. 10%) and tubal and uterine factor infertility. There was no difference in the live birth rate for African-American patients (28.0%) compared with white patients (30.2%). Of the patients who underwent a frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, 58% (n=98) had their fresh, autologous IVF cycle, which produced the cryopreserved blastocyst, at Walter Reed Medical Center. A higher peak serum E2 level was noted in African-American patients (5,355 pg/mL) compared with white patients (4,541 pg/mL). During the fresh cycle, the live birth rates between African-American and white patients were significantly different at 16.7% versus 39.7%, respectively. Live birth rates after frozen blastocyst transfer are not different between African-American and white women despite a fourfold higher incidence of leiomyomas in African-American women. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Palmer, Julie R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A; Chanock, Stephen J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Conti, David V; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A
Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Gerald V Denis
Full Text Available Obesity-driven Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a systemic inflammatory condition associated with cardiovascular disease. However, plasma cytokines and tissue inflammation that discriminate T2D risk in African American women with obese phenotypes are not well understood. We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study. We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and compared results to obese women without these co-morbidities, as well as to lean women without the co-morbidities. We then used hierarchical clustering to generate inflammation signatures by combining the effects of identified cytokines and chemokines and summarized the signatures using an inflammation score. The analyses revealed six distinct signatures of sixteen cytokines/chemokines (P = 0.05 that differed significantly by prevalence of T2D (P = 0.004, obesity (P = 0.0231 and overall inflammation score (P < E-12. Signatures were validated in two independent cohorts of African American women with obesity: thirty nine subjects with no metabolic complications or with T2D and hypertension; and thirteen breast reduction surgical patients. The signatures in the validation cohorts closely resembled the distributions in the discovery cohort. We find that blood-based cytokine profiles usefully associate inflammation with T2D risks in vulnerable subjects, and should be combined with metabolism and obesity counselling for personalized risk assessment.
Heiney, Sue P; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Felder, Tisha M; Phelps, Kenneth W; Quinn, Jada C
To explore African American women's recollected experiences of breast cancer treatment. . Qualitative description and narrative analysis. . South Carolina Oncology Associates, an outpatient oncology clinic serving rural and urban populations. . 16 African American women with breast cancer previously enrolled in the control arm (n = 93) of a completed randomized, controlled trial. . Feminist narrative analysis of in-depth individual interviews. . The authors identified three themes within the African American breast cancer survivors' recollected experiences of treatment adherence. Although little evidence was presented of shared decision making with providers, patients were committed to completing the prescribed therapies. The narratives highlighted the value of in-depth examination of patients' perspectives, particularly among minority and underserved groups. With the exception of voicing personal choice of surgical treatment, the women trusted providers' recommendations with a resolve to "just do it." Although trust may enhance treatment adherence, it may also reflect power differentials based on gender, race, education, and culture. . Nurses should listen to patients describe their experience with cancer treatment and compare the themes from this study with their patients' story. This comparison will help nurses support patients through various aspect of diagnosis and treatment.
Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A
Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vanderlinden, Mary E.
This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…
Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah
Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.
Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A
African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.
Foreman, F E
The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the safer sex decision-making processes of a group of African American college women. The study participants consisted of 15 women aged 19 to 33, who were full-time students attending a four-year university in Texas. The women self-identified as having been sexually active with at least one male partner within the past year. Semi-structured in-depth interviews lasting approximately 1.5 hours provided data. Theme and domain analysis of the interviews and field notes revealed that women employed both emotional and philosophical strategies to determine their safer sex behaviour. These strategies involved the use of a 'self-defined' sexual arrangements hierarchy. This hierarchy served to define the way women ordered and valued different types of sexual arrangement, from casual to committed. The resulting hierarchy also guided the safer sex behaviour of these women. The implications for intervention programmes that are targeted at increasing safer sex behaviour and HIV risk reduction are discussed in light of these findings.
Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.
Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…
Feen-Calligan, Holly; Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P
This article describes the incorporation of the arts into a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) project formulated to develop and test practices for helping homeless older African-American women. Studying how older African-American women become homeless has evolved into developing and testing promising interventions by the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP). The women's participation in creative group activities helped them to communicate their experience with homelessness, express their concerns, develop personal strengths, and obtained mutual understanding. The use of multiple art forms has revealed a number of creative strengths among the participants, which have in turn inspired innovative artistic strategies and methodologies as part of the multiple methods that LHIRP incorporates. These interventions have been useful in helping participants resolve their homelessness. The role and benefit of the arts in CBPAR is described to show how creative activities help researchers and the public to better understand the complexities of homelessness.
Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M
African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.
Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801
Norris, Anne E; DeMarco, Rosanna
The personal and social costs of HIV are well documented. What remains unknown is the effect of public disclosure of HIV status on the individual who is doing the disclosing. This study describes the experience of four African American women living with HIV who participated in the development of an intergenerational education intervention for African American adolescent girls. These women suggested that they be filmed discussing the "dark side" of HIV in an effort to create an intergenerational education intervention that would alter the risk-taking behavior that they observed in young women in their community. After a rough cut of the film was completed, these women viewed the film and participated in a focus group during which they discussed what it was like to reveal and revisit their own painful experiences associated with becoming infected and then living with HIV. Findings from content analysis of transcribed dialogue included the following positive themes: (a) self-acceptance by telling one's own story and hearing the stories of the other women, (b) a sense of liberation by disclosing publicly one's image and message and letting go of others' judgments, (c) feeling supported by meeting other women who share the same experience, (d) value of using the film to impact or save young people from the pain one has experienced. A negative theme emerged related to personal pain in reliving the individual's history with HIV.
Moore-Greene, Gracie M; Gross, Susan M; Silver, Kristi D; Perrino, Carrol S
African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Cross-sectional study African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P = .004) and health compared to others (P = .006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r = .319) but was not correlated with BMI (r = .095). Decreased physical exercise (P = .02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population.
Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira
Full Text Available The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and to the subjectivation modes of African American women attended by the SOS Racism program. The women showed intense emotional suffering due to discrimination and racism they have faced. In the group process new meanings for the violence were produced, transforming the personal narrative into a public report.
Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell
Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races.
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…
Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober
Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.
Dana L. Carthron
Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.
Jackson, F M; Phillips, M T; Hogue, C J; Curry-Owens, T Y
As investigators increasingly identify racism as a risk factor for poor health outcomes (with implications for adverse birth outcomes), research efforts must explore individual experiences with and responses to racism. In this study, our aim was to determine how African American college-educated women experience racism that is linked to their identities and roles as African American women (gendered racism). Four hundred seventy-four (474) African American women collaborated in an iterative research process that included focus groups, interviews, and the administration of a pilot stress instrument developed from the qualitative data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data from the responses of a subsample of 167 college-educated women was conducted to determine how the women experienced racism as a stressor. The responses of the women and the results from correlational analysis revealed that a felt sense of obligations for protecting children from racism and the racism that African American women encountered in the workplace were significant stressors. Strong associations were found between pilot scale items where the women acknowledged concerns for their abilities to provide for their children's needs and to the women's specific experiences with racism in the workplace (r = 0.408, p gendered racism that precede and accompany pregnancy may be risk factors for adverse birth outcomes.
This article critically reviews the state of measurement of self-esteem in African American women. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory are three commonly used measures. However, their validity for African American women has not been adequately tested. Given the unique nature of the self-esteem of this group, related to experiences of racism and sexism, the accurate measurement of this construct is important. This review provided support for the internal consistency of each measure with alpha coefficients ranging from .74 to .87. However, the validity of the measures was not fully supported. Suggestions for further research specific to the unique needs of this population are discussed.
Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
Sharon K. Davis
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent emphasis has been placed on elucidating the biologic mechanism linking socioeconomic status (SES to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Positive associations of inflammatory biomarkers provide evidence suggestive of a biologic pathway by which SES may predispose to CVD. African Americans have disproportionately lower SES and have a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors compared to most ethnic/racial groups. Adiponectin (an anti-inflammatory marker is also lower. The objective of this study was to assess the association of adiponectin with SES among African American men and women using the Jackson Heart Study. Methods Study sample included 4340 participants. Linear regression was performed separately by SES and stratified by sex. Annual household income and level of education was used as proxies for SES. Crude, age, health behavior and health status adjusted models were analyzed. The main outcome was log-transformed adiponectin. Results Men in the lowest income group had significantly higher adiponectin than those in the highest income group in the fully adjusted model (ß/standard error [se], p value = .16/.08, p = .0008. Men with < high school level of education had significantly higher adiponectin in the crude and age adjusted models than those with ≥ college degree (.25/.05, p < .0001; .14/.05/ p = .005, respectively. Women with some college or vocational training in the crude and age adjusted models had lower adiponectin compared to women with ≥ college degree (−.09/.03, p = .004; −.06/.03, p = .04, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest a potential inverse biologic pathway between annual household income and adiponectin among African American men. There was no such finding among women. Findings suggest interventions should be targeted for higher SES African American men to improve adiponectin levels.
Zhu, Kangmin; Hunter, Sandra; Payne-Wilks, Kathleen; Roland, Chanel L; Forbes, Digna S
In this case-control study, the authors aimed to examine whether use of an electric bedding device increased breast cancer risk in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American patients diagnosed with breast cancer during 1995-1998 who were aged 20-64 years and lived in one of three Tennessee counties. Controls were 305 African-American women without breast cancer who were selected through random digit dialing and frequency-matched to cases by age and county. Information on the use of an electric blanket or heated water bed and other risk factors was collected through telephone interviews. Breast cancer risk associated with use of an electric bedding device increased with the number of years of use, the number of seasons of use, and the length of time of use during sleep. When women who used an electric bedding device for more than 6 months per year (and therefore were more likely to have used a heated water bed, which generates lower magnetic fields) were excluded, the corresponding dose-response relations were more striking. Similar trends in dose response were shown in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women and for both estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. The use of electric bedding devices may increase breast cancer risk in African-American women aged 20-64 years. Such an association might not vary substantially by menopausal status or estrogen receptor status.
Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Misra, Dawn P.
Background Racism has been hypothesized as a barrier to accessing healthcare. No quantitative study has directly assessed its influence on women's initiation of prenatal care (PNC). We examined the relationship between PNC entry and experiences of personal and group racism among low-income African American women. We also examined whether the use of denial of racism as coping mechanism was associated with a delay in accessing PNC. Methods Using a prospective/retrospective cohort design we collected data from 872 African American women (prenatally: n=484; postpartum: n=388). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the overall denial of racism index and PNC initiation. Findings PNC entry was not significantly associated with personal experiences of racism (p=0.33); it was significantly associated with group experiences (pracism experienced by other AAs was a barrier to early PNC among low-income African American women. Delayed access to PNC may be rooted in the avoidance of racialized experiences among less empowered women when faced with discrimination. Our findings have important implication for the engagement of African American women into the PNC delivery system and the health care system postpartum. PMID:24041828
Moskovitz, Martin J; Baxt, Sherwood A; Jain, Aridaman K; Hausman, Robert E
Recently published case reports and outcome studies support the use of liposuction alone as an effective technique for ameliorating symptoms of breast hypertrophy. This study is the first prospective trial to examine the effectiveness of liposuction breast reduction as a primary modality of breast reduction. In addition, this study examines the role that liposuction breast reduction can play in the treatment of African American women, given the known scarring difficulties that darker skinned patients can encounter with traditional breast reduction surgery. Twenty African American women were recruited through newspaper and Internet advertisements. Patients aged 20 to 60 years were serially accepted to the study. Patients with a chief complaint of breast ptosis were excluded. No other exclusion criteria were used. Previously validated questionnaire instruments were used preoperatively and postoperatively to measure breast-related symptoms, general patient health perception, bodily pain, and self-esteem. Comorbid conditions, demographics, financial status, prior treatments, and smoking history were also documented. Seventeen patients completed the preoperative and postoperative questionnaires. An average of 1075 cc of tissue was removed per breast during liposuction breast reduction surgery. Postoperative assessment showed a significant decrease in breast-related symptoms, a significant decrease in patient pain, and a significant improvement in overall patient health perception. Liposuction breast reduction is a useful breast reduction modality in the properly selected patient. African American women, who may traditionally forego breast reduction surgery because of scarring, are excellent candidates for this type of reduction procedure.
Brooke C. Schneider
Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.
.... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCAl/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...
Ferguson, Danielle Stevens
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the key factors that successful African American women said influenced their persistence and resilience in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field at two key time periods; before beginning post-secondary education and during post-secondary education. Many researchers have expressed concern about missing out on the creativity and innovation of African American women that could be used to enhance or lead to scientific discoveries (Hanson, 2004; Ong et al., 2011; Perna et al., 2008). While there has been a fair amount of research on the lack of representation of African American women in the STEM field, it is very limited in its breathe and depth. Very few of these studies include the "voice" of African American women and most of the studies rely heavily on quantitative data. Therefore in this study, I used a qualitative, case study approach to interpret the stories of eight African American women currently working in a variety of STEM fields to understand how each of the factors that they said aided in their persistence and resilience related to the concepts of social and cultural capital. Furthermore, this study investigated the role cultural brokers played in their lives and the strategies these women used to create resilience. Narratives for each woman were created to provide insight into their experiences. Before beginning post-secondary education four themes emerged from this study; 1. Two parent households were important, 2. Science experiences outside of school sparked their interest, 3. All of the women participated in extracurricular activities, and 4. Religion was important. Cultural brokers were beneficial for some but not all of the women. During post-secondary education five themes emerged; 1. The majority of the women had a desire to help others, 2. Scholarships played an important role, 3. Parents were supportive, 4. Sexism/racism became evident, and 5. Religion was still
James, Delores C S; Harville, Cedric
African American women (AAW) are in a unique position to be recruited into mobile (mHealth) weight management research and programs due to their high rates of obesity and their high ownership of smartphones. This study examined smartphone usage, social media engagement, and willingness to participate in mHealth weight management among AAW in north-central Florida, United States. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenience sample of 425 smartphone owners in north-central Florida. Mean age was 34.84 ± 13.74, with age distribution of 18 to 29 (45%), 30 to 50 (39%), and 51+ years (17%). Mean body mass index was 29.52 ± 8.18. Most used smartphones to access the Internet daily and were engaged with eight social media sites, such as Facebook (85%), YouTube (75%), and Google+ (57%). Compared to those 51+, those 18 to 29 were more likely to use YouTube (odds ratio [OR] = 2.52, p = .017) and Instagram (OR = 10.90, p smartphone apps (68%). Compared to those 51+, women 18 to 29 were more likely to report willingness to use a smartphone app (OR = 5.45, p smartphones, use of mHealth apps and tools, and willingness to participate in mHealth research has the potential to curb the obesity epidemic by participating in mHealth weight management programs and research.
.... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...
Lewkowitz, Adam K; López, Julia D; Stein, Richard I; Rhoades, Janine S; Schulz, Rosa C; Woolfolk, Candice L; Macones, George A; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Cahill, Alison G
Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) African American women with overweight or obesity are less likely to breastfeed. To test whether a home-based lifestyle intervention impacts breastfeeding initiation rates in SED African American women with overweight or obesity. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial from October 2012 to March 2016 at a university-based hospital within the LIFE-Moms consortium. SED African American women with overweight or obesity and singleton gestations were randomized by 16 weeks to Parents as Teachers (PAT)-a home-based parenting support and child development educational intervention-or PAT+, PAT with additional content on breastfeeding. Participants completed a breastfeeding survey. Outcomes included breastfeeding initiation and reasons for not initiating or not continuing breastfeeding. One hundred eighteen women were included: 59 in PAT+; 59 in PAT. Breastfeeding initiation rates were similar in each group (78.00% in PAT+; 74.58% in PAT). On a one to four scale, with four denoting "very important," women in PAT+ and PAT were equally likely to rate their beliefs that formula was better than breast milk or breastfeeding would be too inconvenient as the most important reasons to not initiate breastfeeding. On the same scale, women similarly rated their difficulty latching or concern for low milk supply as the most important reasons for breastfeeding cessation. SED African American women with overweight or obesity who received a home-based educational intervention had higher breastfeeding rates than is reported nationally for black women (59%). However, the intervention with more breastfeeding content did not further increase breastfeeding rates or impact reasons for breastfeeding cessation. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01768793.
Angel, Roma B.; Killacky, Jim; Johnson, Patricia R.
Focused on the absence of a viable population of African American women in the superintendency, this study addressed barriers described by 10 credentialed, district-level Southern women who hold advanced education degrees coupled with years of leadership experience. This phenomenological study used interview methodology to uncover the lived…
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Lo, Yun-Jia; Penner, Louis A.
Researchers have traditionally combined aging women (aged ≥50 years) when reporting their mammography use. This may inadvertently mask important cohort effects in mammography use, which are likely to result from distinct personal life experiences and generational differences. Using the Health and Retirement Study samples of 1998, 2000, and 2004, we examined cohort differences in mammography use between African American women born before 1946 (non–baby boomers) and those born in 1946 to 1953 (baby boomers). Between 1998 and 2004, screening rates for non–baby boomers declined, while those for baby boomers remained relatively steady. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses suggest that while screening rates decreased with age (OR, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.947–0.968) cohort effects may have partially reversed the age effect, with non–baby boomers having an increased likelihood of receiving a mammogram compared to baby boomers (OR, 1.697; 95% CI, 1.278–2.254). Because African American women are diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer, documentation of cohort differences in mammography use among older African American women is important as health care professionals design intervention programs that are maximally effective for women from different cohorts. This is particularly critical as more African American women in the baby boomer cohort become part of the aging population. PMID:20575209
August 16,20 10 APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: "Eahng Behaviors and Obesity in Afncan Amelican and Caucasian Women " Name of Candidate: Elena A...AND OBESITY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN WOMEN " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright...Caucasian Women Elena A. Spieker1,2,3, Robyn Osborn1,2, and Tracy Sbrocco1,2 1 Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services
Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N
Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control.
The purpose of this ethnonursing research was to systematically discover, describe, and analyze the beliefs, practices, and values of African American women related to prenatal care. The domain of inquiry was prenatal care of African American women within their familiar cultural contexts. The study was conceptualized within Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality which enabled the researcher to study professional and generic care as influenced by the worldview, social structural factors, cultural values and beliefs, ethnohistory, and environmental context. The goal of the study was to discover knowledge that could be used by health professionals to provide culturally congruent prenatal care that would increase the health and well being of the people. The rationale for the study was based on studies that showed the lack of prenatal care in the African American cultural group leads to low birth weights and high infant mortality rates. Four major themes that focused on the domain of inquiry were identified: 1) Cultural care meant protection, presence, and sharing; 2) social structural factors that greatly influenced the health and well being were spirituality, kinship, and economics; 3) professional prenatal care was seen by the women as necessary and essential but there was distrust of noncaring professionals, and barriers to such care; and 4) folk health beliefs, practices, and indigenous health care providers were widely used by women in the African American community.
Sabik, Natalie J
Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals' self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism's associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi
Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65. Topics...
Garmon, Sandra C
The theory presented in this article proposes an alternative view of access to care on the basis of an African American woman's perception of the necessity, availability, and appropriateness of breast health care. The theory of perceived access to breast health care in African American women may also be useful in framing future research studies exploring the relationship between access to care and utilization of primary, secondary, and tertiary clinical preventive services related to breast health care.
Harris, Allyssa L
Reproductive health disparities are a significant issue for African-American adolescents. This study was designed to explore the cross-generational influences on adolescent sexuality in a cohort of daughters/granddaughters of U.S. born African-American women. Data were generated through interviews with triads of African-American women: grandmothers, and their daughters and granddaughters, to gain insight into the phenomena of early sexual debut, high rates of unintended pregnancies, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections from a cross-generational perspective. Six themes emerged from the data: southern influences; a worldview of relationships; communication-key to preparedness; seeking information from mom; "I got caught up in the game"; and contraceptive use and beliefs. In this sample, mothers' and grandmothers' culture, values, and beliefs significantly influenced the adolescents' sexual and reproductive decision making. Clinicians' knowledge of African-American culture, beliefs, and family values is key when providing guidance about contraception to these young women. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel
African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.
Mulvaney, F D; Brown, L S; Alterman, A I; Sage, R E; Cnaan, A; Cacciola, J; Rutherford, M
Six-month methadone-maintenance response and outcome were examined for African-American and Hispanic men and women in a large urban sample. A consistent pattern of improvement was indicated for both races and genders on the addiction severity index (ASI). There were virtually no statistically significant differences in ASI outcomes between Hispanics and African-Americans and men and women using conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures. Results from an additional equivalence analysis, however, indicated that baseline to 6-month changes for the different groups were generally not similar enough to consider them equivalent. Urine toxicologies obtained during the 6-month treatment period were also not statistically equivalent by race and gender. Evaluating outcomes by gender and race are discussed, as are the implications of using equivalence tests when examining group differences.
Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi
Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies.
Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G
Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.
Caldwell, M B; Brownell, K D; Wilfley, D E
The present study examined the relationship among weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in a large group of African American and white female dieters who were generally overweight and of middle to high socioeconomic status. Subjects were participants in a survey of dieting practices undertaken by Consumer Reports magazine. Major outcome measures included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an assessment of shape and weight attitudes. No significant differences between African American and white women were found for body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, discrepancies between actual and ideal weight and shape, or the relationship between self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index contributed less to body satisfaction scores in African American than in white women. This study provides a comparison of African American and white women in the upper social classes, and raises the possibility that previous findings of less body concern in African American women reflect class rather than race effects.
Patrice L. Capers
Full Text Available Background Body mass index (BMI has been used widely among clinicians to assess obesity in their patients due to its ease and availability. However, BMI has some diagnostic limitations and other measures related to health risks; in particular, body shape may be of greater relevance to health outcomes. Objective The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of body shape assessments above and beyond BMI and its relationship to health risk among a sample of African-American and European American women. Methods African-American and European American women aged 19–78 years ( n = 552 in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited and stratified by menopausal status (ie, pre- or postmenopausal. Pictorial body shapes were derived from digital photographs, while body fat distribution defined by android-gynoid ratio (AGR and body composition were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Images of BMI and age-matched women illustrate variability in fat distribution. Among both menopausal status groups, more than 50% of women had a pear body shape (AGR < 1. An apple body shape was associated with higher odds of having diabetes (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–9.3, hypertension (unadjusted OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.0–4.7, and high cholesterol (unadjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–5.1. Conclusion Use of visual cues alongside traditional methods of weight status assessment may help to facilitate weight management conversations between physicians and female patients. However, next steps should include the validation of visual assessments of body shape in women for use by physicians.
Miller, Stephania T; Akohoue, Sylvie A; Brooks, Malinda A
African American women carry a disproportionate diabetes burden, yet there is limited information on strategies to identify outcomes women perceive as important intervention outcomes (patient-centered outcomes). This study presents a brief strategy to solicit these outcomes and to describe outcomes identified using the highlighted strategy. Thirty-four African-American women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in group-based, diabetes/weight management interventions. A diabetes educator asked participants to write down their intervention expectations followed by verbal sharing of responses. Expectation-related themes were identified using an iterative, qualitative, team analytic approach based on audio-recorded responses. The majority of the expectation-related themes (6 of 10) were reflective of self-care education/management and weight loss-related patient-centered outcomes. The remaining themes were associated with desires to help others prevent or manage diabetes, reduce negative diabetes-related emotions, get rid of diabetes, and stop taking diabetes medications. This study adds to a limited body of knowledge regarding patient-centered outcomes among a group that experiences a disproportionate diabetes burden. Future work could include integrating outcomes that are less commonly addressed in diabetes-related lifestyle interventions (e.g., diabetes-related negative emotions), along with more commonly addressed outcomes (e.g., weight loss), to increase the patient-centeredness of the interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Jesus, Maria; Taylor, Juanita; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia
Background To date, there are very few comparative US studies and none in DC that distinguish between US-born and foreign-born Black women to examine and compare their perceptions of HIV risk. This qualitative study, therefore, analyzes African American and East African women’s perceptions of HIV risk in the Washington DC Metropolitan area, which has the highest AIDS rate in the US. Methods Forty in-depth, semi-structured interviews and 10 cognitive interviews were conducted among a sample of 25 African American women and 25 East African born women between October 2012 and March 2013 to examine perceptions regarding HIV risk. The in-depth semi-structured interviews were preceded by the cognitive interviews and accompanying survey. Study protocol was reviewed and approved by the American University Institutional Review Board. Results Adopting Boerma and Weir’s Proximate Determinants conceptual framework to interpret the data, the results of the study demonstrate that African American and East African immigrant women have divergent perceptions of HIV risk. While African American women ascribe HIV risk to individual-level behaviors and choices such as unprotected sex, East African women attribute HIV risk to conditions of poverty and survival. Conclusions Study findings suggest that addressing HIV prevention and education among Black women in DC will require distinct and targeted strategies that are culturally and community-centered in order to resonate with these different audiences. PMID:26766523
Williams, Bernadette R; Bezner, Janet; Chesbro, Steven B; Leavitt, Ronnie
Rates of exercise participation among African Americans is low. Identifying and overcoming perceived benefits/ barriers unique to African American women (AAW) may increase their exercise participation. The purpose of this study was to describe perceived benefits/barriers to exercise in AAW before and after participation in a walking program. Thirty-five postmenopausal AAW participated in a 7-week structured walking program with 2 walking goals. Perceived benefits and barriers to exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale at the beginning and end of the program. Participants engaged in a postintervention interview to further assess benefits/barriers to exercise participation. Perceived benefits/barriers to exercise did not change significantly with participation in a walking program. Lack of time due to work and family responsibilities affected achievement of the brisk walking goal. Postmenopausal AAW in this study strongly believed in the benefits of exercising and had increased levels of participation in a walking program when lack of time was not a barrier. Overcoming this barrier is the true challenge to health care professionals.
This program was designed to provide Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention education for African-American women of child bearing age at a child care center which serves low income high risk families. The primary goal was to reduce the risk of African-American women at the child care center for contracting the Human Immunodeficiency…
Sumner, Anne E; Harman, Jane L; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Miller, Bernard V; Tambay, Anita V; Wyatt, Sharon B; Taylor, Herman A; Rotimi, Charles N; Sarpong, Daniel F
Compared to whites, insulin-resistant African Americans have worse outcomes. Screening programs that could identify insulin resistance early enough for intervention to affect outcome often rely on triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Racial differences in TG and HDL-C may compromise the efficacy of these programs in African Americans. A recommendation currently exists to use the TG/HDL-C ratio ≥2.0 to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. The validity of this recommendation needs examination. Therefore, our aim was to determine the ability of TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. In 1,903 African Americans [895 men, 1,008 women, age 55 ± 12 years, mean ± standard deviation (SD), range 35-80 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 6.4 kg/m(2), range 18.5-55 kg/m(2)] participating in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, Jackson, Mississippi tricounty region, insulin resistance was defined by the upper quartile (≥4.43) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of >0.70 was required for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C. The optimal test cutoff was determined by the Youden index. HOMA-IR was similar in men and women (3.40 ± 2.03 vs. 3.80 ± 2.46, P = 0.60). Women had lower TG (94 ± 49 vs. 109 ± 65 mg/dL P Heart Study can help determine the efficacy of screening programs in African-Americans.
Catherine E. Harnois
Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...
Sanchez-Hucles, J V
African American women in the United States have a long history of employment outside of their homes. Their experiences are unique from other groups of majority and minority men and women due to the interaction of race, gender, and class. Despite long-standing and continuing struggles against discrimination, harassment, low pay, tokenism, and stereotypes, a myth that African American women enjoy a bonus or advantaged status in the work force has developed and persisted. In this article, Black women's work force experiences are examined from a social constructionist framework, misperceptions of Black women are critiqued, explanations are developed that explain the unique status of African American women and recommendations are proposed to eradicate the discrimination and marginal status that Black women have endured in the work force.
Holt, Yolanda Feimster
This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.
Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Palmer, Julie R
The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21-39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995-2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of > or = 2 times/week compared with or = 2 drinks/day compared with obesity among young African American women.
Grossman, Brenda; Watkins, Andre R; Fleming, Faye; Debaun, Michael R
The primary aim of this study was to assess potential barriers and motivators to blood and cord blood donation among African-American women. A telephone survey of African-American women, ages 18-30 years, in the St. Louis metropolitan area was performed. The survey was administered by trained telemarketing personnel using a Computer-Assisted Direct Interview (CADI) system. One hundred sixty-two women were surveyed. Common barriers to blood donation were inconvenience of donor sites (19%), fear of needles (16%), and too much time required to donate (15%). Potential motivators were increasing awareness of need for blood (43%), increasing the number of convenient donor locations (19%), and encouragement by spiritual leaders to have blood drives at their church (17%). Lack of awareness was the only identified barrier to cord blood donation. Most women surveyed (88%) indicated that they definitely or probably would donate cord blood. Strategies to increase the proportion of African-American blood and cord blood donations may include educating potential donors about the process and benefits of donation to particular patient populations and engaging church leadership in supporting blood and cord blood donations.
Kelly C. Allison
Full Text Available Objectives. To describe psychosocial factors identified as contributors of weight gain in the general population and to examine the relationship between these factors and gestational weight gain among low socioeconomic status, African American, overweight pregnant women. Methods. African American women (n=120 with a pregravid body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 completed measures of eating, sleep, and depressed mood between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation. Weight was tracked. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and linear regression modeling were used to characterize the sample and examine predictors of gestational weight gain. Results. Four percent screened positive for night eating syndrome, with 32% consuming at least 25% of their daily caloric intake after dinner (evening hyperphagia. None met criteria for binge eating disorder; 4% reported occasional binge episodes. Cognitive restraint over eating was low. Participants slept 7.1 (SD=1.9 h per night and reported 4.3 (SD=3.6 awakenings per week; 18% reported some level of depressed mood. Night and binge eating were related to each other, sleep quality, and depressed mood. Eating due to cravings was the only psychosocial variable to predict gestational weight gain. Conclusions. Depressed mood, night eating, and nighttime awakenings were common in this cohort, while cognitive restraint over eating was low. Most psychosocial variables were not predictive of excess gestational weight gain.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Johnson, Dayna A; Li, Jia; Rao, D Sudhaker
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression; however, no studies have examined the relationship of vitamin D and antenatal depression. Antenatal depression increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and poorer postpartum maternal and infant health. African American women are at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency and antenatal depression. Thus, we examined if early pregnancy vitamin D nutrition (VDN) was associated with antenatal depressive symptoms among African American women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Women (n=178) were recruited from obstetrics clinics of a large health system. VDN was assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD). Depression symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale; CES-D≥16 equates with criteria for clinical depression. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of log-transformed 25-OHD and elevated depression symptoms (CES-D≥16). Mean 25-OHD was 13.4±8.4 ng/mL; most women (82.6%, n=147) were vitamin D inadequate or deficient (25-OHD<20 ng/mL). Mean CES-D was 15.2±10.7, and 74 (41.6%) women had a CES-D≥16, suggestive of clinical depression. A significant inverse relationship was found between log (25-OHD) and CES-D≥16 (odds ratio [OR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.99, p=0.046). For every 1-unit increase in log (25-OHD) (corresponding to ~2.72 ng/mL increase in 25-OHD), the odds of CES-D≥16 decreased by 46%. African American women with lower VDN exhibit increased depressive symptoms. Research on vitamin D supplementation for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms is needed.
Misra, Vinod K.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sing, Charles F.
Objective The goals of our study were 1) to estimate the trends in maternal weight gain patterns and 2) to estimate the influence of variation in maternal weight and rate of weight gain over different time periods in gestation on variation in birth weight in African-American and non-African-American gravidas. Study Design and Setting Data from a prospective cohort study in which pregnant women were monitored at multiple time points during pregnancy were analyzed. Maternal weight was measured at three times during pregnancy, preconception (W0); 16-20 weeks gestation (W1); and 30-36 weeks gestation (W2), in a cohort of 435 women with full-term singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age-adjusted birth weight (aBW) and measures of maternal weight and rate of weight gain across pregnancy was estimated using a multivariable longitudinal regression analysis stratified on African-American race. Results The aBW was significantly associated with maternal weight measured at any visit in both strata. For African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with variation in the rate of maternal weight gain in the first half of pregnancy (W01) but not the rate of maternal weight gain in the second half of pregnancy (W12); while for non-African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with W12 but not W01. Conclusion Factors influencing the relationship between aBW and maternal weight gain patterns depend on the context of the pregnancy defined by race. Clinical decisions and recommendations about maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy may need to account for such heterogeneity. PMID:20632908
Effective psychotherapy with African-American women explicitly requires cultural literacy and competence of its practitioners. Cultural literacy includes understanding the collective social plight of African-American women and the individual client in the context of the prevailing reality of race, gender, and sexual orientation bias and the interpersonal and institutional barriers that result from that bias. Cultural literacy presumes a willingness on the part of the therapist to educate himself or herself about the clients cultural background and milieu and validate the client's accurate perceptions of discrimination and bias and their impact on the client's life. Cultural competence may be seen as the appropriate level of technical skill in applying those concepts to the understanding of the client and the conduct of the psychotherapeutic inquiry. The culturally literate practitioner will acknowledge and appreciate the wide range of diversity within African-American women as a group. The individual client's intrapsychic and familial endowments and personal relationship history as they are embedded in the aforementioned context should be carefully explored and understood as well as are all relevant social factors. Finally, therapists must be willing to scrutinize their own feelings and motivations for working with African-American women. What should follow is a careful analysis of the developmental interactions of these variables, how they promote an individual's view of the world, her perceptions of her options, her strategies for negotiating institutional barriers, her relationships with other persons, as well as any contributions she makes, consciously or unconsciously, to her own dilemma. A culturally literate and antiracist therapist must begin with an understanding of the role of multiple identities and oppressions in client's lives and must have or be willing to acquire a familiarity with the clients' cultural and ethnic heritage and the role of
Kingsberry, Francemise St. Pierre
An underrepresentation of African American women in the superintendency exists in K-12 public schools. There is also a lack of research on their leadership and experiences in education. Although the number of women superintendents has increased over the years, the superintendency remains a male-dominated field and African American women remain in…
Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette
The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls.
Hunter, Teressa Sanders; Tilley, Donna Scott
This review of the literature identifies themes, variable, goals, and gaps in the literature related to HIV and AIDS among African American women. Black Feminist Epistemology and symbolic interactionism are used as a theoretical perspective and philosophical framework to examine experiences and social behaviors of African-American women and to guide and framework to explain the findings from the literature. This theoretical perspective/philosophical framework can also be used in understanding processes used by African-American women in behavioral, social, and intimate interactions.
Sumlin, Lisa L; Brown, Sharon A
Purpose The goals of this descriptive ethnographic study were to (1) describe the day-to-day selection, preparation, and consumption of food among African American women (AAW) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); (2) identify their typical food selections and consumption practices when dining out at restaurants and at social gatherings (ie, church functions, holidays); (3) highlight the valued behaviors and beliefs that influence these women's food practices; and (4) determine how social interactions influence those food practices. Methods Symbolic interactionism, a sensitizing framework, guided this study. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 20 AAW from 35 to 70 years of age diagnosed with T2DM who shopped and prepared meals for their families and attended church functions where food was served. Data collection consisted of one-on-one interviews and observations of participants during church fellowship dinners, grocery shopping, and food preparation. A social anthropological approach to content analysis was used to describe behavioral regularities in food practices. Results Informants exhibited a constant struggle in food practices, particularly within the home setting. Difficulties in making dietary modifications resulted from conflicts between the need to change dietary practices to control diabetes and personal food preferences, food preferences of family members, and AAW's emotional dedication to the symbolism of food derived from traditional cultural food practices passed down from generation to generation. Conclusions African American women are the gatekeepers for family food practices, holding the keys to healthy dietary practices. This study helps to fill the research gap regarding cultural dietary food practices within this population.
Watson-Singleton, Natalie N; Okunoren, Oladoyin; LoParo, Devon; Hunter, Carla D
The current study used the Health Belief Model to develop a measure that assessed the emotional benefits and barriers of professional psychological services in an African American women sample. Data from 251 African American women recruited from online organizations from across the United States (n = 164) and a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 87) were used for exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 2-factor structure of the Emotional Benefits and Barriers of Psychological Services (EBBPS) Scale: Life Enhancement and Concerns about Distress, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed with data from 208 African American women who were recruited from a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 81), Mturk (n = 104), and online organizations across the United States (n = 23). Results confirmed the EFA 2-factor model and demonstrated superior fit compared with a unidimensional model as well as a 3 factor model. Both factors exhibited excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was supported given that EBBPS factors were correlated with theoretically related constructs, like psychological help-seeking attitudes, intentions to seek counseling, and cultural identity, as well as uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated constructs, like psychological distress. These findings support the utility and cultural relevance of the EBBPS with African American women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ellis, Katrina; Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J.; Bruce, Marino A.
Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly specify the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men’s health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men’s health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 women (8 focus groups). Women’s perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men’s and women’s perceptions of men’s coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018
Nelson, David; Harris, Angelique; Horner-Ibler, Barbara; Harris, Kimberly Salas; Burns, Edith
Listening to the needs of the community is an important step toward reducing health disparities. Researchers may need to adjust their methods to maximize participation and benefit to the community. This report describes how the project team adjusted its approach to a weight loss intervention to support a community of African American women seeking to improve their health.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.
McTigue, Kathleen M; Chang, Yue-Fang; Eaton, Charles; Garcia, Lorena; Johnson, Karen C; Lewis, Cora E; Liu, Simin; Mackey, Rachel H; Robinson, Jennifer; Rosal, Milagros C; Snetselaar, Linda; Valoski, Alice; Kuller, Lewis H
To compare mortality, nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD), and congestive heart failure (CHF) risk across BMI categories in white, African American, and Hispanic women, with a focus on severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40), and examine heterogeneity in weight-related CHD risk. Among 156,775 Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trial participants (September 1993-12 September 2005), multivariable Cox models estimated relative risk for mortality, CHD, and CHF. CHD incidence was calculated by anthropometry, race, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF incidence generally rose with BMI category. For severe obesity versus normal BMI, hazard ratios (HRs, 95% confidence interval) for mortality were 1.97 (1.77-2.20) in white, 1.55 (1.20-2.00) in African American, and 2.59 (1.55-4.31) in Hispanic women; for CHD, HRs were 2.05 (1.80-2.35), 2.24 (1.57-3.19), and 2.95 (1.60-5.41) respectively; for CHF, HRs were 5.01 (4.33-5.80), 3.60 (2.30-5.62), and 6.05 (2.49-14.69). CVRF variation resulted in substantial variation in CHD rates across BMI categories, even in severe obesity. CHD incidence was similar by race/ethnicity when differences in BMI or CVRF were accounted for. Severe obesity increases mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF risk in women of diverse race/ethnicity. CVRF heterogeneity contributes to variation in CHD incidence even in severe obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V; Waters, Catherine M; Dailey, Dawn E; Lee, Kathryn A; Lyndon, Audrey
To describe the use of social media during the antepartum and postpartum periods among first-time African American mothers and their support persons. A qualitative critical ethnographic research design within the contexts of family life course development theory and Black feminist theory. Participants were recruited from community-based, public health, and home visiting programs. A purposive sample was recruited, consisting of 14 pregnant African American women and eight support persons. Pregnant and postpartum African American women and their support persons were interviewed separately during the antepartum and postpartum periods. Data were analyzed thematically. Participants frequently used social media for education and social support and searched the Internet for perinatal and parenting information. Most participants reported using at least one mobile application during their pregnancies and after giving birth. Social media were typically accessed through smartphones and/or computers using different websites and applications. Although participants gleaned considerable information about infant development from these applications, they had difficulty finding and recalling information about infant feeding. Social media are an important vehicle to disseminate infant feeding information; however, they are not currently being used to full potential. Our findings suggest that future interventions geared toward African American mothers and their support persons should include social media approaches. The way individuals gather, receive, and interpret information is dynamic. The increasing popularity and use of social media platforms offers the opportunity to create more innovative, targeted mobile health interventions for infant feeding and breastfeeding promotion. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Arnold, C W
Race, ethnicity, and gender are significant indicators of occupational status, general health status, and thus, occupational health status. Although African-American women constitute only 6.8% of the total U.S. labor force, they hold 20% of the jobs in the health care industry and are disproportionately represented in those jobs that have the highest levels of workplace exposure to hazards. As a result, they are therefore more likely to be at greater exposure and risk to the spectrum of occupational health problems. In order to gain insight into the effects of race and gender on the occupational health status of African-American women health care workers, this article uses three data sources that provide different but complementary sources of information on the demographic characteristics of workers, location of categories of occupations, working conditions of jobs, and other job and worker characteristics. Given the concentration of African-American women in health care positions where there exists a greater likelihood of being exposed to occupational hazards, it is therefore both logical and appropriate for primary care physicians, especially those engaged in office-based practices, to identify this target population for special services and to be more aware of the type of health issues with which these patients are more likely to present and to experience during their working lives. Health care providers have a responsibility to assess occupational factors related to a patient's health problems and to incorporate this information into their treatment protocols and into the design and explanation of each patient's care plan.
Kira C. Taylor
Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem associated with excess disability and mortality. It is estimated that 50–70% of the variation in osteoporotic fracture risk is attributable to genetic factors. The purpose of this hypothesis-generating study was to identify possible genetic determinants of fracture among African American (AA women in a GWAS meta-analysis. Methods: Data on clinical fractures (all fractures except fingers, toes, face, skull or sternum were analyzed among AA female participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI (N = 8155, Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS (N = 504, BioVU (N = 704, Health ABC (N = 651, and the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project (JoCoOA (N = 291. Affymetrix (WHI and Illumina (Health ABC, JoCoOA, BioVU, CHS GWAS panels were used for genotyping, and a 1:1 ratio of YRI:CEU HapMap haplotypes was used as an imputation reference panel. We used Cox proportional hazard models or logistic regression to evaluate the association of ~2.5 million SNPs with fracture risk, adjusting for ancestry, age, and geographic region where applicable. We conducted a fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis. Genome-wide significance was set at P < 5 × 10−8. Results: One SNP, rs12775980 in an intron of SVIL on chromosome 10p11.2, reached genome-wide significance (P = 4.0 × 10−8. Although this SNP has a low minor allele frequency (0.03, there was no evidence for heterogeneity of effects across the studies (I2 = 0. This locus was not reported in any previous osteoporosis-related GWA studies. We also interrogated previously reported GWA-significant loci associated with fracture or bone mineral density in our data. One locus (SMOC1 generalized, but overall there was not substantial evidence of generalization. Possible reasons for the lack of generalization are discussed. Conclusion: This GWAS meta-analysis of fractures in African American women identified a potentially novel
Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.
Blackstone, Tondelaya K.
The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…
Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...
Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott
Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Danice L; White-Johnson, Rhonda L; Griffin-Fennell, Felicia D
The historical image of the Black Jezebel - a hypersexual, seductive and manipulative slave woman - has been one of the most pervasive and evolving images influencing the sexual socialization and perceptions of African American women today. This preliminary study examined generational differences in the endorsement of modern depictions of the Jezebel, as well as the relationship between racial-ethnic esteem and endorsement of this sexualised image. A total of 249 African American women completed an online, self-report questionnaire assessing study variables. Results suggested that younger women (aged 18-34) may exhibit higher endorsement of the modern Jezebel depictions. Additionally, aspects of racial-ethnic esteem may be linked to lower endorsement of modern Jezebel depictions among younger and older (55 years and older) African American women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Catherine E. Harnois
Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female
Keith, Verna M.; Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.
We apply structural equation modeling techniques to data from the National Survey of American Life to investigate the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among African American women ages 18–98 years (N=2,299). In addition, we evaluate whether or not personal mastery accounts for the intensity of African American women’s psychological response to discrimination and whether or not exposure to discrimination varies by skin complexion. Findings reveal that discr...
Browne, Irene, Ed.
The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…
Andrea K. Johnson
Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.
Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Wallace, John M; Jackson, James S
This study utilizes data from the older African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n=837) to examine the sociodemographic and denominational correlates of organizational religious involvement among older African Americans. Six measures of organizational religious participation are utilized, including two measures of time allocation for organized religious pursuits. The findings indicate significant gender, region, marital status and denominational differences in organizational religiosity. Of particular note, although older black women generally displayed higher levels of religious participation, older black men spent more hours per week in other activities at their place of worship. The findings are discussed in relation to prior work in the area of religious involvement among older adults. New directions for research on religious time allocation are outlined.
Okoro, Olihe; Odedina, Folakemi
African American women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV disease. Socioeconomic and psycho-social factors while adding to the vulnerability of this population also contribute to non-adherence and consequently poor outcomes. The provider-patient relationship has the potential to enhance HIV medication adherence in this population. Using in-depth interviews, patient and provider perspectives are explored to identify specific elements of the provider-patient interaction that enhance patient satisfaction with care and consequently improve HIV medication adherence. Themes associated with provider attitudes and actions perceived as positively impacting care in this patient group include (1) physical touch, (2) treating (the patient) "as a person", (3) actively listening to the patient, (4) showing empathy, (5) being non-judgmental, and (6) being readily accessible. These findings suggest that the demonstration of care and commitment from the provider as perceived by the patient is important to African American women living with HIV and may significantly influence adherence behavior and enhance treatment outcomes in this population.
Roberts, Calpurnyia B; Vines, Anissa I; Kaufman, Jay S; James, Sherman A
Few studies have examined the impact of the frequency of discrimination on hypertension risk. The authors assessed the cross-sectional associations between frequency of perceived racial and nonracial discrimination and hypertension among 1,110 middle-aged African-American men (n = 393) and women (n = 717) participating in the 2001 follow-up of the Pitt County Study (Pitt County, North Carolina). Odds ratios were estimated using gender-specific unconditional weighted logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders and the frequency of discrimination. More than half of the men (57%) and women (55%) were hypertensive. The prevalences of perceived racial discrimination, nonracial discrimination, and no discrimination were 57%, 29%, and 13%, respectively, in men and 42%, 43%, and 15%, respectively, in women. Women recounting frequent nonracial discrimination versus those reporting no exposure to discrimination had the highest odds of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio = 2.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 5.02). A nonsignificant inverse odds ratio was evident in men who perceived frequent exposure to racial or nonracial discrimination in comparison with no exposure. A similar association was observed for women reporting perceived racial discrimination. These results indicate that the type and frequency of discrimination perceived by African-American men and women may differentially affect their risk of hypertension.
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye
This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women.
Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts
The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females.
K. Bryant Smalley
Full Text Available Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise. Multivariate analyses, controlling for age, education status, insurance status, and body mass index revealed that attachment to ethnic identity was predictive of motivation for exercise but not for weight loss. Our findings suggest that attachment to ethnic identity may be an important factor in motivation for change among African-American women, particularly with respect to exercise, with direct implications for the development of culturally and geographically tailored weight loss interventions.
Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley
Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.
Model, S; Fisher, G
In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.
African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434
Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.
Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803
King, Kimberly R.
This study examined the effects of three types of group consciousness among African American women ("ethnic," "feminist," and "womanist") on prejudice attributions and appraised personal significance ("centrality") of a negative intergroup event. African American female college students (N = 123) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in…
A One-Size-Fits-All HIV Prevention and Education Approach?: Interpreting Divergent HIV Risk Perceptions Between African American and East African Immigrant Women in Washington, DC Using the Proximate-Determinants Conceptual Framework.
De Jesus, Maria; Taylor, Juanita; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia
To date, there are very few comparative US studies and none in DC that distinguish between US-born and foreign-born black women to examine and compare their perceptions of HIV risk. This qualitative study, therefore, analyzes African American and East African women's perceptions of HIV risk in the Washington DC Metropolitan area, which has the highest AIDS rate in the United States. Forty in-depth, semistructured interviews and 10 cognitive interviews were conducted among a sample of 25 African American women and 25 East African born women between October 2012 and March 2013 to examine perceptions regarding HIV risk. The in-depth semistructured interviews were preceded by the cognitive interviews and accompanying survey. Study protocol was reviewed and approved by the American University Institutional Review Board. Adopting Boerma and Weir's Proximate Determinants conceptual framework to interpret the data, the results of the study demonstrate that African American and East African immigrant women have divergent perceptions of HIV risk. Although African American women ascribe HIV risk to individual-level behaviors and choices such as unprotected sex, East African women attribute HIV risk to conditions of poverty and survival. Study findings suggest that addressing HIV prevention and education among black women in DC will require distinct and targeted strategies that are culturally and community-centered to resonate with these different audiences.
Herbert Harris, Eboni T; Hillfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Timmons, Shirley M; Felder, Tisha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson
Effective health promotion among African American women requires knowledge and understanding of cultural influences and practices. This scoping review focused on rest, related concepts, and cultural perspectives and practices. We found a lack of conceptual distinction between fatigue and sleep and limited research on cultural meanings and practices of rest.
Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina
The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…
Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M
This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kennedy, May G; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L; Garland, Sheryl L; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan
Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but "quitlines" are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality.
Nguyen, Tung T; Somkin, Carol P; Ma, Yifei; Fung, Lei-Chun; Nguyen, Thoa
Few Asian-American women participate in cancer treatment trials. In a pilot study to assess barriers to participation, we mailed surveys to 132 oncologists and interviewed 19 Asian-American women with cancer from Northern California. Forty-four oncologists responded. They reported as barriers language problems, lack of culturally relevant cancer information, and complex protocols. Most stated that they informed Asian-American women about treatment trials. Only four women interviewed knew about trials. Other patient-identified barriers were fear of side effects, language problems, competing needs, and fear of experimentation. Family decision making was a barrier for both oncologists and patients. Compared to non-Asian oncologists, more Asian oncologists have referred Asian-American women to industry trials and identified barriers similar to patients' reports. Our findings indicate that Asian-American women need to be informed about cancer treatment trials, linguistic barriers should be addressed, and future research should evaluate cultural barriers such as family decision making.
McDaniel, Sharon L.
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives on empowerment held by African American women who work in executive positions within higher educational settings. This study also seeks to provide other women with a deeper level of awareness regarding the journey towards executive leadership. Current literature explores…
Ard, Jamy D; Cox, Tiffany L; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C; Jefferson, Wendy K; Brakhage, Cora
The workplace may be an ideal venue for engaging African American women in behavioral interventions for weight reduction. To examine the effectiveness of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention among a group of predominately African American women in a workplace setting. Crossover design study. Workplace. A total of 39 women volunteered for this study, of whom 27 completed it. The control period involved observation of participants for 22 weeks after receiving standard counseling on lifestyle methods to achieve a healthy weight; following the control period, participants crossed over to the 22-week intervention period. The intervention was culturally enhanced using feedback derived from formative assessment and delivered as 15 group sessions. The primary outcome measure was the difference in weight change between the control and intervention periods; changes in waist circumference and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Most participants were obese, with a mean baseline body mass index of 36 kg/m², weight of 97.9 kg, and waist circumference of 111 cm. Weight increased during the control period by 0.7 kg but decreased by 2.6 kg during the intervention (net difference = -3.4 kg, P culturally enhanced behavioral weight loss intervention in a predominately African American workplace setting. The workplace may be conducive for targeting African American women who are disproportionately affected by obesity.
Schwartz, Alan; Peacock, Nadine; McRae, Kenya; Seymour, Rachel; Gilliam, Melissa
Half of all U.S. pregnancies are categorized as unintended at conception, but concerns persist that existing measures of pregnancy intention do not adequately reflect the complexities of reproductive desires and preferences. We explored new strategies for categorizing viewpoints toward future pregnancy focusing on young, low-income, African-American women, and assessed the stability of these viewpoints over time. For pregnancies that occurred during the study, we examined the utility of the newly derived categories for predicting retrospective measures of intendedness. Data were collected using Q-methodology, a technique for eliciting subjective viewpoints and identifying shared patterns among individuals. African-American women ages 15 to 25 and at risk for pregnancy were recruited at clinics serving low-income populations. The women sorted statements reflecting attitudes and preferences regarding future pregnancy into a distribution on a continuum from "least true for me" to "most true for me." We used by-person factor analysis to derive latent viewpoints. We identified six factors each reflecting a unique viewpoint about future pregnancy. These were a pregnancy seeking factor, one reflecting both ambivalence and low reproductive control, and four reflecting pregnancy avoidance, with distinctions around social support, reproductive control, and desired pregnancy timing. Distribution of factors differed by age group, as well as by retrospective categorization of pregnancy intention for those women who became pregnant during the study. Our categories provide a nuanced reflection of women's points of view about future pregnancies, and, with further validation, may prove useful for predicting or preventing contraceptive nonuse, undesired conceptions, and associated adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dalmida, Safiya George; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Laderman, Gary
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning and use of spirituality among African American (AA), predominantly Christian women with HIV. A nonrandom sample of 20 AA women from a large infectious disease clinic in Metro-Atlanta participated in the study. The study used focus groups and individual interviews to interview women about their lived spiritual experience. Content analysis and NUDIST software were used to analyze transcripts. The findings revealed the spiritual views and practices of AA women with HIV. The following themes (and subthemes) emerged: Spirituality is a process/journey or connection (connection to God, higher power, or spirit and HIV brought me closer to God), spiritual expression (religion/church attendance, prayer, helping others, having faith), and spiritual benefits (health/healing, spiritual support, inner peace/strength/ability to keep going, and here for a reason or purpose/a second chance). Findings highlight the importance of spirituality in health and well-being among AA women with HIV/AIDS.
Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany; Pressler, Susan J; Coleman-Burns, Patricia; McCall, Alecia
Self-management of hypertension requires patients to find, understand, and use information to lower their blood pressure. Little is known about information use among African American women with hypertension, therefore the purpose of this study was to examine predictors of self-reported information use to self-manage blood pressure. Ninety-four Midwestern African American women (mean age = 59) completed questionnaires about information behaviors (seeking, sharing, use) and personal beliefs (attitude, social norms) related to self-management of blood pressure. Linear regression was used to identify significant predictors of information use. The total variance explained by the model was 36%, F(7, 79) = 6.29, p < .001. Information sharing was the only significant predictor (beta = .46, p < .001). These results provide evidence that information sharing is a potential health behavior to support intervention strategies for African American women with hypertension.
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B
African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A
Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy.
Terryl J. Hartman
Full Text Available The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18.3% of total energy intake. The most commonly reported beverage was plain water, consumed by 88.2% of participants, followed closely by sweetened beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened teas, sweetened coffees and sweetened/flavored waters consumed by 78.9% of participants. In multiple regression analyses total energy and percent energy from beverages and specific categories of beverages were not significantly associated with current body mass index (BMI. It is widely accepted that negative energy balance may lead to future weight loss. Thus, reducing consumption of beverages that contribute energy but not important nutrients (e.g., sugar sweetened beverages could be an effective strategy for promoting future weight loss in this population.
Marsh, Heather A; Malik, Fauzia; Shapiro, Eve; Omer, Saad B; Frew, Paula M
We explored the attitudes, opinions, and concerns of African American women regarding influenza vaccination during pregnancy. As influenza immunization coverage rates remain suboptimal in the United States among this population, we elicited message framing strategies for multicomponent interventions aimed at decreasing future incident cases of maternal and neonatal influenza. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 21) were conducted with pregnant African American women at urban OB/GYN clinics who had not received an influenza vaccine. Interviews were transcribed, subjected to intercoder reliability assessment, and content analyzed to identify common thematic factors related to acceptance of the influenza vaccine and health communication message preferences. Four major themes were identified. These were communication approaches, normal vaccine behavior, pregnancy vaccination, and positive versus negative framing. Two strong themes emerged: positively-framed messages were preferred over negatively-framed messages and those emphasizing the health of the infant. Additionally, previous immunization, message source, and vaccine misperceptions also played important roles in decision-making. The majority of women indicated that positively framed messages focusing on the infant's health would encourage them to receive an influenza vaccine. Messages emphasizing immunization benefits such as protection against preterm birth and low birth weight outcomes have potential to overcome widespread negative community perceptions and cultural beliefs. Additionally, messages transmitted via interpersonal networks and social media strongly influence motivation to obtain vaccination during pregnancy. The findings of this study will assist in developing tailored messages that change pregnant African American women's influenza vaccination decision-making to achieve improved coverage.
Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M
Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women ( n = 33) and men ( n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women ( n = 28) and men ( n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.
Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD
Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.
Merrills, J. Maria Sweeney
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how communication preferences, learning preferences, and perceptions about online learning affect nontraditional African American students' participation in online world literature courses at a historically Black university (HBCU) in the southeastern United States. An instrumental case study was…
Greggory R. Davis
Full Text Available Serum and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS concentration has been associated with several health parameters associated with aging including cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength. However, the effectiveness of salivary DHEA for the prediction of cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength in older adults is currently unknown. Thirty elderly African American females provided early morning salivary samples and DHEA levels were determined using a commercially available immunoassay. Participants completed testing for psychomotor and executive function via Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B, respectively. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA was used to bone density and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP was used to determine isometric strength. Age significantly correlated with time on TMT A (r=0.328 and B (r=0.615 but was not related to DHEA, BUA, or IMTP outcomes. Elevated DHEA was associated with longer time to completion for TMT A (χ2=5.14 but not to TMT B. DHEA levels were not associated with BUA or IMTP outcomes. While elevated levels of DHEA were correlated with impaired psychomotor function, salivary DHEA is not associated with executive function, bone mineral density, or isometric strength in elderly African American women.
.... This will be accomplished in two separate waves. In the first wave, facilitators and barriers to breast cancer-screening participation among low-SES women of African-American and Caribbean descent will be determined through qualitative interview...
Full Text Available Scholarship in the area of cross-racial organizing between Latina/o and African Americans has increased substantially over the past ten years. Within that literature, scholars have identified many reasons why cross-racial coalitions both succeed and fail. Among the factors most often cited is the issue of trust. Despite the recognition of the crucial role trust plays in cross-racial organizing, little attention has been paid to what contributes to actually building trust between African Americans and Latina/o. I argue that one factor contributing to the distrust of Latinas among African American women involved in cross-racial organizing in Atlanta is the perceived discrepancy between Latinas’ own asserted identity and the identity assigned to them by African American women organizers. Using data gathered from six years of participant observation and forty interviews conducted with African American women and Latinas organizing in Georgia, I discuss the consequences of identity construction for cross-racial organizing. I find that within cross-racial organizing spaces in Atlanta, perceived racial identities are used by African American women as proxies for determining Latina organizers’ commitment to social justice and, correspondingly, how much individual Latinas can be trusted. Specifically, I find that African American respondents view Latina identity as optional and potentially white. Latina respondents, on the other hand, assert strong identities and contend that their perceived “optional” identities are a function of what Anzaldúa calls a mestiza consciousness or the straddeling of multiple identities. I argue that understanding how these identities are assigned and asserted by Latinas and African American women is a crucial and often-overlooked component to building trust, and by extension, to building sustainable cross-racial coalitions.
Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T; Hood, Kristina B; Corneille, Maya A; Fitzgerald, Angela Y; Belgrave, Faye Z
African-American women continue to be at high risk for HIV and better prevention efforts are needed. The current paper sought to investigate the relationship between gender roles and condom-related outcomes among African American women. The sample consisted of 398 African-American women, who were administered a survey that contained measures of condom-related outcomes and gender role beliefs. We factor analysed their responses and three domains emerged: caretaking/mindful, interpersonal sensitivity and persistent/active coping. Results indicated that the interpersonal sensitivity domain was a significant predictor of condom use and intention with higher interpersonal sensitivity scores associated with less condom use and intentions. The persistent/active coping domain was a significant predictor of condom negotiation efficacy and condom use with higher scores in this domain associated with more condom negotiation efficacy and use. Results suggest that re-conceptualisations offer a better understanding of underlying traits that may influence condom-related outcomes for this population.
Focusing on young adult working class and poor African American women and white women, who currently live in a largely inhospitable economy, this paper examines where these women lodge social critique (where they place the cause and imagine the remedy for their troubles). Data from indepth interviews indicate that respondents see the world with a…
Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.
White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy
Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655
Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.
Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…
Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L.; Garland, Sheryl L.; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan
Abstract Introduction Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but “quitlines” are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. Methods The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. Results There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. Conclusion A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality. PMID:23621745
Candia-Bailey, Antoinette Bonnie
Since the 1800s African-American women have been involved in educational processes in meaningful ways despite challenges to their efforts and advancements. African-American women have made significant strides in breaking the glass ceiling within higher education. This qualitative research study explores and compares the perceptions of challenges…
Cole, Portia L; Secret, Mary C
Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered.
Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on quality of life (QOL) and study differences by gender and race. Methods Ten race- and sex-stratified nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients presented, discussed, combined and rank-ordered their concerns. Results A total of 62 patients with mean age 65.1 years, 60% men, 64% African-American, participated in 10 nominal groups: African-American men (n = 23; 3 groups); African-American women (n = 18; 3 groups); Caucasian men (n = 15; 3 groups); and Caucasian women (n = 6; 1 group). The most frequently cited high-ranked concerns among the ten nominal groups were: (1) effect of gout flare on daily activities (n = 10 groups); (2) work disability (n = 8 groups); (3) severe pain (n = 8 groups); (4) joint swelling and tenderness (n = 6 groups); (5) food restrictions (n = 6 groups); (6) medication related issues (n = 6 groups); (7) dependency on family and others (n = 5 groups); (8) emotional Impact (n = 5 groups); (9) interference with sexual function (n = 4 groups); (10) difficulty with shoes (n = 4 groups); and (11) sleep disruption (n = 4 groups). Compared with men, women ranked the following concerns high more often: problems with shoes (n = 4 versus n = 0 groups); dependency (n = 3 versus n = 2 groups); and joint/limb deformity (n = 2 versus n = 0 group). Compared with Caucasians, African-Americans ranked the following concerns high more often: dietary restrictions (n = 6 versus n = 0 groups); severe pain (n = 6 versus n = 2 groups); gout bringing the day to a “halt” (n = 2 versus n = 0 group); effect on emotional health (n = 4 versus n = 1 groups); and the need for canes/crutches during flares (n = 2 versus n = 0 group). Conclusions Gout has a significant impact on a patient’s QOL. Important differences in the
Matthews, Alicia K; Li, Chien-Ching; McConnell, Elizabeth; Aranda, Frances; Smith, Christina
The purpose of this study is to examine rates of and risk factors for obesity in a community sample of African American sexual minority women (SMW). Data were collected using self-administered paper-and-pencil survey questionnaires (n = 219). Participants were primarily middle aged (M = 40.1; standard deviation [SD] = 10.5 years), well educated (56.9% with a college education and above), insured (82.3%), and had a median income range from $30,000 to $39,999. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 31.6 (SD = 8.0). Based on BMI scores, over half of the participants were identified as obese (53.9%) and 25.6% were overweight. A number of comorbid illnesses were reported that could be exacerbated by excess weight, including arthritis (21.3%), adult-onset diabetes (4.9%), back problems (23.2%), high cholesterol (15.3%), high blood pressure (19.2%), and heart disease (12%). Multiple risk factors for obesity were observed, including infrequent exercise (American SMW report high rates of obesity, chronic health conditions exacerbated by weight, and health and dietary behaviors that increase risk for weight-related health disparities. These study findings have implications for additional research and intervention development.
Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.
Pimpleton, Asher M.
Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…
Bingham, Trista A; Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K
We investigated whether high gender role conflict (GRC; internal conflict with traditional gender-role stereotypes and an individual's perceived need to comply with these roles) is associated with psychological distress and HIV-related risk behaviors in a sample of African American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). We analyzed baseline data collected from questionnaires completed by 400 MSMW participating in the Men of African American Legacy Empowering Self project in Los Angeles, California, in 2007 to 2010 for associations between participants' GRC and experiences of poor mental health and HIV risk outcomes. MSMW who reported higher levels of GRC than other participants also reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, greater internalized homophobia, less HIV knowledge, lower risk reduction skills, less disclosure of same-sex behaviors to others, and more unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse with female partners. Future research should consider how high GRC affects African American MSMW's lives and identify specific approaches to help alleviate the psychological distress and other negative behavioral outcomes associated with internal conflict caused by rigid gender role socialization.
Savitz, D A; Dole, N; Terry, J W; Zhou, H; Thorp, J M
Despite extensive research on tobacco smoking during pregnancy, few studies address risks among African-American and white women, groups that differ in brand preference and smoking habits. The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study is a prospective cohort study that included 2,418 women with detailed information on smoking during pregnancy, including brand, number of cigarettes per day, and changes during pregnancy. We analyzed risk of preterm birth (age deliveries in relation to tobacco use. Pregnant African-American smokers differed markedly from whites in brand preference (95% vs 26% smoked menthol cigarettes) and number of cigarettes per day (1% of African-Americans and 12% of whites smoked 20+ cigarettes per day). Smoking was not related to risk of preterm birth overall, but cotinine measured at the time of delivery was (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.5). A clear association and dose-response gradient was present for risk of fetal growth restriction (risk ratio for 20+ cigarettes/day = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.4-4.0). Associations of tobacco use with preterm premature rupture of amniotic membrane resulting in preterm birth were notably stronger than the associations with other types of preterm birth.
Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary S
Among African-Americans, the faith community has a long history of providing support to its members. Because African-American men tend to delay and decline traditional depression treatment, the faith community may be an effective source of support. The aim of this study was to determine how a rural African-American faith community describes and perceives experiences of depression among African-American males. A convenience sample of 24 men and women participated in focus groups and interview. Four themes were identified: defining depression, etiology of depression, denial of depression, and effect of masculine roles on depression experience.
Edward Antonio Ruiz-Narvaez
Full Text Available Recent genetic admixture coupled with striking differences in incidence of estrogen receptor (ER breast cancer subtypes, as well as severity, between women of African and European ancestry, provides an excellent rationale for performing admixture mapping in African American women with breast cancer risk. We performed the largest breast cancer admixture mapping study with in African American women to identify novel genomic regions associated with the disease. We conducted a genome-wide admixture scan using 2,624 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs in 3,629 breast cancer cases (including 1,968 ER-positive, 1093 ER-negative and 601 triple-negative and 4,658 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER Consortium, a collaborative study of four large geographically different epidemiological studies of breast cancer in African American women. We used an independent case-control study to test for SNP association in regions with genome-wide significant admixture signals. We found two novel genome-wide significant regions of excess African ancestry, 4p16.1 and 17q25.1, associated with ER-positive breast cancer. Two regions known to harbor breast cancer variants, 10q26 and 11q13, were also identified with excess of African ancestry. Fine-mapping of the identified genome-wide significant regions suggests the presence of significant genetic associations with ER-positive breast cancer in 4p16.1 and 11q13. In summary, we identified three novel genomic regions associated with breast cancer risk by ER status, suggesting that additional previously unidentified variants may contribute to the racial differences in breast cancer risk in the African American population.
Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar
Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794
Tyson, Sheryl Y
This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.
Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R
Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.
Denis, Gerald V; Sebastiani, Paola; Andrieu, Guillaume; Tran, Anna H; Strissel, Katherine J; Lombardi, Frank L; Palmer, Julie R
The principal objective of this investigation was to identify novel cytokine associations with BMI and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cytokines were profiled from African American women with obesity who donated plasma to the Komen Tissue Bank. Multiplex bead arrays of analytes were used to quantify 88 cytokines and chemokines in association with clinical diagnoses of metabolic health. Regression models were generated after elimination of outliers. Among women with obesity, T2D was associated with breast adipocyte hypertrophy and with six plasma analytes, including four chemokines (chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 2, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 16, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 1, and chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 16) and two growth factors (interleukin 2 and epidermal growth factor). In addition, three analytes were associated with obesity independently of diabetes: interleukin 4, soluble CD40 ligand, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3. Profiling of inflammatory cytokines combined with measures of BMI may produce a more personalized risk assessment for obesity-associated disease in African American women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Akan, G E; Grilo, C M
Eating attitudes and behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning were evaluated in 98 female college students: 36 African-Americans, 34 Asian-Americans, and 28 Caucasians. African-Americans had significantly higher body mass index than either Asian-American or Caucasians. In contrast, Caucasians reported greater levels of disordered eating and dieting behaviors and attitudes and greater body dissatisfaction than did Asian-Americans and African-Americans who differed little on these measures. The nature of variability in these eating behaviors and attitudes and body image was also examined within each of the three groups. A generally consistent pattern emerged within each racial group: low self-esteem and high public self-consciousness were associated with greater levels of problematic eating behaviors and attitudes and body dissatisfaction. A history of being teased about weight and size was associated with problematic eating behaviors and attitudes and body dissatisfaction in African-Americans and Caucasians but not in Asian-Americans. The findings suggest that there exist important racial differences on various aspects of eating, dieting, and body image in college women. Contrary to hypothesis, the degree of acculturation and assimilation within the African-American and Asian-American groups was unrelated to variability in these domains.
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L; Lobel, Marci
Based on prior research and theory, the authors constructed a multidimensional model of stress in African American women comprised of race-related, gender-related, and generic stress. Exposure to and appraisal of these three types of stress were combined into a higher-order global stress factor. Using structural equation modeling, the fit of this stress factor and its ability to predict distress symptoms were examined in 189 socioeconomically diverse African American women aged 21 to 78. Results support the multidimensional conceptualization and operationalization of stress. Race-related, gender-related, and generic stress contributed equally to the global stress factor, and global stress predicted a significant amount of variance in distress symptoms and intensity. This model exhibited better fit than a model without a global stress factor, in which each stress component predicted distress directly. Furthermore, race-related, gender-related, and generic stress did not contribute to distress beyond their representation in the global stress factor. These findings illustrate that stress related to central elements of identity, namely race and gender, cohere with generic stress to define the stress experience of African American women. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Best Al M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children. Methods Subjects were 157 African-American healthy children and adolescents and their 113 household adults in Richmond VA. Families completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and adolescents were interviewed regarding sexual activity. Results Regardless of age CMV seropositivity was not associated with gender, breast feeding, health insurance, sexual activity, or household income, education, or size. In the final regression model, prior CMV infection in adults was over two-fold higher than in children (chi-square = 18.8, p Conclusion We observed that African-American children had CMV seroprevalence rates by age 20 years at less than one-half of that of their adult mothers and caregivers. Sibling-to-sibling transmission was a likely source of CMV infections for the children. The next generation of African-American women may be highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and may benefit from a CMV vaccine.
Farley, Yasmine Osir
African American women, a group that endures the intersectionality of being both a woman and an African American, have many obstacles in their path as they advance in their career. Despite the strides that have been made in America to improve things for women and people of color, the interwoven societal standards of beauty do not include African…
Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M
This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana
Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266
Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A
Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P habits depending on measure used.
Clay, LaTasha K.
Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…
Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Salazar, Laura F; Head, Sara; Rose, Eve; McDermott-Sales, Jessica
The influence that female partners exert regarding condom use is not well known. In the present study, the relative roles of personal sexual agency and relational factors in determining whether young African American women engaged in unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) were studied. A cross sectional study of 713 young, African American women (aged 15-21 years) was conducted. Data were collected using an audio-computer assisted self-interview. Three measures of sexual agency were assessed and three relational factors were assessed. To help assure validity in the outcome measure, condom use was assessed in five different ways. Multivariate analyses were used to determine whether variables independently predicted UVS. Two of the six predictor variables achieved multivariate significance with all five measures of condom use: (1) fear of negotiating condom use with male partners, and (2) indicating that stopping to use condoms takes the fun out of sex. A relational factor (male-dominated power imbalances) achieved multivariate significance for four of the five measures of UVS. A sexual agency factor (whether young women greatly enjoyed sex) achieved multivariate significance for three of the five measures. The results suggest that young African American women at high-risk of sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV acquisition may experience male-dominated power imbalances and also fear the process of negotiating condom use with their male partners. Although these factors were independently associated with UVS, two factors pertaining to sexual agency of these young women were also important predictors of UVS. Intervention efforts designed to avert STI/HIV acquisition among young African American women should therefore include programs to address both sexual agency and relational factors.
Clark, Ashley E; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A
The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women.
Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women's relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning,…
Whitehead, Marquia V.
Researchers have noted that African American women are a triple jeopardy. They are discriminated against because of three aspects: class, race, and gender (Sanchez-Hucles & Davis, 2010). In terms of education, African American women have a long history of educating other individuals, even those outside of their race (Perkins, 2015), as well as…
Frisby, Cynthia M.
Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…
Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A
To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; Ruszczyk, Melanie; Shankar, Jyoti; Hong, Chi-Chen; McIlwain, Demetra; Roberts, Michelle; Yao, Song; McCann, Susan E; Ciupak, Gregory; Hwang, Helena; Khoury, Thaer; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Pawlish, Karen; Bandera, Elisa V
It has long been held that parity reduces risk of breast cancer. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of parity, as well as breastfeeding, may vary according to estrogen receptor (ER) status. We evaluated these associations in a case-control study among African-American women in New York City and New Jersey. In the Women's Circle of Health Study, including 786 African-American women with breast cancer and 1,015 controls, data on reproductive histories were collected from in-person interviews, with tumor characteristics abstracted from pathology reports. We calculated number of live births and months breastfeeding for each child, and examined each in relation to breast cancer by ER status, and for triple-negative (TN) breast cancer. Although associations were not statistically significant, having children was associated with reduced risk of ER+ breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.58-1.16], but increased risk of ER- tumors, with associations most pronounced for TN breast cancer (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 0.93-3.51). Breastfeeding gave no additional benefit for ER+ cancer, but reduced the risk of ER- disease associated with parity. Accumulating data from a number of studies, as well as our own in African-American women, indicate that the effects of parity and breastfeeding differ by ER status. African-American women are more likely to have children and not to breastfeed, and to have ER- and TN breast cancer. It is possible that breastfeeding in this population could reduce risk of more aggressive breast cancers.
Sawyer, L M
Using grounded theory methodology, 17 first-time African American mothers were interviewed to elicit their experiences of pregnancy and motherhood. Participants had a mean age of 30 years, were mostly married, employed, middle income, college educated, and all received adequate prenatal care. Engaged Mothering was identified as the core category, denoting the active, involved, and mutual process in which a woman prepares to be a mother, cares for herself and her infant, and dreams about and plans for the future to have a good life for her child. Strategies women used in this process included getting ready, dealing with the reality, settling in, and dreaming. Conditions of intentionality of the pregnancy and prior history of miscarriage or health problems of the mother affected the process. Women described the effects of racism on their daily lives and on the criteria they used to choose providers. Nursing interventions are proposed based on these results.
Gebreab, Samson Y; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brenner, Allison B; Hickson, DeMarc A; Sims, Mario; Subramanyam, Malavika; Griswold, Michael E; Wyatt, Sharon B; James, Sherman A
Few studies have examined the impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. We used data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) to examine the associations of multiple measures of lifecourse SEP with CVD events in a large cohort of African Americans. During a median of 7.2-year follow-up, 362 new or recurrent CVD events occurred in a sample of 5301 participants aged 21 to 94. Childhood SEP was assessed by using mother's education, parental home ownership, and childhood amenities. Adult SEP was assessed by using education, income, wealth, and public assistance. Adult SEP was more consistently associated with CVD risk in women than in men: age-adjusted hazard ratios for low versus high income (95% CIs), 2.46 (1.19 to 5.09) in women and 1.50 (0.87 to 2.58) in men, P for interaction=0.1244, and hazard ratio for low versus high wealth, 2.14 (1.39 to 3.29) in women and 1.06 (0.62 to 1.81) in men, P for interaction=0.0224. After simultaneous adjustment for all adult SEP measures, wealth remained a significant predictor of CVD events in women (HR=1.73 [1.04, 2.85] for low versus high). Education and public assistance were less consistently associated with CVD. Adult SEP was a stronger predictor of CVD events in younger than in older participants (HR for high versus low summary adult SEP score 3.28 [1.43, 7.53] for participants ≤50 years, and 1.90 (1.36 to 2.66) for participants >50 years, P for interaction 0.0846). Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD risk in women or men. Adult SEP is an important predictor of CVD events in African American women and in younger African Americans. Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD events in this population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Davis, Lindsey T; Weiss, Nicole H; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L
Few studies have examined correlates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among African-Americans. Moreover, most research on the correlates of DSH in general has focused on risk factors rather than protective factors. This study examined differences in perceived social support, religiosity (both spirituality and church attendance) and overall life satisfaction between African-Americans with and without a history of DSH, as well as the moderating roles of gender and sexual orientation in these relations. Participants were 244 African-American university students who completed questionnaires. Participants with (vs. without) DSH reported significantly lower levels of social support. Additionally, rates of DSH were significantly higher among participants who attended church irregularly versus regularly or rarely/never. However, the association between DSH and church attendance was significant only for women (vs. men) and LGBQ (vs. heterosexual) women. Further, gender moderated the relation between DSH and social support from both significant others and friends, with self-harming women (but not men) reporting less support than their non-DSH counterparts. Findings add to the literature on DSH among African-Americans, highlighting both social support and church attendance (depending on regularity) as potential protective factors within this population.
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Kreuter, Matthew K; Holt, Cheryl; Steger-May, Karen
This exploratory study examined how estimates of one's fruit and vegetable intake in childhood are related to 3 current dietary behaviors among African American women: intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure to and preference for fruits and vegetables, and preference for trying new foods. Baseline data from a randomized dietary intervention trial. Ten urban public health centers in St. Louis, Missouri. 1227 African American women. A 33-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, items measuring estimates of childhood fruit and vegetable intake, adult fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to and preference for fruit and vegetable, and preference for trying new foods. Linear regression evaluated the association between predictors and continuous measures; logistic regression determined the association between predictors and categorical measures. Estimates of one's vegetable intake as a child were significantly related to exposure and preference for both fruits and vegetables, trying of new foods, and intake of both fruits and vegetables in adulthood. Estimates of eating fruit as a child were not significantly associated with these adult dietary behaviors. Developmental influences on adult dietary patterns may be stronger for vegetables than fruits among African American women. Additional emphasis is needed regarding exposure to and preference for vegetable intake in childhood.
Elasy Tom A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.
Horton, Amanda L; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Jared, Heather L; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven
Maternal periodontal disease is a chronic oral infection with local and systemic inflammatory responses and may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study determined whether maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy is associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and whether maternal race influences the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and systemic inflammatory responses. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy study was conducted. Healthy women at Periodontal disease was categorized by clinical criteria, and maternal serum was analyzed for CRP levels using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. An elevated CRP level was defined as >75th percentile. Demographic and medical data were obtained from the women's charts. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine maternal factors associated with an elevated CRP. An adjusted odds ratio (OR) for elevated CRP levels was calculated and stratified by race and periodontal disease category. The median (interquartile) CRP level was 4.8 (0.6 to 15.7) microg/ml, and an elevated CRP level (>75th percentile) was 15.7 microg/ml. African American race and moderate/severe periodontal disease were significantly associated with elevated CRP levels. When stratified by race, moderate/severe periodontal disease remained associated with an elevated CRP level among African American women (adjusted OR: 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2 to 8.5) but not among white women (adjusted OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.2 to 3.6) after adjusting for age, smoking, parity, marital status, insurance status, and weight. Among African American women, moderate/severe periodontal disease is associated with elevated CRP levels early in pregnancy.
Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie B.
Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally-specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical sociology, and the stress process, we explore the adverse impact of gendered racism experiences and potential moderating factors in a sample of 204 predominantly low-SES African American women. We find that African American women’s risk for suicidal ideation is linked to stressors occurring as a function of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. In addition, we find that gendered racism has no effect on suicidal ideation among women with moderate levels of well-being, self-esteem, and active coping, but has a strong adverse influence in those with high and low levels of psychosocial resources. PMID:23565018
Vickery, Amanda E.
This qualitative study focuses on how 5 African American women social studies teachers utilized their experiential knowledge and understanding of history to make sense of the construct of citizenship. Drawing from Black feminism, this study asks how African American women social studies teachers define and teach the construct of citizenship.…
Rationale, design, and baseline findings from HIPP: A randomized controlled trial testing a home-based, individually-tailored physical activity print intervention for African American women in the Deep South.
Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Joseph, Rodney; Bray, Molly S; Kvale, Elizabeth; Isaac, Shiney; Desmond, Renee; Meneses, Karen; Marcus, Bess; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy
African American women report high rates of physical inactivity and related health disparities. In our previous formative research, we conducted a series of qualitative assessments to examine physical activity barriers and intervention preferences among African American women in the Deep South. These data were used to inform a 12-month Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print (HIPP) intervention, which is currently being evaluated against a wellness contact control condition among 84 post-menopausal African American women residing in the metropolitan area of Birmingham, Alabama. This paper reports the rationale, design and baseline findings of the HIPP trial. The accrued participants had an average age of 57 (SD=4.7), a BMI of 32.1 kg/m(2) (SD=5.16) with more than half (55%) having a college education and an annual household income under $50,000 (53.6%). At baseline, participants reported an average of 41.5 min/week (SD=49.7) of moderate intensity physical activity, and 94.1% were in the contemplation or preparation stages of readiness for physical activity. While social support for exercise from friends and family was low, baseline levels of self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change, decisional balance, outcome expectations, and enjoyment appeared promising. Baseline data indicated high rates of obesity and low levels of physical activity, providing strong evidence of need for intervention. Moreover, scores on psychosocial measures suggested that such efforts may be well received. This line of research in technology-based approaches for promoting physical activity in African American women in the Deep South has great potential to address health disparities and impact public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Golden, Annis G
This study was undertaken in partnership with a publicly funded reproductive healthcare organization to better understand barriers to utilization of its services as perceived by low income African American women in its community and how those barriers might be managed. The study uses a place-based, ecological perspective to theorize privacy challenges across different levels of the communication ecology. Analysis of participant observation, interviews, and focus group data identified three key public-private problematics in African American women's experience of reproductive healthcare seeking in a smaller urban setting: a public-private problematic of organizational identity, of organizational regions, and of organizational members. Potential strategies are identified for managing these problematics by the organization and community members. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The SISTA pilot project: understanding the training and technical assistance needs of community-based organizations implementing HIV prevention interventions for African American women--implications for a capacity building strategy.
Fuller, Taleria R; Brown, Mari; King, Winifred; Prather, Cynthia; Cazaubon, Janine; Mack, Justin; Russell, Brandi
The disproportionate rates of HIV/AIDS among African American women in the U.S. signify the ongoing need for targeted HIV prevention interventions. Additionally, building the capacity of service providers to sustain prevention efforts is a major concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a pilot project to disseminate the Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), an HIV prevention intervention designed for African American women. The project was to inform the diffusion process and examine the training and technical assistance needs of participating community-based organizations. Results demonstrated a need for extensive pre-planning and skills-building prior to implementation.
Pittman, Chavella T.
This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…
Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Russell, Daniel W.; Hessling, Robert M.; Brown, P. Adama; Murry, Velma
The effects of community characteristics on well-being were examined among 709 African American women. Direct and moderating effects of neighborhood characteristics on distress were tested. Aggregate-level ratings of neighborhood cohesion and disorder were significantly related to distress, although the relation between cohesion and distress became nonsignificant when individual risk factors were statistically controlled. Aggregate-level neighborhood variables interacted significantly with individual risk and resource variables in the prediction of distress, consistent with trait-situation interaction theories (D. Magnusson & N. S. Endler, 1977). Community cohesion intensified the benefits of a positive life outlook. Community disorder intensified both the benefits of personal resources and the detrimental effects of personal risk factors. Results showed evidence of resilience among African American women. PMID:11138756
Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany C; Pressler, Susan J
Although cell phone use and Internet access via cell phone is not marked by racial disparities, little is known about how cell phone use relates to blood pressure and health information seeking behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (a) describe Internet activities, cell phone use, and information seeking; (b) determine differences in blood pressure and information seeking between cell phone information seekers and nonseekers; and (c) examine cell phone information seeking as a predictor of blood pressure in African American women. Participants ( N = 147) completed a survey and had their blood pressure measured. Independent-sample t tests showed a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in cell phone information seekers and nonseekers. Linear regression revealed cell phone information seeking as an independent predictor of systolic blood pressure, despite confounders. It is possible that cell phone information seekers were using health information to make decisions about self-management of blood pressure.
Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B
This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n = 206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included.
Joseph, Rodney P; Keller, Colleen; Adams, Marc A; Ainsworth, Barbara E
African American women report insufficient physical activity and are disproportionally burdened by associated disease conditions; indicating the need for innovative approaches to promote physical activity in this underserved population. Social media platforms (i.e. Facebook) and text messaging represent potential mediums to promote physical activity. This paper reports the results of a randomized pilot trial evaluating a theory-based (Social Cognitive Theory) multi-component intervention using Facebook and text-messages to promote physical activity among African American women. Participants (N = 29) were randomly assigned to receive one of two multi-component physical activity interventions over 8 weeks: a culturally-relevant, Social Cognitive Theory-based, intervention delivered by Facebook and text message (FI) (n = 14), or a non-culturally tailored print-based intervention (PI) (n = 15) consisting of promotion brochures mailed to their home. The primary outcome of physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, physical activity-related psychosocial variables, and participant satisfaction. All randomized participants (N = 29) completed the study. Accelerometer measured physical activity showed that FI participants decreased sedentary time (FI = -74 minutes/week vs. PI = +118 minute/week) and increased light intensity (FI = +95 minutes/week vs. PI = +59 minutes/week) and moderate-lifestyle intensity physical activity (FI = + 27 minutes/week vs. PI = -34 minutes/week) in comparison to PI participants (all P's .05). Results of secondary outcomes showed that in comparison to the PI, FI participants self-reported greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (FI = +62 minutes/week vs. PI = +6 minutes/week; P = .015) and had greater enhancements in self-regulation for physical activity (P program to a friend
Lilly, Michelle M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and African American women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…
African-American women and other underrepresented faculty members often report experiences of social exclusion and scholarly marginalization in mainstream institutions of higher education. This lack of inclusion challenges their retention and hinders them from becoming productive members of the professoriate, positioning them at a disadvantage for…
of women of color have are the same factors that effect the under representation of Euro-American Women and men of color. This study takes those distinctions into account. The methodology of this study relies on extensive interview data (among other sources), to fully examine the transition process of six African-American women engaged in graduate work in mathematics or science at predominantly white institutions. I examine each participant's story as a case study, outlining moderating influences and perspectives on their acculturation to the STEM disciplines and to majority institutions.
Fincher, Danielle; VanderEnde, Kristin; Colbert, Kia; Houry, Debra; Smith, L Shakiyla; Yount, Kathryn M
African American women in the United States report intimate partner violence (IPV) more often than the general population of women. Overall, women underreport IPV because of shame, embarrassment, fear of retribution, or low expectation of legal support. African American women may be especially unlikely to report IPV because of poverty, low social support, and past experiences of discrimination. The purpose of this article is to determine the context in which low-income African American women disclose IPV. Consenting African American women receiving Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in WIC clinics were randomized to complete an IPV screening (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales-Short Form) via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) or face-to-face interview (FTFI). Women (n = 368) reported high rates of lifetime and prior-year verbal (48%, 34%), physical (12%, 7%), sexual (10%, 7%), and any (49%, 36%) IPV, as well as IPV-related injury (13%, 7%). Mode of screening, but not interviewer race, affected disclosure. Women screened via FTFI reported significantly more lifetime and prior-year negotiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 10.54, 3.97) and more prior-year verbal (aOR = 2.10), sexual (aOR = 4.31), and any (aOR = 2.02) IPV than CASI-screened women. African American women in a WIC setting disclosed IPV more often in face-to-face than computer screening, and race-matching of client and interviewer did not affect disclosure. Findings highlight the potential value of face-to-face screening to identify women at risk of IPV. Programs should weigh the costs and benefits of training staff versus using computer-based technologies to screen for IPV in WIC settings. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hughes, D; Dodge, M A
Although studies have described work processes among employed African American women, few have examined the influence of these processes on job outcomes. This study examined relationships between African American women's exposure to a range of occupational stressors, including two types of racial bias--institutional discrimination and interpersonal prejudice--and their evaluations of job quality. Findings indicated that institutional discrimination and interpersonal prejudice were more important predictors of job quality among these women than were other occupational stressors such as low task variety and decision authority, heavy workloads, and poor supervision. Racial bias in the workplace was most likely to be reported by workers in predominantly white work settings. In addition, Black women who worked in service, semiskilled, and unskilled occupations reported significantly more institutional discrimination, but not more interpersonal prejudice, than did women in professional, managerial, and technical occupations or those in sales and clerical occupations.
Palmer, Nynikka R. A.; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Hauser, Sally P.; Lawrence, Julia A.; Talton, Jennifer; Case, L. Douglas; Geiger, Ann M.
Purpose Despite recommendations for breast cancer survivorship care, African American women are less likely to receive appropriate follow-up care, which is concerning due to their higher mortality rates. This study describes differences in barriers to follow-up care between African American and White breast cancer survivors. Methods We conducted a mailed survey of women treated for non-metastatic breast cancer in 2009–2011, 6–24 months post-treatment (N=203). Survivors were asked about 14 potential barriers to follow-up care. We used logistic regression to explore associations between barriers and race, adjusting for covariates. Results Our participants included 31 African American and 160 White survivors. At least one barrier to follow-up care was reported by 62%. Compared to White survivors, African Americans were more likely to identify barriers related to out-of-pocket costs (28% vs. 51.6%, p=0.01), other healthcare costs (21.3% vs. 45.2%, p=0.01), anxiety/worry (29.4% vs. 51.6%, p=0.02), and transportation (4.4% vs. 16.1%, p=0.03). After adjustment for covariates, African Americans were three times as likely to report at least one barrier to care (OR=3.3, 95%CI=1.1–10.1). Conclusions Barriers to care are common among breast cancer survivors, especially African American women. Financial barriers to care may prevent minority and underserved survivors from accessing follow-up care. Enhancing insurance coverage or addressing out-of-pocket costs may help address financial barriers to follow-up care among breast cancer survivors. Psychosocial care aimed at reducing fear of recurrence may also be important to improve access among African American breast cancer survivors. PMID:25821145
Jamila K. Stockman
Full Text Available Background: Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective: In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI. We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV influences abuse. Design: Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions: Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to
Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane
Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.
Full Text Available Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.
Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith
The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…
Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.
This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…
Olzak, Susan; Kangas, Nicole
African American Studies, Ethnic Studies, and Women's Studies programs in higher education have received wide support from faculty members and students, yet few programs offer a major or have tenure-line faculty positions. Our analysis used sociological theories to generate testable implications about the chances that an institution will offer…
K. B. Holden
Full Text Available Gaining greater understanding about the various psychosocial, socio-cultural, and environmental factors that may influence experiences of depression among African American women (AAW helps elucidate how this mental illness impacts the lives of this population. Sixty-three adult AAW comprised the study’s convenience sample. Specifically, focus group cohorts inclusive of women from an academic institution, a primary healthcare clinic, and an urban community setting were conducted. Results indicated six (6 dominant common themes as issues that may increase risk for depression among diverse AAW. Similarities and differences about perspectives that contributed to depression were delineated among the three cohorts of AAW. These results are important for mental/behavioral health researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals that are engaged in the design and implementation of culturally centered and gender-specific prevention and intervention strategies targeted to AAW at risk for depression.
Lamis, Dorian A; Wilson, Christina K; Shahane, Amit A; Kaslow, Nadine J
Although there is an association between experiencing childhood emotional abuse and feeling hopeless as an adult, it is critical to understand the factors that may be protective in this relationship. The goal of this study was to determine if two protective factors, namely spiritual well-being, including both religious and existential well-being, and positive self-esteem, served to mediate the association between childhood emotional abuse and adult hopelessness. The sample for this investigation was low-income African American women suicide attempters who were abused by a partner in the prior year (N=121). A path analysis revealed that in this sample, the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness link was mediated by existential well-being and positive self-esteem, as well as by the two-mediator path of emotional abuse on existential well-being on self-esteem on hopelessness. Results suggested that existential well-being may be a more salient protective factor for hopelessness than religious well-being among abused, suicidal African American women who experienced childhood emotional abuse. Findings highlight the value of culturally relevant strategies for enhancing existential well-being and self-esteem in this at-risk population to reduce their vulnerability to feelings of hopelessness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adriel A. Hilton
Full Text Available Today’s knowledge-based, global commerce requires continuous investment in human capital through postsecondary education for countries to be fiercely competitive. Countries, such as China and India, are experiencing growth in the number of people participating in postsecondary education; the United States has fallen behind. While America needs to focus on increasing college access and degree completion among underrepresented ethnic minorities, particularly in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM, educators and policymakers assert that this is particularly important for African American males. Increasing matriculation and graduation rates for African Americans is not only a matter of equity, but in the context of STEM, it has major implications for the competitiveness of the United States in the global economy. This article identifies strategies that educators and policymakers can employ to promote the participation of African American males in college in general, particularly in STEM.
Strong, Larkin L.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.
Purpose Few studies have assessed how attributes of neighborhood environments contribute to sedentary, in addition to active, behaviors. This study investigated associations of perceived social and physical aspects of neighborhood environments with television (TV) viewing and physical activity (PA) in African American adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported survey. Setting Large mega-church in Houston, TX. Subjects 1,374 African American men and women. Measures Outcomes included log-transformed daily TV viewing and participation in medium/high levels of PA, measured by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood perceptions were assessed with the Social Cohesion and Trust and the Neighborhood Problems scales. Analysis Multivariable models that controlled for clustering within neighborhoods. Results Reporting more neighborhood problems was significantly associated with greater log-transformed TV viewing in women (β=0.017, SE=0.006, p=0.003), and social cohesion was positively associated with PA in women (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02, 1.11, p=0.006). Concerns about litter and walking after dark, and a lack of places to shop were associated with increased TV viewing among women, and concerns about traffic and walking after dark were associated with reduced PA among men. Conclusion Physical and social neighborhood conditions were associated with TV viewing and PA, particularly in women. Neighborhood-based strategies to reduce sedentary behaviors and enhance PA should include attention to social as well as physical aspects of neighborhood environments. PMID:23398134
Strong, Larkin L; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H
Few studies have assessed how attributes of neighborhood environments contribute to sedentary, in addition to active, behaviors. This study investigated associations of perceived social and physical aspects of neighborhood environments with television (TV) viewing and physical activity (PA) in African-American adults. Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported survey. Large mega-church in Houston, Texas. A total of 1374 African-American men and women. Outcomes included log-transformed daily TV viewing and participation in medium/high levels of PA, measured by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood perceptions were assessed with the Social Cohesion and Trust and the Neighborhood Problems scales. Multivariable models that controlled for clustering within neighborhoods. Reporting more neighborhood problems was significantly associated with greater log-transformed TV viewing in women (β = .017, SE = .006, p = .003), and social cohesion was positively associated with PA in women (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.11, p = .006). Concerns about litter and walking after dark and a lack of places to shop were associated with increased TV viewing among women, and concerns about traffic and walking after dark were associated with reduced PA among men. Physical and social neighborhood conditions were associated with TV viewing and PA, particularly in women. Neighborhood-based strategies to reduce sedentary behaviors and enhance PA should include attention to social as well as physical aspects of neighborhood environments.
Taylor, Teletia R; Huntley, Edward D; Sween, Jennifer; Makambi, Kepher; Mellman, Thomas A; Williams, Carla D; Carter-Nolan, Pamela; Frederick, Wayne
Fear of recurrence (FOR) is a psychological concern that has been studied extensively in cancer survivors but has not been adequately examined in African-American breast cancer survivors. This exploratory study describes the extent and nature of FOR in African-American breast cancer survivors. FOR is examined in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, treatment-related characteristics, psychological distress, and quality of life (QOL). Participants completed questionnaires assessing FOR, psychological distress, QOL, and demographic and treatment characteristics. Pearson r correlations, t tests, and ANOVAs were used to determine the association between FOR and demographic and treatment-related characteristics. Hierarchical multiple regression models were performed to investigate the degree to which FOR dimensions account for the variance in QOL and psychological distress. Fifty-one African-American breast cancer survivors participated in this study. The mean age of participants was 64.24 (SD = 12.3). Overall fears as well as concerns about death and health were rated as low to moderate. Role worries and womanhood worries were very low. Inverse relationships were observed between age and FOR dimensions. FOR was positively correlated with measures of psychological distress and negatively correlated with QOL. FOR significantly accounted for a portion of the variance in QOL and distress after controlling for other variables. This study suggests that African-American women in this sample demonstrated some degree of FOR. Results indicate that FOR among African-American breast cancer survivors decreases with age and time since diagnosis and co-occurs with psychological distress as well as diminished quality of life.
Yancy-Tooks, Barbara J.
The purpose of this qualitative ethnographic study was to explore the experiences of African American women about their perceptions of factors (i.e. senior administrator selection practices, institutional practices, barriers, and coping strategies) that hinder or facilitate advancement in community college administration. The following questions…
Li, Michael J; Frank, Heather Guentzel; Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K; Chou, Chih-Ping; Bluthenthal, Ricky N
African-American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are among those most heavily impacted by HIV in the United States, and those who have histories of incarceration are at further risk of infection. The Men in Life Environments (MILE) HIV prevention intervention was developed to provide culturally appropriate skills-based education and support for African-American MSMW with recent histories of incarceration. The MILE's conceptual framework was informed by three theories: Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior, Critical Thinking and Cultural Affirmation Model, and Empowerment Theory. The theory-based framework posits that improving racial pride is crucial in building self-efficacy and intentions that in turn promote health-protective behaviors. Therefore, our study aimed to assess whether baseline associations between racial pride and condom use self-efficacy, intentions, and behaviors among African-American MSMW with histories of incarceration align with our conceptual model. We report data on 212 participants recruited from Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Men's Central Jail and the local community. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two separate models: one with female sexual partners and one with male sexual partners, while stratifying by participant's HIV status. Only among HIV-negative participants was greater racial pride associated with less condomless intercourse with men. In this group, greater self-efficacy and intentions-but not racial pride-predicted less condomless intercourse with women. Our findings suggest that racial pride is an important factor to address in HIV prevention interventions for post-incarcerated African-American MSMW.
Pointer, S D; Rickstrew, J; Slaughter, J C; Vaezi, M F; Silver, H J
Although obesity rates are higher in African-American than European-American women, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its comorbidities are more prevalent in European-American women. A common denominator for increased adiposity, and consequent insulin resistance, is excess dietary macronutrient intake - which may promote greater prevalence and severity of GERD in women. To investigate whether GERD is more robustly associated with dietary carbohydrate intake, particularly dietary simple carbohydrate intake, and insulin resistance in European-American women. About 144 obese women were assessed at baseline and 16 weeks after consuming a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet. GERD diagnosis and medication usage was confirmed in medical records with symptoms and medications assessed weekly. About 33.3% (N = 33) of European-American and 20.0% (N = 9) of African-American women had GERD at baseline. Total carbohydrate (r = 0.34, P < 0.001), sugars (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), glycaemic load (r = 0.34, P = 0.001) and HOMA IR (r = 0.30, P = 0.004) were associated with GERD, but only in European-American women. In response to high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet, reduced intake of sugars was associated with reduced insulin resistance. By the end of diet week 10, all GERD symptoms and medication usage had resolved in all women. GERD symptoms and medication usage was more prevalent in European-American women, for whom the relationships between dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and GERD were most significant. Nevertheless, high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet benefited all women with regard to reducing GERD symptoms and frequency of medication use. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as frameworks to better understand the participants'…
Tarca, Adi L.; Romero, Roberto; Gudicha, Dereje W.; Erez, Offer; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Bhatti, Gaurav; Pacora, Percy; Maymon, Eli; Hassan, Sonia S.
Background The assessment of fetal growth disorders requires a standard. Current nomograms for the assessment of fetal growth in African American women have been derived either from neonatal (rather than fetal) biometry data or have not been customized for maternal ethnicity, weight, height, parity, and fetal sex. Objective We sought to 1) develop a new customized fetal growth standard for African American mothers; and 2) compare such a standard to three existing standards for the classification of fetuses as small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age. Study Design A retrospective cohort study included 4,183 women (4,001 African American and 182 Caucasian) from the Detroit metropolitan area who underwent ultrasound examinations between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation (the median number of scans per pregnancy was 5, interquartile range 3-7) and for whom relevant covariate data were available. Longitudinal quantile regression was used to build models defining the “normal” estimated fetal weight (EFW) centiles for gestational age in African American women, adjusted for maternal height, weight, parity, and fetal sex, and excluding pathologic factors with a significant effect on fetal weight. The resulting Perinatology Research Branch/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (hereinafter, PRB/NICHD) growth standard was compared to 3 other existing standards—the customized gestation-related optimal weight (GROW) standard; the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (hereinafter, NICHD) African American standard; and the multinational World Health Organization (WHO) standard—utilized to screen fetuses for SGA (90th centile) based on the last available ultrasound examination for each pregnancy. Results 1) First, the mean birthweight at 40 weeks was 133g higher for neonates born to Caucasian than to African American mothers and 150g higher for male than female neonates; maternal weight
Wilcox, Sara; Bopp, Melissa; Oberrecht, Larissa; Kammermann, Sandra K; McElmurray, Charles T
African American and rural older women are among the least active segments of the population. This study, guided by social cognitive theory, examined the correlates of physical activity (PA) in 102 rural older women (41% African American; 70.6 +/- 9.2 years). In bivariate associations, education, marital status, self-efficacy, greater pros than cons, perceived stress, social support, and perceived neighborhood safety were positively associated with PA; age, depressive symptoms, perceived sidewalks, health care provider discussion of PA, and perceived traffic were negatively associated with PA. In a hierarchical regression analysis, the sociodemographic (R(2) = 23%), psychological (IR(2) = 9%), social (IR(2) = 6%), and perceived physical environmental (IR(2) = 9%) sets of variables were significant (p motivators; falls, injuries, and heart attacks were identified most often as risks. These findings support the importance of multilevel influences on PA in older rural women and are useful for informing PA interventions.
Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.
Randolph, Schenita; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey
Improving the health of black and minority ethnic (BME) men in the US continues to be a public health priority. Compared with men of other races and ethnicities, African-American men have higher rates of mortality and morbidity from chronic illness and diseases including cancer, heart disease, prostate cancer, diabetes and HIV/AIDS. One way to address these disparities is to include African-American men in health research, to elicit their perspectives on health risks and protective factors. These can then inform interventions aimed at reducing health disparities. However, challenges remain in recruiting and engaging African-American men in health research. To provide strategies for recruiting African-American men in health research, using as an exemplar a qualitative study of fathers' perspectives of sexual health promotion with young African-American males. Efforts are needed to increase the representation of African-American men in health research. Ensuring that researchers are aware of the cultural, social and environmental factors related to decisions to participate in research can lead to effective methods to recruit and engage them. There are several essential strategies for increasing African-American men's participation in health research: ensuring the research team is culturally and gender-sensitive; recruiting in trusted environments; using respected gatekeepers; developing trust with participants; and being transparent. Implementing strategies to include African-American men in health research has the potential to improve health disparities in the US. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Klimentidis, Yann C; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B
Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10(-5) in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors.
King, G; Polednak, A P; Bendel, R
The impact of geographic region and metropolitan residence on smoking prevalence among African Americans has not been adequately examined. This study analyzed 5 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey (1990-1994) on current smoking and regional variation among 16,738 African Americans. Results. Respondents in the West had the lowest unadjusted smoking prevalence rates and Midwest residents had the highest. Current smoking was lower among African Americans living in non-central cities than in central cities even after adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that black women in the South were significantly less likely to be smokers compared with any other gender/region group. These findings suggest the significance of gender and regional factors such as the social history of migration, social stress and racism, exposure to tobacco advertisement, variations in cultural influences, community structures, and coping strategies in under standing African American smoking behavior. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.
Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra
The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Avent Harris, Janeé R.; Wong, Christine D.
African American undergraduate students face numerous challenges during college; however, they are less likely to seek help from college counseling services. Often, African Americans seek support from spiritual resources. In the current phenomenological study, participants shared in a focus group interview. Overall, participants seemed to value…
Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci
Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
Black, Angela R; Cook, Jennifer L; Murry, Velma McBride; Cutrona, Carolyn E
Ecological theory was used to explore the pathways through which intimate relationship quality influenced health functioning among rural, partnered African American women. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from 349 women in Georgia and Iowa. Women's intimate relationship quality was positively associated with their psychological and physical health functioning. Support from community residents moderated this link, which was strongest for women who felt most connected with their neighbors and for women who believed their neighborhood to have a sense of communal responsibility. Future research should identify other factors salient to health functioning among members of this population.
Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O
Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.
Oster Robert A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher among African Americans (AA vs European Americans (EA, independent of obesity and other known confounders. Although the reason for this disparity is not known, it is possible that relatively low levels of vitamin D among AA may contribute, as vitamin D has been positively associated with insulin sensitivity in some studies. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary vitamin D would be associated with a robust measure of insulin sensitivity in AA and EA women. Methods Subjects were 115 African American (AA and 137 European American (EA healthy, premenopausal women. Dietary intake was determined with 4-day food records; the insulin sensitivity index (SI with a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling; the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR with fasting insulin and glucose; and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Vitamin D intake was positively associated with SI (standardized β = 0.18, P = 0.05 and inversely associated with HOMA-IR (standardized β = -0.26, P = 0.007 in AA, and the relationships were independent of age, total body fat, energy intake, and % kcal from fat. Vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with indices of insulin sensitivity/resistance in EA (standardized β = 0.03, P = 0.74 and standardized β = 0.02, P = 0.85 for SI and HOMA-IR, respectively. Similar to vitamin D, dietary calcium was associated with SI and HOMA-IR among AA but not EA. Conclusions This study provides novel findings that dietary vitamin D and calcium were independently associated with insulin sensitivity in AA, but not EA. Promotion of these nutrients in the diet may reduce health disparities in type 2 diabetes risk among AA, although longitudinal and intervention studies are required.
Gillum, Richard F; Dodd, Kristen D
This book review analyzes the complex and profound impact active religious participation has on relationships and family outcomes among African Americans and Latinos. In Soul Mates, Wilcox and Wolfinger discuss the legacy of slavery and Jim Crow laws and the resulting devastating effects on African American and Latino families despite their high religious involvement. The authors make the case that many African American men are unlikely candidates for marriage or stable relationships due to trends of family instability driven by the declining income-power of working-class men as well as entry of more women into the labor force, government penalties for low-income couples, revolt against traditional values, increased access to birth control and abortion, and the persistence of discrimination and incarceration of minority men. The authors examine data from six national surveys as well as additional data from interviews, focus groups, ethnographic field work, and an extensive literature review. Wilcox and Wolfinger find evidence that when African American couples actively participate in Christian churches, the men are more likely to adhere to a "code of decency" which decreases street behaviors, such as binge drinking, having multiple sex partners, and having multi-partner fertility, which are known to inhibit family stability. This book will be helpful for health providers who would like to better understand and serve their African American and Latino patients. The findings suggest that health care providers can promote a healthy emotional environment for families by encouraging minority men to renew or maintain church involvement. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: Fibroadenoma is the commonest benign tumor of female breast. It is particularly common in young women in Africa. Method: This paper describes the clinicopathologic features of fibroadenoma of breast in African women from central Ghana and compares them to the data from African-American women.
Coogan, Patricia E; Wise, Lauren A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn
Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for Black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in Black compared to White women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged Women's Health Study, which began in 1995. We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk.
Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; Holl, Jane L; Wolfe, Kaitlin A; Grobman, William A; Borders, Ann E B
Objectives Prior studies have shown significant racial disparities in psychosocial stressors for pregnant women. One physiological mechanism by which prenatal stress is expressed is via the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, which itself differs by race. In this study, we examine differences in cortisol awakening response (CAR) for African-American and Caucasian pregnant women during late pregnancy, particularly whether racial disparities are evident after accounting for measures of psychosocial stress. Methods During their third trimester of pregnancy (32-40 weeks of gestation), we asked women to self-collect salivary samples at home over 2 days. We then measured salivary cortisol across the day for 30 pregnant women (18 Caucasian; 12 African-American) to examine the CAR by race and by multiple measures of self-reported psychosocial stress, including perceived discrimination. Results Although the women in our sample showed normative cortisol diurnal rhythms (high on waking, peak 30 min post-waking, lowest at bedtime), we found that African-American women had blunted (smaller) awakening responses compared to Caucasian women (p accounting for covariates in a multivariate equation. However, when we added measures of psychosocial stress to the multivariate equation, higher levels of stress were significantly associated with a smaller CAR (p < 0.05), and the association between maternal race and CAR was no longer significant. Conclusions Our results add to a growing body of evidence that racial differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with psychosocial stress during pregnancy.
Harmon, Q E; Baird, D D
Is use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) a risk factor for or a protective factor against prevalent uterine leiomyoma? Ever use of DMPA was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 0.9) of prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women. Although progesterone is associated with growth of leiomyoma, previous epidemiological studies have shown a protective association for DMPA use. These previous studies may have been biased by studying clinically diagnosed leiomyoma (DMPA may mask symptoms thus delaying diagnoses). Cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of 1696 African American women. Community-based recruitment (e.g. letters, flyers, radio and TV announcements) were used to enroll African American women between 23 and 34 years old without a previous diagnosis of leiomyoma in the Metropolitan Detroit area. Extensive questionnaire data were used to determine DMPA use and screening ultrasound detected the presence of leiomyoma ≥0.5 cm in diameter. Relative risks with adjustment for covariates were calculated for the presence of leiomyoma based on ever use of DMPA as well as duration and recency of use. Among the 1696 volunteers who enrolled, 43% had used DMPA. Leiomyoma were detected in 17% of those who had ever used DMPA compared with 26% of those who had never used DMPA. The reduction in prevalence remained after adjustment for potential confounders and was highest among women who had used DMPA for more than 4 years (adjusted RR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). The reduction in risk was seen for women whose most recent use was up to 8 years prior to study enrollment. The use of cross-sectional data means that the timing of initial fibroid development is not known, so the temporality of the association is uncertain. However in this sample of young women, most fibroids were small, suggesting that DMPA exposure may have occurred before leiomyoma development. Our findings are in
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...
It is well documented that racism in the US healthcare system, including the objectification and disparagement of women of color, contributes to disparities in health status. However, it is a mistaken notion to characterize women of color as unknowing victims. In this study, black feminist standpoint epistemology is used in methodological approach and analysis to understand how a small group of African American church-going women use religious beliefs to help them cope with and resist the racism and discriminatory objectification they encounter in healthcare encounters.
Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E
A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women.
Buchanan, NiCole T; Fitzgerald, Louise F
Research on workplace harassment has typically examined either racial or sexual harassment, without studying both simultaneously. As a result, it remains unknown whether the co-occurrence of racial and sexual harassment or their interactive effects account for unique variance in work and psychological well-being. In this study, hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the influence of racial and sexual harassment on these outcomes among 91 African American women involved in a sexual harassment employment lawsuit. Results indicated that both sexual and racial harassment contributed significantly to the women's occupational and psychological outcomes. Moreover, their interaction was statistically significant when predicting supervisor satisfaction and perceived organizational tolerance of harassment. Using a sample of African American women employed in an organizational setting where harassment was known to have occurred and examining sexual and racial harassment concomitantly makes this study unique. As such, it provides novel insights and an important contribution to an emerging body of research and underscores the importance of assessing multiple forms of harassment when examining organizational stressors, particularly among women of color.
Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian
Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.
Brown, Cynthia Williams; Alexander, Dayna S.; Cummins, Kayla; Price, Amanda Alise; Anderson-Booker, Marian
Background: African American women have the highest risk of death from heart disease among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups due to sedentary behaviors. Purpose: This article describes an intervention among 2 groups--a program group and an information group (intervention and comparison)--that assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge among…
Shulman, Julie L.; Horne, Sharon G.
The current investigation examined the relationship between masturbation and body image among 96 women seeking services at a local family planning clinic in a mid-southern U.S. city. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed body image and masturbatory practices. Ethnic differences were found with European American women reporting…
Bell-Tolliver, LaVerne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J
With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they identified in the families and how they use those strengths in therapy. Themes emerging from data analysis confirmed the continued importance of the five strengths Hill noted. In addition, two new strengths were identified by the participants: a willingness of a greater number of families to seek therapy, and the importance of family structure. Strategies used in engaging the families in therapy and practice implications for family therapists are discussed.
Robison, Katina; Clark, Lindsay; Eng, Whitney; Wu, Lily; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Dizon, Don S
The purpose of this study was to compare cervical cancer knowledge and prevention strategy participation among Chinese-American women compared with Southeast-Asian-American women. We performed a cross-sectional survey of Chinese and Southeast Asian women in Rhode Island. Anonymous surveys were administered following informed consent. The survey included demographics and questions related to health care practices, cervical cancer, and the human papilloma virus (HPV). Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. Mean scores of correct answers on the knowledge questions were compared by Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Ninety-six Chinese women and 132 Southeast Asian women were included in the analysis. Sixty-seven percent of Chinese women had at least a college education compared with 37% of Southeast Asian women (p women reported annual household incomes of greater than $100,000 compared with 3% of Southeast Asian women (p = .0003). Twenty percent of Southeast Asian women did not have health insurance compared with 10% of Chinese women (p = .06). Among both groups, 25% of participants either never had a pap test or did not know if they ever had a pap test. There was a greater lack of knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese (mean 2.9 out of 8 questions) compared with Southeast Asian (mean 3.6 out of 8 questions; p = .02). Regardless of ethnic subgroup, education, or income, all participants had a poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV. This study supports the need for improvement in cervical cancer prevention education among all Asian women. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
relationship with their counselor. Most intervention women found the session content helpful. Implementation challenges of addressing multiple risk behaviors are discussed. Conclusion While implementation adjustments and flexibility are necessary, multiple risk behavioral interventions can be implemented in a prenatal care setting without significant disruption of services, and with a majority of referred African American women participating in and expressing satisfaction with treatment sessions.
Zhang, Shengfan; Ivy, Julie S; Diehl, Kathleen M; Yankaskas, Bonnie C
The effect of breast density on survival outcomes for American women who participate in screening remains unknown. We studied the role of breast density on both breast cancer and other cause of mortality in screened women. Data for women with breast cancer, identified from the community-based Carolina Mammography Registry, were linked with the North Carolina cancer registry and NC death tapes for this study. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were developed to analyze the effect of several covariates on breast cancer mortality-namely, age, race (African American/White), cancer stage at diagnosis (in situ, local, regional, and distant), and breast density (BI-RADS( ® ) 1-4). Two stratified Cox models were considered controlling for (1) age and race, and (2) age and cancer stage, respectively, to further study the effect of density. The cumulative incidence function with confidence interval approximation was used to quantify mortality probabilities over time. For this study, 22,597 screened women were identified as having breast cancer. The non-stratified and stratified Cox models showed no significant statistical difference in mortality between dense tissue and fatty tissue, while controlling for other covariate effects (p value = 0.1242, 0.0717, and 0.0619 for the non-stratified, race-stratified, and cancer stage-stratified models, respectively). The cumulative mortality probability estimates showed that women with dense breast tissues did not have significantly different breast cancer mortality than women with fatty breast tissue, regardless of age (e.g., 10-year confidence interval of mortality probabilities for whites aged 60-69 white: 0.056-0.090 vs. 0.054-0.083). Aging, African American race, and advanced cancer stage were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio >1.0). After controlling for cancer incidence, there was not a significant association between mammographic breast density and mortality, adjusting
Evans, Stephanie Y.
EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…
O'Brien, Laurie T; Blodorn, Alison; Adams, Glenn; Garcia, Donna M; Hammer, Elliott
Stereotypes associating men and masculine traits with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are ubiquitous, but the relative strength of these stereotypes varies considerably across cultures. The present research applies an intersectional approach to understanding ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation within an American university context. African American college women participated in STEM majors at higher rates than European American college women (Study 1, Study 2, and Study 4). Furthermore, African American women had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American women (Studies 2-4), and ethnic differences in implicit gender-STEM stereotypes partially mediated ethnic differences in STEM participation (Study 2 and Study 4). Although African American men had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American men (Study 4), ethnic differences between men in STEM participation were generally small (Study 1) or nonsignificant (Study 4). We discuss the implications of an intersectional approach for understanding the relationship between gender and STEM participation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Kim Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary
The aim of this study was to explore how a rural African American faith community would address depression within their congregations and the community as a whole. A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 24 participants representing pastors, parishioners interested in health, and African American men who had experienced symptoms of depression in a community in the Arkansas Delta. The primary data sources for this qualitative research study were focus groups. Participants identified three key players in the rural African American faith community who can combat depression: the Church, the Pastor/Clergy, and the Layperson. The roles of each were identified and recommendations for each to address depression disparities in rural African Americans. The recommendations can be used to develop faith-based interventions for depression targeting the African American faith community. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie
Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities.
Shelby, Rebecca A.; Crespin, Tim R.; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla M.; Lamdan, Ruth M.; Siegel, Jamie E.; Taylor, Kathryn L.
Past studies show that optimism and social support are associated with better adjustment following breast cancer treatment. Most studies have examined these relationships in predominantly non-Hispanic White samples. The present study included 77 African American women treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer. Women completed measures of optimism, social support, and adjustment within 10-months of surgical treatment. In contrast to past studies, social support did not mediate the relationship between optimism and adjustment in this sample. Instead, social support was a moderator of the optimism-adjustment relationship, as it buffered the negative impact of low optimism on psychological distress, well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Women with high levels of social support experienced better adjustment even when optimism was low. In contrast, among women with high levels of optimism, increasing social support did not provide an added benefit. These data suggest that perceived social support is an important resource for women with low optimism. PMID:18712591
Love, Catherine; David, Richard J; Rankin, Kristin M; Collins, James W
White women experience their lowest rate of low birth weight (LBW) in their late 20s; the nadir LBW for African-American women is under 20 years with rates rising monotonically thereafter, hypothesized as due to "weathering" or deteriorating health with cumulative disadvantage. Current residential environment affects birth outcomes for all women, but little is known about the impact of early life environment. The authors linked neighborhood income to a transgenerational birth file containing infant and maternal birth data, allowing assessment of economic effects over a woman's life course. African-American women who were born in poorer neighborhoods and were still poor as mothers showed significant weathering with regard to LBW and small for gestational age (SGA) but not preterm birth (PTB). However, African-American women in upper-income areas at both time points had a steady fall in LBW and SGA rate with age, similar to the pattern seen in white women. No group of white women, even those always living in poorer neighborhoods, exhibited weathering with regard to LBW, SGA, or PTB. In contrast, the degree of weathering among African-American women is related to duration of exposure to low-income areas and disappears for those with a life residence in non-poor neighborhoods.
... character of our Nation--often in the face of both racial and gender discrimination. As courageous... women who took extraordinary risks to change our Nation for the better. During National African American... they have made to perfecting our Union. This year's theme, ``Black Women in American Culture and...
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Sa, Jaesin; Heimdal, James; Sbrocco, Tracy; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Beatrice
Little is known about correlates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American students at historically Black colleges and universities. To assess overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American college students at a historically Black university in Maryland in the USA. Data were collected from 268 African American college students in 2013. Data were analyzed with percentage difference z-tests, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression. Cross-sectional survey (student response rate = 49.9%). The overweight/obesity rate of participants was 47.5%, which was higher than that of the U.S. college student population overall (34.1%) and a representative sample of African American college students (38.3%). When age and sex were controlled, a family history of obesity, skipping breakfast, drinking caffeinated drinks, lower family income, and smoking a pipe, cigars, or cigarettes daily were significant correlates of overweight (obesity included). The percentage of physical inactivity was 68.3, and physical inactivity was higher among women and overweight or obese students. Given the high overweight and obesity prevalence among African American college students, historically Black colleges and universities in the USA should increase health promotion efforts targeting weight-related behaviors, particularly physical activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
E.E. Marsh (Erica E.); L.A. Bernardi (Lia A.); M.L. Steinberg (Marissa L.); P.J. de Chavez (Peter J.); J.A. Visser (Jenny); M.R. Carnethon (Mercedes R.); D.D. Baird (Donna D.)
textabstractObjective: To characterize normative antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels and ascertain which factors are associated with AMH in a large cohort of reproductive-age women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Not applicable. Patient(s): A total of 1,654 African-American women (AAW) ages
Collins, Kimberly Williams; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.
Investigated whether a sense of generalized self-efficacy (GSE) would mediate the relationship between African American women's racial identity attitudes and self-esteem. Surveys of women from churches and a misdemeanor probation institution indicated that GSE mediated the relationship between pre-encounter racial identity attitude and…
Sebastião, Emerson; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Schwingel, Andiara
Combating the physical inactivity crisis and improving health and quality of life is a challenge and a public health priority, especially in underserved populations. A key role of public health consists of informing, educating, and empowering individuals and communities about health issues. Researchers have found that mass communication messages often have limited effectiveness in reaching and impacting the health of underserved populations. The present pilot study was designed to explore perceptions of older African American women (AAW) in response to widely disseminated public information pertaining to physical activity (PA) and aging. A total of 10 older AAW aged 60 years and over participated in this study. Participants were evenly assigned in one of the 2 focus groups (i.e. active, n = 5; and inactive, n = 5) based on their PA level. The focus group approach was employed to gather information about widely available public information materials related to PA that target the adult and older adult population. The three guides used were: (1) Exercise and Physical Activity: Your Everyday Guide; (2) The Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults; and (3) Be Active Your Way: A Guide for Adults. NVIVO 10 software was used to help in the qualitative data analysis. Descriptive thematic analysis was employed in identifying, analyzing and reporting patterns/themes within the data. Older AAW in the present study identified some shortcomings in current public health materials. Participants from both focus groups raised concerns regarding language and the types of activities used as examples in the materials. After analysis, two themes emerged: "We may have trouble in reading it" and "It does not reflect us". Participants' evaluation was found to be similar between the active and inactive focus groups. Older AAW's perceptions of the materials suggest that materials intended to educate and motivate the general public towards PA need to be modified to better speak to older
Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M
Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women. © 2016 UICC.
Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.
Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…
Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter
The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.
Christy L Avery
Full Text Available The QT interval (QT is heritable and its prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. Most genetic studies of QT have examined European ancestral populations; however, the increased genetic diversity in African Americans provides opportunities to narrow association signals and identify population-specific variants. We therefore evaluated 6,670 SNPs spanning eleven previously identified QT loci in 8,644 African American participants from two Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE studies: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial. Of the fifteen known independent QT variants at the eleven previously identified loci, six were significantly associated with QT in African American populations (P≤1.20×10(-4: ATP1B1, PLN1, KCNQ1, NDRG4, and two NOS1AP independent signals. We also identified three population-specific signals significantly associated with QT in African Americans (P≤1.37×10(-5: one at NOS1AP and two at ATP1B1. Linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans assisted in narrowing the region likely to contain the functional variants for several loci. For example, African American LD patterns showed that 0 SNPs were in LD with NOS1AP signal rs12143842, compared with European LD patterns that indicated 87 SNPs, which spanned 114.2 Kb, were in LD with rs12143842. Finally, bioinformatic-based characterization of the nine African American signals pointed to functional candidates located exclusively within non-coding regions, including predicted binding sites for transcription factors such as TBX5, which has been implicated in cardiac structure and conductance. In this detailed evaluation of QT loci, we identified several African Americans SNPs that better define the association with QT and successfully narrowed intervals surrounding established loci. These results demonstrate that the same loci influence variation in QT
O’Neal, Catherine Walker
Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger intervention study. Results: Attitudes about eating fruit and vegetables, subjective social norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to older African Americans’ intentions to consume fruits and vegetables. Social norms and behavioral intentions were associated with fruit and vegetable eating behaviors. Perceived control did not moderate the influence of behavioral intentions on actual behavior. Implications: Results indicated that the theory of planned behavior can be used to explain variation in older African Americans’ eating behavior. This study also emphasizes the value of considering broader behavioral domains when employing the theory of planned behavior rather than focusing on specific behaviors. Furthermore, social service programs aimed at reducing the incidence of diseases commonly associated with poor eating behaviors among older African Americans must consider promoting not only fruit and vegetable consumption but also related behaviors including preparing and self-monitoring by eliminating structural, cognitive, and normative constraints. PMID:23241919
Davis, Deanna Rachelle
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…
Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Chu, Li-Hao; John, Esther M.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Ingles, Sue A.; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F.; Ursin, Giske; Haiman, Christopher A.; Neuhausen, Susan L
Mitochondria play important roles in cellular energy production, free radical generation and apoptosis. In a previous report in Cancer Research, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) G10398A (Thr → Ala) polymorphism was associated with breast cancer risk in African-American women. Here, we seek to replicate the association by genotyping the G10398A polymorphism in three established population-based case-control studies of breast cancer in African-American women. The 10398A allele was not significantly associated with risk in any of the studies [San Francisco study (542 cases, 282 controls, odds ratio (OR) = 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 3.47, P = 0.12); Multiethnic Cohort (391 cases, 460 controls, OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.86, P = 0.79); CARE/LIFE study (524 cases, 236 controls, OR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.52, P = 0.50)]. When pooling the data across the three studies (1456 cases and 978 controls), no significant association was observed with the 10398A allele (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.62, P = 0.47, P heterogeneity=0.30). In analysis of advanced breast cancer cases (n=674), there also was no significant association (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.82, P = 0.46). Our results do not support the hypothesis that the mtDNA G10398A polymorphism is a marker of breast cancer risk in African Americans as previously reported. PMID:18262047
Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia
This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lauver, D. (1994). Care-seeking behavior with breast cancer symptoms in Caucasian and African-American women. Research in Nursing and Health, 17, 421...Disorders the Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 4, 47-5 8. 181. Waller, G. & Hodgson, S. (1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia ...1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: the role of perceived and actual control. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184
Little is known regarding explanations for racial disparities in breast cancer incidence among younger women and tumor aggressiveness, perhaps because of the difficulty in enrolling African-Americans...
Little is known regarding explanations for racial disparities in breast cancer incidence among younger women and tumor agressiveness, perhaps because of the difficulty in enrolling African-Americans...
Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…
Cooper, Denise C; Thayer, Julian F; Waldstein, Shari R
Prayer is often used to cope with racism-related stress. Little is known about its impact on cardiovascular function. This study examined how prayer coping relates to cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), post-stress recovery, and affective reactivity in response to racism-related stress. African American women (n =81; mean age=20 years) reported their use of prayer coping on the Perceived Racism Scale and completed anger recall and racism recall tasks while undergoing monitoring of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and hemodynamic measures. Prayer coping was examined for associations with CVR, recovery, and affective change scores using general linear models with repeated measures. Higher prayer coping was associated with decreased state stress and DBP reactivity during racism recall (p'sracism recall recovery(p'sracism by utilizing prayer may have cardiovascular benefits for African American women.
Cerezo, Alison; Lyda, James; Enriquez, Alma; Beristianos, Matthew; Connor, Michael
The purpose of this study was to share findings from semistructured qualitative interviews with 9 African American and 12 Latino men about their ideas on how university personnel could better support their needs. Stressing the need for African American men to learn self-reliance to counter microaggressions, African American participants offered…
Yuen, Hon K; Breland, Hazel L; Vogtle, Laura K; Holthaus, Katy; Kamen, Diane L; Sword, David
To explore the process associated with the motivation for playing Wii Fit among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Individual in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 sedentary African American women with SLE to explore their experiences and reflect on their motivation for playing Wii Fit after completing a 10-week home-based Wii Fit exercise program. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify categories related to participants' motivation. Three authors independently sorted, organized and coded transcript text into categories, then combined the categories into themes and subthemes. In addition to the two themes (Ethical principal of keeping a commitment, and Don't want to let anyone down) generic to home-based exercise trials, we identified five themes (Enjoyment, Health Benefits, Sense of Accomplishment, Convenience, and Personalized) that revealed why the participants were motivated to play the Wii Fit. Enjoyment had three subthemes: Interactive, Challenging, and Competitive with an embedded social element. However, several participants commented they were not able to do many activities, master certain games, or figure out how to play some; as a result, they were bored with the limited selection of activities that they could do. The motivational elements of the Wii Fit may contribute to improved exercise motivation and adherence in select sedentary African American women with SLE. Results provide a better understanding on the important elements to incorporate in the development of sustainable home-based exercise programs with interactive health video games for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sartor, Carolyn E; Grant, Julia D; Few, Lauren R; Werner, Kimberly B; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Duncan, Alexis E; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C; Agrawal, Arpana
The current investigation assessed for moderating effects of childhood trauma on genetic and environmental contributions to timing of alcohol use initiation and alcohol use disorder in African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. Data were drawn from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.6% AA) in a longitudinal female twin study. Childhood trauma was defined alternately as child maltreatment and more broadly to include other events (e.g., witnessing violence). Phenotypic associations between childhood trauma and alcohol outcomes were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Twin modeling was conducted to test for moderating effects of childhood trauma on the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to timing of initiation and alcohol use disorder. Under both definitions, childhood trauma was associated with early initiation (relative risk ratios: 1.90, 1.72) and alcohol use disorder (odds ratios: 1.92, 1.76). Yet gene by environment effects were observed only for child maltreatment and timing of initiation in EA women, with heritable influences less prominent in those who had experienced child maltreatment (0.35, 95% CI: 0.05-0.66 vs. 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30-0.73). We found more similarities than differences in the association of childhood trauma with alcohol outcomes across racial/ethnic groups, trauma type, and stages of alcohol use. However, findings suggest that the relative contribution of genetic factors to alcohol outcomes differs by childhood maltreatment history in EA women specifically in the earliest stage of alcohol use.
Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O
The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.
Perry, Brea L; Harp, Kathi L H; Oser, Carrie B
In recent decades, sociologists have increasingly adopted an intersectionality framework to explore and explain the complex and interconnected nature of inequalities in the areas of race, class, and gender. Using an inclusion-centered approach and a sample of 204 low-socioeconomic-status (SES) African American women, the authors theorize and explore the role of racial and gender discrimination in the stress process. Analyses examine relationships between social stressors (racial and gender discrimination) and individual stressors occurring in each of six distinct social contexts. Furthermore, the authors evaluate the effects of racial and gender discrimination as compared to individual stressors on three indicators of mental health and well-being. Findings suggest that racial and gender discrimination increases risk for poor health and low well-being, working both directly and indirectly through increased vulnerability to individual stressors. This research demonstrates the value of a more comprehensive study of stressors that influence the health of low-SES African American women and other multiply disadvantaged groups.
Samson, Marsha E; Adams, Swann Arp; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R
In South Carolina, the co-occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and breast cancer (BrCA) is much more prevalent among African American populations than among European American populations. The underlying relationship between diabetes and breast cancer may influence breast cancer survival. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effect of diabetes on developing breast cancer and to reduce racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Study participants included women of European American (EA) and African American (AA) ethnicity from both the Medicaid ICD-9 designations and the South Carolina Central Cancer Registry (SCCCR). A historical prospective cohort design was used to determine the risk of developing breast cancer among women of different ethnicities with and without DM. The chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the association; the logistic model was used to assess the relationship between breast cancer and other factors among EA and AA women. Menopause may have protective properties for AA compared to EA women. AA women have twice the odds of not surviving from each breast cancer stage compared to EA women with respect to their breast cancer stage. Adherence to diabetes medication may contribute to lower breast cancer death in EA. This study illustrates the discrepancy between EA and AA women in terms of breast cancer survival. AA women bear a higher disease burden than EA women. To create ethnic-appropriate public health policies, it is imperative that we understand the effect of comorbidities on breast cancer and how we can prevent them from occurring.
Coogan, Patricia F.; Wise, Lauren A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn
Objectives Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in black compared to white women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. Design We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged less than age 55 in the longitudinal Black Women’s Health Study which began in 1995. Main Outcome Measures We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). Results The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity for was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Conclusions Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk. PMID:22764643
This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…
K. B. Holden
Full Text Available There is a great need to carefully examine issues that may elevate one’s risk for mental illness and develop strategies to mitigate risk and cultivate resilience. African Americans, specifically African American women (AAW, are disproportionately affected by mental illness, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Higher rates of PTSD among AAW may be explained by significant rates of trauma exposure. Higher resiliency in individuals with mental illnesses is associated with better treatment response/outcomes. An examination of two (2 promising psycho-educational curricula for AAW at risk for depression and PTSD supports consideration of resilience as a protective factor among this population. Strengthening psychological resilience among diverse AAW at risk for depression and/or PTSD may serve as a protective factor for symptom severity. Multidimensional prevention and intervention strategies should incorporate culturally-centered, gender-specific, and strengths-based (resilience models of care to help encourage mental health help-seeking and promotion of wellness for AAW.
Broman, Clifford L.
Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…
Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Amy L.; Cancelli, Anthony A.
Study examines the coping strategies used by African Americans in managing the stressful effects of racism. Results indicate that women preferred avoidance coping for racism experienced on a personal level. For African Americans in general, seeking social support and racism condition were the best predictors of racism-related stress. Life…
Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A
Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.
Dash, Chiranjeev; Makambi, Kepher; Wallington, Sherrie F; Sheppard, Vanessa; Taylor, Teletia R; Hicks, Jennifer S; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L
Metabolic syndrome and obesity are known risk factors for breast cancers. Exercise interventions can potentially modify circulating biomarkers of breast cancer risk but evidence in African-Americans and women with metabolic syndrome is lacking. The Focused Intervention on Exercise to Reduce CancEr (FIERCE) trial is a prospective, 6-month, 3-arm, randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of exercise on obesity, metabolic syndrome components, and breast cancer biomarkers among African-American women at high risk of breast cancer. Two hundred-forty inactive women with metabolic syndrome and absolute risk of breast cancer ≥ 1.40 will be randomized to one of the three trial arms: 1) a supervised, facility-based exercise arm; 2) a home-based exercise arm; and 3) a control group that maintains physical activity levels through the course of the trial. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome variables are anthropometric indicators of obesity, metabolic syndrome components, and inflammatory, insulin-pathway, and hormonal biomarkers of breast cancer risk. The FIERCE trial will provide evidence on whether a short-term exercise intervention might be effective in reducing breast cancer risk among African-American women with comorbidities and high breast cancer risk--a group traditionally under-represented in non-therapeutic breast cancer trials. NCT02103140. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wu, Chun Yi; Prosser, Rachel A; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y
The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between depressive symptoms and perceived social support on blood pressure in African American women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 159 African American women from multiple sites in the Detroit Metro area. Results from this study found that both higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with higher depressive symptom scores (r= .20 and .18, p social support scores (r=-.44, p social support scores were not significantly correlated with blood pressure readings. Higher depressive symptom scores were associated with increased systolic blood pressure independent of social support. Findings of the present study suggest the importance of appropriate social support to help alleviate depressive symptoms. However, to effectively control blood pressure in patients with depressive symptoms, other pathophysiologic mechanisms between depressive symptoms and elevated blood pressures independent of social support should be examined in future research. Future studies should consider a cohort design to examine the temporal relationship of depressive symptoms, social support, and blood pressure readings. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David
The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…
Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Dubowitz, Tamara; Haas, Ann; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; DeSantis, Amy; Troxel, Wendy M
Research has demonstrated the adverse impact that discrimination has on physical and mental health. However, few studies have examined the association between discrimination and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that African Americans experience higher rates of PTSD and are more likely to develop PTSD following trauma exposure than Whites, and discrimination may be one reason for this disparity. To examine the association between discrimination and PTSD among a cross-sectional sample largely comprising African American women, controlling for other psychosocial stressors (psychological distress, neighborhood safety, crime). A sample of 806 participants was recruited from two low-income predominantly African American neighborhoods. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, perceived discrimination, perceived safety, and psychological distress. Information on neighborhood crime was obtained through data requested from the city. Multivariate linear regression models were estimated to assess adjusted relationships between PTSD symptoms and discrimination. Discrimination was significantly associated with PTSD symptoms with a small effect size, controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables. This association remained consistent after controlling for psychological distress, perceived safety, and total neighborhood crime. There was no evidence of a gender by discrimination interaction. Participants who experienced any discrimination were significantly more likely to screen positive for PTSD. Discrimination may contribute to the disparate rates of PTSD experienced by African Americans. PTSD is associated with a range of negative consequences, including poorer physical health, mental health, and quality of life. These results suggest the importance of finding ways to promote resilience in this at-risk population.
Burgess, Norma J.
Examines the black female's role in U.S. society, particularly with regard to working outside the home, and argues that one cannot understand what African American women are today without having a historical perspective for what their ancestors and their ancestors' roles, functions, and responsibilities were. An Afrocentric perspective is…
Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Brown, Sharon A; Steinhardt, Mary A
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative, focus group study was to further refine the Resilience-based Diabetes Self-management Education (RB-DSME) recruitment process and intervention, build greater trust in the community, and identify strategies to enhance its sustainability as a community-based intervention in African American church settings. Methods Six 2-hour focus groups (N = 55; 10 men and 45 women) were led by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion. Two sessions were conducted with individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who participated in previous RB-DSME pilot interventions and their family members, two sessions with local church leaders, and two sessions with community healthcare providers who care for patients with T2DM. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a grounded theory approach. The validity of core themes was enhanced by external review and subsequent discussions with two qualitative methods consultants. Results There was expressed interest and acceptability of the RB-DSME program. Church connection and pastor support were noted as key factors in building trust and enhancing recruitment, retention, and sustainability of the program. Core themes across all groups included the value of incentives, the need for foundational knowledge shared with genuine concern, teaching with visuals, dealing with denial, balancing the reality of adverse consequences with hope, the importance of social support, and addressing healthcare delivery barriers. Conclusion Focus groups documented the feasibility and potential effectiveness of RB-DSME interventions to enhance diabetes care in the African American community. In clinical practice, inclusion of these core themes may enhance T2DM self-care and treatment outcomes.
Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.
Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa
Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601
Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
This research was conducted to gain insight into how low-income, pregnant, African American women viewed physical activity and approached nutrition during pregnancy. Three focus groups with a total of 26 women were conducted utilizing open-ended questions related to physical activity and diet during pregnancy. Content analysis was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Groups were compared and contrasted at the within-group and between-group levels to identify themes. Two themes that related to physical activity during pregnancy were identified: 1) fatigue and low energy dictate activity and 2) motivation to exercise is not there. Three themes were identified that related to diet: 1) despite best intentions, appetite, taste, and cravings drive eating behavior; 2) I'll decide for myself what to eat; and 3) eating out is a way of life. Women reported that being physically active and improving their diets was not easy. Women indicated that their levels of physical activity had decreased since becoming pregnant. Attempts at improving their diets were undermined by frequenting fast food restaurants and cravings for highly dense, palatable foods. Women ceded to the physical aspects of pregnancy, often choosing to ignore the advice of others. A combination of low levels of physical activity and calorie-dense diets increased the risk of excessive gestational weight gain in this sample of women, consequently increasing the risk for weight retention after pregnancy. Health care providers can promote healthy eating and physical activity by building on women's being "in tune with and listening to" their bodies. They can query women about their beliefs regarding physical activity and diet and offer information to ensure understanding of what contributes to healthy pregnancy outcomes. Intervention can focus on factors such as cravings and what tastes good, suggesting ways to manage pregnancy effects within a healthy diet. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women’s relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning, relationship well-being, and parenting were tested. Stressful events were related directly to diminished relationship well-being and heightened psyc...
...) status among African-American women. During the period of the project, we established collaborations with the Tennessee Cancer Reporting System, hospitals in the study areas, and basic science researchers...
Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; Hong, Chi-Chen; Yao, Song; Troester, Melissa A; Bandera, Elisa V; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N; Borges, Virginia; Park, Song-Yi; Chandra, Dhyan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R
Menarche is a critical time point for diverging fates of mammary cells of origin. African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. In the AMBER Consortium, using harmonized data from 4426 African American women with breast cancer and 17 474 controls, we used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ages at menarche and first live birth (FLB), and the interval between, in relation to ER+ and ER- breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Risk of ER- breast cancer was reduced with later age at menarche among both parous and nulliparous women (≥15 vs fashion (OR for 20 year interval = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.79, P trend = .003), ER- risk was only increased for intervals up to 14 years and not beyond (P trend = .33). While ER- breast cancer risk was markedly reduced in women with a late age at menarche, there was not a clear pattern of increased risk with longer interval between menarche and FLB, as was observed for ER+ breast cancer. These findings indicate that etiologic pathways involving adolescence and pregnancy may differ for ER- and ER+ breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Watson, Bekeela; Robinson, Dana H.Z; Harker, Laura; Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob
The use of Web-based methods for research recruitment and intervention delivery has greatly increased as Internet usage continues to grow. These Internet-based strategies allow for researchers to quickly reach more people. African-Americans are underrepresented in health research studies. Due to this, African-Americans get less benefit from important research that could address the disproportionate health outcomes they face. Web-based research studies are one promising way to engage more Afri...
Hill, Mandy; Granado, Misha; Stotts, Angela
HIV continues to be a major public health problem for African-American (AA) women, and the burden of new cases to our society is significant because each case is at risk of infecting others. Substance use worsens the risk of HIV transmission to AA women. We provide specific recommendations to move the concept of tailoring HIV prevention interventions for substance users forward by focusing on young, sexually active, substance-using AA women and applying a culturally relevant revision to existing theoretical frameworks to include the Sexual Script Theory and the Theory of Gender and Power. We encourage use of these theories to guide adaptation of interventions to demonstrate efficacy within this hard-to-reach population. Consistent use of theories designed to exploit powerlessness and sexual scripts as barriers to adoption of protective sexual behaviors has potential to permeate sexual and substance use networks among African-Americans. This recommendation is being made because this theoretical framework has not been used in HIV prevention interventions targeting young, sexually active, substance-using AA women.
Maturu, Amita; DeWitt, Peter; Kern, Philip A; Rasouli, Neda
The TG/HDL-C ratio is used as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in Caucasians. However, there are conflicting data on TG/HDL-C ratio as a predictor of IR in African Americans. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans have lower TG levels and increased insulin levels despite a greater risk for diabetes. We hypothesized that the TG/HDL-C ratio is predictive of IR and/or β-cell function in African American (AA) women. Non-diabetic AA women (n = 41) with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) underwent frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) were measured using minimal model and β-cell function was determined by disposition index (DI = S I*AIRg). IR was defined as the lowest tertile of SI ( 0.70 was defined as significant discrimination. The mean (± SD) age was 38.5 ± 11.3 years, with BMI of 33.5 ± 6.7 kg/m(2) and fasting glucose of 86.5 ± 10.5 mg/dL. The AUC-ROC for the prediction of DI women. However, we did show an inverse association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and β-cell function, suggesting that this simple tool may effectively identify AA women at risk for DM2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pekmezi, Dori; Marcus, Bess; Meneses, Karen; Baskin, Monica L; Ard, Jamy D; Martin, Michelle Y; Adams, Natasia; Robinson, Cody; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy
To address high rates of inactivity and related chronic diseases among African-American women. Eleven focus groups on physical activity barriers for African-American women in the deep south (USA) were conducted (n = 56). Feedback guided an intervention development process. The resulting Home-Based Individually Tailored Physical Activity Print intervention was vetted with the target population in a 1-month, single arm, pre-post test demonstration trial (n = 10). Retention was high (90%). Intent-to-treat analyses indicated increases in motivational readiness for physical activity (70% of sample) and physical activity (7-day Physical Activity Recall) from baseline (mean: 89.5 min/week, standard deviation: 61.17) to 1 month (mean: 155 min/week, standard deviation: 100.86). Small improvements in fitness (6-Min Walk Test), weight and psychosocial process measures were also found. Preliminary findings show promise and call for future randomized controlled trials with larger samples to determine efficacy. Such low-cost, high-reach approaches to promoting physical activity have great potential for addressing health disparities and benefiting public health.
Lavner, Justin A; Barton, Allen W; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H
Racial discrimination is a common stressor for African Americans, with negative consequences for mental and physical well-being. It is likely that these effects extend into the family, but little research has examined the association between racial discrimination and couple functioning. This study used dyadic data from 344 rural, predominantly low-income heterosexual African American couples with an early adolescent child to examine associations between self-reported racial discrimination, psychological and physical aggression, and relationship satisfaction and instability. Experiences of discrimination were common among men and women and were negatively associated with relationship functioning. Specifically, men reported higher levels of psychological aggression and relationship instability if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination, and women reported higher levels of physical aggression if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination. All results replicated when controlling for financial hardship, indicating unique effects for discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination may be negatively associated with relationship functioning among African Americans and call for further research on the processes underlying these associations and their long-term consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Edwards, Leslie D.
How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.
Buchsbaum, Anna; Gallo, Maria F; Whiteman, Maura K; Cwiak, Carrie; Goedken, Peggy; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J; Kottke, Melissa
To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among female, African-American adolescents. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. At baseline, most participants (85.1%) preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6%) had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4%) notified their partner about their infection. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.
Bernardi, Lia A; Carnethon, Mercedes R; de Chavez, Peter J; Ikhena, Deborah E; Neff, Lisa M; Baird, Donna D; Marsh, Erica E
To determine whether there is an association between obesity and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) among reproductive-aged African American women (AAW). From the women participating in an ongoing National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences study, 1,654 AAW aged 23 to 35 were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements, personal health information, and serum AMH and adipokine levels were analyzed. The median body mass index (BMI) was 32.4 kg/m 2 , and the median AMH was 3.18 ng/mL. Participants with obesity had AMH concentrations that were 23.7% lower than those with a BMI ≤25 kg/m 2 (2.9 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ng/mL). In multivariable linear regression models, current BMI (β = -0.015; 95% CI -0.021 to -0.009), BMI at age 18 (β = -0.016; 95% CI -0.024 to -0.008), heaviest reported lifetime weight (β = -0.002; 95% CI -0.003 to -0.001), and leptin (β = -0.016; 95% CI -0.025 to -0.007) were inversely associated with AMH. There was no significant association between adiponectin and AMH. AMH was significantly lower (mean log = 0.91, SE = 0.11) in participants with obesity at age 18 and at enrollment when compared with those who were underweight or normal weight at age 18 but had obesity at enrollment (mean log = 1.16, SE = 0.12). In reproductive-aged AAW there is a significant association between obesity and AMH, suggesting that excess adiposity may compromise ovarian reserve. Effects of obesity on AMH may be cumulative. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Hall, Ingrid J; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani; Berkowitz, Zahava; Zavahir, Yasmine
To evaluate whether a culturally appropriate campaign using "Black radio" and print media increased awareness and utilization of local mammography screening services provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program among African American women. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design involving data collection during and after campaign implementation in two intervention sites in GA (Savannah with radio and print media and Macon with radio only) and one comparison site (Columbus, GA). We used descriptive statistics to compare mammography uptake for African American women during the initial months of the campaign (8/08-1/09) with the latter months (2/09-8/09) and a post-campaign (9/09-12/09) period in each of the study sites. Comparisons of monthly mammogram uptake between cities were performed with multinomial logistic regression. We assumed a p value campaign to the later period. However, the increase did not persist in the post-campaign period. Analysis comparing monthly mammogram uptake in Savannah and Macon with Columbus showed a significant increase in uptake from the first to the second period in Savannah only (OR 1.269, 95 % CI (1.005-1.602), p = 0.0449). Dissemination of health promotion messages via a culturally appropriate, multicomponent campaign using Black radio and print media was effective in increasing mammogram uptake in Savannah among low-income, African American women. Additional research is needed to quantify the relative contribution of campaign radio, print media, and community components to sustain increased mammography uptake.
Gillespie, Shannon L; Christian, Lisa M; Alston, Angela D; Salsberry, Pamela J
Preterm birth (PTB) occurs among 1:11U.S. white women and 1:7.5 African American women and is a significant driver of racial disparities in infant mortality. Maternal stress is the most common clinical phenotype underlying spontaneous PTB. Specific patterns of stress and biological mediators driving PTB remain unclear. We examined the effect of childhood stress on birth timing among African American women and evaluated maternal cortisol elevation as a biological mediator. A prospective observational design was employed, with a single study visit at 28-32 weeks gestation and medical record review. The Stress and Adversity Inventory was administered, which provides a comprehensive estimate of childhood stress, stress in adulthood, and five core characteristic subscales (interpersonal loss, physical danger, humiliation, entrapment, role disruption). Venipuncture was performed between 11:00am and 4:00pm and plasma cortisol quantified by ELISA. Analyses controlled for stress in adulthood. Among a final sample of 89, cumulative childhood stress predicted birth timing (p=0.01). The association was driven by stress related to interpersonal loss and physical danger, with support for maternal cortisol as a biological mediator (ab=0.02, 95% CI [0.001, 0.045]; ab=0.02, 95% CI [0.001, 0.043], respectively). Results were similar, overall, in sub-group analyses among spontaneously laboring women (n=53); however, role disruption arose as an additional predictor, as mediated by cortisol elevations (ab=0.03, 95% CI [0.005, 0.074]). Of note, cortisol was no longer supported as a mediator linking physical danger to birth timing after adjusting for sleep quality and hours awake prior to venipuncture (ab=0.02, 95% CI [-0.0001, 0.046]). We provide preliminary evidence that, independent of stress in adulthood, childhood stress of specific core characteristics may shape birth timing, with cortisol elevation as a biological mediator. Further investigation is warranted and may bolster the
Tao, Li; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa H M; Kurian, Allison W; Clarke, Christina A
Higher breast cancer mortality rates for African-American than non-Hispanic White women are well documented; however, it remains uncertain if this disparity occurs in disease subgroups defined by tumor molecular markers and stage at diagnosis. We examined racial differences in outcome according to subtype and stage in a diverse, population-based series of 103,498 patients. We obtained data for all invasive breast cancers diagnosed between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and followed through December 31, 2012, among 93,760 non-Hispanic White and 9,738 African-American women in California. Molecular subtypes were categorized according to tumor expression of hormone receptor (HR, based on estrogen and progesterone receptors) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate relative hazard (RH) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer-specific mortality. After adjustment for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, outcomes were comparable by race for stage I or IV cancer regardless of subtype, and HR(+)/HER2(+) or HR(-)/HER2(+) cancer regardless of stage. We found substantially higher hazards of breast cancer death among African-American women with stage II/III HR(+)/HER2(-) (RH, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.65; and RH, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.75, respectively) and stage III triple-negative cancers relative to Whites. There are substantial racial/ethnic disparities among patients with stages II/III HR(+)/HER2(-) and stage III triple-negative breast cancers but not for other subtype and stage. These data provide insights to assess barriers to targeted treatment (e.g., trastuzumab or endocrine therapy) of particular subtypes of breast cancer among African-American patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Himmelstein, D U; Lewontin, J P; Woolhandler, S
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the social and economic impact of health sector employment. US medical care employment was analyzed for each year between 1968 and 1993, with data from the March Current Population Survey. Between 1968 and 1993, medical care employment grew from 4.32 million to 11.40 million persons, accounting for 5.7% of all jobs in 1968 and 8.4% in 1993. Today, one seventh of employed women work in medical care; they hold 78% of medical care jobs. One fifth of all employed African-American women work in medical care. African-Americans hold 15.5% of jobs in the health sector: they hold 24.1% of the jobs in nursing homes, 15.9% of the jobs in hospitals, but only 5.6% of the jobs in practitioners' offices. Hispanics constitute 6.4% of medical care employees. Real wages rose 25% to 50% between 1968 and 1993 for most health occupations. Wages of registered nurses rose 86%; physicians' incomes rose 22%. Wages of nursing home workers were far lower than those of comparable hospital workers, and the gap has widened. In 1993, 11.7% of all medical care workers lacked health insurance and 597 000 lived in poverty. Hospital cuts and the continuing neglect of long-term care exacerbate unemployment and poverty among women and African Americans.
Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W. Kent
The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions…
Vickery, Amanda E.
This qualitative multiple case study utilizes a Black feminist ethic of caring (Collins, 2009; Thompson, 1998) to explore how three African American women social studies teachers draw on their personal and community knowledge to conceptualize and teach the construct of citizenship to their students of color. Instead of conveying traditional…
Ford, Sabrina; Meghea, Cristian; Estes, Tamika; Hamade, Hiam; Lockett, Murlisa; Williams, Karen Patricia
We evaluated a randomized controlled treatment, utilizing Community Health Workers (CHW) to deliver breast and cervical cancer education intervention to African American, Latina, and Arab women in Detroit and Dearborn, Michigan. The main objectives of the study are to: (1) examine fidelity and consistency of treatment delivery and (2) assess qualitative elements of the intervention. We surveyed 305 women who received the intervention and 16 CHWs Survey included questions regarding the treatment integrity, treatment received, and training provided. Surveys included both quantitative and questions. The intervention group (n = 305) was made up of 48% Black, 11% Latina, and 41% Arab women. Almost all (≥ 90%) women agreed that they received the treatment in the way that it was intended. Sixteen CHWs responded affirmatively as well. Both participants and CHWs indicated that the program was mutually rewarding, indicating that there was "cross fertilization and cross benefit" of working with each other. These benefits served to endorse and confirm that CHWs are a very important mechanism in increasing health literacy in the community and referring underserved individuals to health providers. Second, with strong treatment fidelity the Kin Keeper(SM) program and has the potential to be replicated for a number of diseases in a variety of venues especially for those facing health disparities.
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.
African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592
Satia, Jessie A; Galanko, Joseph A
To describe associations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for dietary change with participant characteristics and current diet among African Americans. Cross-sectional survey of 658 African American adults in North Carolina provided information on intrinsic (self-image and health concerns) and extrinsic (social influence) motivation scales, participant characteristics, and diet. Most respondents considered it important to change their diet for health reasons; fewer were motivated by self-image or social influence. Motivation scales were significantly associated with demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics and fat, but not fruit/vegetable consumption, after adjustment for covariates (Pextrinsic motives may improve the effectiveness of dietary interventions in African Americans.
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…
Hibbs, Shayna; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J; Collins, James W
Objectives We investigated the contributions of cigarette smoking to the age-related patterns of preterm (White women within the context of lifelong neighborhood income. Methods Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of non-Hispanic White and African-American infants (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976) with appended US census income information. Among non-smoking African-American women (n = 20,107) with a lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, PTB rates decreased from 18.5 % for teens to 15.0 % for 30-35 year-olds, p smokers (n = 5936) with a lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, p smokers (n = 756), PTB rates increased from 11.1 % for teens to 24.9 % for 30-35 year-olds, p White women, even cigarette smokers with a lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, exhibited weathering with regard to PTB. Conclusions A weathering pattern of rising PTB rates with advancing age occurs only among African-American women cigarette smokers with an early-life or lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, underscoring the public health policy importance of targeted smoking cessation programs in eliminating the racial disparity in the age-related patterns of PTB rates.
Coignet, Marie V; Zirpoli, Gary Robert; Roberts, Michelle R; Khoury, Thaer; Bandera, Elisa V; Zhu, Qianqian; Yao, Song
Reproductive aging phenotypes, including age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM), are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. In recent years, many genetic variants have been identified in association with AM and ANM in genome-wide association studies among European populations. Using data from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS) of 1,307 European-American (EA) and 1,365 African-American (AA) breast cancer cases and controls, we aimed to replicate 53 earlier GWAS variants for AM and ANM in AA and EA groups and to perform analyses on total and net reproductive lifespan (TRLS; NRLS). Breast cancer risk was also examined in relation to a polygenic risk score (PRS) for each of the reproductive aging phenotypes. We replicated a number of variants in EA women, including rs7759938 in LIN28B for AM and rs16991615 in MCM8 for ANM; whereas in the AA group, only one SNP (rs2947411 in TMEM18) for AM was directionally consistent and nominally significant. In analysis of TRLS and NRLS, several SNPs were significant, including rs466639 in RXRG that was associated with both phenotypes in both AA and EA groups. None of the PRS was associated with breast cancer risk. Given the paucity of data available among AA populations, our study contributes to the literature of genetics of reproductive aging in AA women and highlights the importance of cross population replication of GWAS variants.
Fasula, Amy M; Miller, Kim S; Wiener, Jeffrey
This study explored the sexual double standard (SDS) (in which males are afforded more freedom and power than females in heterosexual interactions) in African American mothers' sexual messages to sons and daughters. We used a convenience sample of 129 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, and their mothers who reported SDS attitudes. Qualitative analyses revealed gender differences based on an SDS in mothers' sexual risk reduction socialization. Mothers typically took a proactive approach with sons and a neutral or prohibitive approach with daughters. Findings provide directions for socially relevant programs for African American parents, schools, and communities.
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Grant, Julia D; Agrawal, Arpana; Werner, Kimberly B; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C; Sartor, Carolyn E
Childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for cannabis initiation and problem use, but the extent to which this association is attributable to shared familial influences is unknown. We estimate the magnitude of associations between childhood maltreatment, timing of cannabis initiation, and cannabis-related problems, in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women, and parse the relative influence of additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and individual-specific environmental (E) factors on these constructs and their covariation. Data were from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.6% AA) in a population-based study of female twins. Logistic regression analyses and twin modeling were used to test for associations, and estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences to childhood maltreatment and cannabis outcomes and their covariation. Maltreatment was significantly associated with increased likelihood of cannabis initiation before age 15 among EAs (OR=6.33) and AAs (OR=3.93), but with increased likelihood of later initiation among EAs only (OR=1.68). Maltreatment was associated with cannabis problems among both groups (EA OR=2.32; AA OR=2.03). Among EA women, the covariation between maltreatment and cannabis outcomes was primarily attributable to familial environment (rC=0.67-0.70); among AAs, only individual-specific environment contributed (rE=0.37-0.40). Childhood maltreatment is a major contributor to early initiation of cannabis as well as progression to cannabis problems in both AA and EA women. Distinctions by race/ethnicity are not in the relative contribution of genetic factors, but rather in the type of environmental influences that contribute to stages of cannabis involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Exploring effects of therapeutic massage and patient teaching in the practice of diaphragmatic breathing on blood pressure, stress, and anxiety in hypertensive African-American women: an intervention study.
Jefferson, Lenetra L
The problem of hypertension among African-Americans is one of the major areas of health disparities. The American Heart Association (2009) noted that the prevalence of hypertension among African-Americans is perhaps among the highest in the world and this is particularly so among African-American women (44.0%). The purpose of this study was to determine how therapeutic chair massage and patient teaching in diaphragmatic breathing affected African-American women's blood pressure, stress, and anxiety levels over one week or six weeks time periods. A Modified Stress, Coping, and Adaptation Model (Roy, 1976; Lazarus, 1966), Descriptives, T-tests, Pearson Product Moment Correlations, Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and Multivariate analysis of variance with covariate (MANCOVA) were used. Descriptive statistics indicated a significance for decreased systolic blood pressure levels for the one week post massage intervention measurement with p = .01, diastolic blood pressure level significance for the same group p = .02, significance for this group's State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Y2 Scale score p = .01, and Roy's Largest Root p = .03.
Felton, Teena M; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Serrano, Elena; Hosig, Kathy W
African-American professionals are underrepresented in the profession of dietetics. This preliminary qualitative study identified African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major/profession to understand why they did or did not enter dietetics. It was hypothesized that dietetics students chose dietetics primarily for altruistic reasons, whereas students in other fields of study did not choose dietetics due to lack of awareness of dietetics. To learn students' views, African-American college students engaged in elicitation interviews or focus group discussions. Twenty-eight women and 12 men participated. Phenomenologic analysis identified common themes and meanings: African-American students selected their majors for a variety of reasons, including desire to help people, interest in the field, recommendation from an adult, and family influence. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics believed that the dietetics major was not selected due to lack of awareness about dietetics. Both dietetics students and students in other fields of study perceived versatility, ability to work with/help people, and to have an influence as positive qualities about their future professions. Advanced degree and training requirements, lack of diversity, and low salary were identified as negative qualities about future professions. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics had not been exposed to the dietetics major, careers, and profession. Recruitment efforts should begin early to increase the number of African-American students in dietetics.
Achter, Paul; Parrott, Roxanne; Silk, Kami
Research on attitudes toward genetics and medicine registers skepticism among minority communities, but the reasons for this skepticism are not well known. In the past, studies linked mistrust of the medical system to historical ethics violations involving minority groups and to suspicions about ideological premise and political intent. To assess public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding human-genetics research, we surveyed 858 Americans onsite in four community settings or online in a geographically nonspecific manner. Compared to participants as a whole, African Americans were significantly more likely to believe that clinical trials might be dangerous and that the federal government knowingly conducted unethical research, including studies in which risky vaccines were administered to prison populations. However, African Americans were also significantly more likely to believe that the federal government worked to prevent environmental exposure to toxicants harmful to people with genetic vulnerabilities. Our data suggest that most Americans trust government to act ethically in sponsoring and conducting research, including genetics research, but that African Americans are particularly likely to see government as powerfully protective in some settings yet selectively disingenuous in others.
Studies show that African Americans are less likely than other ethnic groups to complete advance directives. However, what influences African Americans' decisions to complete or not complete advance directives is unclear. Using a faith-based promotion model, 102 African Americans aged 55 years or older were recruited from local churches and community-based agencies to participate in a pilot study to promote advance care planning. Focus groups were used to collect data on participants' preferences for care, desire to make personal choices, values and attitudes, beliefs about death and dying, and advance directives. A standardized interview was used in the focus groups, and the data were organized and analyzed using NUDIST 4 software (QRS Software, Victoria, Australia). Three fourths of the participants refused to complete advance directives. The following factors influenced the participants' decisions about end-of-life care and completion of an advance directive: spirituality; view of suffering, death, and dying; social support networks; barriers to utilization; and mistrust of the health care system. The dissemination of information apprises individuals of their right to self-determine about their care, but educational efforts may not produce a significant change in behavior toward completion of advance care planning. Thus, ongoing efforts are needed to improve the trust that African Americans have in medical and health care providers.
Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D
The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1% preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6% had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4% notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.
Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wong, Michelle S.; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T.; Hertenstein, Daniel L.; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y.
Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and obesity among African-American women. Methods We developed an agent-based model, in 2016, representing resource-limited Washington, DC communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African-American women under different circumstances. Results Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African-American women have a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations are accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreases the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African-American women to exercise to 37.5%, further increases the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). Conclusions Our simulations show that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e. economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. PMID:29086471
African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...
Coley, Sheryl L; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Ward, Earlise C; Barnes, Lisa L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Jacobs, Elizabeth A
Emerging data suggest that African-American women may fare worse than African-American men in health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL). Perceived discrimination is an important contributor to poor health overall among African Americans, but few studies examined the intersecting effects of perceived discrimination and gender in explaining HRQOL disparities. We investigated gender differences in HRQOL and tested whether perceived discrimination accounted for these differences. We examined data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project in which 5652 African-American adults aged 65 and older completed structured questionnaires about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, HRQOL, perceived discrimination, and health-related variables. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations between perceived discrimination and gender differences in poor HRQOL outcomes (defined as 14+ unhealthy days in overall, physical, or mental health over the past 30 days) when controlling for the other variables. More women reported poor overall HRQOL than men (24 vs. 16% respectively). Higher perceived discrimination was significantly associated with worse overall HRQOL (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.08, 1.15), with stronger effects for women in overall and mental HRQOL. These gender disparities remained significant until controlling for potentially confounding variables. Perceived discrimination did not account for gender differences in poor physical HRQOL. Perceived discrimination is associated with poor HRQOL in older African Americans, with this association appearing stronger in women than men for mental HRQOL. These findings warrant further investigation of effects of perceived discrimination in gender disparities in overall health, and such research can inform and guide efforts for reducing these disparities.
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…
socially significant. While the glass ceiling for African Americans appears to have been shattered for society as a whole, the fact that only eight of more...Chief of Staff, and there has yet to be an African American Chief of Staff of the Army all suggest that the glass ceiling still exists in the Army.34...whole of society had even accepted these individuals as more than three-fifths of a person.1 In the twentieth century, women integrated into the
Scherezade K. Mama
Conclusion: PA is more heavily influenced by intrapersonal factors related to weight. Improving intrapersonal factors related to weight and perceptions of the environment may lead to increased PA in African American and Hispanic women.
Brandon, L Jerome; Proctor, Larry; Cole, Calvin L
African American women (AAW) have increased odds of developing cardiometabolic (CME) risks and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) compared with European American women (EAW). The influence of obesity on other CME risks and the CVD disparity is unclear. The purpose of our study was to develop a CME index and evaluate the obesity and CME risk index relationships based on race. A comparative research design was employed in our study as 213 women (132 AAW; 81 EAW) from the Louisiana Delta were evaluated for CME risk clustering patterns by race, based on BMI, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry % body fat and waist conference. Fasting glucose, triglyceride (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were the measured CME risks. In summary, when the CME indexes were evaluated by obesity classification categories the ones that were CVD risk or near risk for the AAW were SBP and TG. The trend of CME index risk for the EAW was SBP and glucose. The stepwise regression equations indicate that HDL-C and SBP/DBP were the best indicators of the effects of obesity on CME risks in AAW and that SBP/DBP and glucose were the best indicators of CME risks in EAW. Our results indicate that CME risks as evaluated based on obesity categories are different for AAW than for EAW.
Schenke, Katerina; Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W; Sarama, Julie H; Clements, Douglas H
We examined whether African American students differentially responded to dimensions of the observed classroom-learning environment compared with non-African American students. Further, we examined whether these dimensions of the classroom mediated treatment effects of a preschool mathematics intervention targeted at students from low-income families. Three observed dimensions of the classroom (teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness; teacher confidence and enthusiasm; and support for mathematical discourse) were evaluated in a sample of 1,238 preschool students in 101 classrooms. Using multigroup multilevel mediation where African American students were compared to non-African American students, we found that teachers in the intervention condition had higher ratings on the observed dimensions of the classroom compared with teachers in the control condition. Further, ratings on teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness had larger associations with the achievement of African American students than for non-African Americans. Findings suggest that students within the same classroom may react differently to that learning environment and that classroom learning environments could be structured in ways that are beneficial for students who need the most support.
Clottey, Emmanuel N; Scott, Alison J; Alfonso, Moya L
An increasing number of grandparents in rural USA are serving as primary caregivers for their grandchildren because of parental incarceration, addiction, joblessness, or illness. Low-income, African American women from the South are overrepresented in this growing population. There is a paucity of research exploring the challenges faced by rural grandparent caregivers, and past studies have not explicitly addressed the potential consequences of rural grandparent caregiving for health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore grandparent caregiving among rural, low-income, African American grandmothers in a community in the American South, and to identify challenges to health that arose in that context. McLeroy's social ecological model (SEM) was used to examine these challenges at multiple levels of influence. This qualitative interview-based study was conducted in a high-poverty community in rural Georgia. In-depth interviews were conducted with African American grandparent caregivers and key informants from local community-based organizations. A key informant assisted in identifying initial interview participants, and then snowball sampling was used to recruit additional participants. Interview questions were grouped under five domains (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, organizational, and policy), according to the levels of the SEM. Iterative content analysis of interview transcripts was utilized. Transcripts were coded to identify text segments related to each domain of the SEM, which were grouped together for analysis by domain. Reflexive memo-writing aided in development of themes, and data quality was assessed using Lincoln and Guba's trustworthiness criteria. Rural African American grandparent caregivers faced a range of challenges to health. Direct physical challenges included chronic pain that interfered with sleep and daily functioning, mobility issues exacerbated by child care, and the pressure of managing their own medical conditions
Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K
Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results
Full Text Available Extensive research on consumer food handling has identified common practices that could negatively impact food safety. Limited research has considered if food handling practices differ among diverse groups or if unique approaches are needed to provide food safety education for different audiences. This study examined food handling practice differences between African-American and Latino consumers and differing responses to food safety messages. Four focus groups were conducted, two with African-American participants and two with Latino participants, with each focus group consisting of 10-15 participants. Focus group transcripts were reviewed, coded, and grouped into themes using an iterative process. The 50 participants self-identified as either African-American or Latino, had home meal preparation experience, and were 18 years or older. Each focus group was multigenerational and included males and females. Risky food handling practices reported by both groups included rinsing poultry before cooking and limited food thermometer use. African-American participants preferred informational food safety messages, whereas Latino participants were split in preferring informational, guilt-inducing, and fear-inducing messages.
Backman, Desiree; Scruggs, Valarie; Atiedu, Akpene Ama; Bowie, Shene; Bye, Larry; Dennis, Angela; Hall, Melanie; Ossa, Alexandra; Wertlieb, Stacy; Foerster, Susan B.
Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of the "Fruit, Vegetable, and Physical Activity Toolbox for Community Educators" ("Toolbox"), an intervention originally designed for Spanish- and English-speaking audiences, in changing knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among low-income African American women. Design: Quasi-experimental…
Fowler, Barbara Ann
To describe the social processes used by African American (AA) women ages > or = 50 years in making decisions about mammography screening. Grounded theory methodology. Tape-recorded interviews with a researcher-designed, semi-structured interview guide with an initial and theoretical sample of 30 AA women ages 52 to 71 of diverse socioeconomic status. Interviews occurred in various settings such as the church rectory, women's homes, and work settings. Extensive written field notes and tapes were transcribed verbatim immediately after the interviews by an experienced transcriptionist. The women's decisions about mammography screening were associated with five social processes: (a) acknowledging prior experiences with healthcare providers and systems; (b) reporting fears and fatalistic beliefs of breast cancer and related treatment; (c) valuing the opinions of significant others; (d) relying on religious beliefs and supports; and (e) caregiving responsibilities of significant others. The processes were further differentiated by three distinct decision-making styles: taking charge, enduring, and protesting. Each of the social processes was reported equally and emphasized by the diverse sample of AA women in decisions related to mammography screening. Mammography screening decisions were heavily influenced by caregiving responsibilities. Further research is needed to explain and understand this social process on the health and well-being of AA women over time.
The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…
Manning, Mark; Albrecht, Terrance L; Yilmaz-Saab, Zeynep; Penner, Louis; Norman, Andria; Purrington, Kristen
Prior research shows between-race differences in women's knowledge and emotions related to having dense breasts, thus suggesting that between-race differences in behavioral decision-making following receipt of breast density (BD) notifications are likely. Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this study examined differences in emotion-related responses (i.e., anxiety, worry, confusion) and behavioral cognition (e.g., intentions, behavioral attitudes) following receipt of BD notifications among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. This study also examined whether race-related perceptions (i.e., discrimination, group-based medical mistrust), relevant knowledge and socioeconomic status (SES) explained the between race differences. Michigan women (N = 457) who presented for routine screening mammogram and had dense breasts, no prior breast cancer diagnoses, and had screen-negative mammograms were recruited from July, 2015 to March 2016. MANOVA was used to examine between race differences in psychological responses (i.e., emotional responses and behavioral cognition), and a multi-group structural regression model was used to examine whether race-related constructs, knowledge and SES mediated the effect of race on emotional responses and behavioral cognition. Prior awareness of BD was accounted for in all analyses. AA women generally reported more negative psychological responses to receiving BD notifications regardless of prior BD awareness. AA women had more favorable perceptions related to talking to their physicians about the BD notifications. Generally, race-related perceptions, SES, and related knowledge partially accounted for the effect of race on psychological response. Race-related perceptions and SES partially accounted for the differences in behavioral intentions. Between-race differences in emotional responses to BD notifications did not explain differences in women's intentions to discuss BD notifications with their physicians
Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V; Waters, Catherine M; Dailey, Dawn E; Lyndon, Audrey
Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Objective The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusions for Practice Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation.
Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V.; Waters, Catherine M.; Dailey, Dawn E.; Lyndon, Audrey
Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Purpose The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusion Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation. PMID:27565664
Kogan, Steven M; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R; Simons, Ronald L; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Chen, Yi-Fu
Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research, however, has examined the contextual and intrapersonal processes in late childhood and adolescence that influence romantic relationship health among African American adults. We investigated competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community-related stressors in late childhood, and negative relational schemas in adolescence, as predictors of young adult romantic relationship health. Participants were 318 African American young adults (59.4% female) who had provided data at four time points from ages 10-22 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that exposure to community-related stressors and low levels of competence-promoting parenting contributed to negative relational schemas, which were proximal predictors of young adult relationship health. Relational schemas mediated the associations of competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community stressors in late childhood with romantic relationship health during young adulthood. Results suggest that enhancing caregiving practices, limiting youths' exposure to community stressors, and modifying relational schemas are important processes to be targeted for interventions designed to enhance African American adults' romantic relationships.
Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yifu
Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research, however, has examined the contextual and intrapersonal processes in late childhood and adolescence that influence romantic relationship health among African American adults. We investigated competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community-related stressors in late childhood, and negative relational schemas in adolescence, as predictors of young adult romantic relationship health. Participants were 318 African American young adults (59.4% female) who had provided data at four time points from ages 10–22 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that exposure to community-related stressors and low levels of competence-promoting parenting contributed to negative relational schemas, which were proximal predictors of young adult relationship health. Relational schemas mediated the associations of competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community stressors in late childhood with romantic relationship health during young adulthood. Results suggest that enhancing caregiving practices, limiting youths’ exposure to community stressors, and modifying relational schemas are important processes to be targeted for interventions designed to enhance African American adults’ romantic relationships. PMID:23494451
Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J
The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.
Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco
The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.
Williams, Monnica T; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin E
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig's List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McDougall, Graham J.; Holston, Ezra C.; Wilke, Pat
A total of 218 adults with an average age of seventy-eight years participated in a study of memory performance in community elders. A computer-generated random zip code list of adults ≥70 years of age was purchased and a four-phase telephone-screening plan was adopted. During the second year, the sampling plan had to be changed, with a convenience-sampling plan being adopted to recruit adequate numbers of African-American subjects. Fifty-seven percent of the African-American subjects (N = 55)...
Full Text Available African American (AA women are more likely than European American (EA women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS. In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers. Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02, while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002 and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01. For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02 and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02 were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001. However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42 except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women, we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961, which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women.
Sales, J. M.; DiClemente, R. J.; Davis, T. P.; Sullivan, S.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions can significantly reduce risky sexual behaviors among vulnerable populations. However, not everyone exposed to an intervention will reduce their sexual risk behavior. This qualitative study sought to identify factors associated with young African American females' lack of increase in condom use…
Ijames, Erika Denise
Research indicates that internal and external factors such as role models, stereotypes, and pressures placed on African American males by their family and friends influence their perceptions of science careers (Assibey-Mensah, 1997; Hess & Leal, 1997; Jacobowitz, 1983; Maple & Stage, 1991; Thomas, 1989; Ware & Lee, 1988). The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of African American high school males about selected science careers based on apparent internal and external factors. Two questions guided this research: (1) What are high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? (2) What influences high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? This research was based on a pilot study in which African American college males perceived a selection of science careers along racial and gender lines. The follow-up investigation was conducted at Rockriver High School in Acorn County, and the participants were three college-bound African American males. The decision to choose males was based on the concept of occupational niching along gender lines. In biology, niching is defined as the role of a particular species regarding space and reproduction, and its interactions with other factors. During the seven-week period of the students' senior year, they met with the researcher to discuss their perceptions of science careers. An ethnographic approach was used to allow a richer and thicker narrative to occur. Critical theory was used to describe and interpret the voices of the participants from a social perspective. The data collected were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis technique. The participants revealed role models, negative stereotypes, peer pressure, social pressures, and misconceptions as some of the factors that influenced their perceptions of science careers. Results of this research suggest that by dispelling the misconceptions, educators can positively influence the attitudes and perceptions of
Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse
The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…