Sample records for african pre-menopausal women

  1. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in Chinese pre-menopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Dan; CHEN Yu; WU Wei; ZHANG Feng; XU Jia; CUI Wei; LI Shu-lan; LI Rong-sheng


    @@ Pre-menopausal women are at risk for iron deficiency due to menstrual blood losses. The prevalence rates (PR) of iron depletion, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and iron deficiency were 34.4%, 15.1% and 49.5% in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women respectively in China.1 Traditionally, the diagnosis of iron deficiency relies on the hematological markers (hemoglobin (HGB),mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW))and biochemical markers (serum ferritin (SF), serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)). Recently, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) is considered to be used as a marker of iron deficiency.2 The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficiency of CHr with the old markers in diagnosis of iron deficiency in Chinese pre-menopausal women.

  2. Mannose-binding lectin in pre-menopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. (United States)

    Colodner, R; Nitzan, O; Chazan, B; Edelstein, H; Raz, R


    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) comprises an oligomeric serum protein that is a member of the collectin class of the C-type lectin superfamily. Its deficiency is genetically determined and confers predisposition to recurrent infections as well as increased infection severity. This correlation has been demonstrated in recurrent furunculosis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and in pneumococcal and Candida infections. The present study aimed to determine whether there is a correlation between MBL serum levels and recurrent urinary tact infections (UTI) in pre-menopausal women. The present aged-matched double-blind controlled study was conducted in 100 pre-menopausal adult women: 50 who suffered from recurrent UTI and 50 without UTI. The MBL concentration was measured in a single serum sample from each patient using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MBL serum levels [median (range)] were 2500 (4-12,000) ng/mL and 2105 (4-22,800) ng/mL for the research and control groups, respectively. The results from the two groups were compared and were not statistically different (p 0.4). According to these results, MBL serum levels are not associated with an increased risk for recurrent UTI in pre-menopausal women.

  3. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

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    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki [Gachon Medical School, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress.

  4. Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review

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    Karla A. Lomagno


    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition.

  5. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines. (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S


    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  6. Correlation between body mass index and overactive bladder symptoms in pre-menopausal women

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    Thais Palma


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to establish a correlation between Overactive Bladder (OAB symptoms and Body Mass Index (BMI in women aged 20-45. Methods: We interviewed 1.050 women aged 20-45 in the area of Campinas, Brazil, to investigate the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms. In this study, we used the ICIQ-OAB questionnaire (ICS standard, in its validated portuguese version and a specific questionnaire for the demographics, which includes information about BMI. Results: Overall, women with BMI ≥30 presented a significantly higher score than women with a lower BMI (18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.0066. In the analysis of individual symptoms, no significant differences were found regarding urinary frequency (p=0.5469. Women with BMI ≥30 presented more nocturia than women with BMI ranging between 18.5 and 24.9 (p=0.0154. Women in the group of BMI 25 - 29.9 presented more urgency than women with BMI 18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.0278. Significant difference was also found regarding urge-incontinence; women with BMI 25 - 29.9 presented a higher score than women in the group 18.5 - 24.9 (p= 0.0017. Analysis was also performed on the visual analogue scale regarding how much each symptom bothers the women (quality of life. There were no significant differences regarding frequency, nocturia or urgency but urgency incontinence bother was significant. Women with BMI 25 - 29.9 were more bothered by incontinence than women with BMI 18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.002. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study reinforces the correlation between BMI and OAB symptoms. Obese women present more OAB symptoms than non-obese women.

  7. Ultrasonography of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women

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    Carolyn S. Dupuis


    Full Text Available Acute-onset pelvic pain is an extremely common symptom in premenopausal women presenting to the emergency department. After excluding pregnancy in reproductive-age women, ultrasonography plays a major role in the prompt and accurate diagnosis of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain, such as hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, endometriosis, ovarian torsion, and tubo-ovarian abscess. Its availability, relatively low cost, and lack of ionizing radiation make ultrasonography an ideal imaging modality in women of reproductive age. The primary goal of imaging in these patients is to distinguish between adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain that may be managed conservatively or medically, and those requiring emergency/urgent surgical or percutaneous intervention.

  8. Augmented vagal heart rate modulation in active hypoestrogenic pre-menopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Morris, Beverly L; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J


    Compared with eumenorrhoeic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HRs) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrently, three age-matched (pooled mean, 24 ± 1 years; mean ± S.E.M.) groups of women were studied: active with either FHA (ExFHA; n=11) or eumenorrhoeic cycles (ExOv; n=17) and sedentary with eumenorrhoeic cycles (SedOv; n=17). Blood pressure (BP), HR and HR variability (HRV) in the frequency domain were determined during both supine rest and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -10, -20 and -40 mmHg). Very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency power spectra (ms(2)) were determined and, owing to skewness, log10-transformed. LF/HF ratio and total power (VLF + LF + HF) were calculated. At baseline, HR and systolic BP (SBP) were lower (P0.05). At each stage, HR correlated inversely (Ppost-menopausal women.

  9. Patient Satisfaction with Physician Discussions of Treatment Impact on Fertility, Menopause and Sexual Health among Pre-menopausal Women with Cancer

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    Maura Scanlon, Anne Blaes, Melissa Geller, Navneet S Majhail, Bruce Lindgren, Tufia Haddad


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pre-menopausal women with cancer are at risk of therapy-associated infertility, premature menopause, and sexual dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether oncologists adequately address these risks during treatment planning. We conducted a study to evaluate physician-patient discussions addressing the impact of cancer treatment and actual treatment effects on fertility, menopause status, and general sexual health.METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in four oncology clinics specializing in breast, gynecologic, general hematology-oncology, and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT cancer care at a single institution. Eligible participants were pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis and either actively receiving or within 24 months from completion of treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at enrollment and at 1-year follow-up.RESULTS: Of the 104 eligible women, a majority were satisfied with the quality (68% and length (66% of reproductive health discussions, with the highest satisfaction levels in the gynecologic cancer clinic (85% and the lowest levels in the BMT clinic (53%. Fertility preservation was desired by 20% of women, including some >40 years old. Women were more interested in discussing treatment impact on menopause status and sexual health than fertility. Rates of discussions on treatment impact on sexual health were low despite 77% of women reporting severe sexual dysfunction at 1-year follow-up.CONCLUSIONS: One-third of women are dissatisfied with the quality and length of discussions regarding the impact of cancer treatment on reproductive health. There is notably inadequate counseling on the effect of treatment on fertility in women > 40 and on sexual function in all women. Oncologists must offer better resources and improve communication on the effect of treatment on reproductive health to pre-menopausal women with cancer.

  10. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.


    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  11. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

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    Skibola Christine F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  12. Association of Circulating Orexin-A Level With Metabolic Risk Factors in North Indian Pre Menopausal Women. (United States)

    Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Sameeksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Mishra, Supriya


    The present study was designed to investigate the association between circulating Orexin-A level with metabolic risk factors in North Indian adult women. 342 women were enrolled for the case-control study, 172 women were with metabolic syndrome (mets) and 170 healthy control women were without metabolic syndrome, (womets) according to (NCEP ATP III criteria). Circulating Orexin-A level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Observations indicated low levels of orexin-A (26.06 ± 6.09 ng/ml) in women with mets and other metabolic risk factors compared to women without metabolic syndrome (36.50 ± 10.42 ng/ml). Further, in women with metabolic syndrome, circulating Orexin A was significantly associated with waist circumference, triglyceride (negative correlation) and hyperdensity lipoprotein (positive correlation). Our study shows that circulating Orexin A was found to be significantly associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and obesity-related disorders in North Indian premenopausal women.

  13. Metabolic response to 6-week aerobic exercise training and dieting in previously sedentary overweight and obese pre-menopausal women: A randomized trial

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    Petri Wiklund


    Conclusion: Our results indicate that small weight loss does not produce measurable health benefits, whereas short-term regular aerobic exercise can improve glucose and lipid metabolism even in the absence of weight loss in previously sedentary overweight and obese women.

  14. The effect of endurance training on the relationships between sex hormone binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoprotein A1 and physical fitness in pre-menopausal women with mild obesity. (United States)

    Kumagai, S; Shono, N; Kondo, Y; Nishizumi, M


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships of change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with changes in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), physical fitness and spontaneous dietary intake before and after endurance training. Ten pre-menopausal obese women (32 to 49 years) who had never smoked or regularly drunk alcohol participated in this study. Physical training at an intensity of lactate threshold was performed for six months at a frequency of three times per week for 60 minutes using a cycle ergometer. Together with a reduction in body weight (-4.1 kg; P < 0.05) and with increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max = +3.4 ml/kg/min or +0.09 l/min; P < 0.05), the training induced some changes in both plasma lipid and lipoprotein. Although the total cholesterol (total-C), triglyceride, HDL2-C and apoprotein A1 (Apo A1) levels did not change, significant increases in HDL-C and HDL3-C, and significant reductions in Apo B, total-C/HDL-C ratio and fasting insulin concentrations were found after training. SHBG levels tended to increase after endurance training, but the changes were not significant. No alteration was observed in spontaneous dietary intake after training. A significant correlation (r = 0.648) was observed between the change in VO2 max(l/min) and the change in SHBG. In addition, changes in both VO2 max(l/min) and SHBG were significantly associated with changes in HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1. The changes in dietary intake did not correlate with the changes in SHBG, VO2max, HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin


    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  16. Abnormal uterine bleeding in pre-menopausal women. (United States)

    Singh, Sukhbir; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy Lynn; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir


    Contexte : Les saignements utérins anormaux sont directement à l’origine d’un fardeau considérable imposé aux femmes, à leur famille et à la société tout entière en matière de soins de santé. Jusqu’à 30 % des femmes chercheront à obtenir l’aide d’un médecin pour contrer ce problème au cours de leurs années de fertilité. La présente directive clinique remplace les directives cliniques précédentes sur le sujet et a pour but d’outiller les fournisseurs de soins de santé pour qu’ils puissent offrir des soins reposant sur les toutes dernières données probantes au moment de procéder au diagnostic de ce problème courant, et d’en assurer la prise en charge médicale et chirurgicale. Objectif : Fournir une directive clinique factuelle à jour pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge des saignements utérins anormaux (SUA) chez les femmes en âge de procréer. Issues : Parmi les issues évaluées, on trouve les effets des SUA sur la qualité de vie et les résultats des interventions (y compris la prise en charge médicale et chirurgicale des SUA). Méthodes : Les membres du comité sur la directive clinique ont été sélectionnés en fonction de leurs spécialisations respectives en vue de représenter une gamme d’expériences pratiques et universitaires : le milieu de pratique au Canada, le type de pratique, la sous-spécialité et les antécédents généraux en gynécologie ont donc été pris en considération. Le comité a analysé les données pertinentes issues de la littérature médicale anglophone (y compris les lignes directrices publiées). Les recommandations ont été formulées sous forme de déclarations de consensus. Le document final a été analysé et approuvé par le comité exécutif et le Conseil de la SOGC. Résultats : Le présent document offre un résumé des dernières données quant au diagnostic, aux explorations et à la prise en charge médicale et chirurgicale des SUA. Les recommandations qui y sont formulées peuvent être adaptées par les professionnels de la santé qui offrent leurs services aux femmes qui présentent de tels saignements. Conclusions : Les saignements utérins anormaux constituent un trouble courant et parfois débilitant qui affecte les femmes en âge de procréer. La mise en œuvre d’une standardisation de la terminologie connexe, d’une approche systématique en matière de diagnostic et d’exploration, et d’une approche par étapes pour ce qui est de l’intervention s’avère nécessaire. Toutes les interventions thérapeutiques ont pour objectif absolu de débuter le traitement au moyen de modalités thérapeutiques médicales, pour ensuite avoir recours aux modalités chirurgicales les moins effractives possibles, le tout en vue de permettre à la patiente d’obtenir des résultats satisfaisants. Données : Des recherches ont été menées en mars 2011 dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane afin d’en tirer les articles publiés en anglais, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « uterine hemorrhage », « menorrhagia ») et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « menorrhagia », « heavy menstrual bleeding », « abnormal uterine bleeding »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles publiés en anglais entre janvier 1999 et mars 2011. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en février 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Avantages, désavantages et coûts : La mise en œuvre des recommandations de la présente directive clinique entraînera l’amélioration de la santé et du bien-être des femmes qui présentent des saignements utérins anormaux, de leur famille et de la société. Les coûts économiques de la mise en œuvre de la présente directive clinique au sein du système de santé canadien n’ont pas été pris en considération. Déclarations sommaires 1. Les SUA constituent un trouble courant qui affecte les femmes en âge de procréer et qui exerce des effets considérables sur les plans social et économique. (II-2) 2. La terminologie contemporaine utilisée pour décrire les SUA chez les femmes en âge de procréer vise à simplifier les définitions et à fournir des descriptions standard en ce qui concerne les symptômes présentés par la patiente. (III) 3. Les conséquences des SUA sur la santé globale d’une femme déterminent le degré d’intervention pouvant s’avérer requis. (II-2) 4. Une anamnèse et un examen physique exhaustifs indiqueront souvent la cause des SUA, et détermineront la nécessité de procéder à d’autres explorations et de mettre en œuvre d’autres traitements. (III) 5. L’imagerie et l’hystéroscopie offrent au clinicien des renseignements additionnels qui contribuent à l’évaluation et au traitement de la patiente, lorsque les circonstances le permettent. (I) 6. Une fois que la présence d’une tumeur maligne ou d’une pathologie pelvienne significative a été écartée, la mise en œuvre d’un traitement médical constitue une option thérapeutique de première intention efficace pour ce qui est des saignements utérins anormaux. (I) 7. La mise en œuvre d’un traitement médical adapté aux objectifs thérapeutiques, aux souhaits en matière de contraception, aux pathologies médicales sous-jacentes et à la tolérance quant aux effets indésirables d’une patiente donnée permettra de favoriser l’observance et de maximiser la probabilité de réussite du traitement. (III) 8. Les techniques d’ablation non hystéroscopiques offrent, en matière de satisfaction de la patiente, des résultats semblables à ceux de l’ablation hystéroscopique traditionnelle, en plus de compter moins de risques de complication et de nécessiter une anesthésie moindre. (I) 9. L’hystérectomie constitue un traitement définitif contre les saignements utérins anormaux. (I) 10. Les saignements utérins anormaux attribuables à des fibromes sous-muqueux peuvent être pris en charge au moyen d’une myomectomie hystéroscopique. (I) 11. Les troubles hémostatiques héréditaires peuvent constituer une cause sous-jacente de saignements utérins anormaux, la maladie de von Willebrand étant présente dans la majorité de ces cas. (II-2) 12. Les saignements menstruels abondants aigus peuvent donner lieu à une anémie significative et nécessiter des soins de première urgence. (III) 13. Chez les adolescentes, les SUA découlent plus souvent qu’autrement d’une dysfonction ovulatoire associée à l’immaturité de l’axe hypothalamo-hypophyso-ovarien. (II-2) Recommandations 1. L’adoption d’une terminologie internationale standardisée devrait être envisagée pour ce qui est des SUA. (III-C) 2. La tenue d’un hémogramme complet est recommandée chez les femmes qui présentent des saignements abondants ou prolongés. (II-2A) 3. En présence de toute possibilité de grossesse, une analyse d’urine sensible ou un test sérique de grossesse devrait être mené. (III-C) 4. Le dépistage des troubles de la coagulation ne devrait être envisagé que chez les femmes qui présentent des antécédents de saignements menstruels abondants remontant à la ménarche ou des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de saignements anormaux. (II-2B) 5. Le tenue de tests de la fonction thyroïdienne n’est pas indiquée, sauf en présence de constatations cliniques laissant entrevoir un possible indice de suspicion de maladie thyroïdienne. (II-2D) 6. Lorsque la tenue d’une imagerie s’avère indiquée, l’échographie transvaginale devrait constituer la modalité de première intention dans le cas des SUA. (I-A) 7. L’échohystérographie avec injection de liquide intra-utérin et l’hystéroscopie diagnostique devraient être utilisées aux fins du diagnostic et de la caractérisation des anomalies intra-utérines discrètes (telles que les fibromes sous-muqueux). (I-A) 8. Le recours à la biopsie endométriale devrait être envisagé chez les femmes de plus de 40 ans qui présentent des saignements ou chez les femmes dont les saignements ne réagissent pas au traitement médical, ainsi que chez les jeunes femmes qui présentent des facteurs de risque de cancer de l’endomètre. (II-2A) 9. La biopsie endométriale menée en cabinet devrait remplacer la dilatation-curetage de l’utérus à titre de modalité initiale d’évaluation de l’endomètre chez ces femmes. (II-2A) 10. Les lésions focales de l’endomètre qui nécessitent une biopsie devraient être prises en charge au moyen d’une évaluation guidée par hystéroscopie. (II-2A) 11. Des options non hormonales, telles que les AINS et les antifibrinolytiques, peuvent être utilisées efficacement pour assurer la prise en charge des saignements menstruels abondants dont la manifestation est principalement cyclique ou prévisible. (I-A) 12. Les contraceptifs oraux combinés, l’acétate de médroxyprogestérone-retard et le système intra-utérin à libération de lévonorgestrel permettent une diminution considérable des saignements menstruels et devraient être utilisés pour traiter les femmes présentant des saignements utérins anormaux qui souhaitent obtenir une contraception efficace. (I-A) 13. Les progestatifs cycliques administrés pendant la phase lutéale ne permettent pas une diminution efficace de la perte sanguine; ainsi, ils ne devraient pas être utilisés à titre de traitement visant particulièrement les saignements menstruels abondants. (I-E) 14. Le danazol et les agonistes de la GnRH permettront une diminution efficace des saignements menstruels, et pourraient être utilisés en présence de scénarios dans le cadre desquels l’utilisation d’autres traitements médicaux ou chirurgicaux a échoué ou est contre-indiquée. (I-C) 15. Les patientes qui prennent un agoniste de la GnRH pendant plus de six mois devraient se voir prescrire une hormonothérapie de compensation, lorsque celle-ci n’a pas déjà été mise en œuvre au début du traitement à l’agoniste de la GnRH. (I-A) 16. Le SIU à libération d’un progestatif donne lieu à l’obtention d’issues semblables à celles de l’ablation de l’endomètre chez les femmes qui présentent des saignements menstruels abondants; ainsi, son utilisation pourrait être prise en considération avant d’avoir recours à une intervention chirurgicale. (I-A) 17. Chez des candidates appropriées, les techniques d’ablation non hystéroscopiques devraient être les méthodes d’ablation à privilégier, et ce, en raison de leur efficacité et de leur innocuité supérieures, par comparaison avec les techniques hystéroscopiques. (I-A) 18. À l’exception des AINS, les mêmes agents médicaux qui sont utilisés pour assurer la prise en charge des saignements menstruels abondants chez les femmes présentant une coagulation normale peuvent être efficacement utilisés chez les femmes atteintes de troubles hémostatiques héréditaires. (II-1B) 19. Le recours à une approche multidisciplinaire constitue la meilleure façon d’assurer la prise en charge des femmes atteintes de troubles hémostatiques héréditaires qui connaissent des saignements menstruels considérablement abondants ou chez lesquelles le traitement médical conventionnel a échoué. (III-C) 20. La planification de l’hystérectomie ou la mise en œuvre d’un traitement faisant appel à des produits sanguins devraient être menées en consultation avec un hématologue dans le cas des patientes atteintes de troubles hémostatiques héréditaires. (III-C) 21. Les saignements menstruels abondants aigus devraient faire l’objet d’une prise en charge sans délai et de façon systématique, et ce, afin de minimiser la morbidité chez la patiente et la nécessité d’avoir recours à une transfusion sanguine. (III-C) 22. Les œstrogènes à forte dose et l’acide tranexamique peuvent contribuer à atténuer ou à juguler les saignements menstruels abondants aigus. (III-C) 23. Chez les adolescentes qui connaissent des saignements menstruels abondants à la ménarche ou peu après, l’anamnèse et les explorations devraient comprendre une évaluation visant à déterminer la présence d’un trouble hémostatique sous-jacent. (II-2A).

  17. British African Caribbean Women and Depression (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney


    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  18. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek


    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  19. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David


    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  20. African Women in the Visual Arts. (United States)

    Aronson, Lisa


    Explores recent studies in anthropology, art history, and archeology on African women's art from a feminist theoretical perspective. Relates women's arts to several sociological and economic factors and suggests new avenues of exploration, especially in the face of urbanization and modernization. (CJS)

  1. Heart Truth for African American Women (United States)

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? ... That’s a man’s disease.” But here’s The Heart Truth ® : Heart disease is the #1 killer of women ...

  2. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine


    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  3. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.


    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  4. African-American Women in History. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Describes two reference books suitable for middle/junior high school library media centers that present information about African-American women and suggests activities for Afro-American History Month. Library media skills objectives, social studies and art objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures,…

  5. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history. (United States)

    Ross, L J


    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  6. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.


    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  7. Association of the Joint Effect of Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cancer in African American Women: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sarpong


    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the US and in Mississippi. Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women, and the underlying pathophysiology remains unknown, especially among African American (AA women. The study purpose was to examine the joint effect of menopause status (MS and hormone replacement therapy (HRT on the association with cancers, particularly BC using data from the Jackson Heart Study. The analytic sample consisted of 3202 women between 35 and 84 years of which 73.7% and 22.6% were postmenopausal and on HRT, respectively. There were a total of 190 prevalent cancer cases (5.9% in the sample with 22.6% breast cancer cases. Menopause (p < 0.0001, but not HRT (p = 0.6402, was independently associated with cancer. Similar results were obtained for BC. BC, cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, prevalent cardiovascular disease, physical activity and certain dietary practices were all significantly associated with the joint effect of menopause and HRT in the unadjusted analyses. The family history of cancer was the only covariate that was significantly associated with cancer in the age-adjusted models. In examining the association of cancer and the joint effect of menopause and HRT, AA women who were menopausal and were not on HRT had a 1.97 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.38 times odds of having cancer compared to pre-menopausal women after adjusting for age; which was attenuated after further adjusting for family history of cancer. Given that the cancer and BC cases were small and key significant associations were attenuated after adjusting for the above mentioned covariates, these findings warrant further investigation in studies with larger sample sizes of cancer (and BC cases.

  8. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women. (United States)

    Davis, S P


    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  9. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    O'Neill, Shannon K.


    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  10. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane


    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  11. Women and the social construction of gender in African development. (United States)

    Kalu, A C


    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought.

  12. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review. (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S


    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  13. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette


    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  14. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.


    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  15. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women. (United States)

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A


    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  16. Hypertension and hypertensive heart disease in African women. (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Ojji, Dike; Bachelier, Katrin; Böhm, Michael; Damasceno, Albertino; Stewart, Simon


    Hypertension and hypertensive heart disease is one of the main contributors to a growing burden of non-communicable forms of cardiovascular disease around the globe. The recently published global burden of disease series showed a 33 % increase of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in the past two decades with long-term consequences. Africans, particularly younger African women, appear to be bearing the brunt of this increasing public health problem. Hypertensive heart disease is particularly problematic in pregnancy and is an important contributor to maternal case-fatality. European physicians increasingly need to attend to patients from African decent and need to know about unique aspects of disease presentation and pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological care. Reductions in salt consumption, as well as timely detection and treatment of hypertension and hypertensive heart disease remain a priority for effective primary and secondary prevention of CVD (particularly stroke and CHF) in African women. This article reviews the pattern, potential causes and consequences and treatment of hypertension and hypertensive heart disease in African women, identifying the key challenges for effective primary and secondary prevention in this regard.

  17. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry (United States)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  18. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar


    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  19. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.


    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  20. Stories of African HIV+ Women Living in Poverty. (United States)

    VanTyler, Samaya; Sheilds, Laurene


    In this study researchers explored the daily experiences of HIV+ women living in Kibera, Kenya. Using a convergence of narrative, feminist, and indigenous approaches, we engaged in individual in-depth interviews with nine HIV+ women. Interpretive storylines include the following: Being an African woman; If I sit there, that 10 bob won't come; If I die, who will take care of my children?; I am stigma; They just come to you; Being up, feeling down, and stress-up; and Living with HIV is a challenge. We present our findings to provide evidence-based insights to better support HIV+ women living in poverty.

  1. A Novel Approach: Using Fiction by African American Women To Teach Black Women's History. (United States)

    Bunch-Lyons, Beverly A.


    Discusses the use of novels and other works written by African American women as tools for teaching the history of black women in the United States in an undergraduate course. Focuses on specific works used in the course, such as Octavia Butler's "Kindred" and Terry McMillan's "Waiting to Exhale." (CMK)

  2. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women (United States)

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.


    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  3. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando


    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  4. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B


    The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactiv...... in broad-spectrum improvements in the health profile of untrained, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and musculo-skeletal benefits....

  5. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa


    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  6. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example (United States)

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki


    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  7. Contribution of "Women's Gold" to West African livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariéve


    Contribution of ``Women's Gold'' to West African Livelihoods: The Case of Shea ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) in Burkina Faso. This paper (i) quantifies the contribution that Vitellaria paradoxa makes to the total income of rural households belonging to different economic groups in two areas of Burkina ...... not be considered as a remedy to poverty but instead as a way for households to diversify their livelihood strategy and decrease their vulnerability to food insecurity and climate variability....

  8. Determinants of health insurance ownership among South African women


    Mwabu Germano M; Nganda Benjamin; Sambo Luis G; Kirigia Joses M; Chatora Rufaro; Mwase Takondwa


    Abstract Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-secti...

  9. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  10. Relationship of Pain and Ancestry in African American Women (United States)

    Robbins, John A.; Qi, Lihong; Garcia, Lorena; Younger, Jarred W.; Seldin, Michael F.


    Background African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Methods 11,239 self-identified African American post menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, “Pain Construct” measurements and covariate information. They answered 5 questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache, and urinary. They also answered 2 questions which were used to derive a “Pain Construct”, a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1 to 100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighborhood socio-economic status, education, and depression. Results In the unadjusted model of the 5 specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [Beta = −0.132, 95% confidence interval (C I) = −099 – −0.164; r = −0.075, 95% CI −0.056 – −0.093] and the adjusted models (Beta = −0.069 95% CI = −0.04 – 0.10). Conclusions Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. PMID:25752262

  11. From reproduction to reinvention. Women's roles in African cities. (United States)

    Simone, A


    African governments are expressing a new awareness that interventions focused on women's health, education, political participation, and human rights are essential to the control of population growth. Lacking, however, are formal models of innovative techniques for mobilizing endogenous resource bases and maximizing popular participation. Marginalized from social and economic development, African urban women have been able to elaborate new forms of social economies and reciprocal interaction that merit attention. In the shift from the household production and reproduction characteristic of parochial rural economies to the cross-circuitry of urban trade, women have facilitated the formation of interhousehold alliances and the sharing of opportunities and resources essential to urban survival. Because women tend to operate in informal contexts outside the realm of bureaucratic control, they have been able to improvise new forms of solidarity, information exchange, and income generation. Moreover, through their ability to link disparate households, compounds, and neighborhoods, women are evolving new processes of institutional reform that cut across territory, class position, and other forms of stratification.

  12. Low ERK phosphorylation in cancer-associated fibroblasts is associated with tamoxifen resistance in pre-menopausal breast cancer.

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    Susann Busch

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate ERK phosphorylation as a stromal biomarker for breast cancer prognosis and tamoxifen treatment prediction within a randomized tamoxifen trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue microarrays of two breast cancer cohorts including in total 743 invasive breast cancer samples were analyzed for ERK phosphorylation (pERK and smooth muscle actin-alpha expression (SMAα in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs and links to clinico-pathological data and treatment-predictive values were delineated. RESULTS: By analyzing a unique randomized tamoxifen trial including breast cancer patients receiving no adjuvant treatment we show for the first time that patients low in ERK phosphorylation in CAFs did not respond to tamoxifen treatment despite having estrogen-receptor alpha (ERα-positive tumors compared to patients with high pERK levels in CAFs (P = 0.015, multivariate Cox regression interaction analysis. In both clinical materials we further show a significant association between pERK and SMAα, a characteristic marker for activated fibroblasts. SMAα expression however was not linked to treatment-predictive information but instead had prognostic qualities. CONCLUSION: The data suggests that the presence of a subpopulation of CAFs, defined by minimal activated ERK signaling, is linked to an impaired tamoxifen response. Thus, this report illustrates the importance of the stroma for monitoring treatment effects in pre-menopausal breast cancer.

  13. Why African American women leave the academy: barriers to and opportunities for retention. (United States)

    Gregory, S T


    African American women have participated in higher education for well over a century. Although the journey has been difficult, significant achievements have been made. Today, fewer African American women doctoral recipients are choosing academic employment, and many of those who enter the academy later leave for employment in business, industry and the professions where salaries are often more attractive. Furthermore, the present decline of African American faculty women is expected to become more severe as the growth of the academic labor market levels off. If we are to successfully retain the pool of African American faculty women it is important to discover the reasons why an increasing number are voluntarily leaving the academy. This article is based on a cross-sectional study of 384 African American academic women which examines the primary barriers to faculty retention and offer suggestions to help prevent the further loss of African American women scholars.

  14. Psychosocial Indicators in North African Immigrant Women in Italy. (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Caccialupi, Maria Giovanna; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela


    The present research evaluated the psychosocial health and quality of life of North African (NA) immigrant women living in Italy. A survey of 205 NA-born and Italian-born women was carried out. Psychosocial, sociodemographic and migration data were collected. Anthropometric indices were computed by direct measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Multivariate analysis showed that the main explanatory variable for all dimensions of psychosocial status was the migrant status. Other explanatory variables were educational level and number of children for psychological discomfort, and weight status for well-being, quality of life and stress. Anthropometric indices were explanatory variables for quality of life. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence of higher psychological stress and discomfort and lower well-being and quality of life in immigrant women. Public social support is necessary to control, maintain and improve the mental health outcomes of immigrant communities in the host country.

  15. Exploring Leadership through Spiritual Practices and African Moral Virtues: Portraits of African American Women Principals in Urban Settings (United States)

    Smith, Sharon Irene


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the influences of spirituality on decisions made by African American women principals at the elementary school level in schools where children of color and poverty exist in significant numbers and to gain an understanding of how African moral virtues were evidenced in the day to day professional…

  16. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction. (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.


    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  17. Adaptation of an Acculturation Scale for African Refugee Women. (United States)

    Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E; Flynn, Priscilla; Asiedu, Gladys B; Hedberg, Eric; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki


    Newly-arrived African refugees are a vulnerable group of immigrants for whom no validated acculturation measures exist. A valid measurement tool is essential to understand how acculturative processes impact health and health disparities. We adapted the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ) to characterize its reliability among ethnic Somali women residing in Minnesota, and Somali, Somali Bantu, and Burundian women in Arizona. Surveys were administered to 164 adult women. Analyses were conducted along socio-demographic variables of ethnicity, geographic residence, age, and length of time in the United States through t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the modified BIQ. Exploratory factor analyses yielded five subscales: "Speak Native Language", "Speak English Language", "Enjoy Native Activities", "Enjoy American Activities", and "Desired Ideal Culture". The subscales of the modified BIQ possessed Cronbach's α ranging from 0.68 to 0.92, suggestive that all subscales had acceptable to excellent internal consistency. The modified BIQ maintained its psychometric properties across geographic regions of resettled Central and East African refugees.

  18. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

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    Quaker E Harmon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. STUDY DESIGN: The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. CONCLUSION: Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  19. Low-income African American women's beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy. (United States)

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Chang, Judy C


    Exercise may decrease the incidence of obesity and obesity related complications during pregnancy including gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. African American women are at higher risk for obesity and physical inactivity during pregnancy when compared to other patient groups. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe in detail the unique beliefs and perspectives regarding exercise during pregnancy of African American women. A series of 6 focus groups discussions with pregnant African American women were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed for major themes and independently coded for beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant, African American women participated in 6 focus group discussions. The majority of women were single (94%), had only a high school education (67%), received Medicaid (100%) and had a mean BMI of 33 kg/m(2). Three major themes emerged regarding our subjects' beliefs about exercise during pregnancy: (1) women had a broad definition of what types of activities constituted exercise, (2) women believed exercise was generally beneficial during pregnancy and (3) women believed certain types of activities or movements could cause problems with pregnancy. African American women overwhelmingly believe that exercise positively impacts pregnancy. A lack of knowledge concerning the benefits of exercise during pregnancy was not found to be a major contributor to inactivity in African American women. However, health care providers should be aware of cultural myths that prevent many African American women from performing certain activities during pregnancy.

  20. The African Women's Protocol: bringing attention to reproductive rights and the MDGs.

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    Liesl Gerntholtz


    Full Text Available Andrew Gibbs and colleagues discuss the African Women's Protocol, a framework for ensuring reproductive rights are supported throughout the continent and for supporting interventions to improve women's reproductive health, including the MDGs.

  1. The African Women's Protocol: bringing attention to reproductive rights and the MDGs. (United States)

    Gerntholtz, Liesl; Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha


    Andrew Gibbs and colleagues discuss the African Women's Protocol, a framework for ensuring reproductive rights are supported throughout the continent and for supporting interventions to improve women's reproductive health, including the MDGs.

  2. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar


    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  3. Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Perspectives about Depression

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    K. B. Holden


    Full Text Available Gaining greater understanding about the various psychosocial, socio-cultural, and environmental factors that may influence experiences of depression among African American women (AAW helps elucidate how this mental illness impacts the lives of this population. Sixty-three adult AAW comprised the study’s convenience sample.  Specifically, focus group cohorts inclusive of women from an academic institution, a primary healthcare clinic, and an urban community setting were conducted.  Results indicated six (6 dominant common themes as issues that may increase risk for depression among diverse AAW.  Similarities and differences about perspectives that contributed to depression were delineated among the three cohorts of AAW.  These results are important for mental/behavioral health researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals that are engaged in the design and implementation of culturally centered and gender-specific prevention and intervention strategies targeted to AAW at risk for depression.  

  4. Gestational diabetes mellitus among African-American women. (United States)

    Roseman, J M; Go, R C; Perkins, L L; Barger, B D; Bell, D H; Goldenberg, R L; DuBard, M B; Huddleston, J F; Sedlacek, C M; Acton, R T


    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of poor outcomes for the pregnancy. It is a strong risk factor for subsequent diabetes. The epidemiology of GDM in African-American women is not well known. It has not been demonstrated that their risk factors are similar in character and weight to those among White women. There is considerable multicollinearity among GDM risk factors such as age, parity, obesity, hypertension, and family history of diabetes, and this needs to be sorted out. This review is based on the results of a nested case-control study to evaluate the frequency of, and the relationships of the known risk factors with, the onset of GDM among African-American women. All cases of GDM within a cohort of women seen at any of the county health department clinics in Jefferson County, Alabama from 1981 to 1987 were identified. The cohort represents approximately 63% of all African-American pregnancies in the county during the period. With few exceptions (5.1% based on fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 120 mg/dl), potential GDM cases (7.1%) were selected on the basis of a 2 h post 100 g carbohydrate meal screening plasma glucose measure at their second prenatal visit and again at 28-32 weeks greater than or equal to 115 mg/dl and diagnosed on the basis of the results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) using the criteria of O'Sullivan and Mahan. Women with any prior history of diabetes (even in pregnancy), 1.6%, were excluded. The frequency of the new diagnosis of GDM among African-American women in this pregnancy in the cohort was 2.5% of pregnancies and 3.4% of women, which is similar to the values reported in the other studies. Controls were selected from women with negative screening tests who delivered after a GDM subject. The results reported in this paper reflect 358 cases (86% of all eligible GDM cases identified) and 273 controls. Cases were significantly older (28.3 vs. 21.7 years), of higher gravidity (2


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    Oyeronke Olademo


    Full Text Available Healing in African indigenous cultures is a corporate matter involving the totality of the person, family and community. Healing presupposes sickness; its practice is therefore interlocked with a people’s conception of sickness and diseases. In Africa, sickness is an attestation to the fact that an individual is out of tune with nature and the supernatural, which is represented by the various deities. The physical signs are therefore a part of the story and not the whole story. Similarly, the Christian conception of disease and healing is intertwined with the individual’s relationship with the supernatural and the physical signs are but part of the story. Diagnosis and prescription for treatment and healing take into cognizance all these facts and this is where the healer comes in. The healer constitutes an integral part of the patient’s healing in Yoruba religion as well as in African Christianity. There are female and male healers in both religions but whereas these specialists are designated as healers/diviners/custodians of tradition in Yoruba religion, in African Christianity, they are known as prophetesses/prophets/deliverance ministers. This paper seeks to evaluate the position of the healer among the Yoruba of Nigeria. A second objective is to analyze contemporary postures on healing activities in Yoruba religion and Christianity and how women feature in these processes.

  6. Examining Individualism, Collectivism, and Self-Differentiation in African American College Women. (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Constantine, Madonna G.


    Examines aspects of individualism, collectivism, and self-differentiation in 123 African American women attending a predominantly White university. Results reveled that aspects of individualism and collectivism were differentially related to self-differentiation in African American college women. Implications of the findings are discussed.…

  7. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.


    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  8. Video telehealth for weight maintenance of African-American women. (United States)

    Gerber, Ben S; Schiffer, Linda; Brown, Allison A; Berbaum, Michael L; Rimmer, James H; Braunschweig, Carol L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L


    We evaluated the effect of home telehealth on weight maintenance after a group-based weight loss programme. The home telehealth intervention comprised telephone counselling and home Internet-enabled digital video recorders (DVRs) with three channels of video programmes. The video content provided reinforcement and support to promote problem solving, prevent relapse and sustain motivation. Eighty-eight obese or overweight African-American women were randomized to receive monthly telephone counselling (control) or the home telehealth intervention. The weight change during maintenance was not significant in either group (0.6 kg in the intervention group, 0.0 kg in the control group), and there was no significant difference between them. Changes in diet, physical activity, social support and self-efficacy during the maintenance period did not differ significantly between groups. DVR use was low: during the intervention, the number of valid DVR viewings ranged from zero to 42 per person. DVR use was positively associated with previous attendance at the weight loss classes. Home video-based telehealth is a new method of delivering a weight loss maintenance intervention to African-American women. It had no effect on weight maintenance in the present study.

  9. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity. (United States)

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne


    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  10. Motivational interviewing to reduce cardiovascular risk in African American and Latina women. (United States)

    Witt, Dawn R; Lindquist, Ruth; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Boucher, Jackie L; Konety, Suma H; Savik, Kay


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women, and disproportionally so for African American and Latina women. CVD is largely preventable and many risks can be attributable to health behaviors, implementing and sustaining positive health behaviors is a challenge. Motivational interviewing is one promising intervention for initiating behavior change. The purpose of this review was to identify, synthesize, and critically analyze the existing literature on the use of motivational interviewing as a behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk among African American and Latina women. Seven studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. Results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing has mixed results when used to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in African American and Latina women. More research using a standardized motivational interviewing approach is needed to definitively determine if it is an effective behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk when used in populations of African American and Latina women.

  11. Powerlessness, anger, and stress in African American women: implications for physical and emotional health. (United States)

    Thomas, Shirley A; González-Prendes, A Antonio


    African American women find themselves at a high risk of experiencing feelings of powerlessness associated with socioeconomic disparities rooted in a history of racism and sexism. The authors present a conceptual model that discusses powerlessness as a significant variable that contributes to the experience of anger and stress in African American women, and consequently to the adverse health consequences of such anger and stress. The authors review the current literature as well as census and health statistics to discern critical historical, social, and cognitive aspects of powerlessness and anger in African American women. Implications for practitioners are addressed.

  12. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

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    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael


    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) we

  13. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer? (United States)

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M


    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  14. African American women making race work in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) (United States)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with

  15. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.


    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  16. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel


    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  17. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women. (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T


    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.

  18. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education (United States)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  19. Disparities in Osteoporosis Screening Between At-Risk African-American and White Women (United States)

    Miller, Redonda G; Ashar, Bimal H; Cohen, Jennifer; Camp, Melissa; Coombs, Carmen; Johnson, Elizabeth; Schneyer, Christine R


    Background Despite a lower prevalence of osteoporosis in African-American women, they remain at risk and experience a greater mortality than white women after sustaining a hip fracture. Lack of recognition of risk factors may occur in African-American women, raising the possibility that disparities in screening practices may exist. Objective To determine whether there is a difference in physician screening for osteoporosis in postmenopausal, at-risk African-American and white women. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review at an urban academic hospital and a suburban community hospital. Subjects included 205 African-American and white women, age ≥65 years and weight ≤127 pounds, who were seen in Internal Medicine clinics. The main outcome was dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan referral. We investigated physician and patient factors associated with referral. Secondary outcomes included evidence of discussion of osteoporosis and prescription of medications to prevent osteoporosis. Results Significantly fewer African-American than white women were referred for a DXA scan (OR 0.39%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22 to 0.68). Physicians were also less likely to mention consideration of osteoporosis in medical records (0.27, 0.15 to 0.48) and to recommend calcium and vitamin D supplementation for this population (0.21, 0.11 to 0.37). If referred, African-American women had comparable DXA completion rates when compared with white women. No physician characteristics were significantly associated with DXA referral patterns. Conclusions Our study found a significant disparity in the recommendation for osteoporosis screening for African-American versus white women of similar risk, as well as evidence of disparate osteoporosis prevention and treatment, confirming results of other studies. Future educational and research initiatives should target this inequality. PMID:16117754

  20. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.


    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  1. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women. (United States)

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia


    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed.

  2. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners (United States)

    Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.


    Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor

  3. The impact of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians: French zone on church and African theology issues

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    Anastasie M. Maponda


    Full Text Available We can understand that the Circle must work on two dimensions to provide a future for new woman theology in Africa. The first dimension is based on the intuitive fundamental and innovative sense of a woman from Ghana, Mercy Amba Oduyoye, that leads to the creation of the Circle: she impulsed the idea that women should make their own theology from their dailylife experiences and their subjectivity as women, in order to think on faith and Gospel in a different way. It is necessary to question that intuitive sense. The second dimension aims to revisit the great personalities of African woman theologians of the Circle. What are the essential points of their research? How has the research changed African theology? I particularly think of Musimbi Kanyoro, Nyambura Njoroge and Musa Dub� in the Africa English zone and Helene Yinda, Liz Vuadi, Kasa Dovi and Bernadette Mbuyi Beya in Africa French zone. The essence of their thinking is still actual and that is why they are good enough to project in to the future.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article presents the history of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians from creation to now. Issues related to traditional culture, gender and sexual-based violence, gender-based injustice, and HIV and AIDS are discussed under different approaches such as the biblical approach, hermeneutical approach, ethical approach, historical approach and practical approach. The impact of African Women Theologians speaking French will be particularly highlighted.Keywords: theology; women theologians; women empowerment; HIV/AIDS; gender

  4. Till Death Do Us Part: Lived Experiences of HIV-Positive Married African American Women (United States)

    Edwards, Lorece V.; Irving, Shalon M.; Hawkins, Anita S.


    HIV/AIDS disease continues to be an escalating health problem, particularly among women. However, African American women are among the leading demographic groups for HIV prevalence in the United States. The typical woman with HIV/AIDS is young, in her late twenties, economically challenged, and of childbearing age. Participants were recruited from…

  5. Leading School Improvement: African American Women Principals in Urban Educational Settings (United States)

    Mack, Yejide S.


    African American women administrators working in urban educational settings have been found to be effective leaders of school improvement. Underutilized women and people of color are the untapped value that organizations of all types need to enhance creativity, change efforts, teamwork, and financial benefits (Northouse, 2001). During the last…

  6. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making (United States)

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi


    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  7. Body Dissatisfaction, Ethnic Identity, and Disordered Eating among African American Women (United States)

    Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.


    Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…

  8. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process (United States)

    Gillis, La Tonya L.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  9. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea


    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  10. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality. (United States)

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  11. Weight loss maintenance in African American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature. (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela


    We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

  12. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women. (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye


    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women.

  13. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women. (United States)

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew


    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust.

  14. "Physical activity as a luxury": African American women's attitudes toward physical activity. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Hwang, Hyenam; Yoo, Kyung Hee; Chee, Wonshik; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Lorraine; Brown, Adama; McPeek, Chelsea; Chee, Eunice


    The purpose of this study was to explore African American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. Using a feminist perspective, a 6-month online forum was conducted with 21 African American midlife women recruited on the Internet. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (a) culturally acceptable body, (b) missed opportunity to learn, (c) physical activity as a luxury, and (d) want to do by myself. The women had positive body images regardless of their actual weight. The women considered physical activity "a luxury" in their busy lives and thought that they had already missed opportunities to learn. The women wanted to participate in physical activities alone because of their bad childhood experiences and hesitance to go out in public with sweaty, messy hair. The findings suggested that unique programs that promote physical activity should be developed that consider the women's ethnic-specific attitudes.

  15. The Impact of STORY on Depression and Fatigue in African-American Women with Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Heiney, Sue P; Reavis, Karen; Tavakoli, Abbas S; Adams, Swann Arp; Hayne, Pearman D; Weinrich, Sally P


    The intervention Sisters Tell Others and Revive Yourself (STORY) is a teleconference intervention for African-American women with breast cancer that was studied with a randomized, non-blinded, intention-to-treat trial between 2006 and 2010 in the southeastern United States. This secondary data analysis research measured the impact of STORY on depression and fatigue in African-American women (N = 168) with breast cancer. The were no significant differences in depression or fatigue found between the intervention and control groups based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Further research is needed to develop effective interventions aimed at decreasing depression and fatigue in African-American women with breast cancer.

  16. Eating behaviors and related cultural attitudes of African American men and women

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    Christina Oney


    Full Text Available Cultural groups often participate in traditions and activities surrounding food and eating, which contribute to group differences in maladaptive eating-related patterns and outcomes. This study explored the relationships between cultural attitudes and eating behaviors of young adult African American men and women. Endorsing a strong orientation on various dimensions of African American culture were related to less dieting, bulimic, and anorexic behaviors and attitudes. This study extended our knowledge of the ways in which cultural attitudes were related to the physical and mental health of African Americans and recognized the significance of individual differences within this group.

  17. The perceptions of African women regarding natural menopause in Mamelodi, Tshwane district

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    Gloria N. Makuwa


    Full Text Available Background: The majority of South African aging population are women, who spend late adulthood experiencing natural menopause. Despite the government spending billions of rand on different services for ageing women, menopausal challenges to African women still receive little attention.Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of African women regarding natural menopause, in order to propose recommendations for health and social support systems for women in Mamelodi, Tshwane district.Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used to conduct the study. The population of the study consisted of menopausal women, between the ages 45 and 60 years or more, visiting the clinics for collection of chronic medication and othe rhealth assessment. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a semi-structured interview guide to collect data. Tesch’s method of qualitative data analysis was used in the study.Results: The main theme that emerged from the study was ‘attitude toward menopause’, which was supported by cultural beliefs and experience. The African menopausal women expressed the importance of health support systems that will meet their needs within their context.Conclusion: Women’s health programs and educational health information at facilities should include menopausal education to promote and improve health of all African menopausal women during their adulthood. There is a need to establish a women’s health support group network within communities to share menopausal experiences with peers. The training and education curriculum of healthcare providers should include detailed menopause in order to provide comprehensive, congruent care.

  18. "Kitchen cupboard drinking": a review of South African women's secretive alcohol addiction, treatment history, and barriers to accessing treatment. (United States)

    Pretorius, Liezille; Naidoo, Av; Reddy, S P


    How Black women are represented, conceptualized, and researched in the field of psychology has dramatic and far-reaching effects on arriving at an understanding of personality and psychopathology. This point becomes especially salient as researchers try to develop alternative strategies for researching gendered experiences and for generating meaningful information about African women's experiences of alcohol misuse. On the African continent, there is a paucity of research on Black women's access to alcohol treatment. Therefore, this review has implications for research and practice with the potential to stimulate future health disparities research affecting Black African women. The article focuses on a South African population and explores the importance of theorizing alcohol misuse and sex by discussing the history of alcohol misuse in South Africa, women and alcohol misuse in South Africa, and women's treatment history; interpreting women's experiences of treatment; and addressing recommendations for future research.

  19. Initial feasibility of a woman-focused intervention for pregnant african-american women. (United States)

    Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M


    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.

  20. Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women

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    Hendrée E. Jones


    Full Text Available African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.

  1. Voice of the voiceless: The legacy of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians

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    Hazel O. Ayanga


    Full Text Available The Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians (the Circle formally came into existence in 1989 in Accra, Ghana. Under the charismatic leadership of Mercy Amba Oduyoye, the Circle sought to be the voice of African Christian women at the grass roots level. To this end research and publication was and still is one of the major pillars and activities of the Circle. The main objective of the Circle is �to write and publish theological literature written by African women from their own experience of religion and culture on this continent�. In this regard the Circle has been and continues to be the voice for and on behalf of the African woman in religion, culture and theology. However, 25 years down the line there is need for an evaluation of the legacy of the Circle. How has the Circle been a voice for the voiceless, a mentoring instrument for women venturing into the academia? This article seeks to do this evaluation by examining the activities of the Circle including research publication.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article seeks to evaluate the achievements of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians in relation to the Circle�s stated objectives. The article picks up the notion of the Circle theologians as the voice of the voiceless women of Africa. The general approach of the article brings together discussions on social issues like gender, poverty and marginalisation as well as language. Theological and religious perspectives on these issues are understood from a Circle point of view.Keywords: women; voice; voicelessness; poverty; gender; The Circle; theology

  2. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

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    Perkins EL


    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  3. Appearance Self-Attitudes of African American and European American Women: Media Comparisons and Internalization of Beauty Ideals (United States)

    Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.


    African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…

  4. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. (United States)

    Mallory, Caroline


    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.

  5. Health-promoting lifestyles and exercise: a comparison of older African American women above and below poverty level. (United States)

    Brady, B; Nies, M A


    The purpose of this study was to compare the health-promoting behaviors and exercise behaviors of older African American women above and below poverty level. Fifty-eight African American women completed a demographic form and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP). Results indicated that African American women living above the poverty level had higher overall scores on the total HPLP and higher scores on the exercise subscale of the HPLP than women living below poverty level. Implications include teaching culturally specific, practical, and inexpensive exercise activities in primary care and community settings.

  6. Placing the burden on the individual: overweight and obesity in African American and mainstream women's magazines. (United States)

    Campo, Shelly; Mastin, Teresa


    One third of all U.S. adult women, and more than 75% of African American women, are overweight or obese. This study examined overweight and obesity editorial content (N=406) in three mainstream and three African American women's magazines between 1984 and 2004. Content analysis was used to determine which strategies were suggested regarding diet, overweight, and obesity, which components of social cognitive theory were offered (behavior, person, or environment), and whether or not there were differences in the genres. The results suggest that although a wide range of strategies were being offered, the vast majority were behavioral changes with an individual solution focus. Although African American and mainstream magazines suggested many of the same strategies, nearly half more frequently appeared in one or the other genre. Mainstream magazines were twice as likely to offer the limiting or eliminating of fast food or junk food, eating more protein, eating lower-fat foods, and eating smaller portions. African American magazines were much more likely to cover fad diets and to suggest readers rely on God or faith in their diet plans. The average number of strategies offered per article was significantly higher in mainstream than in African American magazines.

  7. The African Women Theologians� contribution towards the discussion about alternative masculinities

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    Zorodzai Dube


    Full Text Available In a celebratory mood because of the unparalleled, heroine works of the Circle of Concerned African Female Theologians, from hereon the CIRCLE, I pose to assess their use of critical tools such as alternative masculinities. Largely, the CIRCLE writers engaged with the concept of alternative masculinity from the perspective of Christology, associating Jesus with �motherlike� virtues of caring and loving, which also became the basis to critique African hegemonic masculinities and patriarchy. While success has been achieved from a cultural perspective, in this study I suggest that emphasis should be diverted towards exploring strategies that empower women economically.Intradisciplinary and/orinterdisciplinary implications: The study uses theories from cultural studies, critical theory, and contextual and gender studies to locate the voices of African women theologians in their discussion of Alternative masculinity. By using contextual Christologies based on the African woman�s experience, the study adds to knowledge concerning the discussion of gender and alternative masculinities, in the process, highlighting the voices of African women theologians to the discussion.Keywords: Alternative masculinities; racial stereotypes; capitalism; socialisation

  8. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited (United States)

    Talpade, Medha


    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  9. Body shape and size depictions of African American women in JET magazine, 1953-2006. (United States)

    Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott


    Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals.

  10. Childhood emotional abuse, self/other attachment, and hopelessness in African-American women. (United States)

    Gaskin-Wasson, Ashly L; Calamaras, Martha R; LoParo, Devon; Goodnight, Bradley L; Remmert, Brittany C; Salami, Temilola; Mack, Sallie; Kaslow, Nadine J


    There is evidence that individuals emotionally abused as children endorse more hopelessness, a precursor of suicidal behavior in adulthood. However, there has been little focus on this association among African-Americans or on factors that may mediate the childhood emotional abuse (CEA) - adult hopelessness link. The present study examined whether CEA is linked to hopelessness in adulthood in African-American women suicide attempters and if adult self and other attachment models mediate this association. Participants included 116 African-American women recruited from a large, urban hospital. Results revealed that CEA had no direct effect on hopelessness in adulthood, but did have an indirect effect on hopelessness through attachment models. Bootstrapping analyses showed that higher levels of CEA were related to more negative self and other attachment models, which were then linked to higher levels of hopelessness. Implications for targeting attachment in suicide intervention programs are discussed.

  11. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

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    Brooke C. Schneider


    Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.

  12. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women. (United States)

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols


    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  13. "Views from the Nano Edge": Women on Doctoral Preparation Programmes in Selected African Contexts (United States)

    Williamson, Charmaine


    The study explored the conceptual views of "critical mass", alongside micro experiences, of women, at a practice level, on a doctoral preparation programme which was implemented within the South African Development Community (SADC) and Ethiopian contexts. At the strategising level of policies, insufficient attention has been paid to the…

  14. The Lived Experiences of African American Women with Breast Cancer: Implications for Counselors (United States)

    Clay, LaTasha K.


    Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…

  15. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women. (United States)

    Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar


    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.

  16. "There Are Two Truths": African American Women's Critical, Creative Ruminations on Love through New Literacies (United States)

    Staples, Jeanine M.


    In this article, the author explores what happens when a group of African American women came together to engage with popular culture narratives (PCNs) soon after 9/11. The author relies on Endarkened Feminist Epistemology to understand the development of raced and gendered meaning making and knowledge development within the inquiry. She also…

  17. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education (United States)

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.


    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  18. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women (United States)

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn


    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  19. Designing from Their Own Social Worlds: The Digital Story of Three African American Young Women (United States)

    Hall, Ted


    In this paper I examine the literacy work of three African American young women (through data drawn from a larger qualitative study), particularly their ways of knowing, such as double consciousness (Du Bois, 1989), and the multiple subject positions they occupy as they write themselves into a digitally created story. My analysis is guided by the…

  20. Voices from the Inside: African American Women's Perspectives on Healthy Lifestyles (United States)

    Rowe, Jill


    The author of this study conducted focus groups with African American women to explore their perspectives on obesity, disease causation, and their ideas on the functionality of cultural, social, historical, environmental, and psychological forces in altering healthy eating habits. Reoccurring themes centered on four areas: (a) the definition of…

  1. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial. (United States)

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah


    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.

  2. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women (United States)

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj


    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  3. African American Women Principals in Urban Schools: Realities, (Re)constructions, and Resolutions. (United States)

    Bloom, Collette M.; Erlandson, David A.


    Using a naturalistic inquiry approach, analysis of indepth interviews reveals portraits of three African American women administrators emerging from their visible absences, illusionary opportunities, and imaginary schools with stories of strength, identity formation, and a collective consciousness in working for and with the black community in…

  4. African-American Women in the Professoriate: Addressing Social Exclusion and Scholarly Marginalization through Mentoring (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Brenda


    African-American women and other underrepresented faculty members often report experiences of social exclusion and scholarly marginalization in mainstream institutions of higher education. This lack of inclusion challenges their retention and hinders them from becoming productive members of the professoriate, positioning them at a disadvantage for…

  5. African American Faculty Women Experiences of Underrepresentation in Computer Technology Positions in Higher Education (United States)

    King, Dolores


    African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…

  6. African American Women Making Race Work in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) (United States)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole


    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks,…

  7. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.


    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  8. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.


    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  9. Diaspora Literacies: An Exploration of What Reading Means to Young African Immigrant Women (United States)

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson


    This research study explored two young African immigrant women English learners' perspectives on reading, and literacy more broadly, in relation to motivation and identity during a year-long qualitative study at a large, urban high school in the U.S. southeast. Data were collected through interviews and observations that focused on reading…

  10. South African women's conceptualisations of and responses to sexual coercion in relation to hegemonic masculinities. (United States)

    Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie; Cooper, Diane


    Despite the documented relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinities and South African men's use of sexual violence, less is known about how women's engagement with norms of masculinity influences their agency in sexually coercive experiences. This study applied a narrative approach to assess how women's understandings of hegemonic male norms affected their perceptions of and responses to sexually coercive experiences. Twenty-five sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with women across five South African provinces representing a range of ages, language and sociocultural backgrounds. Interviews elicited stories of first experiences of sex and the range of sexual relationships through adulthood. Data were analysed using principles of thematic and narrative analysis. Coercive sexual experiences informed many women's normative ideas about men's sexuality including being impulsive, controlling and aggressive. This could underpin women's limited ability to exercise agency and their increased vulnerability to sexual abuse. Some women reported levels of trust and respect in subsequent relationships, which typically involved deconstructing norms of men's use of coercion and moving beyond self-blame and guilt. The findings highlight the need to appreciate the fluid and situated nature of women's agency from a relational perspective in terms of how women condone and challenge gender norms that support men's use of sexual violence in their relationships.

  11. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

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    Mona Loutfy


    Full Text Available Introduction: Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora. However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs, non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. Methods: The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Results: Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women.




    Healing in African indigenous cultures is a corporate matter involving the totality of the person, family and community. Healing presupposes sickness; its practice is therefore interlocked with a people’s conception of sickness and diseases. In Africa, sickness is an attestation to the fact that an individual is out of tune with nature and the supernatural, which is represented by the various deities. The physical signs are therefore a part of the story and not the whole story. Similarly, the...

  13. Promoting African American women and sexual assertiveness in reducing HIV/AIDS: an analytical review of the research literature. (United States)

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C


    African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.

  14. Drawing the line: how African, Caribbean and White British women live out psychologically abusive experiences. (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Kelly, Moira; Feder, Gene


    This study explores how African, Caribbean and White British women worked to hide psychological partner abuse as they experienced it, "do gender," and appear competent in social roles. They prioritized negotiated competencies as "good partners," actively setting socially and culturally embedded boundaries to their abuser's behaviors: an inner boundary encompassing normal behaviors and an outer one of "acceptable" behaviors projected as normal through remedial work. Behaviors breaching the outer boundary (e.g., if the women narrowed the bounds of the "acceptable") compromised the women's competence. This sometimes led them to actively use support services. Appropriate advice and support may change the boundaries.

  15. Critical consciousness, racial and gender discrimination, and HIV disease markers in African American women with HIV. (United States)

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R


    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.

  16. Struggling to survive: sexual assault, poverty, and mental health outcomes of African American women. (United States)

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly


    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women's increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed.

  17. Ebony and Ivory? Interracial dating intentions and behaviors of disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky. (United States)

    Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B


    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men.

  18. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky (United States)

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.


    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458

  19. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. (United States)

    Harcourt, Nonyelum; Ghebre, Rahel G; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Zhang, Yan; Warfa Osman, S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S


    Immigrant populations in the United States (US) have lower cancer screening rates compared to none immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the rates of cancer screening and examine factors associated with cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. A cross sectional survey of a community based sample was conducted among African immigrants in the Twin Cities. Cancer screening outcome measures were mammography and Papanicolau smear test. The revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization and the behavioral model for vulnerable populations were utilized to assess factors associated with cancer screening. Only 61 and 52% of the age eligible women in the sample had ever been screened for breast and cervical cancer respectively. Among these women, duration of residence in the US and ethnicity were significant determinants associated with non-screening. Programs to enhance screening rates among this population must begin to address barriers identified by the community.

  20. Sexuality, Sexual Practices, and HIV Risk among Incarcerated African-American Women in North Carolina (United States)

    Farel, Claire E.; Parker, Sharon D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Jones, Chaunetta; Golin, Carol E.; Fogel, Catherine I.; Wohl, David A.


    Background Women who have been in prison carry a greater lifetime risk of HIV for reasons that are not well understood. This effect is amplified in the Southeastern United States, where HIV incidence and prevalence is especially high among African American (AA) women. The role of consensual sexual partnerships in the context of HIV risk, especially same-sex partnerships, merits further exploration. Methods We conducted digitally recorded qualitative interviews with 29 AA women (15 HIV-positive, 14 HIV-negative) within three months after entry into the state prison system. We explored potential pre-incarceration HIV risk factors, including personal sexual practices. Two researchers thematically coded interview transcripts and a consensus committee reviewed coding. Results Women reported complex sexual risk profiles during the six months prior to incarceration, including sex with women as well as prior sexual partnerships with both men and women. Condom use with primary male partners was low and a history of transactional sex work was prevalent. These behaviors were linked to substance use, particularly among HIV-positive women. Conclusions Although women may not formally identify as bisexual or lesbian, sex with women was an important component of this cohort’s sexuality. Addressing condom use, heterogeneity of sexual practices, and partner concurrency among at-risk women should be considered for reducing HIV acquisition and preventing forward transmission in women with a history of incarceration. PMID:24183410

  1. Alcohol abstinence and drinking among African women: data from the World Health Surveys

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    Røislien Jo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use is increasing among women in Africa, and comparable information about women's current alcohol use is needed to inform national and international health policies relevant to the entire population. This study aimed to provide a comparative description of alcohol use among women across 20 African countries. Methods Data were collected as part of the WHO World Health Survey using standardized questionnaires. In total, 40,739 adult women were included in the present study. Alcohol measures included lifetime abstinence, current use (≥1 drink in previous week, heavy drinking (15+ drinks in the previous week and risky single-occasion drinking (5+ drinks on at least one day in the previous week. Country-specific descriptives of alcohol use were calculated, and K-means clustering was performed to identify countries with similar characteristics. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted for each country to identify factors associated with drinking status. Results A total of 33,841 (81% African women reported lifetime abstinence. Current use ranged from 1% in Malawi to 30% in Burkina Faso. Among current drinkers, heavy drinking varied between 4% in Ghana to 41% in Chad, and risky single-occasion drinking ranged from Conclusions A variety of drinking patterns are present among African women with lifetime abstention the most common. Countries with hazardous consumption patterns require serious attention to mitigate alcohol-related harm. Some similarities in factors related to alcohol use can be identified between different African countries, although these are limited and highlight the contextual diversity of female drinking in Africa.

  2. The use of psychiatric medications to treat depressive disorders in African American women. (United States)

    Jackson, Allesa P


    Review of the current literature confirms that African American women as a group are underdiagnosed and undertreated for psychiatric disorders. Hence, much effort is targeted towards awareness, screening, and improving access to health care for this population. However, once an African American woman is diagnosed with a major mental health disorder, determining the optimal course of treatment is a process that must be approached carefully because of gender and racial/ethnic differences in response and metabolism of psychiatric medications. African American women fall into both of these understudied categories. Given the small numbers of African American women represented in the clinical trials on which clinical practice is based, one must consider the limitations of current knowledge regarding psychoactive medications in this population. Culturally based attitudes or resistance to pharmacotherapy can complicate the use of psychoactive medicines, often a first-line approach in primary care clinics. Communication with patients is key, as well as openness to patient concerns and tolerance of these medications.

  3. Developing spiritually framed breast cancer screening messages in consultation with African American women. (United States)

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, Mindi; Hall, Ingrid J; Friedman, Daniela B; Billings, Deborah


    Despite efforts to increase breast cancer screening (BCS) among African American women, disparities in breast cancer mortality persist. Culturally framed health communication may provide a useful strategy to address this issue. Spirituality not only represents an integral aspect of African American culture, but it has also been identified as a potential barrier to BCS among this population. Rather than continuing to focus on spirituality as a barrier, there is an opportunity to develop promotional messages that tap into the protective properties of spirituality among this population. The goals of this study were to engage a group of African American women to identify important spiritual elements to be included in health communication materials, and to subsequently develop a spiritually framed BCS message in response to their feedback. Three nominal group sessions were conducted with 15 African American women. Results revealed three important spiritual elements that can be incorporated into BCS health messages: (a) the body as a temple; (b) going to the doctor does not make you faithless; and (c) God did not give us the spirit of fear. These elements were used to draft a spiritually framed BCS message. Next, 20 face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted to help finalize the spiritually framed BCS message for use in a future study on culturally framed health communication.

  4. Improvement of systolic and diastolic heart function after physical training in sedentary women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Juul; Hansen, P R; Søgaard, P


    The present study examined the cardiac effects of football training and running for inactive pre-menopausal women by standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to two training groups (football: FG; n=19; running; RG; n=18) training 1 h with equal a...

  5. Trichotillomania symptoms in African American women: are they related to anxiety and culture? (United States)

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Statom, Deborah; Stadulis, Robert


    Trichotillomania (TTM) is a little understood disorder that has been underresearched in the African American community. Furthermore, the incorporation of cultural factors into TTM research has virtually been ignored. Existing data from an African American college student population suggest TTM is associated with high levels of anxiety. In this study, we explored anxiety symptoms and cultural hair messages in an African American female community sample with TTM symptoms. We predicted high levels of TTM severity and impairment would be associated with high level of anxiety symptoms. We also predicted that cultural messages about hair will influence both TTM and anxiety symptoms. In this telephone study, 41 African American females participated in interviews about their TTM. TTM impairment and severity was positively correlated with general anxiety symptoms as measured on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL 90-R(®) ). Severity was also positively correlated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Given the significance of hair for African American women, we also explored the childhood cultural messages receive about hair. Over half the sample received at least one cultural message about hair. Although many women received the same message, the value they placed on the message differed. Messages received about hair were not associated with TTM severity or impairment. The association among obsessive-compulsive symptoms and hair messages approached significance. Results highlight the importance of assessing anxiety comorbidity and culture with African American TTM samples. Little is known about TTM in African American samples. Existing research indicates this population seeks TTM help from their hairdressers. Among college students, a significant correlation has been found for anxiety as measured on the Beck Anxiety Inventory and TTM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to examine cultural messages about hair in an African American sample. In addition

  6. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

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    Toure Kadidiatou


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  7. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

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    Connie L Celum


    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP. Discussion: Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions: Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies

  8. Incorporating Communication into the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Condom Use Among African American Women. (United States)

    Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L


    The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed.

  9. The Role of Adipose Tissue in Insulin Resistance in Women of African Ancestry

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    Julia H. Goedecke


    Full Text Available Women of African ancestry, particularly those living in industrialized countries, experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D compared to their white counterparts. Similarly, obesity and insulin resistance, which are major risk factors for T2D, are greater in black compared to white women. The exact mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not known. This paper will focus on the role of adipose tissue biology. Firstly, the characteristic body fat distribution of women of African ancestry will be discussed, followed by the depot-specific associations with insulin resistance. Factors involved in adipose tissue biology and their relation to insulin sensitivity will then be explored, including the role of sex hormones, glucocorticoid metabolism, lipolysis and adipogenesis, and their consequent effects on adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Finally the role of ectopic fat deposition will be discussed. The paper proposes directions for future research, in particular highlighting the need for longitudinal and/or intervention studies to better understand the mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of insulin resistance and T2D in women of African ancestry.

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal African-American Women. (United States)

    Adams-Campbell, L L; Dash, C; Kim, B H; Hicks, J; Makambi, K; Hagberg, J


    We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. Pooled baseline data on 170 African-American women from 2 exercise trials were examined. Metabolic syndrome was defined as at least 3 of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high triglycerides. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was determined using the Bruce treadmill protocol and categorized as: Very Low (VLCRF22.0 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)). Associations of metabolic syndrome with cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and linear regression. VO2peak was significantly lower in the VLCRF compared to the MCRF group. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL among overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. In fully adjusted models, higher waist circumference and triglycerides were associated with lower VO2peak levels (Pmetabolic syndrome, higher body mass index, and unhealthier levels of certain metabolic syndrome components than women with moderate cardiorespiratory fitness.

  11. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women. (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie


    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources.

  12. Sexism and sexual harassment. Concerns of African American women of the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. (United States)

    Whitson, M H


    This paper reports the findings of a research project that examined social issues identified by a select group of religiously active African American women. The research examines sexism and sexual harassment and its prevalence within the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (CMEC). A total of 100 African American women from the CMEC participated in the focus group interviews. Findings suggest that the participants want the Church to acknowledge the existence of sexism and sexual harassment within is confines. Women participants perceived that their concern regarding the prevalence of sexism and sexual harassment within the Church had been subjugated in favor of those concerns more identifiable with males. Participants voiced the opinion that if the Church was indeed an agent concerned about societal issues that affect all its members, such issues should not be directed solely to the Women's Missionary Society but should be addressed at all levels of the Church. Furthermore, results from the focus group interviews suggest that women desire policy change in the Church before directing attention to policy change in the general community. Women professed the belief that because the CMEC has a hierarchical structure similar to the community and the criminal justice system, changes implemented within the Church are likely to be reflected in the behavior, attitudes, and policies of the community and the criminal justice system.

  13. Sexually transmitted infections in young pregnant women in Bangui, Central African Republic. (United States)

    Blankhart, D; Müller, O; Gresenguet, G; Weis, P


    In early 1996, 481 women visiting the antenatal services of the 3 major governmental health centres in the capital city of the Central African Republic (CAR) were included in the study. All study participants underwent the health centre's routine gynaecological examination, including laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis, candidiasis, gonorrhoea, syphilis and bacterial vaginosis. Cervical secretions and blood samples from study participants were sent to the National STD Reference Centre for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Treponema pallidum, and HIV. Overall, 34% of the study women were diagnosed with at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) (3.1% N. gonorrhoeae, 6.2% C. trachomatis, 9.9% T. vaginalis, 6.7% T. pallidum, 12.2% HIV-1). In addition, 29.1% of women were diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and 46.6% with candidiasis. Only a small proportion of these women had sought treatment during the weeks before, despite the recognition of genital symptoms. Self-reported and health worker-recognized symptoms, signs and laboratory results exhibited only low sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values in the diagnosis of STIs. These findings confirm the high vulnerability of young African women to STIs and emphasize the need for specific control interventions which should include affordable and user-friendly services. Moreover, these results call for more effective quality control in case of laboratory-based STI control strategies and question the validity of syndromic STI management strategies in women attending antenatal care services in Africa.

  14. Factors influencing women's health in developing African countries

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    Valerie Janet Ehlers


    Full Text Available In Sub-Sahara Africa, women perform 80 of the agricultural labour.

    In Sub-Sahara Afrika verrig vrouens 80 van die landbou arbeid. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  15. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load, glycaemic index and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. (United States)

    Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Bandera, Elisa V


    Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95% CI 1·08, 2·28; P trend=0·03) and 1·61 (95% CI 1·12, 2·30; P trendcancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95% CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women.

  16. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Crohn's disease and HLA-B27 in black South African women. (United States)

    Buchel, O C; Bosch, F J; Janse van Rensburg, J; Bezuidenhout, E; de Vries, C S; van Zyl, J H; Middlecote, B D; de K Grundling, H; Fevery, J


    Crohn's disease is rare in South African black people and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is also rare in black patients with IBD, from South Africa. The presence of HLA-B27 is generally associated with seronegative spondylo-arthropathies and correlates with the occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis, recurrent mouth ulcers and uveitis, in patients with IBD. We describe two women with the combination of Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 from our cohort of the last 5 years of three black patients with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 respectively, occur rarely in black South Africans and their concurrent presence in two black women suggests a pathogenetic link of HLA-B27 between Crohn's disease and PSC in this population. Female gender might be an additional determinant in this setting.

  17. Physical Activity, Exercise, And Nutrition Interventions For Weight Control In African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Asare


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutritionrelated weight control interventions done with African American women that were publishedbetween 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studiesmet the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard to impact ofintervention. Twelve of those studies revealed significant increase in physical activity and weightreduction behavior. In terms of use of theory in designing the interventions only five interventionsused a theory. In three of those cases social cognitive theory was used. Appropriate sample sizewas found to be the major strength of most of the interventions. Six interventions usedrandomized controlled design. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of physicalactivity interventions in African American women are presented.

  18. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky


    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.


    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man...

  19. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty? (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J


    Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.

  20. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women. (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A


    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy.

  1. The quality of life of African American women with breast cancer. (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Caffey, M; Deichelbohrer, L; Schmidt, L; Guziatek-Trojniak, L; West, S; Kershaw, T; Mood, D


    The objectives of this study were to describe the quality of life of African American women with breast cancer and test a model of factors that may affect their quality of life. A stress-coping framework that included person (demographics, current concerns, and optimism), social resources (family functioning), and illness-related factors (symptom distress, medical characteristics), as well as appraisal of illness and quality of life, was used to guide this exploratory, cross-sectional study. Participants included 98 African American women who were approximately 4 years postdiagnosis. The women reported a fairly high quality of life, were generally optimistic, and had effective family functioning. Although symptom distress was generally low, a sizable number of women reported problems with energy loss, sleep disturbances, and pain. The model explained 75% of the variance in quality of life, with appraisal, family functioning, symptom distress, and recurrence status each explaining a significant amount of the variance. Current concerns had an indirect effect on quality of life that was mediated by appraisal. These findings underscore the importance of helping women foster a positive appraisal of their illness, manage current concerns, maintain family functioning, and reduce symptom distress, because each of these factors indirectly or directly affects their quality of life.

  2. Beauty salon health intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption in African-American women. (United States)

    Johnson, Latasha T; Ralston, Penny A; Jones, Ethel


    African Americans, especially women, have low fruit and vegetable consumption, which is related to higher rates of obesity, morbidity, and mortality in comparison to whites. Community-based approaches are recommended to address this problem, including beauty salons, which are conducive environments for health information dissemination. The purpose of this pilot study, conducted in 2007, was to determine the effectiveness of a 6-week beauty salon-based health intervention, Steps for a New You, in improving diet, physical activity, and water consumption behaviors in African-American women using a quasiexperimental design. A random sample of 20 African-American women was selected from a list of regular clients at two beauty salons (n=10 each for treatment and comparison salons) located in a Southern rural community. The intervention included scripted motivational sessions between the cosmetologist and clients, information packets, and a starter kit of sample items. Data were collected using pre- and posttest questionnaires. The results showed that mean intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly higher at posttest for the treatment group but not for the comparison group. These findings suggest that the intervention may have had a positive effect on fruit and vegetable consumption by treatment group participants. However, further work is needed to refine the methodology, especially strengthening the intervention to increase physical activity and water consumption.

  3. High-risk human papillomavirus infection in HIV-positive African women living in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Konopnicki


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HRHPV induces cervical cancer and is present in 14% of women in Europe. We assessed the prevalence and incidence of cervical HRHPV in a cohort of HIV-positive women living in Belgium. Methods: Prospective observational program of screening and follow up of HRHPV cervical infection performed by Hybrid Capture in 825 HIV-positive women between 2002 and 2011. Women without normal cervix at baseline were excluded. Results: The final analysis included 652 women: median age 38 years, African origin (81%, median HIV follow-up (66 months, median CD4 count (426 cells/μL and 79% on antiretroviral therapy (cART. At baseline, HRHPV prevalence was 43% and decreased significantly as both age and CD4 cell count increased: highest prevalence (100% in women <30 years and <200 CD4/μL and lowest (19% in women >40 years and >500 CD4/μL (p<0.0001, multivariate analysis. The relative risk (RR to carry HRHPV at baseline decreases proportionally by 11% for each 5 years-age increase and by 11% for each 100 CD4 cells/μL rise (RR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.85-0.93; p<0.0001, Poisson regression for both. During follow-up, incidence rate of HRHPV was 13.4 per 100 women-years. Conclusion: We found a high HRHPV prevalence of 43% and an incidence rate of 13 per 100 women-years in this cohort of HIV-positive women living in Europe and on cART. Women under 40 years-age had the highest prevalence even with CD4 count >350 cells/μL. The magnitude of HRHPV epidemiology should prompt to evaluate the clinical efficacy of vaccines against HPV in HIV-infected women.

  4. African women struggling against female circumcision and sexual violence. (United States)

    Tell, K


    In France, Mariatou Koita, a woman born of Malian parents, endured female genital mutilation as a child at the hands of another Malian immigrant. When the mutilator returned years later to perform genital mutilation on Koita's younger sister, Koita took action that resulted in the first case of female genital mutilation tried in France upon the complaint of a victim. The mutilator was sentenced to 8 years in jail for mutilating 48 young girls in the period 1983-94, and 23 mothers and 3 fathers received prison or suspended prison sentences. Women are struggling against another form of sexual violence in South Africa, where Johannesburg is gaining the reputation as the "rape capital" of the world. Surveys by a nongovernmental organization (NGO) have revealed that a third of 4000 women interviewed were raped in the past year and that 25% of the boys in a sample of 1500 school children considered gang rape a recreational activity. In response, the NGO is creating recommendations to address the problem in schools and to raise the role model profile of men who oppose sexual violence. Also, in Wynberg, Western Cape, a special Sexual Offenses Court has been created to mitigate some of the difficulties rape victims have encountered with the legal system. Global studies indicate that most victims of sexual assaults are adolescent girls.

  5. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Johnson


    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  6. Stressful Life Events and Behavior Change: A Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Participation in a Weight Loss Program (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C.; Jefferson, Wendy K.; Ard, Jamy D.


    We qualitatively assessed how life stressors affected African American women's participation in a weight reduction program. A sample of 9 women, who completed a behavioral lifestyle intervention, participated in individual, structured, in-depth interviews. Life stressors, ranging from personal illness to changes in employment status, had varied…

  7. On Deferred Dreams, Callings, and Revolving Doors of Opportunity: African-American Women's Reflections on Becoming Principals (United States)

    Loder, Tondra L.


    From a life course perspective, this article examines how an intergenerational sample of 20 African-American women in Chicago describe and make meaning out of their struggles and advancements to make inroads into the principalship. Being born on opposite sides of the Civil Rights Movement distinguishes markedly how these women perceive their…

  8. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth


    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  9. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith


    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  10. African American Women Executives' Leadership Communication within Dominant-Culture Organizations: (Re)Conceptualizing Notions of Collaboration and Instrumentality. (United States)

    Parker, Patricia S.


    Examines African American women executives' leadership communication within majority White, male-dominated organizations in the United States. Reveals five themes related to the executives' leadership communication that challenge views of women as master collaborators who shun control-oriented leadership. Offers implications of this study for…

  11. A will without a way: barriers and facilitators to exercise during pregnancy of low-income, African American women. (United States)

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Chang, Judy C


    The objective of the authors in this study was to identify pregnant, low-income African American women's barriers and facilitators to exercise during pregnancy. A series of six focus groups with pregnant African American women were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed for major themes and independently coded for barriers and facilitators to exercise during pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant, African American women participated in six focus groups from June through October of 2007. The majority of women were single (94%), had only a high school education (67%), received Medicaid (100%) and had a mean body mass index of 33 kg/m(2). All participants believed that exercise was beneficial during their pregnancy. However, participants faced multiple barriers including: (1) individual, (2) information, (3) resource, and (4) socio-cultural. African American women also described two facilitators to increase exercise during pregnancy: (1) group exercise classes, and (2) increasing the number of safe, low-cost exercise facilities in their communities. African American women living in low socioeconomic communities face several barriers to exercise during pregnancy. Targeted interventions to overcome barriers and facilitate exercise for this patient population should focus on increasing education from providers regarding the type and frequency of exercise recommended during pregnancy, enhancing social support networks with group exercise programs, and providing affordable and convenient locations to exercise.

  12. Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature. (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, M L; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Porter, J S; Martin, I K; Odoms-Young, A; Sharp, L K


    The excess burden of obesity among African-American women is well documented. However, the behavioural weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioural weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for African-American women. The criteria for inclusion included (i) participants age ≥18 years; (ii) a behavioural weight loss intervention; (iii) weight as an outcome variable; (iv) inclusion of African-American women; and (v) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest that more intensive randomized behavioural weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for African-American women. Still, African-American women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioural weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviours for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity.

  13. "They read [the truth] in your blood": African American women and perceptions of HIV health. (United States)

    O'Daniel, Alyson J


    In this article I examine variations in the ways in which low-income HIV-positive African American women in Midway, North Carolina engaged with and made meaningful laboratory-based knowledge of HIV disease. I highlight how women's engagement with "blood-work," as it was popularly called, reflected perceptions of survival with HIV disease and the material conditions and social relations in which these perceptions were embedded. Focusing less on the diagnostics themselves and more on the social contexts in which they became socially significant for study participants, I assert that "blood-work" provided a multiply constituted lens through which women expressed their subject positions and attendant material conditions within the context of a public health care program shaped by values associated with global neoliberalism.

  14. Guided Imagery for Stress and Symptom Management in Pregnant African American Women

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    Nancy Jallo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided imagery (GI intervention for stress reduction in pregnant African American women beginning early in the second trimester. This prospective longitudinal study of 72 women used a randomized controlled experimental design with two groups conducted over 12 weeks. The intervention was a CD with 4 professionally recorded tracts designed and sequenced to influence study variables. Participants in both GI and usual care (UC completed measures and donated 5 cc of blood at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Participants also completed a daily stress scale. A mixed-effects linear model tested for differences between groups for self-reported measures of stress, anxiety, and fatigue as well as corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH, a biologic marker of stress. Significant differences in perceived stress daily scores and at week 8 but not week 12 were found in the GI group compared to UC group. The GI group reported significantly less fatigue and anxiety than the UC group at week 8 but not week 12. There were no significant differences in CRH levels between groups. Results suggest that GI intervention may be effective in reducing perceived stress, anxiety, and fatigue measures among pregnant African American women.

  15. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley White-Means


    Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  16. Perceptions of overweight African women about acceptable body size of women and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Mvo


    Full Text Available Purpose: Malnutrition, presenting as obesity in women and under-nutrition in children, is a prevalent problem in the squatter communities of Cape Town. Food habits are determined by a complex matrix of economic, social and cultural factors which need to be understood by health professionals prior to the implementation of strategies to improve the nutritional status of this community. This qualitative study is designed to explore the perceptions of overweight black women in Cape Town, with underweight infants, about the culturally acceptable body size for women and children.

  17. A survey of cervical screening among refugee and non-refugee African immigrant women in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Anaman, Judith A; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; King, Julie


    Issue addressed: To compare the level of cervical screening uptake between refugee and non-refugee African immigrant women living in Brisbane, Australia, and examine factors associated with Pap smear testing. Methods: Cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of 254 women aged 21-62 years from 22 African countries (144 refugees, 110 non-refugees). Chi-square tests were used to compare the demographic and health-related characteristics between refugee and non-refugee women. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable (Pap smear testing) and the independent variables. Results: Two-thirds of women had used Pap smear services in Australia. Chi-square test analysis established that non-refugee women were significantly more likely to have used Pap smear services than refugee women (73.6% vs 61.8% respectively; P=0.047). Immigration status, however, was not a significant predictor of cervical screening uptake in the multiple regression analyses. The significant predictors for screening uptake in these analyses were work arrangement, parity, healthcare visit, knowledge about Pap smear and perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Conclusion: Most women relied on opportunistic screening after receiving invitation letters to screen or after visiting health professionals for antenatal or postnatal care. So what?: The findings suggest that organised cervical screening programs are not reaching most African immigrant women living in Brisbane. It is incumbent on the public health sector, including healthcare professionals and settlement agencies working with African communities, to develop health promotion strategies that meaningfully engage African immigrant women, including those from refugee backgrounds, to enhance their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening practices.

  18. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship. (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y


    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  19. Structural and sociocultural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American women in Alabama. (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel


    African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.

  20. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen


    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  1. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women. (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M


    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women.

  2. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women. (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B


    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed.

  3. Neighborhood context, personality, and stressful life events as predictors of depression among African American women. (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E; Russell, Daniel W; Brown, P Adama; Clark, Lee Anna; Hessling, Robert M; Gardner, Kelli A


    The authors tested neighborhood context, negative life events, and negative affectivity as predictors of the onset of major depression among 720 African American women. Neighborhood-level economic disadvantage (e.g., percentage of residents below the poverty line) and social disorder (e.g., delinquency, drug use) predicted the onset of major depression when controlling for individual-level demographic characteristics. Neighborhood-level disadvantage/disorder interacted with negative life events, such that women who experienced recent negative life events and lived in high disadvantage/disorder neighborhoods were more likely to become depressed than were those who lived in more benign settings, both concurrently and over a 2-year period. Neighborhood disadvantage/disorder can be viewed as a vulnerability factor that increases susceptibility to depression following the experience of negative life events.

  4. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr


    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  5. Biomarkers of vascular function in pre- and recent post-menopausal women of similar age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Seidelin, Kåre; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas;


    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function, however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched pre- and post-menopausal...... women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Thirteen pre-menopausal and ten recently post-menopausal (1.6±0.3 (mean±SEM) years after final menstrual period) women only separated by three years (48±1 vs. 51±1 years) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular...... adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1...

  6. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  7. The Awakening of Self-consciousness of the African American Women-an Analysis of Dee in Everyday Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Zhao-niao


    Alice Walker is one of the prominent American writers in American women's literature and black literature in 1950s-1960s.Everyday Use is regarded as Alice Walker's best-written short story.The prevailing opinion among the critics about this story is that Dee is the traitor of black American's cultural heritage,and the mother and Maggie are the hope of true value of the African Americans' tradition and heritage; however,after considering the historical and cultural background of the story,we may safely come to the conclusion that Dee actually took the first step toward the awakening of self-consciousness of the African Americans women.

  8. Development and validation of brief scales to measure collectivism, religiosity, racial pride, and time orientation in urban African American women. (United States)

    Lukwago, S N; Kreuter, M W; Bucholtz, D C; Holt, C L; Clark, E M


    This article describes the development and pilot-testing of brief scales to measure four cultural constructs prevalent in urban African American women. Internal consistency and temporal stability were assessed in two convenience samples (n=47 and n=25) of primarily lower-income African American women. All scales performed well: collectivism alpha=.93, r=.85, p<.001); religiosity (alpha=.88, r=.89, p<.001); racial pride (alpha=.84, r=.52, p<.001); present time orientation (alpha=.73, r=.52, p<.01) and future time orientation (alpha=.72, r=.54, p=.07).

  9. Employing a Participatory Research Approach to Explore Physical Activity among Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Sebastião


    Full Text Available Introduction. Older African American women are particularly vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases and conditions. This study explored older African American women’s perception of physical activity as well as facilitators of and barriers to being physically active in their local environment. Methods. Using a participatory research approach, a total of 7 women aged 65 years and over had their PA level assessed objectively through accelerometry. In addition, physical activity was discussed through the photo-elicitation procedure, which was supplemented by semistructured interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify patterns and themes emerging from participants’ interview. Results. Participants exhibited low levels of physical activity and viewed “physical activity” to be a broadly defined, nonspecific construct. Interviews revealed that many participants lack important knowledge about physical activity. A variety of personal, social, and environmental facilitators and barriers were reported by the participants. Conclusion. Efforts should be made towards clarifying information on physical activity in this population in order to help them incorporate physical activity into their routines, overcome barriers, and make use of opportunities to be active.

  10. Ethnic identity and maladaptive eating: expectancies about eating and thinness in African American women. (United States)

    Henrickson, Heather C; Crowther, Janis H; Harrington, Ellen F


    This research investigated cultural factors and expectancies about eating and thinness among 93 African American women. Participants completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), Eating Expectancy Inventory and Thinness and Restricting Expectancy Inventory (EEI, TREI), and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). The MEIM assessed affective and developmental aspects of one's own cultural identity, along with attitudes toward other groups. Further, expectancies that eating manages negative affect and thinness leads to life improvement were examined using the EEI and TREI. As hypothesized, those with strong expectancies about eating and thinness showed a significant negative relationship between ethnic identity and maladaptive eating patterns, whereas those with strong expectancies regarding thinness showed a significant positive relationship between other group orientation and maladaptive eating patterns. The results suggest one's identification with their own culture versus another culture is important to developing maladaptive eating patterns, if they feel that eating and thinness play a role in their affect management and life improvement. These factors may help understand who is more vulnerable to the development of disordered eating patterns, and therefore direct treatment among African American women.

  11. Relationships among Neighborhood Environment, Racial Discrimination, Psychological Distress, and Preterm Birth in African American Women (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang G.; Dieber, William; Block, Richard


    Objectives To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Design Descriptive correlational comparative. Setting Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. Participants African American women (n1 = 33 with preterm birth; n2 = 39 with full-term birth). Methods Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Results Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Conclusion Women’s neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. PMID:23030593

  12. Breastfeeding beliefs and practices of African women living in Brisbane and Perth, Australia. (United States)

    Gallegos, Danielle; Vicca, Natalie; Streiner, Samantha


    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of breastfeeding among refugee women from Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo living in two major capital cities in Australia. Participants were recruited from their relevant community associations and via a snowballing technique. Thirty-one women took part in either individual interviews or facilitated group discussions to explore their experiences of breastfeeding in their home country and in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed four main themes: cultural breastfeeding beliefs and practices; stigma and shame around breastfeeding in public; ambivalence towards breastfeeding and breastfeeding support. Women who originated from these four African countries highlighted a significant desire for breastfeeding and an understanding that it was the best method for feeding their infants. Their breastfeeding practices in Australia were a combination of practices maintained from their countries of origin and those adopted according to Australian cultural norms. They exemplified the complexity of breastfeeding behaviour and the relationship between infant feeding with economic status and the perceived social norms of the host country. The results illustrate the need for policy makers and health professionals to take into consideration the environmental, social and cultural contexts of the women who are purportedly targeted for the promotion of breastfeeding.

  13. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher


    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  14. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E


    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women.

  15. Sero-epidemiology and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Arab and African countries. (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim


    The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection in pregnancy are scant in many countries, especially where there is lack of political stability. Identified risk factors included eating raw meat, proximity with cats, undercooked food, and increasing maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Arab and African countries is an underestimated health problem. Further research is needed. This report is a foundation for strategies and policies for intervention needed to combat the consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  16. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women. (United States)

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet


    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women.

  17. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls (United States)

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.


    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  18. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne


    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  19. Low-Income African American Women's Cultural Models of Work: Implications for Education-for-Work Policies and Practice (United States)

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Way, Wendy


    This study investigated how African American women from low-income, single-parent female-headed households conceptualize work and transitions to work, and how these conceptualizations relate to the dominant discourse of work underlying policies and practices in education-for-work. The study used the construct of cultural models as a conceptual…

  20. Lean mass appears to be more strongly associated with bone health than fat mass in urban black South African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotunde, O.F.; Kruger, H.S.; Wright, H.H.; Havemann-Nel, L.; Kruger, Ina; Wentzel-Viljoen, E.; Kruger, A.; Tieland, M.


    Objectives: To examine the association between body composition (fat mass, lean mass and body mass index, BMI) and bone health (bone mineral density, BMD and fracture risk) in urban black South African women. Design: A cross sectional study examining associations between body composition, dietary

  1. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation among Low Socioeconomic Status African American Women (United States)

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin L.; Oser, Carrie B.


    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical…

  2. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm (United States)

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse


    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  3. Perfectionism and Bulimic Symptoms in African American College Women: Dimensions of Perfectionism and Their Interactions with Perceived Weight Status (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Weishuhn, Amanda S.; Boyd, Clarissa A.


    This study had 2 primary aims: (a) to examine the unique relations between maladaptive and adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and bulimic symptoms and (b) to test an interactive model of perfectionism and perceived weight status for bulimic symptoms in a sample of African American female undergraduates. The sample consisted of 97 women at Time 1…

  4. Ethnic differences in lipid metabolism in two groups of obese South African women. (United States)

    Punyadeera, C; van der Merwe, M T; Crowther, N J; Toman, M; Schlaphoff, G P; Gray, I P


    There is a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in South African white than black women. The objective of this study was to determine biochemical explanations for this prevalence. The study group contained 15 obese black women (OBW) and 14 obese white women (OWW), all premenopausal, who were examined after an overnight fast. Anthropometric measurements and blood concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), catecholamines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, C-peptide, proinsulin, lipograms, cortisol, growth hormone, and post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and subcutaneous and visceral fat mass were assessed with CT-scans. Visceral fat area was higher in OWW (139.7 +/- 10.7 cm(2)) than in OBW (72.3 +/- 3.9 cm(2)) (P Fasting cortisol (266 +/- 24 vs. 197 +/- 19 nmol/l; P < 0.05) was higher in OWW than in OBW. These data demonstrate that OWW have higher visceral fat mass than OBW, which may lead to a more atherogenic fasting and postprandial lipid profile. The higher cortisol levels of the OWW may promote visceral fat deposition.

  5. Digital divide and stability of access in African American women visiting urban public health centers. (United States)

    Haughton, Lorna Tanya; Kreuter, Matthew; Hall, Jasmine; Holt, Cheryl L; Wheetley, Eric


    This exploratory study examines access to communication technologies, its association with health-related variables and study attrition, and its stability over time in a study of lower income African American women visiting urban public health centers. Participants (n = 1,227) provided information about cancer-related behaviors in a baseline questionnaire that also assessed their e-mail and cell phone/pager access. Interviews conducted at 1-, 6-, and 18-month follow up determined attrition, and an e-mail message sent to participants at 6-month follow up determined stability of access. Fewer than 10% of women reported e-mail access; 26% reported cell/phone pager access. At 6-month follow up, 45% of e-mail accounts were inactive; accounts from pay access providers were more likely to be inactive than work- or school-based accounts (58% versus 25%). Cell phone/pager access was positively associated with mammography knowledge. Attrition rates were lower among women with access than among those without access. Priorities for future research based on these preliminary findings are discussed.

  6. [Plummer-Vinson syndrome or related syndrome in 3 black African women]. (United States)

    Aubry, P; Oddes, B; Chazouillères, O; Lebourgeois, M; Delanoue, G; Seurat, P L


    The Plummer-Vinson syndrome or "sideropenic dysphagia" is exceptional among Blacks. One case was recently reported in a female patient from Guadeloupe. This study pertains to three cases observed in Senegalese Black women aged 28, 27, and 41 years. These three women were admitted for a dysphagia, in fact in evidence 10, 4, and 7 years respectively before the diagnosis was made. A clinical anemia was noted twice in addition to mucocutaneous disorders (cases 1 and 2). The laboratory tests showed in all three cases a hypochromic microcytic sideropenic anemia (serum iron levels at 32, 14, and 31 mcg 100 ml respectively). Barium swallow films showed esophageal rings in front of C5-C6 (case 1) of T2-T3 (case 2) and a web of fine mucosal folds in front of C5-C6 (case 3). These films were confirmed cineradiographically by esophagoscopy. The treatment consisted of blood transfusions (cases 1 and 2) and administration of iron by injections and or per os. The endoscopic exams were repeated two or three times. Medical treatment rapidly changed the course of disease for the better. No cause for bleeding was found. A chemical achlorhydria (case 1), a provoked hypoachlorhydria (cases 2 and 3) can be retained as associated factors. In light of the frequency of esophageal membranes in the general population and the incidence of sideropenic anemias among African women, the Plummer-Vinson syndrome should be more often detected in Black Africa.

  7. Substance use and intimate partner violence victimization among White, African American, and Latina women. (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Graves, Jennifer L


    The existing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) does not paint a consistent portrait of the impact of race/ethnicity. In addition, although research has clearly demonstrated that there is a relationship between substance use and IPV, the temporal ordering of these variables is not clearly established. This article seeks to examine the temporal ordering of IPV victimization and drug use using longitudinal data with a nationally representative racially and ethnically diverse sample. Data from Wave III (2001-2002) and Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) will serve as Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, to answer three research questions. First, does substance use during early young adulthood (Time 1) predict IPV victimization during young adulthood (Time 2) among women? Second, does IPV victimization during early young adulthood predict substance use during young adulthood for women? Finally, do these bidirectional relationships vary by race/ethnicity (i.e., White, African American, and Latina)? Four different forms of IPV (minor violence, major violence, rape/sexual coercion, and injury) are investigated along with binge drinking, marijuana use, and other drug use. Understanding not only the temporal relationship between substance use, trauma, and IPV but also the racial and ethnic differences in these relationships is critical to developing and refining culturally sensitive trauma-informed prevention and treatment services for women.

  8. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women. (United States)

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter


    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  9. Attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors toward HIV testing among African American and East African immigrant women in Washington, D.C.: Implications for targeted HIV testing promotion and communication strategies (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia


    Objectives The objective of the study was to examine and compare the HIV testing attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors between African American and East African immigrant women in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan area. Methods Adopting an inductive, qualitative methodological approach, we conducted a total of 40 in-depth, semi-structured interviews between October 2012 and March 2013. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Overall, African American women held more favorable views toward HIV testing than East African immigrant women. Very few East African immigrant women sought HIV testing intentionally. The majority of East African participants were tested inadvertently, while others tested for immigration- or employment-related purposes. There were many barriers that impede women from seeking an HIV test including: negative assumptions (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test implies that I am HIV positive’); negative emotions (e.g., ‘Fear of being diagnosed with HIV and what this will mean for me’); and potential negative reactions from partner or others (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test can signal distrust, disrespect, or infidelity’). There were nuances in how each group articulated some of these barriers and East African women expressed unique concerns that originated from experiences in their home countries. Conclusions The study shed light into the complexity of factors that constrain women from presenting themselves voluntarily for an HIV test and highlighted the nuances between African American and East African perceptions. Implications of findings for effective targeted HIV screening promotion and communication strategies among these groups of women are discussed. PMID:25897146

  10. African American women in STEM: Uncovering stories of persistence and resilience through an examination of social and cultural capital (United States)

    Ferguson, Danielle Stevens

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the key factors that successful African American women said influenced their persistence and resilience in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field at two key time periods; before beginning post-secondary education and during post-secondary education. Many researchers have expressed concern about missing out on the creativity and innovation of African American women that could be used to enhance or lead to scientific discoveries (Hanson, 2004; Ong et al., 2011; Perna et al., 2008). While there has been a fair amount of research on the lack of representation of African American women in the STEM field, it is very limited in its breathe and depth. Very few of these studies include the "voice" of African American women and most of the studies rely heavily on quantitative data. Therefore in this study, I used a qualitative, case study approach to interpret the stories of eight African American women currently working in a variety of STEM fields to understand how each of the factors that they said aided in their persistence and resilience related to the concepts of social and cultural capital. Furthermore, this study investigated the role cultural brokers played in their lives and the strategies these women used to create resilience. Narratives for each woman were created to provide insight into their experiences. Before beginning post-secondary education four themes emerged from this study; 1. Two parent households were important, 2. Science experiences outside of school sparked their interest, 3. All of the women participated in extracurricular activities, and 4. Religion was important. Cultural brokers were beneficial for some but not all of the women. During post-secondary education five themes emerged; 1. The majority of the women had a desire to help others, 2. Scholarships played an important role, 3. Parents were supportive, 4. Sexism/racism became evident, and 5. Religion was still

  11. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants

  12. Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms, Dietary Fat Intake, Obesity and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Black and White South African Women


    Yael T. Joffe; Lize van der Merwe; Juliet Evans; Malcolm Collins; Lambert, Estelle V.; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H.


    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 −174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat i...

  13. Birth outcomes in South African women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Karin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, a triple-drug combination, in HIV-infected pregnant women markedly reduces mother to child transmission of HIV and decreases maternal morbidity. However, there remains uncertainty about the effects of in utero exposure to HAART on foetal development. Methods Our objectives were to investigate whether in utero exposure to HAART is associated with low birth weight and/or preterm birth in a population of South African women with advanced HIV disease. A retrospective observational study was performed on women with CD4 counts ≤250 cells/mm3 attending antenatal antiretroviral clinics in Johannesburg between October 2004 and March 2007. Low birth weight ( Results Among HAART-unexposed infants, 27% (60/224 were low birth weight compared with 23% (90/388 of early HAART-exposed (exposed 3 increase, 95% CI 0.45-0.71, p 3 increase, 95% CI 0.55-0.85, p = 0.001. HAART exposure was associated with an increased preterm birth rate (15%, or 138 of 946, versus 5%, or seven of 147, in unexposed infants, p = 0.001, with early nevirapine and efavirenz-based regimens having the strongest associations with preterm birth (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 2.1-13.7, p Conclusions In this immunocompromised cohort, in utero HAART exposure was not associated with low birth weight. An association between NNRTI-based HAART and preterm birth was detected, but residual confounding is plausible. More advanced immunosuppression was a risk factor for low birth weight and preterm birth, highlighting the importance of earlier HAART initiation in women to optimize maternal health and improve infant outcomes.

  14. "He Was the Story of My Drug Use Life": A Longitudinal Qualitative Study of the Impact of Partner Incarceration on Substance Misuse Patterns Among African American Women. (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah Lf; Clark, Claire Ducharme; Barham, Terrika; Embry, Venita; Caruso, Bethany; Comfort, Megan


    This NIH-funded longitudinal qualitative study explored pathways through which partner incarceration affected substance misuse among African American women. Four waves of semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 substance-misusing African American women whose partners had recently been incarcerated. Data were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, during 2010-2011. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Analyses suggest that partner incarceration initially precipitated multiple crises in women's lives (e.g., homelessness); over time, and with formal and informal support, women got their lives "back on track." Substance misuse declined over time, though spiked for some women during the crisis period. We discuss implications for research and interventions.


    Hunter, Teressa Sanders; Tilley, Donna Scott


    This review of the literature identifies themes, variable, goals, and gaps in the literature related to HIV and AIDS among African American women. Black Feminist Epistemology and symbolic interactionism are used as a theoretical perspective and philosophical framework to examine experiences and social behaviors of African-American women and to guide and framework to explain the findings from the literature. This theoretical perspective/philosophical framework can also be used in understanding processes used by African-American women in behavioral, social, and intimate interactions.

  16. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women. (United States)

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia


    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans.

  17. An examination of Euro-American and African-American differences in social physique anxiety among college women. (United States)

    Jordan, Eleanor H; Smisson, Cassandra P; Burke, Kevin L; Joyner, A Barry; Czech, Daniel R


    Many studies have examined sex differences in social physique anxiety; however, few researchers have examined possible perceptual differences in such anxiety based on ethnicity. The present purpose was to examine social physique anxiety among college-age women of Euro-American and African-American descent. Participants (N = 91) from physical activity classes at a university located in the southeastern United States completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. The participants were 67 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans. An independent t test yielded a significant difference (p =.01) between groups on Eklund's scale, which supports the hypothesis.

  18. Health behavior and perceptions among African American women with metabolic syndrome

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    Srikrishna Varun Malayala


    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different risk factors (abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol that predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. African American women (AAW are easily predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to higher levels of insulin resistance. Various sociodemographic factors further contribute to higher prevalence. Aim: This study evaluates the current prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AAW and identifies the related sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: The study utilized 2007–11 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data sets from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC. The sample was divided into two groups: AAW with and without metabolic syndrome. Sociodemographic, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and health perceptions were compared between the two groups. Results: Out of the available sample of 30,442 individuals, 1918 (6.4% met the inclusion criteria (AAW, age>20, non-pregnant women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 47%. Older age, lower education level, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status, low physical activity level, and smoking were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. The prevalence of borderline hypertension, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in AAW with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion: In spite of the focus on prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and elimination of ethnic and gender disparities, metabolic syndrome is still widely prevalent in AAW and poses a threat to the goals of Healthy People 2020.

  19. Heart Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  20. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women. (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H


    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.

  2. Multiple Measures of Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Weight Status in African American and Hispanic or Latina Women (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Baxter, Meggin; O’Connor, Daniel P.; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A.


    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  3. Adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for pregnant African-American women in substance abuse treatment

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    Winona Poulton


    Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg1, Felicia A Browne1, Winona Poulton1, Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson1, Ashley Simons-Rudolph1, Deborah Haller2,  1RTI International,* Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA,  *RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle InstituteAbstract: An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group.Keywords: African-American woman, HIV prevention pregnancy, drug use, violence, sexual

  4. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study

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    Christine Susara du Plooy


    Full Text Available Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: n=99; women: n=95 and 197 white (men: n=99; women: n=98 South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance. ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. R2=0.13; β=0.28, p<0.01 and pulse pressure (Adj. R2=0.11; β=0.27, p<0.01 was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (p<0.01. Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort.

  5. Standing on a Strong Foundation of Servitude: The 1960's Civil Rights Movement, Septima Clark and Other South Carolina African American Women Educators (United States)

    Hunter, Iris Renell


    This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…

  6. "Wonder Women": Towards a Feminization of Heroism in the African Fiction--A Study of the Heroines in "Second Class Citizen" and "God's Bits of Wood" (United States)

    Agho, Jude; Oseghale, Francis


    Feminism, especially the womanist brand, has been a very popular critical tool that most critics, men and women alike, have employed in their critical appraisal of African literary works. This is decidedly a very fertile area of contemporary scholarship. The emergence of this critical methodology in the African context stems from the perceived…

  7. "Ain't Nobody Gonna Get Me down": An Examination of the Educational Experiences of Four African American Women Labeled with Disabilities (United States)

    Petersen, Amy J.


    This study used qualitative research methods to explore the educational experiences of four African American women with disabilities, revealing how each participant developed a critical consciousness in response to the dominant ideology surrounding the discourses of African American, woman, and disabled. The development of a critical consciousness…

  8. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

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    Daniel Storage

    Full Text Available Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  9. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields. (United States)

    Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane


    Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  10. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings. (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M


    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  11. Community-based fortified dietary intervention improved health outcomes among low-income African-American women. (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede K; Das, Rachita; Wilson, Ronee E; Mazza, Jessica; Okoh, Jennifer O; Naik, Eknath; Berry, Estrellita Lo


    Poor dietary exposure disproportionately affects African-Americans and contributes to the persistence of disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that fortified dietary intervention (FDI) will improve measured dietary and related health outcomes and will be acceptable among low-income African-American women living in Tampa, FL. These objectives were tested using a prospective experimental study using pretest and posttest design with a control group, using a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention (FDI) was designed by the community through structural modification of a preexisting, diet-based program by the addition of a physical and mental health component. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention and postintervention changes in study outcomes. A total of 49 women participated in the study, 26 in the FDI group and 23 controls. Two weeks postintervention, there were significant improvements in waist circumference and health-related quality of life related to physical health (PFDI group. Among overweight/obese women, improvement in health-related quality of life related to physical health, a significant decrease in depressive score, and a reduction in waist circumference were noted. In the control group, a decrease in waist circumference was observed. Implementation of the FDI through a community-based participatory research approach is feasible and effective among low-income African-American women in general and overweight/obese women in particular. Social reengineering of a nutritional intervention coupled with community-based approach will enhance health outcomes of low-income women.

  12. Characteristics of African American Women and their Partners with Perceived Concurrent Partnerships in Four Rural Counties in the Southeastern US (United States)

    Ludema, Christina; Doherty, Irene A.; White, Becky L.; Simpson, Cathy; Villar-Loubet, Olga; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; O'Daniels, Christine M.; Adimora, Adaora A.


    Summary Among African American women from four rural Southeastern counties, partner's concurrency was associated with intimate partner violence, and forced sex, but not economic benefit. Background To the individual with concurrent partners, it is thought that having concurrent partnerships confers no greater risk of acquiring HIV than having multiple consecutive partnerships. However, an individual whose partner has concurrent partnerships (partner's concurrency) is at increased risk of incident HIV infection. We sought to better understand relationships characterized by partner's concurrency among African American women. Methods A total of 1,013 African American women participated in a cross-sectional survey from four rural Southeastern counties. Results Older age at first sex was associated with lower prevalence of partner's concurrency (PR, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.57-0.87), but the participant's age was not associated with partner's concurrency. After adjusting for covariates, ever having experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) or forced sex were most strongly associated with partner's concurrency (PRs, 95% CIs: 1.61, 1.23-2.11; 1.65, 1.20-2.26, respectively). Women in mutually monogamous partnerships were the most likely to receive economic support from their partners; women whose partners had concurrent partnerships did not report more economic benefit than those whose partners were monogamous. Conclusions Associations between history of IPV and forced sex with partner's concurrency suggest that women with these experiences may particularly benefit from interventions to reduce partner's concurrency in addition to support for reducing IPV and other sexual risks. To inform these interventions, further research to understand partnerships characterized by partner's concurrency is warranted. PMID:26267876

  13. Telling my story: from narrative to exhibit in illuminating the lived experience of homelessness among older African American women. (United States)

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P


    The authors document the integration of methods from the arts and humanities into a social research and development project, the objectives of which are to create and test promising interventions helpful in assisting older homeless African American women get and stay out of homelessness in the city of Detroit, Michigan, USA. The exhibit incorporates multiple forms of narrative, includes performative features, promotes public awareness of homelessness in the city of Detroit, and engages homeless and formerly homeless women in social action. The authors examine the prototype design and the involvement of participants in creating artistic portrayals of their homeless experience.

  14. The Effect of Message Framing on African American Women's Intention to Participate in Health-Related Research. (United States)

    Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Hayes, Sharonne; Parker, Monica; Halyard, Michele; Enders, Felicity; Albertie, Monica; Pinn, Vivian; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen


    This study examined the effect of message framing on African American women's intention to participate in health-related research and actual registration in ResearchMatch (RM), a disease-neutral, national volunteer research registry. A community-engaged approach was used involving collaboration between an academic medical center and a volunteer service organization formed by professional women of color. A self-administered survey that contained an embedded message framing manipulation was distributed to more than 2,000 African American women attending the 2012 national assembly of The Links, Incorporated. A total of 391 surveys were completed (381 after exclusion: 187 containing the gain-framed message and 194 containing the loss-framed message). The majority (57%) of women expressed favorable intentions to participate in health-related research, and 21% subsequently enrolled in RM. The effect of message framing on intention was moderated by self-efficacy. There was no effect of message framing on RM registration; however, those with high self-efficacy were more than 2 times as likely as those with low self-efficacy to register as a potential study volunteer in RM (odds ratio = 2.62, 95% confidence interval [1.29, 5.33]). This investigation makes theoretical and practical contributions to the field of health communication and informs future strategies to meaningfully and effectively include women and minorities in health-related research.

  15. African American Women's Perceptions and Attitudes Regarding Participation in Medical Research: The Mayo Clinic/The Links, Incorporated Partnership (United States)

    Brewer, LaPrincess C.; Parker, Monica W.; Balls-Berry, Joyce E.; Halyard, Michele Y.; Pinn, Vivian W.; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen


    Abstract Objective: To examine perceptions and attitudes toward health-related research participation among professional African American women. Methods: Participants were members of an African American women's service organization, The Links, Incorporated. Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires at The Links, Incorporated 2012 National Assembly. Sociodemographics, prior research experience, intention to participate (ITP), willingness to participate (WTP) in a variety of research studies and attitudes about research participation were measured. Results: A total of 381 surveys were analyzed. A majority of respondents were married (66%), employed (69%), and college educated (96%). Median age was 59; 38% reported prior research participation. Overall, 78% agreed with the statement, “Participation in research will mean better care,” 24% agreed “Participation in research is risky” and 3% agreed “Scientists cannot be trusted.” Fifty-two percent agreed with the statement, “Research conducted in the U.S. is ethical.” Mean ITP in research was 4.9±1.7 on a rating scale of 1 (“definitely no”) to 7 (“definitely yes”). WTP was highest for an interview study and providing a blood sample, and lowest for clinical trial and medical record review. Conclusion: Attitudes toward research participation were generally favorable among professional African American women; many expressed WTP in a variety of research study types. PMID:25046058

  16. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women in three sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Frank Qian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI. RESULTS: Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97. Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00 and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23 were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001, with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84. CONCLUSION: We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.

  17. Adiponectin is associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women. (United States)

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L


    The purpose of this study was to examine insulin resistance, markers of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and serum adiponectin concentrations in pre-menopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. This cross-sectional study examined 119 pre-menopausal women (76 Hispanic, 45 NHW) for markers of the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria), level of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), CVD risk factors, and serum total adiponectin concentrations. Relationships between variables were assessed using Student's t-tests, Pearson's and Spearman's Rho correlations, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Hispanic women had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than NHW women, even after controlling for body fat (%) (P women combined and for NHW women (P ≤ 0.04), but not for Hispanic women. Insulin resistance was inversely related to adiponectin for all women and for NHW women (P women. Adiponectin concentration was not significantly associated with number of CVD risk factors for these women. While adiponectin was associated with markers of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance for all women of this study and despite lower adiponectin concentrations for Hispanic women than NHW women, the role of adiponectin to these conditions among Hispanics remains unclear. There was no significant association between adiponectin and CVD risk for these women. Future research should focus on understanding mechanisms for up-regulating adiponectin secretion and if ethnicity affects adiponectin gene expression and secretion given the beneficial effects derived from elevated adiponectin levels.

  18. Neighborhood safety and adipose tissue distribution in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

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    Do Quyen Pham

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patterns of fat distribution are heavily influenced by psychological stress, sex, and among women, by menopause status. Emerging evidence suggests the lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime may contribute to psychological stress and obesity among exposed residents. Our objective is to determine if perceived neighborhood safety is associated with abdominal adiposity among African-American men and women, and among pre- and postmenopausal women in the Jackson Heart Study. DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety, fat distribution, and other individual-level covariates among Jackson Heart Study participants (N = 2,881. Abdominal adiposity was measured via computed tomography scans measuring the volumes of visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue. We also measured body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between perceived neighborhood safety, adiposity, and covariates by sex and menopause status. RESULTS: Adjusting for all covariates, women who strongly disagreed their neighborhood was safe from crime had a higher BMI compared to women who felt safe [Std B 0.083 95% CI (0.010, 0.156]. Premenopausal women who felt most unsafe had higher BMI, waist circumference, and volumes of visceral and total adipose tissue than those who felt safe [Std B 0.160 (0.021, 0.299, Std B 0.142 (0.003, 0.280, Std B 0.150 (0.014, 0.285, Std B 0.154 (0.019, 0.290, respectively]. We did not identify associations between neighborhood safety and adiposity among men and postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that abdominal adipose tissue distribution patterns are associated with perceived neighborhood safety in some groups, and that patterns may differ by sex and menopause status, with most associations observed among pre-menopausal women. Further research is needed to elucidate whether there are causal mechanisms underlying sex

  19. Taking it one day at a time: African American women aging with HIV and co-morbidities. (United States)

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi


    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies.

  20. Advancing understanding of the sustainability of lay health advisor (LHA) programs for African-American women in community settings. (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O


    Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.

  1. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women. (United States)

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy


    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P hair dryer use (P hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P hairs (P hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  2. Perceptions of Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Patterns among African-American, Caucasian American, and Korean-American Elderly Women. (United States)

    Moon, Ailee; Williams, Oliver


    Used 13 scenarios to measure and compare perceptions of elder abuse and help-seeking behaviors of African-American, Caucasian American, and Korean-American elderly women. Significant group differences existed in perceptions of elder abuse with regard to six scenarios, and Korean-American women were substantially less likely to perceive given…

  3. Addressing the unique psychosocial barriers to breast cancer treatment experienced by African-American women through integrative navigation. (United States)

    Chatman, Michelle C; Green, Rodney D


    African-American women face a disproportionally high breast cancer mortality rate and a significantly low five-year survival rate after breast cancer treatment. This study investigated, through a series of focus groups, how 32 African-American women (N = 32) breast cancer patients and survivors managed their cancer-related health needs. Participants also reported important barriers to care including problematic interactions with medical professionals, challenges in intimate relations, difficulties in handling the stigma and myths about breast cancer, and the psychological challenges that they faced. A patient navigation model was implemented at an eastern urban hospital that emphasized integrative therapies such as meditation, nutritional instruction, and yoga. Follow-up telephone interviews with 37 additional African-American participants (N = 37) indicated the rating of effectiveness to be at 3.8 to 3.9 out of 4 for the integrative patient navigation program. Over half of the survivors reported using some complementary techniques after treatment was completed, thus suggesting a long-term improvement in their quality of life as a result of the integrative techniques.

  4. The association of 25(OH)D with blood pressure, pulse pressure and carotid–radial pulse wave velocity in African women


    Iolanthé M Kruger; Schutte, Aletta E.; Huisman, Hugo W.; Van Rooyen, Johannes M.; Schutte, Rudolph; Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T.; Carla M T Fourie; Kruger, Annamarie


    High susceptibility of the African population to develop cardiovascular disease obliges us to investigate possible contributing risk factors. Our aim was to determine whether low 25(OH)D status is associated with increased blood pressure and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity in black South African women. We studied 291 urban women (mean age: 57.5669.00 yrs.). 25(OH)D status was determined by serum 25(OH)D levels. Women were stratified into sufficient (.30 ng/ ml), and insufficien...

  5. Stress, relationship satisfaction, and health among African American women: Genetic moderation of effects. (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Barr, Ashley B; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Philibert, Robert A


    We examined whether romantic relationship satisfaction would serve as a link between early and later stressors which in turn would influence the thyroid function index (TFI), an indicator of physiological stress response. Using the framework of genetic susceptibility theory combined with hypotheses derived from the vulnerability-stress-adaptation and stress-generation models, we tested whether the hypothesized mediational model would be conditioned by 5-HTTLPR genotype, with greater effects and stronger evidence of mediation among carriers of the "s" allele. In a sample of African American women in romantic relationships (n = 270), we found that 5-HTTLPR moderated each stage of the hypothesized mediational model in a "for better or for worse" manner. That is genetic polymorphisms function to exacerbate not only the detrimental impact of negative environments (i.e., "for worse effects") but also the beneficial impact of positive environments (i.e., "for better effects"). The effect of early stress on relationship satisfaction was greater among carriers of the "short" allele than among those who did not carry the short allele, and was significantly different in both the "for better" and "for worse" direction. Likewise, the effect of relationship satisfaction on later stressors was moderated in a "for better "or "for worse" manner. Finally, impact on physiological stress, indexed using TFI level, indicated that the impact of later stressors on TFI level was greater in the presence of the short allele, and also followed a "for better" or "for worse" pattern. As expected, the proposed mediational model provided a better fit for "s" allele carriers.

  6. Histórias de resistência de mulheres negras Resistance stories of African-Brazilian women

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    Stela Nazareth Meneghel


    Full Text Available Esta é uma pesquisa intervenção na qual foram usadas oficinas de narrativas de histórias como dispositivo para estimular o empoderamento de mulheres. Essas oficinas, que contaram com a participação de dez mulheres em situação de violência de gênero, foram realizadas na sede da organização não-governamental Maria Mulher, situada na Vila Cruzeiro do Sul, no município de Porto Alegre. A partir de oficinas de narrativas de histórias em que se tematizaram histórias do feminino, especialmente afro-brasileiras, a pesquisa teve como objetivo principal compreender o que acontece com as mulheres que sofreram ou sofrem violência. Realizadas em cinco encontros nos quais as mulheres contaram e ouviram histórias e participaram de vivências, as oficinas oportunizaram espaço para narrar, ouvir e ritualizar as histórias das orixás e ressignificar as vidas a partir dessas vivências. Essa intervenção operou com as subjetividades das mulheres que fizeram parte da pesquisa e mostrou-se capaz de fortalecer algumas delas. A experiência constituiu um dispositivo de estímulo ao empoderamento das mulheres e contribuiu para o resgate da memória individual e coletiva desse grupo.This study consists of an intervention using narrative workshops as a device to stimulate the empowerment of women. Ten women, victims of gender violence, took part in a workshop developed by non-governmental organization for African-Brazilian women Maria Mulher, which gives assistance to women living in Vila Cruzeiro do Sul, in the city of Porto Alegre. The main objective of the research was to debate questions related to gender and violence, making use of stories and histories related to the feminine, specifically African-Brazilian stories. Five meetings were held, where the women told and were told stories, took part in group discussions, experiences and rituals. The workshops gave those women a space where they could tell and hear stories, take part in the rituals of

  7. Demographic and clinical variables influencing gestational age at booking among South African pregnant women. (United States)

    Basu, J K; Basu, D; Jeketera, C M


    A retrospective record review was made of 758 women who delivered over a 2-month period at the Charlottee Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. Women booking early (up to 14 weeks) were compared with women booking late (from 15 weeks onwards). A total of 45 (6%) and 713 (94%) women booked in the early and late groups, respectively. Women of white ethnicity and women who experienced previous fetal loss booked significantly early. Primigravidae booked significantly late.

  8. African women in political leadership : a comparative study of cameroon (1192-2011) and SOuth Africa (1994-2011) / G.M Ashu


    Ashu, G M


    The main aim of the study was to compare the state of women's political representation in the leadership structures of South Africa and Cameroon after almost two decades of multi-party politics in these two African states. The objectives were: to examine the structures and mechanisms that have been put in place in both countries to promote and advance gender equality and women's empowerment; to find out the obstacles which inhibit women's political representation or their ad...

  9. Barriers to early presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer among African women living in sub-Saharan Africa (United States)

    Akuoko, Cynthia Pomaa; Armah, Ernestina; Sarpong, Theresa; Quansah, Dan Yedu; Amankwaa, Isaac


    Background Breast cancer (BC) has been described as the leading cause of cancer deaths among women especially in the developing world including sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Delayed presentation and late diagnosis at health facilities are parts of the contributing factors of high BC mortality in Africa. This review aimed to appraise the contributing factors to delayed breast cancer presentation and diagnosis among SSA women. Methods Five databases encompassing medical and social sciences were systematically searched using predefined search terms linked with breast cancer presentation and diagnosis and sub Saharan Africa. Reference lists of relevant papers were also hand searched. Quality of quantitative and qualitative articles were assessed using the National Institute of Health (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality appraisal checklist. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the qualitative studies to integrate findings. Results Fourteen (14) quantitative studies, two (2) qualitative studies and one (1) mixed method study merited inclusion for analysis. This review identified low knowledge of breast cancer among SSA women. This review also found lack of awareness of early detection treatment, poor perception of BC, socio-cultural factors such as belief, traditions and fear as factors impacting African women’s health seeking behavior in relation to breast cancer. Conclusion Improving African women’s knowledge and understanding will improve behaviors related to breast cancer and facilitate early presentation and detection and enhance proper management and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:28192444

  10. Ethnic differences in allelic distribution of IFN-g in South African women but no link with cervical cancer

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    Williamson Anna-Lise


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The failure of specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPV to raise effective immune responses may be important in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in South African women. Polymorphisms of a number of cytokine genes have been implicated in inducing susceptibility or resistance to cancers caused by infectious agents owing to their role in determining host immune response. Polymorphisms of IL-10 and IFN-γ genes are believed to influence the expression and/or secretion levels of their respective cytokines. Methods and Results In this study, women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 458 and hospital-based controls (n = 587 were investigated for bi-allelic -1082 (A/G polymorphisms of IL-10 and the bi-allelic +874(A/T polymorphisms of IFN-γ. In addition, the distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both the African and mixed race population groups of South Africa. We found striking differences in the allele distribution of IFN-γ (X2 = 0.02 among the two ethnic groups. A significant increase in the allele distribution of the IFN-γ AA genotype was found in the African group compared to the mixed population group (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2–1.0. For IL-10 there were no significant allelic differences between the two South African ethnic groups. Furthermore, when the ethnic groups were combined the IL-10 allelic frequencies in the combined South African data were similar to those observed in an Oriental population from Southern China and in an Italian population. However, the allele frequencies of the IFN-γ genotype among the two South African ethnic groups were different when compared to an Italian Caucasoid group. While crude analysis of these data showed both statistically significantly increased and diminished risks of cervical cancer among high producers of INF-γ and low producers of IL-10 respectively, these associations were no longer significant when the

  11. The Impact of Neighborhood Environment, Social Support and Avoidance Coping on Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant African American Women (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Templin, Thomas; Engeland, Christopher G.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang; Kavanaugh, Karen; Dieber, William; Misra, Dawn


    Background Although depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been related to negative maternal and child health outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight infants, postpartum depression and maladaptive mother-infant interactions, studies on the impact of neighborhood environment on depressive symptoms in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support. No researchers have examined the relationship between neighborhood environment and avoidance coping in pregnant women. Guided by the Ecological model and Lazarus and Folkman’s transactional model of stress and coping, we examined whether social support and avoidance coping mediated associations between the neighborhood environment and depressive symptoms in pregnant African American women. Methods Pregnant African American women (N = 95) from a medical center in Chicago completed the instruments twice during pregnancy between 15-25 weeks and 25-37 weeks. The self-administered instruments measured perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms using items from existing scales. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were derived using geographic information systems. Findings Perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated in the expected directions. Objective physical disorder and crime were negatively related to social support. Social support at time one (20 ± 2.6 weeks) mediated associations between the perceived neighborhood environment at time one and depressive symptoms at time two (29 ± 2.7 weeks). An increase in avoidance coping between time one and time two also mediated the effects of perceived neighborhood environment at time one on depressive symptoms at time two. Conclusion Pregnant African American women’s negative perceptions of their neighborhoods

  12. "Am I not a woman?" The rhetoric of breast cancer stories in African American women's popular periodicals. (United States)

    Ryan, Cynthia


    Representations of breast cancer are examined in three popular women's periodicals targeting African American readers: Ebony, Essence, and Black Elegance. The researcher focuses specifically on representations that reflect certain ideas/ideals about the sharing and creating of information about the disease and related issues, such as health care and body image. Magazine selections are analyzed and critiqued according to the epistemological principles outlined by Patricia Hill Collins in Black Feminist Thought. The author calls for further research into how and why particular social and cultural groups consume information about health and illness in particular ways.

  13. Exploring the Relationship of Religiosity, Religious Support, and Social Support Among African American Women in a Physical Activity Intervention Program. (United States)

    Harvey, Idethia Shevon; Story, Chandra R; Knutson, Douglas; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C


    Religious belief has been linked to a variety of positive mental and physical health outcomes. This exploratory study will address the relationship between religious involvement and social connectedness among African American women. Results from a physical activity intervention research project (N = 465) found that total religious support and social support were significantly negatively correlated with total religiosity, while total general social support was significantly positively correlated with total religious support. Overall, the study indicates that more research is needed on ways to encourage interaction between the positive dimensions of both religiosity and social support to bring about healthy behaviors.

  14. Salivary Cortisol Level As Psychological Disorders Marker That Assessed According To Menopause Rating Scale On Peri Menopausal Women In Indonesia-Medan


    Siregar, Muhammad Fidel Ganis


    Peri menopause as the beginning of a transition that began 5 years before menopause and 2 years after menopause occurs. During perimenopause, especially during pre-menopause irregularity of the menstrual cycle occurs. This period begins around the age of 40 years. During peri menopause marked by decrease in estrogen hormone levels often cause symptoms that are debilitating the lives of women and even threaten the household life. The symptoms include hot flushes (a b...

  15. The allelic distribution of -308 Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer and control women

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    Williamson Anna-Lise


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is due to infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV. Although the incidence of genital HPV infection in various population groups is high, most of these regress without intervention. Investigating genetic host factors and cellular immune responses, particularly cytokines, could help to understand the association between genital HPV infection and carcinogenesis. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α cytokine plays an important role in all stages of cervical cancer and has the ability to induce the regression of human tumors. Therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the allelic distribution of -308 TNF-α gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer compared to control women. Methods Included in our study were women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 244 and hospital-based controls (n = 228. All patients and controls were from mixed race and black population groups in South Africa. The detection of a bi-allelic -308 (A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF-α was investigated using the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR technique. The distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both patients and controls into two South African ethnic population groups. Results In this study we observed no association between the distribution of -308 TNF-α polymorphism and the risk of developing cervical cancer even after combining the data from the two ethnic populations (X2 = 2.26. In addition, using the chi-squared test we found no significant association between the known risk factors for cervical cancer and the allele distribution of -308 TNF-α. However, the frequency of the rare high-producing allele -308A of TNF-α was significantly lower in the South African population when compared to Caucasians and Chinese population groups. Conclusion We demonstrated no association between -308 TNF

  16. Feeling good in your own skin: the influence of complimentary sexual stereotypes on risky sexual attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of African American women. (United States)

    Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G


    Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.

  17. The telling my story quilting workshop: innovative group work with older African American women transitioning out of homelessness. (United States)

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean


    This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences.

  18. The Academic Self-Concept of African American and Latina(o) Men and Women in STEM Majors (United States)

    Espinosa, Lorelle L.

    If we are to respond to the call for equity in the representation of minority men and women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, we must be concerned with those college experiences that impact students' sense of self. This study addresses the 4-year development of academic self-concept for African American and Latina(o) students graduating with STEM degrees, with an emphasis placed on gender differences. Ordinary Least Squares regression was utilized to explore predictors of academic self-concept for male and female students. Findings emphasize the paramount role of the college environment as compared to background and precollege characteristics. Significant predictors exclusive to women include having positive academic self-expectations and valuing group work in a classroom setting. Significant predictors for men include being given the opportunity to work on a professor's research project and finding satisfaction with science and math coursework.

  19. Lactobacillus-Deficient Cervicovaginal Bacterial Communities Are Associated with Increased HIV Acquisition in Young South African Women. (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Anahtar, Melis N; Handley, Scott A; Farcasanu, Mara; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Bowman, Brittany A; Padavattan, Nikita; Desai, Chandni; Droit, Lindsay; Moodley, Amber; Dong, Mary; Chen, Yuezhou; Ismail, Nasreen; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Wesemann, Duane R; Mitchell, Caroline; Dong, Krista L; Huttenhower, Curtis; Walker, Bruce D; Virgin, Herbert W; Kwon, Douglas S


    Elevated inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with increased HIV risk. Cervicovaginal bacteria modulate genital inflammation; however, their role in HIV susceptibility has not been elucidated. In a prospective cohort of young, healthy South African women, we found that individuals with diverse genital bacterial communities dominated by anaerobes other than Gardnerella were at over 4-fold higher risk of acquiring HIV and had increased numbers of activated mucosal CD4(+) T cells compared to those with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant communities. We identified specific bacterial taxa linked with reduced (L. crispatus) or elevated (Prevotella, Sneathia, and other anaerobes) inflammation and HIV infection and found that high-risk bacteria increased numbers of activated genital CD4(+) T cells in a murine model. Our results suggest that highly prevalent genital bacteria increase HIV risk by inducing mucosal HIV target cells. These findings might be leveraged to reduce HIV acquisition in women living in sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms, dietary fat intake, obesity and serum lipid concentrations in black and white South African women. (United States)

    Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H


    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women.

  1. Relationship of fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption to binge eating symptoms in African American and Hispanic or Latina women. (United States)

    Wilson, Penny L; O'Connor, Daniel P; Kaplan, Charles D; Bode, Sharon; Mama, Scherezade K; Lee, Rebecca E


    African American (AA) and Hispanic or Latina (HL) women have the highest rates of overweight and obesity of any gender and ethnic groups. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder in the United States and is linked to overweight and obesity. Traditional treatments for BED may not be appropriate or viable for AA and HL women, because they are less likely than whites to seek treatment for psychological conditions and may have less access to healthcare. Improving dietary habits in those with BED or subthreshold BED may reduce binge eating symptoms. The current study investigated the association of fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption to binge eating symptoms in AA and HL women. AA and HL women in the Health Is Power (HIP) study (N=283) reported fruit and vegetable intake, fat intake, and binge eating symptoms. Women were middle aged (M=45.8 years, SD=9.2) and obese (M BMI=34.5 kg/m(2), SD=7.5). Greater fat consumption was correlated with lower fruit and vegetable consumption (r(s)=-0.159, p<0.01). Higher BMI (r(s)=0.209, p<0.01), and greater fat consumption (r(s)=0.227, p<0.05) were correlated with increased binge eating symptoms. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that for HL women (β=0.130, p=0.024), higher BMI (β=0.148, p=0.012), and greater fat consumption (β=0.196, p=0.001) were associated with increased binge eating symptoms (R(2)=0.086, F(3,278)=8.715, p<0.001). Findings suggest there may be a relationship between fat consumption and binge eating symptoms, warranting further study to determine whether improving dietary habits may serve as a treatment for BED in AA and HL women.

  2. Trauma history in African-American women living with HIV: effects on psychiatric symptom severity and religious coping. (United States)

    Brownley, Julie R; Fallot, Roger D; Wolfson Berley, Rebecca; Himelhoch, Seth S


    Women living with HIV (WLHIV) have rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) up to 5 times higher than the general population. Individuals living with HIV and a concurrent diagnosis of PTSD have poorer HIV-related outcomes; however, the prevalence and impact of PTSD on African-American WLHIV seeking mental health treatment is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between PTSD symptoms with psychiatric symptom severity and psychological/religious coping strategies in African-American WLHIV who are seeking mental health treatment. This is a cross-sectional study of 235 African-American WLHIV attending an urban community mental health clinic. Bivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between a PTSD symptoms scale (PSS≥21 versus PSSAmerican WLHIV attending an outpatient mental health clinic had symptoms associated with PTSD. These symptoms were associated with worse mental health symptoms and utilization of dysfunctional religious and nonreligious coping strategies. Untreated PTSD in WLHIV predicts poorer HIV-related health outcomes and may negatively impact comorbid mental health outcomes. Screening for PTSD in WLHIV could identify a subset that would benefit from evidence-based PTSD-specific therapies in addition to mental health interventions already in place. PTSD-specific interventions for WLHIV with PTSD may improve outcomes, improve coping strategies, and allow for more effective treatment of comorbid mental health disorders.

  3. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

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    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD


    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  4. Pregnancy incidence and correlates during the HVTN 503 Phambili HIV vaccine trial conducted among South African women.

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    Mary H Latka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevention trials are increasingly being conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Women at risk for HIV are also at risk of pregnancy. To maximize safety, women agree to avoid pregnancy during trials, yet pregnancies occur. Using data from the HVTN 503/"Phambili" vaccine trial, we report pregnancy incidence during and after the vaccination period and identify factors, measured at screening, associated with incident pregnancy. METHODS: To enrol in the trial, women agreed and were supported to avoid pregnancy until 1 month after their third and final vaccination ("vaccination period", corresponding to the first 7 months of follow-up. Unsterilized women, pooled across study arms, were analyzed. Poisson regression compared pregnancy rates during and after the vaccination period. Cox proportional hazards regression identified associations with first pregnancy. RESULTS: Among 352 women (median age 23 yrs; median follow-up 1.5 yrs, pregnancy incidence was 9.6/100 women-years overall and 6.8/100 w-yrs and 11.3/100 w-yrs during and after the vaccination period, respectively [Rate Ratio = 0.60 (0.32-1.14, p = 0.10]. In multivariable analysis, pregnancy was reduced among women who: enrolled at sites providing contraception on-site [HR = 0.43, 95% CI (0.22-0.86]; entered the trial as injectable contraceptive users [HR = 0.37 (0.21-0.67] or as consistent condom users (trend [HR = 0.54 (0.28-1.04]. Compared with women with a single partner of HIV-unknown status, pregnancy rates were increased among women with: a single partner whose status was HIV-negative [HR = 2.34(1.16-4.73] and; 2 partners both of HIV-unknown status [HR = 4.42(1.59-12.29]. Women with 2 more of these risk factors: marijuana use, heavy drinking, or use of either during sex, had increased pregnancy incidence [HR = 2.66 (1.24-5.72]. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to screen South African women for pregnancy risk at trial entry. Providing injectable contraception for free on-site and

  5. Yiorgos Kalogeras on H. Raphael-Hernandez’s The Utopian Aesthetics of Three African American Women (Toni Morrison, Gloria Naylor, Judie Dash.

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    Full Text Available Heike Raphael-Hernandez. The Utopian Aesthetics of Three African American Women (Toni Morrison, Gloria Naylor, Judie Dash. The Principles of Hope. The Edwin Mellen Press, 2008. Viii + pp. 173.Dr Heike Raphael-Hernandez’s book focuses on a close reading of two novels and a movie script. It also discusses briefly several other novels by African American women writers who have published their work since the 1960s. Many among these writers are already considered as major voices and their work ha...

  6. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

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    Starla Hairston Blanks


    Full Text Available Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW. Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW- led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW.

  7. An African view of women as sexual objects as a concern for gender equality: A critical study

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    Elijah M. Baloyi


    Full Text Available South African society consists of people who value honour, respect and dignity. One of the most worrying factors in our democratic country is the escalation of sex-related violations like rape, sexual harassment and sexual abuse. According to media reports, the rape and abuse of women are daily occurrences. Statistics also suggest that most marriages will at some point need to resolve the emotional trauma resulting from an extra-marital affair. It is imperative that whilst the police are trying to get the culprits into custody, we as a society should help to find out what has gone so wrong that the beautiful gift of a sexual relationship is being abused and degraded by the people. This delicate issue may be an indication of the influence of patriarchal systems in some African cultures. Rape statistics reveal that most of the perpetrators are well-known members of a community. There are many possible reasons why our society is facing this challenge; however, this study will explore the view that women are considered as sexual objects and how this perspective reveals itself as the cause of sexual offences.

  8. Men are from Mars, women are from Venus: Exploring gender differences in personality in the South African context

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    Sumaya Laher


    Full Text Available Orientation: Gender differences in personality have been explored in American and European contexts, but African and specifically South African research in the area is lacking.Research purpose: This study investigated whether there were gender differences in personality and what this might mean for a South African organisational context where personality assessments are frequently employed for decision-making.Motivation: Personality  tests  are  widely  used  in  many  fields,  including  the  industrial, organisational and research fields. Due to the impact that these tests have, it is essential that these tests are used in a fair and unbiased manner.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional, non-experimental design was used. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information and the NEO-PI-R was administered to a non-probability, convenience sample of 425 South African university students. The data was examined using ANOVAs and ANCOVAs.Main findings: Significant gender differences were found on Neuroticism, Anxiety, Vulnerability, Depression, Self-consciousness, Extraversion, Warmth, Activity, Assertiveness, Positive emotions, Aesthetics, Feelings, Ideas, Agreeableness, Compliance, Tender-mindedness, Altruism, Modesty, Straightforwardness, Trust, Conscientiousness, Order, Achievement striving and Self-discipline. Practical/managerial implications: The findings indicate differences between men and women are systematic and largely innate and therefore need to be acknowledged when personality tests are used in decision-making. Personality tests also need to be employed constructively to further team-building and diversity.Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the body of research in South Africa on gender as well as on how the NEO personality scales manifest in different race groups.

  9. Novel interventions for HIV self-management in African American women: a systematic review of mHealth interventions. (United States)

    Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Johnson, Kaprea F; Shepherd, Jewel Goodman; Lee, Ju-Young; Bait Ajzoon, Muna S; Mahan, Lauren B; Kim, Miyong T


    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the quality of interventions using mobile health (mHealth) technology being developed for and trialed with HIV-infected African American (AA) women. We aimed to assess rigor and to ascertain if these interventions have been expanded to include the broad domain of self-management. After an extensive search using the PRISMA approach and reviewing 450 records (411 published studies and 39 ongoing trials at, we found little completed research that tested mHealth HIV self-management interventions for AA women. At, we found several mHealth HIV intervention studies designed for women in general, forecasting a promising future. However, most studies were exploratory in nature and focused on a single narrow outcome, such as medication adherence. Given that cultural adaptation is the key to successfully implementing any effective self-management intervention, culturally relevant, gender-specific mHealth interventions focusing on HIV-infected AA women are warranted for the future.

  10. Genetic variation and reproductive timing: African American women from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE Study.

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    Kylee L Spencer

    Full Text Available Age at menarche (AM and age at natural menopause (ANM define the boundaries of the reproductive lifespan in women. Their timing is associated with various diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants associated with either AM or ANM in populations of largely European or Asian descent women. The extent to which these associations generalize to diverse populations remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to replicate previously reported AM and ANM findings and to identify novel AM and ANM variants using the Metabochip (n = 161,098 SNPs in 4,159 and 1,860 African American women, respectively, in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC studies, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE Study. We replicated or generalized one previously identified variant for AM, rs1361108/CENPW, and two variants for ANM, rs897798/BRSK1 and rs769450/APOE, to our African American cohort. Overall, generalization of the majority of previously-identified variants for AM and ANM, including LIN28B and MCM8, was not observed in this African American sample. We identified three novel loci associated with ANM that reached significance after multiple testing correction (LDLR rs189596789, p = 5×10⁻⁰⁸; KCNQ1 rs79972789, p = 1.9×10⁻⁰⁷; COL4A3BP rs181686584, p = 2.9×10⁻⁰⁷. Our most significant AM association was upstream of RSF1, a gene implicated in ovarian and breast cancers (rs11604207, p = 1.6×10⁻⁰⁶. While most associations were identified in either AM or ANM, we did identify genes suggestively associated with both: PHACTR1 and ARHGAP42. The lack of generalization coupled with the potentially novel associations identified here emphasize the need for additional genetic discovery efforts for AM and ANM in diverse populations.

  11. Contraception use and pregnancy among 15–24 year old South African women: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey

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    Pascoe Sophie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent reproductive health has not continued to receive the attention it deserves since the start of the HIV epidemic. In South Africa, high numbers of adolescent women report pregnancies that are unwanted and yet few have accessed available termination of pregnancy services. Enabling contraception use is vital for meeting the goals of HIV prevention. Methods A nationally representative survey of South African 15–24 year olds was undertaken. Participants completed a questionnaire on sexual behaviour and provided an oral fluid sample for HIV testing. Analysis of the data was restricted to women (n = 6217, particularly those who reported being sexual active in the last 12 months (n = 3618 and was conducted using svy methods in the program STATA 8.0 to take account of sampling methods. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with contraceptive use. Results Two thirds of all women reported having ever been sexually active and among these 87% were sexually active in the past 12 months. Among women who reported currently being sexually active, 52.2% reported using contraceptives. There was evidence of association between contraceptive use and being employed or a student (vs unemployed; fewer sex partners; type of last sex partner; having talked to last partner about condom use and having ever been pregnant. Conclusion Specific emphasis must be placed on encouraging young women to use contraceptive methods that offer protection against pregnancy and STIs/HIV. Our consistent finding of a relationship between discussing condom use with partners and condom use indicates the importance of involvement of male partners in women's contraceptive decisions.

  12. No ‘free ride’ for African women: A comparison of head-loading versus back-loading among Xhosa women

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    Carlton Cooke


    Full Text Available Although contrasting evidence exists in the literature as to the economy of head-loading, there is a notion that head-loading is an extremely economical method of load carriage. This has become known as the ‘free ride’ hypothesis and, although untested, it is widely accepted. The purpose of this study was to test the ‘free ride’ hypothesis for head-load carriage among African women by comparing the relative economy of head-loading and back-loading. Twenty-four Xhosa women walked on a level treadmill, attempting to carry loads of between 10% and 70% of their body mass (BM using both a backpack and a head basket. All 24 women carried at least 25% of their BM in both conditions. The relative economy of load carriage was calculated for loads of 10% to 25% of BM. Results indicated that the ‘free ride’ was not a generalisable phenomenon, with both methods realising economy scores close to unity (1.04 ± 0.19 and 0.97 ± 0.15 for head-loading and back-loading, respectively. The results did, however, reveal significant individual differences in economy scores and it is suggested that analysis of such individual differences in future may well be instructive in understanding mechanisms associated with greater economy in load carriage.

  13. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes (United States)

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina


    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  14. Pathways to the Doctorate Degree: A Phenomenological Study of African American Women in Doctorate Degree Programs (United States)

    Starks, Luciana Janee'


    Increasing the number of advanced degree recipients is more than an educational issue; it is also a key social issue. "A college-educated population results in pivotal benefits to society" (The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2004, p. 1). Although African Americans have made steady and notable progress in doctorate degree…

  15. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure


    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O.; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Kerry J Ressler; Jovanovic, Tanja


    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n=207) and non-pregnant w...


    Goedecke, Julia H.; Evans, Juliet; Keswell, Dheshnie; Stimson, Roland H.; Livingstone, Dawn E.W.; Hayes, Philip; Adams, Kevin; Dave, Joel A.; Victor, Hendriena; Levitt, Naomi S.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Walker, Brian R.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Olsson, Tommy; Kahn, Steven E.


    Context Black South African women are less insulin sensitive than their white counterparts, despite less central and greater peripheral fat deposition. We hypothesized that this paradox may be explained, in part, by differences in the adipogenic capacity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Objective To measure adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots, and determine their relationships with insulin sensitivity (SI) in South African women. Design Cross-sectional. Participants 14 normal-weight (BMI 30 kg/m2) black and 13 obese white premenopausal South African women. Main outcomes SI (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) in relation to expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots. Results With increasing BMI, black women had less visceral fat (P=0.03) and more abdominal (P=0.017) and gynoid (P=0.041) SAT but had lower SI (P<0.01) than white women. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was proportionately lower with obesity in black, but not white women in the gluteal and deep SAT depots (P<0.05 for ethnicity x BMI effect). In black women only, the expression of these genes correlated positively with SI (all P<0.05), independently of age and fat mass. Conclusions Obese black women have reduced SAT expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes compared to white women, which associates with reduced SI. These findings suggest that obesity in black women impairs SAT adipogenesis and storage, potentially leading to insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21956425

  17. While on My Journey: A Life Story Analysis of African American Women in Pursuit of Their Doctoral Degrees in the Southwest (United States)

    Manning, Linda


    The purpose of this study is to explore the lived experiences of African American women in pursuit of doctoral degrees in the southwest, their challenges and motivations, and plans for the their next chapter. Drawing from critical race theory and a sociocultural framework, this qualitative study uses Dan McAdams' "Life Story Interview"…

  18. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence (United States)

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.


    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  19. Impact of Goal Setting and Goal Attainment Methods on Asthma Outcomes: Findings From an Asthma Self-Management Intervention for African American Women (United States)

    Aaron, Micah; Nelson, Belinda W.; Kaltsas, Elena; Brown, Randall W.; Thomas, Lara J.; Patel, Minal R.


    Optimal use of goal-setting strategies in self-management efforts with high-risk individuals with asthma is not well understood. This study aimed to describe factors associated with goal attainment in an asthma self-management intervention for African American women with asthma and determine whether goal attainment methods proved beneficial to…

  20. Pens and Ploughshares: The Historical Use of Art by African-Descended Women to Create Social Justice in the US Neo-Slavery Era (United States)

    View, Jenice L.


    In the period after the 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision (Plessy v. Ferguson), "white" supremacy was codified and reinforced through law, custom, and mob violence. Despite this, African-descended women artists in the Western Hemisphere committed the revolutionary act of declaring, "I am; I am here; I am here remaking/reimagining the…

  1. "It's my secret": fear of disclosure among sub-Saharan African migrant women living with HIV/AIDS in Belgium.

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    Agnes Ebotabe Arrey

    Full Text Available Patients with HIV not only have to deal with the challenges of living with an incurable disease but also with the dilemma of whether or not to disclose their status to their partners, families and friends. This study explores the extent to which sub-Saharan African (SSA migrant women in Belgium disclose their HIV positive status, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and how they deal with HIV disclosure. A qualitative study consisting of interviews with twenty-eight SSA women with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify themes as they emerged. Our study reveals that these women usually only disclose their status to healthcare professionals because of the treatment and care they need. This selective disclosure is mainly due to the taboo of HIV disease in SSA culture. Stigma, notably self-stigma, greatly impedes HIV disclosure. Techniques to systematically incorporate HIV disclosure into post-test counseling and primary care services are highly recommended.

  2. Disentangling Contributions of Reproductive Tract Infections to HIV Acquisition in African Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.H.M. van de Wijgert; C.S. Morrison; J. Brown; C. Kwok; B. van der Pol; T. Chipato; J.K. Byamugisha; N. Padian; R.A. Salata


    Objective: To estimate the effects of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) on HIV acquisition among Zimbabwean and Ugandan women. Methods: A multicenter prospective observational cohort study enrolled 4439 HIV-uninfected women aged 18 to 35 attending family planning clinics in Zimbabwe and Uganda. P

  3. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women (United States)

    Daniels, Doria


    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  4. Knowledge of the abortion legislation among South African women: a cross-sectional study

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    Myer Landon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. Methods In 2004/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 831 sexually-active women attending 26 public health clinics in one urban and one rural health region of the Western Cape Province. Results Thirty-two percent of women did not know that abortion is currently legal. Among those who knew of legal abortion, few had knowledge of the time restrictions involved. Conclusion In South Africa there is an unmet need among women for information on abortion. Strategies should be developed to address this gap so that women are fully informed of their rights to a safe and legal termination of pregnancy.

  5. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Intervention for At-Risk African American College Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Who Use Alcohol and Drugs

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    Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian


    Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.

  6. PTSD symptomatology and hazardous drinking as risk factors for sexual assault revictimization: examination in European American and African American women. (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Ullman, Sarah E


    A sexual victimization history is a risk factor for experiencing further sexual victimization. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been posited as predictors of revictimization through multiple pathways, including through their association with risk recognition and alcohol use. There is, however, limited longitudinal research examining these revictimization risk factors, including the extent to which they predict risk for forcible rape (rape involving threat or force) and incapacitated rape (rape of a victim incapacitated by substances). Additionally, there is no research evaluating ethnic differences in revictimization risk pathways. The current study examined PTSD symptoms and hazardous drinking as predictors of new forcible and incapacitated rape over 1 year in a community sample of European American (n = 217) and African American (n = 272) sexual assault victims (M = 34 years; 84% high school education or above). We hypothesized that PTSD symptoms would predict both types of revictimization and hazardous drinking would predict incapacitated rape. Results supported that PTSD symptoms predicted both types of rape (forcible rape, β = .34; incapacitated rape, β = .20), and hazardous drinking predicted incapacitated rape (β = .24). PTSD symptoms predicted hazardous drinking in African American women only (β = .20). Thus, there is a need to evaluate risk pathways for specific types of victimization among diverse samples.

  7. Effects of cognitive style and maintenance strategies on breast self-examination (BSE) practice by African American women. (United States)

    Jacob, T C; Penn, N E; Kulik, J A; Spieth, L E


    A convenience sample of 159 African American women, 18-45 years old, was trained to perform breast self-examination (BSE) and was categorized according to the participants' cognitive style (monitors/blunters). Participants were then randomly assigned to one of four groups differing in BSE maintenance strategy (self-management, positive reinforcement, both, or neither). Self-reported monthly compliance with BSE was subsequently assessed during a 9-month period. A significant interaction between maintenance strategies and cognitive style was found. For blunters, the highest compliance rates and the highest competency scores occurred in the group with no maintenance strategy, whereas for monitors, the highest compliance rates and competency scores were found in the groups receiving positive reinforcement and/or self-management strategies. Additional results indicate that high levels of BSE competency were achieved across conditions and that competency improved over time.

  8. The association of individual and neighborhood social cohesion, stressors, and crime on smoking status among African-American women in southeastern US subsidized housing neighborhoods. (United States)

    Andrews, Jeannette O; Mueller, Martina; Newman, Susan D; Magwood, Gayenell; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; White, Kellee; Tingen, Martha S


    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood social contextual factors and smoking prevalence among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. We randomly sampled 663 adult women in 17 subsidized neighborhoods in two Southeastern US states. The smoking prevalence among participants was 37.6%, with an estimated neighborhood household prevalence ranging from 30 to 68%. Smokers were more likely to be older, have lower incomes, have lower BMI, and live with other smokers. Women with high social cohesion were less likely to smoke, although living in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion was not associated with smoking prevalence. Women with higher social cohesion were more likely to be older and had lived in the neighborhood longer. Women with high stress (related to violence and disorder) and who lived in neighborhoods with higher stress were more likely to smoke. Younger women were more likely to have higher stress than older women. There were no statistically significant associations with objective neighborhood crime data in any model. This is the first study to examine both individual and neighborhood social contextual correlates among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. This study extends findings about smoking behaviors and neighborhood social contexts in this high-risk, urban population. Future research is needed to explore age and residential stability differences and perceptions of social cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and perceived violence in subsidized housing. Further research is also warranted on African-American women, subsidized housing, smoking, social context, health disparities' effective strategies to address these individual and contextual factors to better inform future ecological-based multilevel prevention, and cessation intervention strategies.

  9. The Research of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Pre-menopausal and Post-menopausal Female Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction%绝经前后女性急性心肌梗死患者冠心病危险因素对比研究

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    朱航; 张瑜; 董蔚; 张华巍; 王浩; 陈思; 章明


    目的 探讨绝经前后女性急性心肌梗死患者冠心病危险因素的特点.方法 回顾性分析2005年1月~2010年1月解放军总医院收治的女性急性心肌梗死患者共246例,根据是否绝经及绝经年限进行分组,对各组的冠心病危险因素进行对比分析.结果 绝经前组的平均体重指数、纤维蛋白原、总胆红素水平以及吸烟、低血红蛋白者比例与绝经后各组相比,差异均无统计学意义(P≥0.05).绝经前组、绝经5年内组、绝经5~10年组的高血压和糖尿病者比例进行组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P≥0.05),绝经10年以上组高血压和糖尿病者比例均高于其他各组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).绝经前组总胆固醇、三酰甘油、LDL-C平均水平与绝经后各组相比,差异无统计学意义(P≥0.05);绝经前组HDL-C平均水平高于绝经后各组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).绝经前组高尿酸血症者比例低于绝经后各组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).绝经前组有早发冠心病家族史者比例高于绝经后各组,差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01).应用Logistic回归进行多因素分析发现绝经年限与高尿酸血症有相关性(P=0.031,OR=0.767).结论 绝经前后女性急性心肌梗死患者的冠心病危险因素有所不同,应根据不同生理阶段女性冠心病的发病特点,做好女性冠心病的早期预防和诊治工作.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of cardiovascular risk factors in pre - menopausal and post - menopausal female patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods We retrospectively studied 246 female patients with acute nyocardial infarction who were treated in General Hospital of PLA from January 2005 to January 2010, and they were divided into four groups according to whether menopause or not and the time after menopause. The cardiovascular risk factors were compared among the four groups. Results There was no significant difference( P

  10. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic. (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Abdool Karim, S S; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Colvin, M; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W


    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored.

  11. Receipt of Standard Breast Cancer Treatment by African American and White Women

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    Julie Worthington, John W. Waterbor, Ellen Funkhouser, Carla Falkson, Stacey Cofield, Mona Fouad


    Full Text Available Objectives: Breast cancer mortality is higher among African Americans than for Whites, though their breast cancer incidence is lower. This study examines whether this disparity may be due to differential receipt of treatment defined as “standard of care” or “addition to standard of care” by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN. Design: Incident, female breast cancer cases, 2,203 African American and 7,518 White, diagnosed during 1996-2002 were identified from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry. Breast cancer treatment was characterized as whether or not a woman received standard of care as defined by the NCCN. For cases characterized as receiving standard of care, addition to standard of care was also evaluated, defined as receiving at least one additional treatment modality according to NCCN guidelines. Logistic models were used to evaluate racial differences in standard and addition to standard of care and to adjust for age, stage at diagnosis, year of diagnosis and area of residence. Results: No racial differences were found for standard (Prevalence Ratio (PR=1.00 or for addition to standard of care (PR=1.00 after adjustment for confounders. When the adjusted models were examined separately by age, stage, and area of residence, overall no racial differences were found. Conclusion: No racial differences in standard of care and addition to standard of care for breast cancer treatment were found. Therefore, both African Americans and Whites received comparable treatment according to NCCN guidelines.

  12. Impaired cardiac response to exercise in post-menopausal women: relationship with peripheral vascular function. (United States)

    Yoshioka, J; Node, K; Hasegawa, S; Paul, A K; Mu, X; Maruyama, K; Nakatani, D; Kitakaze, M; Hori, M; Nishimura, T


    Endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in post-menopausal women. To assess the relationship between peripheral vascular reserve and cardiac function during exercise in post-menopausal women, 91 subjects, who had no ischaemic findings on myocardial SPECT, were assigned to four groups: pre-menopausal women (n=13), post-menopausal women (n=33), younger men aged 50 years (n=35). First-pass radionuclide angiography was performed before and during bicycle exercise to calculate ejection fraction (EF) and peripheral vascular resistance (VR). There were no differences in haemodynamic variables among the groups at baseline. The per cent increase in EF=(exercise EF - resting EF)x100/resting EF, and the per cent decrease in VR=(resting VR - exercise VR)x100/resting VR were depressed in the post-menopausal women (0.4+/-2% and 35+/-3%, respectively) compared to the pre-menopausal women (10+/-3% and 47+/-3%, respectively; PPost-menopausal women exhibited depressed cardiac function during exercise, which may be related to the impairment of peripheral vascular function after menopause.

  13. The impact of neighborhood quality, perceived stress, and social support on depressive symptoms during pregnancy in African American women. (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Misra, Dawn P; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Templin, Thomas N; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Osypuk, Theresa L


    Living in a lower-quality neighborhood is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in the general population as well as among pregnant and postpartum women. However, little is known of the important pathways by which this association occurs. We proposed a model in which perceived stress and social support mediated the effects of neighborhood quality on depressive symptoms during pregnancy (measured by the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, CES-D, scale) in a sample of 1383 African American women from the Detroit metropolitan area interviewed during their delivery hospitalization. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we built a latent variable of neighborhood quality using 4 measures (neighborhood disorder, neighborhood safety/danger, walking environment, overall rating). We then tested two SEM mediation models. We found that lower neighborhood quality was associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (standardized total effect = .16, p = .011). We found that perceived stress partially mediated the neighborhood quality association with depressive symptoms. Although the association of social support with depressive symptoms was negligible, social support mediated associations of neighborhood quality with perceived stress [standardized path coefficient = .38 (.02), p = .009]. Our results point to the need for public health, health care, as well as non-health related interventions (e.g. crime prevention programs) to decrease overall exposure to stressors, as well as stress levels of women living in poor quality neighborhoods. Interventions that increase the levels of social support of women during pregnancy are also needed for their potential to decrease stress and ultimately improve mental health at this important time in the life course.

  14. Ethnic differences in glucose disposal, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and endogenous glucose production among African American and European American women. (United States)

    Ellis, Amy C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Granger, Wesley M; Ovalle, Fernando; Gower, Barbara A


    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests have demonstrated lower whole-body insulin sensitivity (S(I)) among African Americans (AA) compared with European Americans (EA). Whole-body S(I) represents both insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, primarily by skeletal muscle, and insulin's suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) by liver. A mathematical model was recently introduced that allows for distinction between disposal and hepatic S(I). The purpose of this study was to examine specific indexes of S(I) among AA and EA women to determine whether lower whole-body S(I) in AA may be attributed to insulin action at muscle, liver, or both. Participants were 53 nondiabetic, premenopausal AA and EA women. Profiles of EGP and indexes of Disposal S(I) and Hepatic S(I) were calculated by mathematical modeling and incorporation of a stable isotope tracer ([6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose) into the intravenous glucose tolerance test. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. After adjustment for percentage fat, both Disposal S(I) and Hepatic S(I) were lower among AA (P = .009 for both). Time profiles for serum insulin and EGP revealed higher peak insulin response and corresponding lower EGP among AA women compared with EA. Indexes from a recently introduced mathematical model suggest that lower whole-body S(I) among nondiabetic AA women is due to both hepatic and peripheral components. Despite lower Hepatic S(I), AA displayed lower EGP, resulting from higher postchallenge insulin levels. Future research is needed to determine the physiological basis of lower insulin sensitivity among AA and its implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.

  15. Contradictions in consciousness or variations in tradition: Hindu women in the South African diaspora. (United States)

    Singh, A


    The introductory section of this paper reviews previous studies of the Indian diaspora to show their lack of attention to gender issues. While ideals of Hindu fundamentalism and social conditions imposed by caste are unlikely to be recreated in South Africa, it is proposed that Hindu women in South Africa are custodians of Hindu values. The paper goes on to present a brief history of middle and upper-class Hindu women in South Africa to place them within the context of the Indian diaspora. After describing the fieldwork and methodology (data were gathered from extensive interviews with 20 women representing the four major linguistic groups currently living in Durban), some of the distinctive characteristics of women's experiences and the problems these present because they are either contradictions or variations of conditions in India are discussed. The study then demonstrates that the individual choices made by the women are inconsistent with the apartheid notions of unambiguous social boundaries and also challenge the opposing Marxist perspective that ethnic consciousness is false. It is concluded that cultural adornments and self-imposed limitations on travel and socialization publicize status and ethnic identity and continuity with tradition. Hindu women in South Africa emphasize this continuity through personal beliefs or through the way they present themselves in public.

  16. Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Implementation of an Adapted Evidence-Based Mammography Intervention for African American Women

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    Linda Highfield


    Full Text Available Breast cancer mortality disparities continue, particularly for uninsured and minority women. A number of effective evidence-based interventions (EBIs exist for addressing barriers to mammography screening; however, their uptake and use in community has been limited. Few cancer-specific studies have evaluated adapted EBIs in new contexts, and fewer still have considered implementation. This study sought to (1 evaluate the effectiveness of an adapted mammography EBI in improving appointment keeping in African American women and (2 describe processes of implementation in a new practice setting. We used the type 1 hybrid design to test effectiveness and implementation using a quasi-experimental design. Logistic regression and intent-to-treat analysis were used to evaluate mammography appointment attendance. The no-show rate was 44% (comparison versus 19% (intervention. The adjusted odds of a woman in the intervention group attending her appointment were 3.88 p<0.001. The adjusted odds of a woman attending her appointment in the intent-to-treat analysis were 2.31 p<0.05. Adapted EBI effectiveness was 3.88 (adjusted OR versus 2.10 (OR for the original program, indicating enhanced program effect. A number of implementation barriers and facilitators were identified. Our findings support previous studies noting that sequentially measuring EBI efficacy and effectiveness, followed by implementation, may be missing important contextual information.

  17. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women. (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith


    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  18. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men. (United States)

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J


    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2 years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2 years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2 years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (ptelomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes.

  19. ‘No condom, no sex’: Easy to say, but not possible for all South African women

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    Johanna E. Maree


    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in South African women. The human papillomavirus(HPV is the biggest risk factor for developing this cancer. However, condom use protects against HPV transmission. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Black women living in Tshwane, South Africa, were able to protect themselves against cervical cancer by insisting on condom use. The study was exploratory, qualitative and contextual, and a convenience snowball sampling method was used. The sample size was determined through data saturation (n = 20. Selfreported data were gathered by means of interviews, and analysed using Tesch’s approach. Four themes emerged, (1 knowledge of cervical cancer, (2 sexual behaviour, (3 social problems and (4 emotions. The study provided evidence that women were not able to protect themselves from cervical cancer by insisting on condom use. Women lacked knowledge of cervical cancer and did not associate condom use with self-protection against this disease. Most of their sex partners refused to use condoms. Poverty, physical abuse, helplessness and fear prevented women from insisting on the use of condoms. Primary prevention strategies should focus on empowering women to protect themselves from cervical cancer and not leave this important issue to someone who might refuse it.


    Servikskarsinoom is die mees algemene kanker in Suid-Afrikaanse vroue. Die menslike papiloom virus (MPV is die grootse oorsaak van hierdie kanker. Oordraging van die virus kan egter met kondoomgebruik voorkom word. Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of Swart vroue woonagtig in Tshwane, Suid-Afrika, hulself teen die virus kan beskerm deur op kondoomgebruik aan te dring.Die studie was eksploratief, kwalitatief en kontekstueel en ’n gerieflikheids sneeubal metode het die steekproef gerig. Die steekproefgrootte is deur dataversadiging bepaal (n = 20. Data is ingesamel deur middel van

  20. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex. (United States)

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K


    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.

  1. Psychological and physical co-morbidity among urban South African women.

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    Emily Mendenhall

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa. METHODS: Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report. RESULTS: Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.

  2. Acceptability and feasibility of cash transfers for HIV prevention among adolescent South African women. (United States)

    MacPhail, Catherine; Adato, Michelle; Kahn, Kathleen; Selin, Amanda; Twine, Rhian; Khoza, Samson; Rosenberg, Molly; Nguyen, Nadia; Becker, Elizabeth; Pettifor, Audrey


    Women are at increased risk of HIV infection in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have found an association between school attendance and reduced HIV risk. We report feasibility and acceptability results from a pilot of a cash transfer intervention conditional on school attendance paid to young women and their families in rural Mpumalanga, South Africa for the prevention of HIV infection. Twenty-nine young women were randomised to intervention or control and a cash payment based on school attendance made over a 2-month period. Quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus group and interview) data collection was undertaken with young women, parents, teachers and young men in the same school. Qualitative analysis was conducted in Atlas.ti using a framework approach and basic descriptive analysis in Excel was conducted on the quantitative data. Results indicate it was both feasible and acceptable to introduce such an intervention among this population in rural South Africa. There was good understanding of the process of randomisation and the aims of the study, although some rumours developed in the study community. We address some of the changes necessary to ensure acceptability and feasibility of the main trial.

  3. Evaluation of syndromic management guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted infections in South African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Eem, Lisette; Dubbink, Jan Henk; Struthers, Helen E; McIntyre, James A; Ouburg, Sander; Morre, Servaas A; Kock, Marleen M; Peters, Remco P H


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of three different guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) for women living in a rural setting in South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study in Mopani District, South Africa. The 2015

  4. Mammography Screening Among African-American Women With a Family History of Breast Cancer (United States)


    gestalt that emerged was that women’s evaluations of mammography increased, and these results were not due to any differential component of the...transtheoretical approach: Crossing traditional boundaries of therapy . Chicago: Dow Jones/Irwin. 17. Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C. (1983). Stages

  5. Genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk in African American women in the AMBER consortium. (United States)

    Yao, Song; Haddad, Stephen A; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Zhu, Qianqian; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Bensen, Jeannette T; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B


    Studies of genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk have been conducted mostly in populations of European ancestry, and only sparsely in African Americans (AA), who are known for a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. We analyzed 24,445 germline variants in 63 genes from vitamin D-related pathways in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium, including 3,663 breast cancer cases and 4,687 controls. Odds ratios (OR) were derived from logistic regression models for overall breast cancer, by estrogen receptor (ER) status (1,983 ER positive and 1,098 ER negative), and for case-only analyses of ER status. None of the three vitamin D-related pathways were associated with breast cancer risk overall or by ER status. Gene-level analyses identified associations with risk for several genes at a nominal p ≤ 0.05, particularly for ER- breast cancer, including rs4647707 in DDB2. In case-only analyses, vitamin D metabolism and signaling pathways were associated with ER- cancer (pathway-level p = 0.02), driven by a single gene CASR (gene-level p = 0.001). The top SNP in CASR was rs112594756 (p = 7 × 10(-5), gene-wide corrected p = 0.01), followed by a second signal from a nearby SNP rs6799828 (p = 1 × 10(-4), corrected p = 0.03). In summary, several variants in vitamin D pathways were associated with breast cancer risk in AA women. In addition, CASR may be related to tumor ER status, supporting a role of vitamin D or calcium in modifying breast cancer phenotypes.

  6. Health services utilization among South African women living with HIV and reporting sexual and substance-use risk behaviors. (United States)

    Luseno, Winnie K; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt


    HIV health services are critical in sub-Saharan African where the burden of the HIV pandemic is devastating. Existing studies suggest that HIV-infected individuals from marginalized populations who know their status do not seek health services because they are unaware of available treatment and care options, may not understand how to access services, or have poor access to and utilization of health care services. This study examined factors associated with health service utilization in a sample of poor, underserved recently diagnosed HIV-positive South African women with sexual and substance use risk behaviors. The data were collected between June 2004 and May 2008. Primary outcomes included consultation with a medical professional and utilization of any health services since learning of HIV status at 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. The study findings suggest that denial of HIV status may be a barrier to care, leading study participants to avoid utilizing health services specific to their disease and to prefer more general medical care services. In multivariate analyses, prior use of health services, financially supporting others, and sex trading were strongly associated with health service use at follow-up assessments. The study findings suggest a reduced likelihood of health services utilization among participants who met DSM-IV criteria for drug abuse as well as participants with greater numbers of poor physical health symptoms. As an important preliminary step in examining the issue of health services utilization in sub-Saharan Africa, the findings suggest an urgent need to promote HIV prevention and early testing, to strengthen long-term HIV care services, and to increase access to services.

  7. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women. (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V


    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status.

  8. Perspectives on prevention of type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: a qualitative study of Hispanic, African-American and White women. (United States)

    Tang, Joyce W; Foster, Krys E; Pumarino, Javiera; Ackermann, Ronald T; Peaceman, Alan M; Cameron, Kenzie A


    Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) have a fivefold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Furthermore, Hispanic and African-American women are disproportionately affected by GDM, but their views on prevention of T2DM after gestational diabetes are largely unknown. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 women (8 Hispanic, 8 African-American, 7 non-Hispanic White) from two academic clinics in Chicago, IL. Interview questions elicited perspectives on prevention of T2DM; the interview protocol was developed based on the Health Belief Model. Two investigators applied template analysis to identify emergent themes. Women conceptualized risk for T2DM based on family history, health behaviors, and personal history of GDM. A subgroup of women expressed uncertainty about how GDM influences risk for T2DM. Women who described a strong link between GDM and T2DM often viewed the diagnosis as a cue to action for behavior change. T2DM was widely viewed as a severe condition, and desire to avoid T2DM was an important motivator for behavior change. Children represented both a key motivator and critical barrier to behavior change. Women viewed preventive care as important to alert them to potential health concerns. Identified themes were congruent across racial/ethnic groups. Diagnosis with GDM presents a potent opportunity for engaging women in behavior change. To fully harness the potential influence of this diagnosis, healthcare providers should more clearly link the diagnosis of GDM with risk for future T2DM, leverage women's focus on their children to motivate behavior change, and provide support with behavior change during healthcare visits in the postpartum period and beyond.

  9. Triple negative breast tumors in African-American and Hispanic/Latina women are high in CD44+, low in CD24+, and have loss of PTEN.

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    Yanyuan Wu

    Full Text Available African-American women have higher mortality from breast cancer than other ethnic groups. The association between poor survival and differences with tumor phenotypes is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical significance of (1 Stem cell-like markers CD44 and CD24; (2 PI3K/Akt pathway associated targets PTEN, activation of Akt, and FOXO1; and (3 the Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3 in different breast cancer subtypes, and compare the differences between African-American and Hispanic/Latina women who have similar social-economic-status.A total of N=318 African-American and Hispanic/Latina women, with clinically-annotated information within the inclusion criteria were included. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues from these patients were tested for the different markers using immunohistochemistry techniques. Kaplan-Meier survival-curves and Cox-regression analyses were used to assess Relative Risk and Disease-Free-Survival (DFS.The triple-negative-breast-cancer (TNBC receptor-subtype was more prevalent among premenopausal women, and the Hormonal Receptor (HR positive subtype was most common overall. TNBC tumors were more likely to have loss of PTEN, express high Ki67, and have increased CD44+/CD24- expression. TNBC was also associated with higher plasma-IGF-I levels. HR-/HER2+ tumors showed high pAkt, decreased FOXO1, and high CD24+ expression. The loss of PTEN impacted DFS significantly in African Americans, but not in Hispanics/Latinas after adjusted for treatment and other tumor pathological factors. The CD44+/CD24- and CD24+/CD44- phenotypes decreased DFS, but were not independent predictors for DFS. HER2-positive and TNBC type of cancers continued to exhibit significant decrease in DFS after adjusting for the selected biomarkers and treatment.TNBC incidence is high among African-American and Hispanic/Latino women residing in South Los Angeles. Our study also shows for

  10. African America. (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Brown, Gloria


    Presents an annotated bibliography of quality materials by and about African Americans in the areas of poetry, music, folklore, women, picture books, history/collective biography, authors, and professional materials. Activities are suggested in each area for Black History Month. (LRW)

  11. microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women (United States)


    informed consent and to query participants on a number of potential risk factors, including medical history, family history of cancer, diet , physical...0.07) 0.99 (0.03) 0.07 Count (%) Count (%) Count (%) Count (%) Menopausal status 0.14 0.17 Premenopausal 337 (61.6) 263 (57.0) 235...associated with breast cancer risk (Table 2), but there were no associations in EA women for any haplotypes. Stratified analysis by menopausal

  12. Characterization of Vaginal Escherichia coli Isolated from Pregnant Women in Two Different African Sites.

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    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available The relevance of vaginal colonization of pregnant women by Escherichia coli is poorly understood, despite these strains sharing a similar virulence profile with other extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli producing severe obstetric and neonatal infections. We characterized the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence profiles of 84 vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant women from Rabat (Morocco and Manhiça (Mozambique, two very distinct epidemiological settings. Low levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed to all drugs tested, except for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Manhiça, where this drug is extensively used as prophylaxis for opportunistic HIV infections. The most prevalent virulence factors were related to iron acquisition systems. Phylogroup A was the most common in Rabat, while phylogroups E and non-typeable were the most frequent in Manhiça. Regardless of the apparently "low virulence" of these isolates, the frequency of infections is higher and the outcomes more devastating in constrained-resources conditions, especially among pregnant women and newborns.

  13. Pathways to success in science: A phenomenological study, examining the life experiences of African-American women in higher education (United States)

    Giscombe, Claudette Leanora

    This study is a qualitative investigation in which five African American women science faculty, in higher education, within the age range of 45--60, were the participants. The data that was collected, over twelve months, was primarily obtained from the in-depth phenomenological interviewing method (Seidman, 1991). The interpretation of the data was the result of ongoing cross analysis of the participants' life experiences, perceptions, and beliefs of the how they navigated and negotiated pathways to careers in the natural sciences, and the meanings they attach to these experiences. The software Ethnograph (V5.0) was used to organize the participants' responses into patterns and emergent themes. The Black women in this study articulated several themes that were critical determinants of their successes and achievements in science careers. From the analysis of the data set, four major findings were identified: (1) "Black Intentional Communities" acted as social agencies for the positive development of the participants; (2) "My World Reality" which was described by the participants as their acceptance of their segregated worlds, not being victims of inequities and injustices, but being resilient and determined to forge on to early academic successes. Early academic successes were identified as precursors and external motivational stimuli to their interests and achievements in science; (3) Their experiences of "Tensions and Double Consciousness" from race and gender negative images and career stereotypes, required the women to make "intra-cultural deviations" from stereotypic career roles and to develop "pragmatic coping strategies" to achieve in science careers and; (4) "Meaning-making"---Significant to the meaning of their journey was the fact that the participants grounded their experiences in a social context rather than in a scientific context and that they ended their journey with expressions of personal satisfactions about their journey and their unique drive and

  14. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Jenkinson, Jesse I R; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health.

  15. Suburban migration and the birth outcome of Chicago-born white and African-American women: the merit of the healthy migrant theory? (United States)

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; Janowiak, Christine M


    The healthy migrant theory posits that women who migrate before pregnancy are intrinsically healthier and therefore have better birth outcomes than those who don't move. Objective. To determine whether migration to the suburbs is associated with lower rates of preterm (unity. Neighborhood income underlies the protective association of suburban migration and birth outcome among Chicago-born White and African-American mothers. These findings do not support the healthy migrant hypothesis of reproductive outcome.

  16. Demanding kin relations and depressive symptoms among low-income African American women: mediating effects of self-esteem and optimism. (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang


    Association of demanding kin relations, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and optimism was assessed among 130 low-income African American women. Demanding relations with kin were positively associated with depressive symptoms and negatively linked to self-esteem and optimism. Self-esteem and optimism were negatively associated with depressive symptoms and mediated the association of demanding relations with kin and women's depressive symptoms. Findings were discussed in terms of the detrimental effects of demanding social relations with kin and the possible role that other relationships may play in compensating for poor relations with extended family.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064). (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Frew, Paula M; Haley, Danielle F


    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n = 1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), partner age >35 years (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064) (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.


    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  19. Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Notification among African-American, Adolescent Women

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    Anna Buchsbaum


    Full Text Available Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1% preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6% had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4% notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.

  20. Reactions of heterosexual African American men to women's condom negotiation strategies. (United States)

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael J; Reed, Barbara; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Stevenson, L Yvonne


    This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18 to 35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven's (1992) influence model. The purpose was (a) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request and (b) to identify predictors of participant compliance/refusal to comply with negotiation attempts. Participants viewed six videotape segments showing an actress, portrayed in silhouette, speaking to the viewer as a "steady partner." After each segment, participants completed measures of request compliance, positive and negative affect, and attributions concerning the model and themselves. No significant differences were found in men's ratings across all vignettes. However, differences in response existed across subgroups of individuals, suggesting that, although the strategy used had little impact on participant response, the act of suggesting condom use produced responses that differed across participant subgroups. Subgroups differed on levels of AIDS risk knowledge, sexually transmitted disease history, and experience with sexual coercion. Also, the "least willing to use" subgroup was highest in anger-rejection and least likely to make attributions of caring for partner. Effective negotiation of condom use with a male sexual partner may not be determined as much by specific strategy used as by partner characteristics.

  1. Perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women: a qualitative inquiry. (United States)

    Befort, Christie A; Thomas, Janet L; Daley, Christine M; Rhode, Paula C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3 +/- 9.2 kg/m(2). Findings suggest that participants (a) believe that people can be attractive and healthy at larger sizes; (b) still feel dissatisfied with their weight and self-conscious about their bodies; (c) emphasize eating behavior as the primary cause for weight gain; (d) view pregnancy, motherhood, and caregiving as major precursors to weight gain; (e) view health as the most important reason to lose weight; (f) have mixed experiences and expectations for social support for weight loss; and (g) prefer treatments that incorporate long-term lifestyle modification rather than fad diets or medication.

  2. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect comprehension and beliefs of young South African women. (United States)

    Lubinga, E; Maes, A A; Jansen, C J M


    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC) was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow.

  3. The context of collecting family health history: examining definitions of family and family communication about health among African American women. (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A


    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.

  4. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect comprehension and beliefs of young South African women

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    E. Lubinga


    Full Text Available Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118 participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow.

  5. The Relationship between Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity in African Women Living with the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Clamp Study (United States)

    Dohbit, Sama; Tchana-Sinou, Mycilline; Foumane, Pascal; Donfack, Olivier Trésor; Doh, Anderson S.


    Objectives. We aimed to assess the variation of insulin sensitivity in relation to obesity in women living with PCOS in a sub-Sahara African setting. Methods. We studied body composition, insulin sensitivity, and resting energy expenditure in 14 PCOS patients (6 obese and 8 nonobese) compared to 10 matched nonobese non-PCOS subjects. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the gold standard 80 mU/m2/min euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Results. Insulin sensitivity adjusted to lean mass was lowest in obese PCOS subjects and highest in healthy subjects (11.2 [10.1–12.4] versus 12.9 [12.1–13.8] versus 16.6 [13.8–17.9], p = 0.012); there was a tendency for resting energy expenditure adjusted for total body mass to decrease across the groups highest in obese PCOS subjects (1411 [1368–1613] versus 1274 [1174–1355] versus 1239 [1195–1454], p = 0.306). Conclusion. In this sub-Saharan population, insulin resistance is associated with PCOS per se but is further aggravated by obesity. Obesity did not seem to be explained by low resting energy expenditure suggesting that dietary intake may be a determinant of the obesity in this context. PMID:27672393

  6. Hypertension, Periodontal Disease, and Potassium Intake in Nonsmoking, Nondrinker African Women on No Medication

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    Masashi Yamori


    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association of periodontitis and/or tooth loss with hypertension by excluding the common confounders. Eighty-one Tanzanian women who were aged 46–58 years, nonsmokers, nonalcoholic drinkers, and on no medication underwent clinical examination. Multiple-regression analysis showed that the severity of periodontitis was significantly correlated with increased systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Simple-regression analysis indicated that the severity of periodontitis was inversely correlated with 24-hour urinary excretion of potassium (r=-0.579, P=0.0004 and also inversely with the frequency of intakes of green vegetables (r=-0.232, P=0.031 and fruits (r=-0.217, P=0.0043. Low-potassium intake in the diet mostly accompanied by low dietary fiber intake increases BP as well as periodontal inflammation. Potassium intake may be an important factor linking periodontitis and hypertension in middle-aged nonsmoking and nonalcoholic women on no medication, although chronic inflammation such as periodontitis may cause hypertension through a more direct mechanism.

  7. Population characteristics of young African women influencing prenatal exposure to DDT (Manhiça, Mozambique). (United States)

    Manaca, Maria N; Grimalt, Joan O; Sunyer, Jordi; Guinovart, Caterina; Sacarlal, Jahit; Menendez, Clara; Alonso, Pedro L; Dobaño, Carlota


    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) compounds in cord blood of 214 children born between 2003 and 2006 in Manhiça (Mozambique) have been determined. In this time interval, corresponding to the period before DDT reintroduction for indoor residual spraying, the observed values averaged 0.8 and 0.4 ng/ml for 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDT, respectively, and were similar to those found in western countries. However, the 4,4'-DDT/4,4'-DDE ratio was high indicating that the inputs of these compounds arriving to children in utero originated from recent uses of the insecticide. The strongest factor affecting DDT concentration was parity. A well-defined decreasing concentration trend was observed for the cord blood concentrations in the period of study. The trend was also observed for multiparae and primiparae mothers independently. Children from multiparae women showed much lower concentrations than primiparae women. Children from mothers with secondary school level exhibited lower concentrations of these pesticides than mothers with lower degree of education.

  8. Interpretative repertoires that shape low-income African American women's reproductive health care seeking: "don't want to know" and "taking charge of your health". (United States)

    Golden, Annis G; Pomerantz, Anita


    In the context of reproductive and sexual health, African American women have higher incidence of disease and poorer outcomes on key indicators when compared with White women. In this study, we used discourse analysis to identify and examine the workings of two clusters of interpretive resources ("interpretative repertoires") associated with reproductive/sexual health care seeking among low-income African American women who participated in semistructured interviews as part of a health promotion initiative. Interpretative repertoires are ways of accounting for engaging in or refraining from engaging in actions, which are shared by people in a community. We labeled the two interpretative repertoires "Don't Want to Know," and "Take Charge of Your Health." Within the "Don't Want to Know" repertoire, that testing would lead to threatening findings was assumed, a chain of devastating consequences was imagined, and a preference for uncertainty over certain knowledge was expressed. Conversely, the "Take Charge of Your Health" repertoire valued certainty over uncertainty, though in both interpretive frameworks, knowledge-based and emotion-based decision-making were intertwined. We conclude that health promotion initiatives--if they are to succeed in encouraging women to obtain valuable preventive health care services--must respond, in their choices of language and outreach strategies, to the expressed dilemma of wishing for reassurance but fearing bad news, to the intertwining of emotional reasoning and technorationality in health decision making, and to the particular relational experiences of African American women. Failure to do so will contribute to the continuation of reproductive and sexual health disparities.

  9. Effect of Pregnancy on Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected African Women (United States)

    Wiener, Jeffrey; King, Caroline C.; Heffron, Renee; Mugo, Nelly R.; Nanda, Kavita; Pyra, Maria; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Lingappa, Jairam R.; Baeten, Jared M.


    Background: While most recent evidence does not support a role for pregnancy in accelerating HIV disease progression, very little information is available on the effects of incident pregnancy in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Hormonal, immune, and behavioral changes during pregnancy may influence response to ART. We sought to explore the effects of incident pregnancy (after ART initiation) on virologic, immunologic, and clinical response to ART. Methods: Data were collected from HIV-infected women participating in 3 prospective studies (Partners in Prevention Herpes simplex virus/HIV Transmission Study, Couples Observational Study, and Partners Preexposure Prophylaxis Study) from 7 countries in Africa from 2004 to 2012. Women were included in this analysis if they were ≤45 years of age, were started on ART during the study and were not pregnant at ART initiation. Pregnancy was treated as a time-dependent exposure variable covering the duration of pregnancy, including all pregnancies occurring after ART initiation. Virologic failure was defined as a viral load (VL) greater than 400 copies per milliliter ≥6 months after ART initiation and viral suppression was defined as VL ≤400 copies per milliliter. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between pregnancy and time to viral suppression, virologic failure, World Health Organization clinical stage III/IV, and death. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between pregnancy and CD4+ count and VL. All analyses were adjusted for confounders, including pre-ART CD4+ count and plasma VL. Results: A total of 1041 women were followed, contributing 1196.1 person-years of follow-up. Median CD4+ count before ART initiation was 276 cells per cubic millimeter (interquartile range, 209–375); median pre-ART VL was 17,511 copies per milliliter (interquartile range, 2480–69,286). One hundred ten women became pregnant after ART initiation. Pregnancy

  10. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

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    Rossi Maryann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%; 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were fully completed (where all required risk content was covered. Ninety-three percent of the subsample of intervention women had a positive view of their

  11. Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study.

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    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order to receive larger grants. Here, we estimate the net effect of these countervailing mechanisms among rural South African women.We constructed a retrospective cohort of 4845 women who first became eligible for the Child Support Grant with the birth of their first child between 1998 and 2008, with data originally collected by the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We fit Cox regression models to estimate the hazard of second pregnancy in women who reported grant receipt after birth of first child, relative to non-recipients. As a secondary analysis to explore the potential for grant loss to incentivize second pregnancy, we exploited a natural experiment created by a 2003 expansion of the program's age eligibility criterion from age seven to nine. We compared second pregnancy rates between (i women with children age seven or eight in 2002 (recently aged out of grant eligibility to (ii women with children age seven or eight in 2003 (remained grant-eligible.The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between grant exposure and second pregnancy was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.75. Women with first children who aged out of grant eligibility in 2002 had similar second pregnancy rates to women with first children who remained grant-eligible in 2003 [IRR (95% CI: 0.9 (0.5, 1.4].Across both primary and secondary analyses, we found no evidence that the Child Support Grant incentivizes pregnancy. In harmony with South African population policy, receipt of the Child Support Grant may result in longer spacing between pregnancies.

  12. Dietary intake of pregnant women and their infants in a poor black South African community

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    D Mostert


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to determine the dietary intake of women in a poor rural area during pregnancy and lactation, and (ii to determine the nutritional status and dietary intake of their infants at age 6 months. We recruited 46 women, below 40 years old, in their 2nd trimester of pregnancy. The subjects were living in a rural area of Limpopo Province. Their heights and weights were recorded, as were their diets during pregnancy and for the first 6 months after delivery. We also recorded weights, lengths, and dietary intake of the infants at 3 and 6 months after birth. The subjects were living in severe poverty: none had running water and almost all did their cooking over an open fire. None of the subjects smoked and only one consumed alcohol. The diets of the subjects consisted mainly of maize, brown bread, sweetened beverages (cold drink and tea, and small amounts of vegetables and chicken. The diets were adequate in protein but were marginal in energy and in dietary fibre, and may be deficient in numerous micronutrients, particularly calcium, iron, zinc, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, C, E, and B6. This was seen during pregnancy and lactation. Blood analysis 6 months after birth revealed normal levels of vitamins A and E and an absence of anaemia. Body mass index (BMI of the women was 23.9 } 5.3 kg/m2 (mean } SD when measured 6 months after birth. Those above 25 years old had a higher BMI than did younger subjects (25.5 vs. 22.2; p= 0.028. Overall, 24% were overweight (BMI 25-30 while 9% were obese (BMI > 30. Most infants (93% were breastfed for at least 6 months but exclusive breastfeeding was only done by 65% of mothers. One-third of breastfed infants also received formula. The use of formula while breastfeeding was twice as common among mothers aged above 25 years (46% vs. 23%. Early introduction of solid foods was very common in this group. Younger mothers introduced solids in the first month (51% more often compared with

  13. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings

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    Johnson JE


    Full Text Available Jennifer E Johnson1, Tara Carney2, Tracy Kline3, Felicia A Browne4, Wendee M Wechsberg41Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Statistics and Epidemiology, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system

  14. Putative relationship between hormonal status and serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase activity in pre- and post- menopausal women with breast cancer. (United States)

    Carrera-González, María del Pilar; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Dueñas, Basilio; Martínez-Ferrol, Julia; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel


    In breast cancer, hormonal changes are rather constant in post-menopausal women since they tend to vary only over long time spans. However, in pre-menopausal women, the development of breast cancer is associated with hormonal physiological variations. The aim of the present work was to analyse the changes in circulating levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in pre- and post-menopausal women that were healthy or with breast cancer, and their connection to serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase (Pcp) activity. We observed significant changes in the hormonal profile in post-menopausal women with breast cancer compared to the control group. In pre-menopausal women, we found significant changes in circulating GnRH levels with respect to the healthy group. Our present results support the existence of neuroendocrine misregulation that could be involved in tumour progression, with Pcp being a potentially new pharmacological target in breast cancer treatments.

  15. The Experience of Antiretroviral Treatment for Black West African Women who are HIV Positive and Living in London: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. (United States)

    Spiers, Johanna; Smith, Jonathan A; Poliquin, Elizabeth; Anderson, Jane; Horne, Rob


    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) offers a powerful intervention in HIV but effectiveness can be compromised by inadequate adherence. This paper is a detailed examination of the experience of medication in a purposively selected group of people living with HIV. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 HIV positive, West African women of black heritage living in London, UK. This group was of interest since it is the second largest group affected by HIV in the UK. Interviews were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis, an idiographic, experiential, qualitative approach. The paper details the women's negative experience of treatment. ART can be considered difficult and unrelenting and may be disconnected from the women's sense of health or illness. Participants' social context often exacerbated the difficulties. Some reported an improvement in their feelings about the medication over time. These findings point to some intrinsic and social motivators which could act as spurs to adherence.

  16. Can E- Commerce Enable Marketing in an African Rural Women's Community Based Development Organization?

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    Jo Rhodes


    Full Text Available It is suggested by various sources (Worldbank, 2000; Cypher, 1997 that investment in infrastructure and modern technologies such as ITC's may break down some of the barriers of access such as physical remoteness for poor rural communities. However there is little existing research that examines this sce-nario at the micro level. This paper uses a case study- the Rural Women's Association (RWA of Sek-huhkuneland, Northern Province, South Africa to examine if E- commerce can enable access to markets in an impoverished, under resourced rural location. This paper has five parts: Part 1 consists of the background and rationale for this study, Part 2 focuses on the education, business acumen and gender issues. Part 3 discusses the current market environment. Part 4 discusses possible business models that can integrate e-commerce in its implementation. Part 5 provides the research questions and the method-ology for this study. The final discussion in this study provides us with a viable e-commerce model that could be used in a rural setting and could provide greater economic development for this community.

  17. Eating pathology in East African women: the role of media exposure and globalization. (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T; Hennessey, Moira; Thompson-Brenner, Heather


    Eating disorder (ED) pathology and its relation to media exposure and globalization were assessed in a sample of young Tanzanian females (N = 214; 19.4 years +/- 3.8 years). Participants completed Kiswahili versions of a DSM-IV ED symptom clinical interview, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and a media exposure/globalization questionnaire. One third endorsed cognitive ED symptoms; bingeing (10%) and purging (5%) were less common. Four women (1.9%) met modified criteria for anorexia nervosa, one for bulimia nervosa, and 10 (4.7%) reported clinically significant ED pathology consistent with an ED not otherwise specified diagnosis. Media exposure and Western exposure (e.g., travel abroad) were positively associated with ED symptoms. The intended factor structure of the EDI was not supported. Eating pathology is present in this developing nation and is most common in subpopulations with increased exposure to Western culture. Future research should replicate these findings to clarify the role of Western media in the development of ED pathology.

  18. Gene-based analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway in relation to breast cancer in African American women: the AMBER consortium. (United States)

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Yao, Song; Bensen, Jeannette T; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R


    We conducted gene-based analysis in 26 genes in the FGFR signaling pathway to identify genes carrying genetic variation affecting risk of breast cancer and the specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each gene were selected and genotyped on a customized Illumina Exome Array. Imputation was carried out using 1000 Genomes haplotypes. The analysis included 3237 SNPs in 3663 breast cancer cases (including 1983 ER-positive, and 1098 ER-negative) and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk consortium, a collaborative project of four large studies of breast cancer in African American women (Carolina Breast Cancer Study, Black Women's Health Study, Women's Circle of Health Study, and Multiethnic Cohort). We used a multi-locus adaptive joint (AdaJoint) test to determine the association of each gene in the FGFR signaling pathway with overall breast cancer and ER subtypes. The FGF1 gene was significantly associated with risk of ER-negative breast cancer (P = 0.001). The FGFR2 gene was associated with risk of overall breast cancer (P = 0.002) and ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.002). The FGF1 gene affects risk of ER-negative breast cancer in African American women. We confirmed the association of the FGFR2 gene with risk of overall and ER-positive breast cancer. These results highlight the importance of the FGFR signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and suggest that different genes in the same pathway may be associated with different ER breast cancer subtypes.

  19. Plasma metabolomic profiles reflective of glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic obese African-American women.

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    Oliver Fiehn

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance progressing to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is marked by a broad perturbation of macronutrient intermediary metabolism. Understanding the biochemical networks that underlie metabolic homeostasis and how they associate with insulin action will help unravel diabetes etiology and should foster discovery of new biomarkers of disease risk and severity. We examined differences in plasma concentrations of >350 metabolites in fasted obese T2DM vs. obese non-diabetic African-American women, and utilized principal components analysis to identify 158 metabolite components that strongly correlated with fasting HbA1c over a broad range of the latter (r = -0.631; p<0.0001. In addition to many unidentified small molecules, specific metabolites that were increased significantly in T2DM subjects included certain amino acids and their derivatives (i.e., leucine, 2-ketoisocaproate, valine, cystine, histidine, 2-hydroxybutanoate, long-chain fatty acids, and carbohydrate derivatives. Leucine and valine concentrations rose with increasing HbA1c, and significantly correlated with plasma acetylcarnitine concentrations. It is hypothesized that this reflects a close link between abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, amino acid catabolism, and efficiency of fuel combustion in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. It is speculated that a mechanism for potential TCA cycle inefficiency concurrent with insulin resistance is "anaplerotic stress" emanating from reduced amino acid-derived carbon flux to TCA cycle intermediates, which if coupled to perturbation in cataplerosis would lead to net reduction in TCA cycle capacity relative to fuel delivery.

  20. Genetic variations in the Hippo signaling pathway and breast cancer risk in African American women in the AMBER Consortium. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yao, Song; Hu, Qiang; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Song; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Haddad, Stephen A; Yang, Nuo; Shen, He; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Bensen, Jeannette T; Troester, Melissa A; Bandera, Elisa V; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B


    The Hippo signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and survival, thus exerting profound effects on normal cell fate and tumorigenesis. Dysfunction of the Hippo pathway components has been linked with breast cancer stem cell regulation, as well as breast tumor progression and metastasis. TAZ, a key component of the Hippo pathway, is highly expressed in triple negative breast cancer; however, the associations of genetic variations in this important pathway with breast cancer risk remain largely unexplored. Here, we analyzed 8309 germline variants in 15 genes from the Hippo pathway with a total of 3663 cases and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression for overall breast cancer, by estrogen receptor (ER) status (1983 ER positive and 1098 ER negative), and for case-only analyses by ER status. The Hippo signaling pathway was significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer (pathway level P = 0.02). Gene-based analyses revealed that CDH1 was responsible for the pathway association (P CDH1 statistically significant after gene-level adjustment for multiple comparisons (P = 9.2×10(-5), corrected P = 0.02). rs142697907 in PTPN14 was associated with ER-positive breast cancer and rs2456773 in CDK1 with ER-negativity in case-only analysis after gene-level correction for multiple comparisons (corrected P < 0.05). In conclusion, common genetic variations in the Hippo signaling pathway may contribute to both ER-negative and ER+ breast cancer risk in AA women.

  1. Age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function among European American and African American women (United States)

    Chandler-Laney, P. C.; Phadke, R.; Granger, W. M.; Fernández, J. R.; Muñoz, A. J.; Man, C. Dalla; Cobelli, C.; Ovalle, F.; Gower, B. A.


    Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent among African American (AA) than European American (EA) women for reasons that are unknown. Ethnic differences in physiological processes related to insulin sensitivity and secretion, and age-related changes in these processes, may play a role. The purpose of this study was to identify ethnicity- and age-related differences in insulin sensitivity and β-cell responsivity among AA and EA females, and to determine whether these differences are independent of body composition and fat distribution. Healthy, normoglycemic females aged 7–12 yr (n=62), 18–32 yr (n=57), and 40–70 yr (n=49) were recruited for entry into this study. Following an overnight fast, insulin sensitivity (SI), intravenous glucose tolerance (Kg), acute C-peptide secretion (X0), and basal, first-phase, second-phase, and total β-cell responsivity to glucose (PhiB, Phi1, Phi2, and PhiTOT, respectively) were measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Total % body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and intra-abdominal adiposity (IAAT) by computed tomography. Main effects of age group and ethnicity were measured with ANCOVA, adjusting for %fat, IAAT, and SI as indicated. AA had lower SI, and higher Kg, X0, Phi1, and PhiTOT (P<0.05), which remained after adjustment for %fat and IAAT. Greater X0, Phi1, and PhiTOT among AA were independent of SI. Advancing age was associated with greater Phi2 among both EA and AA. To conclude, inherent ethnic differences in β-cell function exist independently of adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Future research should examine whether ethnic differences in β-cell physiology contribute to disparities in type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:20885386

  2. Race differences in the association of oxidative stress with insulin sensitivity in African- and European-American women. (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Alvarez, Jessica A; Ellis, Amy C; Granger, Wesley M; Ovalle, Fernando; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Gower, Barbara A


    Excessive metabolism of glucose and/or fatty acids may impair insulin signaling by increasing oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to examine the association between insulin sensitivity and protein carbonyls, a systemic marker of oxidative stress, in healthy, nondiabetic women, and to determine if the relationship differed with race. Subjects were 25 African-Americans (AA, BMI 28.4 ± 6.2 kg/m(2), range 18.8-42.6 kg/m(2); age 33.1 ± 13.5 years, range 18-58 years) and 28 European-Americans (EA, BMI 26.2 ± 5.9 kg/m(2), range 18.7-48.4 kg/m(2); age 31.6 ± 12.4 years, range 19-58 years). Insulin sensitivity was determined using an intravenous glucose tolerance test incorporating [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose, and a two-compartment mathematical model. Multiple linear regression results indicated that insulin sensitivity was inversely associated with protein carbonyls in AA (standardized regression coefficient -0.47, P < 0.05) but not EA (0.01, P = 0.945), after adjusting for %body fat. In contrast, %body fat was significantly and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in EA (-0.54, P < 0.01) but not AA (-0.24, P = 0.196). Protein carbonyls were associated with free fatty acids (FFA) in AA (r = 0.58, P < 0.01) but not EA (r = -0.11, P = 0.59). When subjects were divided based on median levels of fasting glucose and FFA, those with higher glucose/FFA concentrations had a significantly greater concentration of circulating protein carbonyls compared to those with lower glucose/FFA concentrations (P < 0.05). These results suggest that oxidative stress independently contributes to insulin sensitivity among AA women. Further, this association in AA may be mediated by circulating FFA and/or glucose.

  3. How Can I Trust You if You Don’t Know Who You Are? The Consequences of a Fluid Identity on Cross-Racial Organizing between African American Women and Latinas in Atlanta

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    Belisa González


    Full Text Available Scholarship in the area of cross-racial organizing between Latina/o and African Americans has increased substantially over the past ten years. Within that literature, scholars have identified many reasons why cross-racial coalitions both succeed and fail. Among the factors most often cited is the issue of trust. Despite the recognition of the crucial role trust plays in cross-racial organizing, little attention has been paid to what contributes to actually building trust between African Americans and Latina/o. I argue that one factor contributing to the distrust of Latinas among African American women involved in cross-racial organizing in Atlanta is the perceived discrepancy between Latinas’ own asserted identity and the identity assigned to them by African American women organizers. Using data gathered from six years of participant observation and forty interviews conducted with African American women and Latinas organizing in Georgia, I discuss the consequences of identity construction for cross-racial organizing. I find that within cross-racial organizing spaces in Atlanta, perceived racial identities are used by African American women as proxies for determining Latina organizers’ commitment to social justice and, correspondingly, how much individual Latinas can be trusted. Specifically, I find that African American respondents view Latina identity as optional and potentially white. Latina respondents, on the other hand, assert strong identities and contend that their perceived “optional” identities are a function of what Anzaldúa calls a mestiza consciousness or the straddeling of multiple identities. I argue that understanding how these identities are assigned and asserted by Latinas and African American women is a crucial and often-overlooked component to building trust, and by extension, to building sustainable cross-racial coalitions.

  4. Cultural (De)Coding and Racial Identity among Women of the African Diaspora in U.S. Adult Higher Education (United States)

    Murray-Johnson, Kayon K.


    Over time, research has suggested there are sometimes tensions arising from differences in the way African Americans and Black Caribbean immigrants in the United States perceive each other as part of the African diaspora. In this autoethnographic study, I explore personal experiences with cross-cultural misperceptions between Black female students…

  5. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann


    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  6. Factors associated with estrogen receptors-alpha (ER-alpha) and -beta (ER-beta) and progesterone receptor abundance in obese and non obese pre- and post-menopausal women. (United States)

    Meza-Muñoz, Dalia Edith; Fajardo, Martha E; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Malacara, Juan Manuel


    There is scarce information about the factors associated with estrogen receptors (ER) at menopause. In 113 volunteers pre- and post-menopausal healthy women, grouped as with and without obesity, estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta, and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunohistochemistry in skin punch biopsies obtained from the external gluteal area. In pre-menopausal women, biopsies and a blood sample were performed between days 7 and 14 of the cycle. Serum hormone levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay or radioimmunoassay. After menopause, ER and PR amounts decreased significantly. At pre-menopause, obese women had lower PR levels than non obese (P<.006). In the post-menopausal group, obese women showed higher ER-alpha (P<.03) and ER-beta (P<.02) levels than the non obese group. In the analysis of factors associated with the amount of steroid receptors for the total group, log[ER-alpha], log[ER-beta], and log[PR] were associated with age (P<.002, <.005, and <.004, respectively). The log[ER-alpha] was also associated with log[FSH] (P<.0008); meanwhile, the log[PR] showed a marginal correlation with log[FSH]. In pre-menopausal women no factor associated with any of the three receptors was found. In post-menopausal women log[ER-alpha] was associated with log[estrone] and log[DHEAS] (P<.003 and <.02, respectively). log[PR] was associated with BMI (P<.002), years since menopause (P<.05), and log[DHEAS] (P<.003). We concluded that ER and PR diminish sharply at post-menopause. At this stage the amount of receptors depends on several factors such as BMI, years since menopause, and androgen precursors.

  7. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young


    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (Prisk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (PDecreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors.

  8. Selected hematologic and biochemical measurements in African HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women and their infants: the HIV Prevention Trials Network 024 protocol

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    Urassa Willy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference values for hematological and biochemical assays in pregnant women and in newborn infants are based primarily on Caucasian populations. Normative data are limited for populations in sub-Saharan Africa, especially comparing women with and without HIV infection, and comparing infants with and without HIV infection or HIV exposure. Methods We determined HIV status and selected hematological and biochemical measurements in women at 20–24 weeks and at 36 weeks gestation, and in infants at birth and 4–6 weeks of age. All were recruited within a randomized clinical trial of antibiotics to prevent chorioamnionitis-associated mother-to-child transmission of HIV (HPTN024. We report nearly complete laboratory data on 2,292 HIV-infected and 367 HIV-uninfected pregnant African women who were representative of the public clinics from which the women were recruited. Nearly all the HIV-infected mothers received nevirapine prophylaxis at the time of labor, as did their infants after birth (always within 72 hours of birth, but typically within just a few hours at the four study sites in Malawi (2 sites, Tanzania, and Zambia. Results HIV-infected pregnant women had lower red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell counts than HIV-uninfected women. Platelet and monocyte counts were higher among HIV-infected women at both time points. At the 4–6-week visit, HIV-infected infants had lower hemoglobin, hematocrit and white blood cell counts than uninfected infants. Platelet counts were lower in HIV-infected infants than HIV-uninfected infants, both at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. At 4–6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher alanine aminotransferase measures than uninfected infants. Conclusion Normative data in pregnant African women and their newborn infants are needed to guide the large-scale HIV care and treatment programs being scaled up throughout the continent. These laboratory measures will help

  9. Sexual dysfunction in climacteric women of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region = Disfunción sexual en mujeres climatéricas afrodescendientes del Caribe Colombiano

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    Monterrosa Castro, Alvaro De Jesus


    Full Text Available Introduction: After the United States and Brazil, Colombia is the third American country with the greatest population of African descent. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD in climacteric women of African descent. Methods: Cross sectional study carried out with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, in healthy women, whose mother and father were of black race, living in municipalities from the Colombian Caribbean region, who volunteered to anonymously participate in the study, and were recruited in their communities. Higher scores correlated with better sexuality. Results: 461 women were studied; 305 (66.2% with sexual activity; 70.8% were premenopausal and 29.2%, postmenopausal. Average scores of the domains were: Sexual desire (4.1 ± 1.1, sexual arousal (4.4 ± 1.0, lubrication (4.9 ± 1.0, orgasm (4.7 ± 1.0, satisfaction (5.3 ± 1.0 and pain (4.3 ± 1.5. Average total score was 27.7 ± 4.7. Prevalence of SD was 38.4%. Smoking (OR: 3.3 [IC95%: 1.0-10.6; p = 0.041] and arterial hypertension (OR: 2.2 [IC95%:1.1-4.4; p = 0.026] increased the risk of SD, while schooling higher than ten years (OR: 0.4 [IC95%: 0.2-0.8; p = 0.003] decreased it. Prevalence of SD increased with the change in the menopausal status (p <0,001. All domains deteriorated, except pain, with the transition to the postmenopausal status (p <0.001. Conclusion: In females of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region, one third of the premenopausal and half of the postmenopausal have SD.

  10. Clinical and virologic response to episodic acyclovir for genital ulcers among HIV-1 seronegative, herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive African women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (United States)

    Baeten, Jared M; Reid, Stewart E; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hughes, James P; Wang, Richard S; Wilcox, Ellen; Limbada, Mohammed; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie


    In a randomized trial among African women with recurrent genital herpes, episodic acyclovir therapy resulted in modestly greater likelihood of lesion healing (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, P = 0.098; mean, 5.1 vs. 6.0 days) and cessation of herpes simplex virus shedding (HR = 1.88, P = 0.008; mean, 3.0 vs. 5.0 days) compared with placebo, similar to results of studies in high-income countries ( registration NCT00808405).

  11. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure? (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen


    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.


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    Anil Bindhu


    Full Text Available Context; Women all over the world suffer from a number of symptoms around the age of menopause and when the symptoms are severe that may affect the quality of life of middle aged women. Knowledge regarding the menopausal symptoms suffered by women may help physicians to provide appropriate care. OBJECTIVE: 1. To determine the prevalence of menopausal symptoms among women (menopausal for < 5 years in the age group of 43-55 years in a rural area in Kottayam district in Kerala. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional House to House study was conducted among women in the age group of 43 to 55 years in a rural area in Kottayam district in Kerala state. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A pre-tested structured closed ended questionnaire was used for data collection. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Percentages, Proportions with 95% confidence intervals were used to summarize the symptoms. Chi-Square test, chi square test for trend, Odds ratio is used for evaluating significance. Tests were considered significant when the ‘p’ value was <0.05. RESULTS: Mean age of 320 women participated in the study was48.96. The frequently occurring symptoms were “Feeling of Fatigue/Lack Of Energy” 49.7% (95% CI: 44.1-55.6, “easily get irritated” 41.1% (35.7-46.4. hot flashes 40.9% (95%CI: 35.3-46.6, muscle or joint pain 35.9 %( 30.6-41.3, Night sweats is 32.8 % (95% CI: 27.5-38.1.Among psychological symptoms, 56.9% among postmenopausal women and 42.5% among pre-menopausal women complained of “Feeling of Fatigue/Lack Of Energy”. The most frequent somatic symptoms are muscle or joint pain, 40% among postmenopausal women and 31.9% among pre-menopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of menopausal symptoms is high among women in this rural area in Kottayam, Kerala. About 88.8 % of post-menopausal women and 62.5% pre-menopausal women reported at least one symptom.

  13. The General Comments on HIV adopted by the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights as a tool to advance the sexual and reproductive rights of women in Africa. (United States)

    Durojaye, Ebenezer


    The present article examines the contents and importance of the General Comments adopted by the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights on Article 14 (1) (d) and (e) of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa as a tool for advancing women's rights in the context of HIV. Given that discriminatory practices in all facets of life have continued to limit African women's enjoyment of their sexual and reproductive rights and render them susceptible to HIV infection, it becomes vital that African governments adopt appropriate measures to address this challenge. The provisions of the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa present great opportunities for this to be realized. The radical and progressive provisions of the Protocol will be of no use to women unless policymakers and other stakeholders have a clear understanding of them and are able to implement them effectively. The adoption of the General Comments is a welcome development, and states and civil society groups must maximize it to advance women's rights.

  14. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community. (United States)

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur


    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women.

  15. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway. (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild


    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  16. The influence of spirituality and religiosity on breast cancer screening delay in African American women: application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB). (United States)

    Gullate, Mary


    African American women (AAW) are 25% more likely to present with late stage breast cancer and 20% more likely to die from their disease than Caucasian women. Researchers report that a treatment delay of 3 months is a significant factor in breast cancer mortality. Socioeconomic factors, lack of access and knowledge, spiritual and religious beliefs, fear and fatalism are reported as contributing factors to screening delays. Studies have primarily applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) and modified versions like the Champion HBM to preventive health practices. Neither have significant inclusion of spirituality or religiosity. The TRA/TPB focus on beliefs, intent and attitude as individual determinants of the likelihood of performing a specific behavior; but have not had wide utility in studies related to screening delays among AAW. This paper explores the utility of applying the TRA/TPB as the theoretical framework for determining cultural relevance of spirituality and religiosity to screening delays among AAW.

  17. Streaming weekly soap opera video episodes to smartphones in a randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV risk in young urban African American/black women. (United States)

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J


    Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.

  18. CAG repeat variants in the POLG1 gene encoding mtDNA polymerase-gamma and risk of breast cancer in African-American women. (United States)

    Azrak, Sami; Ayyasamy, Vanniarajan; Zirpoli, Gary; Ambrosone, Christine; Bandera, Elisa V; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Jandorf, Lina; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen S; Liang, Ping; Singh, Keshav


    The DNA polymerase-gamma (POLG) gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of enzyme responsible for directing mitochondrial DNA replication in humans, contains a polyglutamine tract encoded by CAG repeats of varying length. The length of the CAG repeat has been associated with the risk of testicular cancer, and other genomic variants that impact mitochondrial function have been linked to breast cancer risk in African-American (AA) women. We evaluated the potential role of germline POLG-CAG repeat variants in breast cancer risk in a sample of AA women (100 cases and 100 age-matched controls) who participated in the Women's Circle of Health Study, an ongoing multi-institutional, case-control study of breast cancer. Genotyping was done by fragment analysis in a blinded manner. Results from this small study suggest the possibility of an increased risk of breast cancer in women with minor CAG repeat variants of POLG, but no statistically significant differences in CAG repeat length were observed between cases and controls (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 1.74; 95% CI, 0.49-6.21). Our study suggests that POLG-CAG repeat length is a potential risk factor for breast cancer that needs to be explored in larger population-based studies.

  19. CAG repeat variants in the POLG1 gene encoding mtDNA polymerase-gamma and risk of breast cancer in African-American women.

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    Sami Azrak

    Full Text Available The DNA polymerase-gamma (POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of enzyme responsible for directing mitochondrial DNA replication in humans, contains a polyglutamine tract encoded by CAG repeats of varying length. The length of the CAG repeat has been associated with the risk of testicular cancer, and other genomic variants that impact mitochondrial function have been linked to breast cancer risk in African-American (AA women. We evaluated the potential role of germline POLG-CAG repeat variants in breast cancer risk in a sample of AA women (100 cases and 100 age-matched controls who participated in the Women's Circle of Health Study, an ongoing multi-institutional, case-control study of breast cancer. Genotyping was done by fragment analysis in a blinded manner. Results from this small study suggest the possibility of an increased risk of breast cancer in women with minor CAG repeat variants of POLG, but no statistically significant differences in CAG repeat length were observed between cases and controls (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 1.74; 95% CI, 0.49-6.21. Our study suggests that POLG-CAG repeat length is a potential risk factor for breast cancer that needs to be explored in larger population-based studies.

  20. "My hair or my health:" Overcoming barriers to physical activity in African American women with a focus on hairstyle-related factors. (United States)

    Huebschmann, Amy G; Campbell, Lucille Johnson; Brown, Candace S; Dunn, Andrea L


    Physical activity disparities among African American (AA) women may be related to sociocultural barriers, including difficulties with restyling hair after exercise. We sought to identify physical activity barriers and facilitators in AA women with a focus on sociocultural factors related to hairstyle maintenance. Participants (n = 51) were AA women aged 19-73 years who completed valid surveys and participated in structured focus groups, stratified by age and physical activity levels, from November 2012 to February 2013. The Constant Comparison method was used to develop qualitative themes for barriers and facilitators. The most frequently reported general physical activity barrier among exercisers was "lack of money" (27%) and among non-exercisers was "lack of self-discipline" (57%). A hairstyle-related barrier of "sweating out my hairstyle" was reported by 7% of exercisers and 29% of non-exercisers. This hairstyle-related barrier included the need for extra time and money to restyle hair due to perspiration. Hairstyle-related facilitators included: prioritizing health over hairstyle and high self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration. Participants were interested in resources to simplify hairstyle maintenance. AA women whose hairstyle is affected by perspiration may avoid physical activity due to time and financial burdens. Increasing self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration may help to overcome this barrier.

  1. Healthy Eating and Harambee: curriculum development for a culturally-centered bio-medically oriented nutrition education program to reach African American women of childbearing age. (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Sparks, Arlene V; Webster, J DeWitt; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lumeng, Julie


    The purpose was to develop, implement and evaluate a peer-led nutrition curriculum Healthy Eating and Harambee that addresses established objectives of maternal and infant health and to shift the stage for African American women of childbearing age in Genesee County toward healthier dietary patterns using a socio-cultural and biomedical orientation. The PEN-3 model, which frames culture in the context of health promotion interventions, was integrated with the Transtheoretical Model to guide this 13-week pre-test/post-test curriculum. Materials developed included soul food plate visuals, a micronutrient availability worksheet, a fruit stand, and gardening kits. Learning activities included affirmations, stories, case-scenarios, point-of-purchase product recognition, church health teams, and community health fairs. We investigated health-promoting dietary behaviors (consumption of more fruits and vegetables (F&V), serving more F&V to their families, and moderating dietary sodium and fat intakes), and biomedical behaviors (self-monitoring blood pressure and exercising) across five stages of change. Session attendance and program satisfaction were assessed. N = 102 women participated (mean age = 27.5 years). A majority (77%) reported adopting at least one healthy eating behavior (moderating sodium, serving more F&V to their families), 23% adopted at least two such behaviors (reading food labels for sodium; using culinary herbs/spices; serving more F&V to their families), and 45% adopted both dietary (moderating sodium; eating more fruits) and biomedical behaviors. Participants and facilitators favorably evaluated the curriculum and suggested improvements. A multi-conceptual approach coupled with cultural and biomedical tailoring has potential to promote young African American women's movement to more advanced stages of change and improve self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake, dietary sodium moderation, and self-monitoring blood pressure and physical activity.

  2. A KIR B centromeric region present in Africans but not Europeans protects pregnant women from pre-eclampsia. (United States)

    Nakimuli, Annettee; Chazara, Olympe; Hiby, Susan E; Farrell, Lydia; Tukwasibwe, Stephen; Jayaraman, Jyothi; Traherne, James A; Trowsdale, John; Colucci, Francesco; Lougee, Emma; Vaughan, Robert W; Elliott, Alison M; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mirembe, Florence; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Parham, Peter; Norman, Paul J; Moffett, Ashley


    In sub-Saharan Africans, maternal mortality is unacceptably high, with >400 deaths per 100,000 births compared with pre-eclampsia, a syndrome arising from defective placentation. Controlling placentation are maternal natural killer (NK) cells that use killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) to recognize the fetal HLA-C molecules on invading trophoblast. We analyzed genetic polymorphisms of maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C in 484 normal and 254 pre-eclamptic pregnancies at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. The combination of maternal KIR AA genotypes and fetal HLA-C alleles encoding the C2 epitope associates with pre-eclampsia [P = 0.0318, odds ratio (OR) = 1.49]. The KIR genes associated with protection are located in centromeric KIR B regions that are unique to sub-Saharan African populations and contain the KIR2DS5 and KIR2DL1 genes (P = 0.0095, OR = 0.59). By contrast, telomeric KIR B genes protect Europeans against pre-eclampsia. Thus, different KIR B regions protect sub-Saharan Africans and Europeans from pre-eclampsia, whereas in both populations, the KIR AA genotype is a risk factor for the syndrome. These results emphasize the importance of undertaking genetic studies of pregnancy disorders in African populations with the potential to provide biological insights not available from studies restricted to European populations.

  3. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women. (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E


    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Preliminary Efficacy of Group Medical Nutrition Therapy and Motivational Interviewing among Obese African American Women with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Miller, Stephania T.; Oates, Veronica J.; Brooks, Malinda A.; Shintani, Ayumi; Jenkins, Darlene M.


    Objective. To assess the efficacy and acceptability of a group medical nutritional therapy (MNT) intervention, using motivational interviewing (MI). Research Design & Method. African American (AA) women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in five, certified diabetes educator/dietitian-facilitated intervention sessions targeting carbohydrate, fat, and fruit/vegetable intake and management. Motivation-based activities centered on exploration of dietary ambivalence and the relationships between diet and personal strengths. Repeated pre- and post-intervention, psychosocial, dietary self-care, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed using generalized least squares regression. An acceptability assessment was administered after intervention. Results. Participants (n = 24) were mostly of middle age (mean age 50.8 ± 6.3) with an average BMI of 39 ± 6.5. Compared to a gradual pre-intervention loss of HbA1c control and confidence in choosing restaurant foods, a significant post-intervention improvement in HbA1c (P = 0.03) and a near significant (P = 0.06) increase in confidence in choosing restaurant foods were observed with both returning to pre-intervention levels. 100% reported that they would recommend the study to other AA women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. The results support the potential efficacy of a group MNT/MI intervention in improving glycemic control and dietary self-care-related confidence in overweight/obese AA women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25243082

  5. Preliminary Efficacy of Group Medical Nutrition Therapy and Motivational Interviewing among Obese African American Women with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

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    Stephania T. Miller


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the efficacy and acceptability of a group medical nutritional therapy (MNT intervention, using motivational interviewing (MI. Research Design & Method. African American (AA women with type 2 diabetes (T2D participated in five, certified diabetes educator/dietitian-facilitated intervention sessions targeting carbohydrate, fat, and fruit/vegetable intake and management. Motivation-based activities centered on exploration of dietary ambivalence and the relationships between diet and personal strengths. Repeated pre- and post-intervention, psychosocial, dietary self-care, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed using generalized least squares regression. An acceptability assessment was administered after intervention. Results. Participants (n = 24 were mostly of middle age (mean age 50.8 ± 6.3 with an average BMI of 39 ± 6.5. Compared to a gradual pre-intervention loss of HbA1c control and confidence in choosing restaurant foods, a significant post-intervention improvement in HbA1c (P = 0.03 and a near significant (P = 0.06 increase in confidence in choosing restaurant foods were observed with both returning to pre-intervention levels. 100% reported that they would recommend the study to other AA women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. The results support the potential efficacy of a group MNT/MI intervention in improving glycemic control and dietary self-care-related confidence in overweight/obese AA women with type 2 diabetes.

  6. A comparative study of circulating plasma lipid components and superoxide dismutase activity in pre and postmenopausal women

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    Priyanka Chaudhari


    Results: Mean serum SOD level in premenopausal women was 4.80+/-1.73 U/ml and in postmenopausal was 1.35+/-0.58 U/ml. This variation was found to be extremely significant (p <0.0001. Changes in lipid components in pre and postmenopausal women showed that total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal participants. These variations were also significant (p = 0.0003. Levels of HDL-C were lower in postmenopausal women than pre-menopausal group with a mean+/-SD of 51.5+/-12.20 mg/dl and 54.05+/-14.03mg/dl respectively. Conclusions: Findings of this study corroborate the hypothesis that gradual loss of ovarian function is associated with a decrease in antioxidant status. Menopause also leads to changes in lipid components, which can predispose women to cardiovascular diseases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 3801-3805

  7. The association of pre-eclampsia with the Duffy negative phenotype in women of West African descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; van der Dijs, FPL; Muskiet, FAJ; Duits, AJ


    Objective To investigate whether pre-eclampsia in Curacao is associated with the Duffy negative phenotype. Design Retrospective study. Setting Population Methods Results Women with a history of pre-eclampsia had a higher Duffy negative phenotype frequency compared with women with a history of uncomp

  8. The Use of Self-Pleasure: Masturbation and Body Image among African American and European American Women (United States)

    Shulman, Julie L.; Horne, Sharon G.


    The current investigation examined the relationship between masturbation and body image among 96 women seeking services at a local family planning clinic in a mid-southern U.S. city. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed body image and masturbatory practices. Ethnic differences were found with European American women reporting…

  9. Equity Development Programmes: Does Mentoring Make a Difference in Individual and Social Transformation for South African WonderWomen? (United States)

    Geber, Hilary


    The equity and transformation challenge for women and black academics at universities in Post-Apartheid South Africa is enormous. Despite a marked increase in equity development programmes since the 1996 Employment Equity legislation, fewer women than expected have advanced through the academic ranks. An indigenous mentoring model for…

  10. The process associated with motivation of a home-based Wii Fit exercise program among sedentary African American women with systemic lupus erythematosus (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K.; Breland, Hazel L.; Vogtle, Laura K.; Holthaus, Katy; Kamen, Diane L.; Sword, David


    Objective To explore the process associated with the motivation for playing Wii Fit among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Individual in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 sedentary African American women with SLE to explore their experiences and reflect on their motivation for playing Wii Fit after completing a 10-week home-based Wii Fit exercise program. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify categories related to participants’ motivation. Three authors independently sorted, organized and coded transcript text into categories, then combined the categories into themes and subthemes. Results In addition to the two themes (Ethical principal of keeping a commitment, and Don’t want to let anyone down) generic to home-based exercise trials, we identified five themes (Enjoyment, Health Benefits, Sense of Accomplishment, Convenience, and Personalized) that revealed why the participants were motivated to play the Wii Fit. Enjoyment had three subthemes: Interactive, Challenging, and Competitive with an embedded social element. However, several participants commented they were not able to do many activities, master certain games, or figure out how to play some; as a result, they were bored with the limited selection of activities that they could do. Conclusions The motivational elements of the Wii Fit may contribute to improved exercise motivation and adherence in select sedentary African American women with SLE. Results provide a better understanding on the important elements to incorporate in the development of sustainable home-based exercise programs with interactive health video games for this population. PMID:23260612

  11. A Public Health Priority: Disparities in Gynecologic Cancer Research for African-Born Women in the United States (United States)

    Pinder, Leeya F.; Nelson, Brett D.; Eckardt, Melody; Goodman, Annekathryn


    African-born immigrants comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the U.S., nearly doubling its population size in recent years. However, it is also one of the most underrepresented groups in health-care research, especially research focused on gynecologic and breast malignancies. While the opportunity exists for access to an advanced health-care system, as immigrants migrate to the U.S., they encounter the same health-care inequalities that are faced by the native-born population based on ethnicity and social class, potentiated by limitations of health literacy and lack of familiarity with U.S. health systems. Given the continued influx of African-born immigrants in the U.S., we sought to understand the representation of this population in cervical and breast cancer research, recognizing the population’s high risk for these diseases at baseline while residing in their native countries. We determined that there is limited research in these diseases that disproportionately affect them; yet, there are identifiable and potentially modifiable factors that contribute to this paucity of evidence. This clinical commentary seeks to underscore the clear lack of research available involving African-born immigrants with respect to gynecologic and breast malignancies in the existing literature, demonstrate the need for more robust research in this population, and provide fundamental insights into barriers and solutions critical to the continued health of this growing population. PMID:27499654

  12. Relationship factors and trajectories of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

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    Allison K Groves

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed.

  13. Correlation of estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in Chinese women with chronic periodontitis

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    ZHANG Xuan; DAI Juan; LONG Yin; WU Hao; LI Xiao-juan; DING Yin


    Background Periodontitis and osteoporosis aro one of the frequently encountered diseases in post-menopausal women. Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulated bone metabolism. To investigate the possible effect of ER-alpha (α) gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density (BMD) in pre- and post-menopausal Chinese women with chronic periodontitis (CP), we provided sufficient quantitative information concerning the correlation between ER gene polymorphisms and BMD in periodontitis.Methods Sixty-five post-menopausal and eighty pro-menopausal CP women, and sixty post-menopausal healthy individuals were recruited in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral mucosa swab sample of each subject by the Chelex-100 method. Determination of the ER-α polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique with Xbal and Pvull enzyme. The index for periodontal examination includes clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD). BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).Results There were no significant differences between the ER-(α genotypes of Pvull and Xbal and BMD in post-menopausal and pro-menopausal CP patients, respectively (P >0.05). However, there was association between preand post-menopausal CP patients at BMD of lumbar spine L2-L4 (P=0.027) and Ward's BMD (P=0.004). Furthermore, the post-menopausal CP women who carried Pvull ∏ genotype presented significantly lower Ward's BMD than the pre-menopausal CP women (P=0.007), meanwhile, the post-menopausal CP women who carried Xbal AA genotype presented significantly lower spine L2-L4 BMD than the pre-menopausal CP women (P=0.003).Conclusions ER-(α gene polymorphisms may be a susceptible indicator for BMD variation of lumbar spine L2-L4 and Ward in Chinese pre- and post-menopausal women patients with CP.

  14. Systolic blood pressure response after high-intensity interval exercise is independently related to decreased small arterial elasticity in normotensive African American women. (United States)

    Carter, Stephen J; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Fisher, Gordon; Plaisance, Eric P; Gower, Barbara A; Glasser, Stephen P; Hunter, Gary R


    Aerobic exercise transiently lowers blood pressure. However, limited research has concurrently evaluated blood pressure and small arterial elasticity (SAE), an index of endothelial function, among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women the morning after (i.e., ≈22 h later) acute bouts of moderate-intensity continuous (MIC) and high-intensity interval (HII) exercise matched for total work. Because of greater gradients of shear stress, it was hypothesized that HII exercise would elicit a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to MIC exercise. After baseline, 22 AA and EA women initiated aerobic exercise training 3 times/week. Beginning at week 8, three follow-up assessments were conducted over the next 8 weeks at random to measure resting blood pressure and SAE. In total all participants completed 16 weeks of training. Follow-up evaluations were made: (i) in the trained state (TS; 8-16 weeks of aerobic training); (ii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of MIC exercise; and (iii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of HII exercise. Among AAs, the acute bout of HII exercise incited a significant increase in SBP (mm Hg) (TS, 121 ± 14 versus HII, 128 ± 14; p = 0.01) whereas responses (TS, 116 ± 12 versus HII, 113 ± 9; p = 0.34) did not differ in EAs. After adjusting for race, changes in SAE were associated (partial r = -0.533; p = 0.01) with changes in SBP following HII exercise. These data demonstrate an acute, unaccustomed bout of HII exercise produces physiological perturbations resulting in a significant increase in SBP that are independently associated with decreased SAE among AA women, but not EA women.

  15. Women's education level, antenatal visits and the quality of skilled antenatal care: a study of three African countries. (United States)

    Babalola, Stella


    Many pregnant women in Africa who access professional antenatal care do not receive all the WHO-recommended components of care. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Kenya, Malawi and Nigeria, this study assesses the relationship of education level with the quality of antenatal care received and highlights how the number of antenatal visits mediates this relationship. The results show that a large proportion of the effect of education level on quality of care is direct, while only a small portion is mediated through the number of antenatal visits. Efforts to improve pregnancy outcomes for under-privileged women should focus on removing structural barriers to access, strengthening the technical and interpersonal skills of providers, and addressing providers' biases and discriminatory practices towards these women. Such efforts should also seek to empower underprivileged women to insist on quality antenatal care by explaining what to expect during an antenatal visit.

  16. The use of Imago Dei as a pastoral healing vision against women killings in the South African context

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    Elijah M. Baloyi


    Full Text Available The exploitation and killings of women in South Africa are a concern not only for the government, but also for pastoral caregivers as well. Although the government has introduced institutions like the Commission for Gender Equality with responsibilities to ensure that there is equality between genders, it seems that the supposed patriarchal masculine superiority continues to demonstrate its dominance through the abuse, as well as the killings of women. Assigning women to the status of secondary citizens who are tortured and exposed to gender-based violence is not only unconstitutional, but also biblically wrong, as we can see from the biblical message of the creation of human beings. The goal of this article is to use the premise of �the image of God� to argue that women also are created in the image of God and hence they are worthy to be treated as such, from sexual harassment, sexual abuse and violence to murder. This is my personal observation as women of this country are being killed by their husbands and boyfriends. This article will use case studies to argue that women (just like men deserve, as images of God, to live freely without fear of being killed by their husbands and boyfriends for whatever wrongdoing.

  17. Opinion of South African pre- and post-menopausal women on the potential menopause-related health benefits of soy and soy products

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    Annette M van Aardt


    Full Text Available The increased use of alternative treatment for menopausal symptoms is mainly due to women’s changing opinions of conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT. The objective of this study was to assess the opinion of pre and post-menopausal South African women regarding the potential menopause-related health benefits of soy. The sample used for the study was a sub-dataset of 825 respondents, which included only pre- and post-menopausal women that had heard of soy before, selected from a representative sample of the adult South African metropolitan and rural populations. A structured questionnaire was used. Neither age nor racial groups differed practically significantly in opinion regarding any of the various statements. The study also shows that a practically significant lower proportion of women in the sub-population across both age and race groups had a positive opinion on the health benefits of soy as an alternative to HRT and reliever of menopausal symptoms than those who acknowledged its benefit for preventing cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Practically significantly more women who used soy than women who never used soy agreed that soy keeps bones strong. In addition, more women who were of opinion that soy has few or no health benefits disagreed that soy could be used as an alternative to HRT compared to women who held a positive opinion. Opsomming Die toenemende gebruik van alternatiewe behandelings vir menopousale simptome kan aan vroue se veranderende opinies oor konvensionele hormoonvervangingsterapie (HVT toegeskryf word. Die doel van hierdie studie was om pre- en post- menopousale Suid-Afrikaanse vroue se opinie aangaande die potensiële menopouseverwante gesondheids-voordele van soja te bepaal. Die steekproef vir die studie het uit ‘n subdatastel bestaan van 825 vroue in hul pre- en post-menopousale stadium wat al voorheen van soja gehoor het, en is vanuit ‘n verteenwoordigende steekproef van die volwasse Suid

  18. Orphan/vulnerable child caregiving moderates the association between women's autonomy and their BMI in three African countries. (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin


    Enhancement of women's autonomy is a key factor for improving women's health and nutrition. With nearly 12 million orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Africa due to HIV/AIDS, the study of OVC primary caregivers' nutrition is fundamental. We investigated the association between married women's autonomy and their nutritional status; explored whether this relationship was modified by OVC primary caregiving; and analyzed whether decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional study used the data from Demographic Health Surveys collected during 2006-2007 from 20- to 49-year-old women in Namibia (n = 2633), Swaziland (n = 1395), and Zambia (n = 2920). Analyses included logistic regression, Sobel, and Goodman tests. Our results indicated that women's educational attainment increased the odds for being overweight (Swaziland and Zambia) and decreased the odds for being underweight (Namibia). In Zambia, having at least primary education increased the odds for being overweight only among child primary caregivers regardless of the OVC status of the child, and having autonomy for buying everyday household items increased the odds for being overweight only among OVC primary caregivers. Decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and OVC primary caregivers' BMI in Zambia (Z = 2.13, p value = 0.03). We concluded that depending on each country's contextual characteristics, having education can decrease the odds for being an underweight woman or increase the odds for being an overweight woman. Further studies should explore why in Namibia education has an effect on women's overweight status only among women who are caring for a child.

  19. Association between HIV replication and serum leptin levels: an observational study of a cohort of HIV-1-infected South African women

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    Azzoni Livio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced HIV infection can result in lipoatrophy and wasting, even in the absence of ongoing opportunistic infections, suggesting that HIV may directly affect adipose tissue amount and distribution. Methods We assessed the relationship of fat (measured using anthropometry, DEXA, MRI scans or markers related to glucose and lipid metabolism with viral load in a cross-sectional sample of 83 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected South African women. A multivariable linear model was fitted to log10VL to assess the combined effect of these variables. Results In addition to higher T cell activation, women with viral load greater than the population median had lower waist circumference, body mass index and subcutaneous abdominal fat, as well as lower serum leptin. We demonstrate that leptin serum levels are inversely associated with viral replication, independent of the amount of adipose tissue. This association is maintained after adjusting for multiple variables associated with disease progression (i.e., cellular activation and innate immunity effector levels. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that serum leptin levels are inversely associated with viral replication, independent of disease progression: we postulate that leptin may affect viral replication.

  20. Home Availability and the Impact of Weekly Stressful Events Are Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake among African American and Hispanic/Latina Women

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    Tracey A. Ledoux


    Full Text Available Background. Mediating and moderating variables may interfere with the association between neighborhood availability of grocery stores (NAG and supermarkets (NAS and fruit and vegetable (FV intake. Objective. The purpose of this study was to test mediation of home availability of FV (HAFV and moderation of impact of weekly stressful events (IWSE on the association between NAG and NAS with FV consumption among African American (AA and Hispanic/Latina (HL women. Methods. Three hundred nine AA and HL, 25–60 year old women in the Health Is Power (HIP randomized controlled trial completed validated measures of HAFV, IWSE, and FV intake at baseline. Trained field assessors coded NAG and NAS. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. Results. NAG and NAS were not associated with FV intake or HAFV, so HAFV was not a mediator. HAFV (std. Beta = .29, P<0.001 and IWSE (std. Beta = .17; P<0.05 were related to FV intake (R2  =0.17; P<0.001, but IWSE was not a moderator. Conclusion. Increasing HAFV and decreasing the IWSE should increase FV consumption. The extent to which the neighborhood environment is related to the home food environment and diet, and the mechanisms for the association between IWSE and diet should be examined in future research.

  1. Home Availability and the Impact of Weekly Stressful Events Are Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake among African American and Hispanic/Latina Women. (United States)

    Ledoux, Tracey A; Mama, Scherezade K; O'Connor, Daniel P; Adamus, Heather; Fraser, Margaret L; Lee, Rebecca E


    Background. Mediating and moderating variables may interfere with the association between neighborhood availability of grocery stores (NAG) and supermarkets (NAS) and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Objective. The purpose of this study was to test mediation of home availability of FV (HAFV) and moderation of impact of weekly stressful events (IWSE) on the association between NAG and NAS with FV consumption among African American (AA) and Hispanic/Latina (HL) women. Methods. Three hundred nine AA and HL, 25-60 year old women in the Health Is Power (HIP) randomized controlled trial completed validated measures of HAFV, IWSE, and FV intake at baseline. Trained field assessors coded NAG and NAS. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. Results. NAG and NAS were not associated with FV intake or HAFV, so HAFV was not a mediator. HAFV (std. Beta = .29, P moderator. Conclusion. Increasing HAFV and decreasing the IWSE should increase FV consumption. The extent to which the neighborhood environment is related to the home food environment and diet, and the mechanisms for the association between IWSE and diet should be examined in future research.

  2. Innovative and Community-Guided Evaluation and Dissemination of a Prostate Cancer Education Program for African-American Men and Women. (United States)

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Dubose-Morris, Ragan


    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities, (2) refine materials based on findings from aim 1, (3) share updated materials with participants from aim 1 for additional improvements, and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included the following: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work.

  3. Expression of estrogen receptors in the pelvic floor of pre- and post-menopausal women presenting pelvic organ prolapse

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    Marie Laure Kottler


    Full Text Available The precise role of estrogen in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse (POP is still unclear, while the results concerning the effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on pelvic organ prolapse are contradictory. Our aim was to test whether alteration in the expression of estrogen receptors in the pelvic floor of preand post-menopausal women is related to genital prolapse status. The mRNA levels of ERα and ERβ in 60 biopsy specimens were measured. Significantly higher expression of ERα and higher ERα/ERβ ratio were demonstrated in post-menopausal women compared to pre-menopausal women. Higher expression of ERα and higher ERα/ERβ ratio were detected in all studied groups with POP, thus it did not reach significance in the post-menopausal group. Pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women presenting pelvic organ prolapse had no difference in the ERα expression. Our preliminary study may indicate that pelvic organ prolapse is associated with higher expression of ERα/ERβ in the pelvic floor of both pre- and post-menopausal women; thus not reaching statistical significance in the post-menopausal women was probably due to the group’s size. We believe that the inevitable changes in the estrogen receptor expression over women’s different lifetimes may affect the risk of genital prolapse progression, and might contribute to the further search for appropriate selective estrogen receptor modulators as a treatment for women with pelvic organ prolapse. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 521–527

  4. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 from a pastoral liberative perspective on South African women

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    Elijah M. Baloyi


    Full Text Available The inception of democracy in South Africa faced the oppression of women as one of the challenges. The duty to improve women’s position in society is not the responsibility of a few people alone, but of everyone. According to the researcher, the church has not done enough pastorally in this regard. In denouncing the oppression of women, the Christian community should also support the victims of abuse. This article intends to unmask collusion with patriarchal societies including the Jewish society in Jesus’ time by mapping out the forms of harassment and embarrassment inflicted upon women. The study shows how pastoral care can help victims of oppression. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 will inform the, how can the verses above be used in counselling the victims of gender oppression. This study will formulate pastoral guidelines from Jesus’ response to the Pharisees, the Scribes and the woman.

  5. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona


    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  6. A Structural Equation Model of Factors Contributing to Quality of Life Among African and Caribbean Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Ahmed, Uzma; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R


    African and Caribbean Black (ACB) women in Canada are disproportionately impacted by new HIV infections. ACB women's HIV vulnerability is shaped by contexts of stigma and discrimination. HIV-related stigma compromises quality of life (QOL) among women living with HIV (WLWH), yet scant research has examined concomitant effects of racial discrimination and HIV-related stigma on QOL. We used data from a cross-sectional survey with ACB WLWH in Ontario (n = 173) to test a conceptual model of pathways between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, depression, social support, and QOL. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to test the model. In independent models, HIV-related stigma was associated with lower QOL, and depression partially mediated the association between HIV-related stigma and QOL. In the simultaneous model, HIV-related stigma had significant direct effects on depression, social support, and an indirect effect on QOL. When social support was added as a mediator, the direct effect between HIV-related stigma and QOL was no longer significant, suggesting mediation. Racial discrimination had significant direct effects on HIV-related stigma, depression, and social support and an indirect effect on QOL. QOL was associated with higher social support and lower depression scores. The model fit the data well: χ(2) = 203.266, degrees of freedom (DF): 112, p discrimination was associated with increased HIV-related stigma, and HIV-related stigma and racial discrimination compromised QOL. Findings suggest the need for multilevel interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination, address depression, and build social support to improve QOL among ACB WLWH.

  7. Psychological and Neuropsychological Predictors of Non-Compliance to Mammography Screening Among High-Risk African American Women (United States)


    altering abstract reasoning may be the level of phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation which the individual experiences (marginal significance were...proposed to evaluate the relationship among psychological distress ( anxiety and intrusive thoughts about breast cancer), executive cognitive function...women with a family history of breast cancer experience high levels of anxiety and intrusive thoughts, and that elevated levels of psychological

  8. The relational dynamics of hegemonic masculinity among South African men and women in the context of HIV. (United States)

    Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie


    In South Africa, the frequent positioning of men's sexual behaviours as a prime driver of the HIV epidemic has generated much interest in men's sexuality. However, the relational nature of dominant male norms that exacerbate the risk of HIV transmission is inadequately understood. This study used sexual biographies to explore how men and women negotiate gendered norms and how this affects their sexual and reproductive health (SRH). A total of 50 sexual-history interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted with men, and 25 sexual-history interviews with women, with participants sampled from three age categories (ages 18-24, 25-55 and 55+years), a range of cultural and racial backgrounds and urban and rural sites across five provinces in South Africa. The narratives illustrate that men and women's SRH is largely dependent on the type and quality of their relationships. Men's sexuality was regularly depicted as being detached from intimacy and uncontrollable, which was premised as being opposite from and/or superior to women's sexuality and could justify men's high-risk sexual behaviours. Yet many participants also supported gender equitable relationships and endorsed accountable and healthy SRH behaviours. The narratives reveal that HIV-risky dominant male norms should be addressed relationally for the sake of better SRH outcomes.

  9. Does Daddy Know Best? Exploring the Relationship between Paternal Sexual Communication and Safe Sex Practices among African-American Women (United States)

    Brown, Danice L.; Rosnick, Christopher B.; Webb-Bradley, Traice; Kirner, Jonathan


    Parental sexual risk communication may influence women's sexual decision-making and safe sexual behaviours. While many studies have focused specifically on the influence of communication from mothers, some authors have argued for the importance of examining father-daughter sexual risk communication as well. However, few studies have empirically…

  10. Rare variant associations with waist-to-hip ratio in European-American and African-American women from the NHLBI-Exome Sequencing Project. (United States)

    Kan, Mengyuan; Auer, Paul L; Wang, Gao T; Bucasas, Kristine L; Hooker, Stanley; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Li, Biao; Ellis, Jaclyn; Adrienne Cupples, L; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S; Gross, Myron D; Smith, Joshua D; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David; Wilson, James G; Shendure, Jay; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Zhong, Hua; Lin, Danyu; Hsu, Li; Franceschini, Nora; Carlson, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo; Gabriel, Stacey; Bamshad, Michael J; Altshuler, David; Nickerson, Deborah A; North, Kari E; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alexander P; Leal, Suzanne M


    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response.

  11. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone with the metabolic syndrome in black South African women. (United States)

    Sotunde, Olusola Funmilayo; Kruger, Herculina Salome; Wright, Hattie H; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Mels, Carina M C; Ravyse, Chrisna; Pieters, Marlien


    The relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and metabolic traits appear to differ among ethnicities and may be influenced by obesity. The aim of the study was to examine the association of serum 25(OH)D or PTH with metabolic syndrome (MetS) while controlling for adiposity in black women. Using a cross-sectional study design, 209 urban black women aged ≥ 43 years from the North West Province, South Africa, were included. Multiple regression models were used to explore the relationship between 25(OH)D or PTH and body composition. To explore the association between 25(OH)D or PTH and MetS, a separate variable was created including at least 3 of the MetS criteria, but excluding elevated waist circumference as a diagnostic criterion in a logistic regression model. The majority of the women (69.9%) were overweight or obese and 65.5% of the women had excessive adiposity using the age-specific cut-off points for body fat percentage. All body composition variables were positively associated with PTH, whereas body mass index and waist circumference, but not body fat percentage, had negative associations with 25(OH)D also after adjusting for confounders. Before and after adjusting for age, body fat, habitual physical activity, tobacco use, season of data collection, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, neither 25(OH)D nor PTH showed significant associations with MetS. Although PTH was positively associated and 25(OH)D was negatively associated with adiposity in black women, there was no association between either 25(OH)D or PTH and MetS in this study population, nor did adiposity influence these relationships.

  12. Long-term results of single-procedure catheter ablation for atrial fibrillationin pre-and post-menopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao LIN; Chang-Sheng MA; Jian-Zeng DONG; Xing DU; Rong BAI; Ying-Wei CHEN; Rong-Hui YU; De-Yong LONG; Ri-Bo TANG; Cai-Hua SANG; Song-Nan LI


    Objectives To address whether menopause affects outcome of catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) by comparing the safety and long-term outcome of a single-procedure in pre-and post-menopausal women. Methods A total of 743 female patients who underwent a single CA procedure of drug-refractory AF were retrospectively analyzed. The differences in clinical presentation and outcomes of CA for AF between the pre-menopausal women (PreM group, 94 patients, 12.7%) and the post-menopausal women (PostM group, 649 patients, 87.3%) were assessed. Results The patients in the PreM group were younger (P<0.001) and less likely to have hypertension (P<0.001) and diabetes (P=0.005) than those in the PostM group. The two groups were similar with regards to the proportion of concomitant mitral valve regurgitation coronary artery disease, left atrium dimensions, and left ventricular ejection fraction. The overall rate of complica-tions related to AF ablation was similar in both groups (P=0.385). After 43 (16-108) months of follow-up, the success rate of ablation was 54.3%in the PreM group and 54.2%in the PostM group (P=0.842). The overall freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence was simi-lar in both groups. Menopause was not found to be an independent predictive factor of the recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia. Conclusions The long-term outcomes of single-procedure CA for AF are similar in pre-and post-menopausal women. Results indicated that CA of AF appears to be as safe and effective in pre-menopausal women as in post-menopausal women.

  13. Genetic variants in microRNA and microRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer risk among women of African ancestry. (United States)

    Qian, Frank; Feng, Ye; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Nathanson, Katherine L; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Ambs, Stefan; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Haiman, Christopher A; Huo, Dezheng


    MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate breast biology by binding to specific RNA sequences, leading to RNA degradation and inhibition of translation of their target genes. While germline genetic variations may disrupt some of these interactions between miRNAs and their targets, studies assessing the relationship between genetic variations in the miRNA network and breast cancer risk are still limited, particularly among women of African ancestry. We systematically put together a list of 822 and 10,468 genetic variants among primary miRNA sequences and 38 genes in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, respectively; and examined their association with breast cancer risk in the ROOT consortium which includes women of African ancestry. Findings were replicated in an independent consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). For overall breast cancer risk, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA biogenesis genes DROSHA rs78393591 (OR = 0.69, 95 % CI: 0.55-0.88, P = 0.003), ESR1 rs523736 (OR = 0.88, 95 % CI: 0.82-0.95, P = 3.99 × 10(-4)), and ZCCHC11 rs114101502 (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI: 1.11-1.59, P = 0.002), and one SNP in primary miRNA sequence (rs116159732 in miR-6826, OR = 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.63-0.89, P = 0.001) were found to have significant associations in both discovery and validation phases. In a subgroup analysis, two SNPs were associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, and three SNPs were associated with risk of ER-positive breast cancer. Several variants in miRNA and miRNA biogenesis pathway genes were associated with breast cancer risk. Risk associations varied by ER status, suggesting potential new mechanisms in etiology.

  14. Feminism and Black Women's Studies. (United States)

    Hooks, Bell


    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  15. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance. (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  16. �Moving in Circles� � a Sankofa�Kairos theology of inclusivity and accountability rooted in Trinitarian theology as a resource for restoring the liberating legacy of The Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians

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    Nontando M. Hadebe


    Full Text Available Mercy Amba Oduyoye�s untitled poem about a circle sets the context for the renewal of the legacy of The Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians (The Circle at a time when The Circle seems to be moving in circles of uncertainty lacking a clear unified focus. Oduyoye describes a circle as eternal, expansive, evolving and sustained by self-critique, accountability, inclusiveness and connectedness to the reality around it. This continuous movement is expressed in the concept of Sankofa�Kairos which is rooted in the past and radically responsive to the present. This �backward�forward� theological method is critical for The Circle to remain true to its mission as a liberating theological and cultural voice for women and other oppressed groups. In contemporary contexts where oppression is pervasive and includes all groups, an inclusive gender paradigm as well as accountability to oppressed groups is critical for the renewal of The Circle. Trinitarian theology provides a model for liberating relationships characterised by equality, difference, mutuality, communion and oneness. Thus, it will be argued that Trinitarian theology provides theological resources for Sankofa�Kairos theologies for The Circle that will be inclusive and accountable to all oppressed groups. This will contribute to the restoration of The Circle as a critical contributor to liberation theologies in Africa.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article proposes Sankofa�Kairos methodology based on the dual legacies of The Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians and The Kairos Document as the starting point for developing accountable and inclusive liberation theologies rooted in Social Models of the Trinity that could respond to the multiple challenges emerging from the African context.Keywords: Sankofa; Kairos; gender; African-women theologies; accountability;inclusivity; masculinities

  17. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women. (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia


    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed.

  18. Rationale, design, and baseline findings from HIPP: A randomized controlled trial testing a Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print intervention for African American women in the Deep South (United States)

    Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Joseph, Rodney; Bray, Molly S.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Isaac, Shiney; Desmond, Renee; Meneses, Karen; Marcus, Bess; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy


    African American women report high rates of physical inactivity and related health disparities. In our previous formative research, we conducted a series of qualitative assessments to examine physical activity barriers and intervention preferences among African American women in the Deep South. These data were used to inform a 12-month Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print (HIPP) intervention, which is currently being evaluated against a wellness contact control condition among 84 post-menopausal African American women residing in the metropolitan area of Birmingham, Alabama. This paper reports the rationale, design and baseline findings of the HIPP trial. The accrued participants had an average age of 57 (SD= 4.7), a BMI of 32.1 kg/m2 (SD=5.16) with more than half (55%) having a college education and an annual household income under $50,000 (53.6%). At baseline, participants reported an average of 41.5 minutes/week (SD=49.7) of moderate intensity physical activity, and 94.1% were in the contemplation or preparation stages of readiness for physical activity. While social support for exercise from friends and family was low, baseline levels of self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change, decisional balance, outcome expectations, and enjoyment appeared promising. Baseline data indicated high rates of obesity and low levels of physical activity, providing strong evidence of need for intervention. Moreover, scores on psychosocial measures suggested that such efforts may be well received. This line of research in technology-based approaches for promoting physical activity in African American women in the Deep South has great potential to address health disparities and impact public health. PMID:26944022

  19. The Relationship between Alcohol Outlets, HIV Risk Behavior, and HSV-2 Infection among South African Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has a disinhibiting effect that may make sexual risk behaviors and disease transmission more likely. The characteristics of alcohol-serving outlets (e.g. music, dim lights, lack of condoms may further encourage risky sexual activity. We hypothesize that frequenting alcohol outlets will be associated with HIV risk.In a sample of 2,533 school-attending young women in rural South Africa, we performed a cross-sectional analysis to examine the association between frequency of alcohol outlet visits in the last six months and four outcomes related to HIV risk: number of sex partners in the last three months, unprotected sex acts in the last three months, transactional sex with most recent partner, and HSV-2 infection. We also tested for interaction by alcohol consumption.Visiting alcohol outlets was associated with having more sex partners [adjusted odds ratio (aOR, one versus zero partners (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.51 (1.21, 1.88], more unprotected sex acts [aOR, one versus zero acts (95% CI: 2.28 (1.52, 3.42], higher levels of transactional sex [aOR (95% CI: 1.63 (1.03, 2.59], and HSV-2 infection [aOR (95% CI: 1.30 (0.88, 1.91]. In combination with exposure to alcohol consumption, visits to alcohol outlets were more strongly associated with all four outcomes than with either risk factor alone. Statistical evidence of interaction between alcohol outlet visits and alcohol consumption was observed for all outcomes except transactional sex.Frequenting alcohol outlets was associated with increased sexual risk in rural South African young women, especially when they consumed alcohol. Sexual health interventions targeted at alcohol outlets may effectively reach adolescents at high risk for sexually transmitted infections like HIV and HSV-2.HIV Prevention Trials Network HPTN 068.

  20. The under-representation of African American women in the STEM fields within the academy: A historical profile and current perceptions (United States)

    Howard, Tenisha Senora

    This research project seeks to discover the reasons behind the underrepresentation of African American women (AAW) in higher education, particularly in the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics fields. Why is there underrepresentation of AAW in the STEM fields? Research evidence has demonstrated that AAW face social disparities such as race, gender, and class in the academy. A lack of adequate mentoring and financial resources to support their research efforts are related to these disparities and present fundamental challenges for them. To conduct the inquiry about the barriers AAW have to overcome to achieve success in STEM disciplines, a qualitative research method was used to "attend to social, historical, and temporal context. The findings of these studies are tentatively applied; that is, they may be applicable in diverse situations based on comparability of other contexts" (Mariano, 1995, p. 464). The researcher collected data by conducting in-depth interviews with five participants, using an open-ended conversational format to facilitate the development of trust, rapport, and maximum elicitation of stories from the participants. The results suggest that AAW overcome barriers to successful STEM careers through their family and social ties, mentoring relationships as well as their religious practices.

  1. "Big Momma Had Sugar, Imma Have It Too" Medical Fatalism and the Language of Faith Among African-American Women in Memphis. (United States)

    Hotz, Kendra G


    This essay offers a theological exploration of the relationship between medical fatalism and religious belonging among African-American women in Memphis. Drawing on the work of black and womanist theologians and on conversations with participants in a diabetes intervention program administered by a faith-based community health provider, I argue that how we narrate the meanings of our bodies is irreducibly religious. The language we use to interpret and communicate the meaning of our bodily existence emerges from a set of assumptions, often unarticulated, about what is of ultimate value to us. The essay focuses on three interlocking features that link faith with fatalism or hope: (1) The idea that if "I don't claim that" disease cannot enter my body; (2) the role of faith-based clinics in re-establishing trust with marginalized communities; and (3) how nuanced attention to the social location of health seekers can re-frame our understanding of patient compliance. Disrupting fatalism can only be done from within a health seeker's own narrative, and therefore, healthcare providers who learn these narratives and respect their holiness will develop more effective interventions.

  2. Social networks and social support among ball-attending African American men who have sex with men and transgender women are associated with HIV-related outcomes. (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Jonas, Adam; Pollack, Lance M


    The House Ball Community (HBC) is an understudied network of African American men who have sex with men and transgender women, who join family-like houses that compete in elaborate balls in cities across the United States. From 2011 to 2012, we surveyed 274 recent attendees of balls in the San Francisco Bay Area, focusing on social networks, social support, and HIV-related behaviours. Participants with a high percentage of alters who were supportive of HIV testing were significantly more likely to have tested in the past six months (p = .02), and less likely to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past three months (p = .003). Multivariate regression analyses of social network characteristics, and social support, revealed that testing in the past six months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, instrumental social support, and age. Similarly, UAI in the past three months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, homophily based on sexual identity and HIV status. HIV-related social support provided through the HBC networks was correlated with recent HIV testing and reduced UAI. Approaches utilising networks within alternative kinship systems, may increase HIV-related social support and improve HIV-related outcomes.

  3. Gender and the use of hormonal contraception in women are not associated with cerebral cortical 5-HT 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, V G; Erritzoe, D; Madsen, J


    Gender influences brain function including serotonergic neurotransmission, which may play a role in the well-known gender variations in vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. Even though hormonal replacement therapy in menopause is associated with globally increased cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor...... to frontolimbic 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and to be more pronounced in women, again, the effect of gender was not significant (P=0.42, n=127). Also, the use of hormonal contraception (n=14) within the group of pre-menopausal women (total n=29) was not associated with cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding (P=0.......31). In conclusion, neither gender, nor the use of hormonal contraception in premenopausal women was associated with cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding....

  4. Self-determination and gender–power relations as predictors of condom use self-efficacy among South African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feziwe Mpondo


    Full Text Available This article identifies correlates of condom use self-efficacy using concepts from self-determination theory and gender–power measures. A cross-section of Xhosa-speaking women (n = 238 from Eastern Cape, South Africa, was used to conduct bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses. Gender equality beliefs and HIV knowledge were positively associated with condom use self-efficacy generally and in risky situations. Condom use self-efficacy generally was also positively associated with power balance attitudes, negative beliefs about intimate partner violence, and positive growth perspective, while the association with hopeless personal perspective was negative. Surprisingly, lack of social support was positively associated with condom use self-efficacy in risky situations. The predictors of condom use self-efficacy identified in this study that may serve as change objectives for future sexual health promotion interventions.

  5. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women (United States)

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia


    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  6. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women. (United States)

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel


    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase.

  7. Conducting Molecular Epidemiological Research in the Age of HIPAA: A Multi-Institutional Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer in African-American and European-American Women

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    Christine B. Ambrosone


    Full Text Available Breast cancer in African-American (AA women occurs at an earlier age than in European-American (EA women and is more likely to have aggressive features associated with poorer prognosis, such as high-grade and negative estrogen receptor (ER status. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. To address this, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for high-grade ER- disease in both AA and EA women. With the onset of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, creative measures were needed to adapt case ascertainment and contact procedures to this new environment of patient privacy. In this paper, we report on our approach to establishing a multicenter study of breast cancer in New York and New Jersey, provide preliminary distributions of demographic and pathologic characteristics among case and control participants by race, and contrast participation rates by approaches to case ascertainment, with discussion of strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Shorter telomere length - A potential susceptibility factor for HIV-associated neurocognitive impairments in South African women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Malan-Müller

    Full Text Available The neuropathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV may manifest as various neurocognitive impairments (NCI. HIV-positive individuals also have significantly shorter telomere length (TL in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and CD8+ T cells compared to HIV-negative individuals. Additionally, reduced TL has been found to be associated with chronic psychological stress. This study focused on the effects of HIV-infection and chronic stress associated with childhood trauma on telomere length, and investigated whether leukocyte TL (LTL, in particular, represents a risk factor for NCI. Eighty-three HIV-positive and 45 HIV-negative women were assessed for childhood trauma and were subjected to detailed neurocognitive testing. Blood from each participant was used to extract Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. Relative LTL were determined by performing real time quantitative PCR reactions as described by Cawthon et al. (2002. As expected, relative LTL in the HIV-positive individuals was significantly shorter than that of HIV-negative individuals (F = 51.56, p = <0.01. Notably, a significant positive correlation was evident between relative LTL and learning performance in the HIV-positive group. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between relative LTL and verbal fluency, but this association was only evident in HIV-positive individuals who had experienced trauma. Our results suggest that reduced LTL is associated with worse learning performance in HIV-positive individuals, indicating that TL could act as a susceptibility factor in increasing neurocognitive decline in HIV-infected individuals.

  9. Age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function among European-American and African-American women. (United States)

    Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Phadke, Radhika P; Granger, Wesley M; Fernández, José R; Muñoz, Julian A; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Ovalle, Fernando; Gower, Barbara A


    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women for reasons that are unknown. Ethnic differences in physiological processes related to insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and secretion, and age-related changes in these processes, may play a role. The purpose of this study was to identify ethnicity- and age-related differences in S(I) and β-cell responsivity among AA and EA females, and to determine whether these differences are independent of body composition and fat distribution. Healthy, normoglycemic females aged 7-12 years (n = 62), 18-32 years (n = 57), and 40-70 years (n = 49) were recruited for entry into this study. Following an overnight fast, S(I), intravenous glucose tolerance (Kg), acute C-peptide secretion (X0), and basal, first-phase, second-phase, and total β-cell responsivity to glucose (PhiB, Phi1, Phi2, and Phi(TOT), respectively) were measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Total % body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and intra-abdominal adiposity (IAAT) by computed tomography. Main effects of age group and ethnicity were measured with analysis of covariance, adjusting for % fat, IAAT, and S(I) as indicated. AA had lower S(I), and higher Kg, X0, Phi1, and Phi(TOT) (P < 0.05), which remained after adjustment for % fat and IAAT. Greater X0, Phi1, and Phi(TOT) among AA were independent of S(I). Advancing age was associated with greater Phi2 among both EA and AA. To conclude, inherent ethnic differences in β-cell function exist independently of adiposity and S(I). Future research should examine whether ethnic differences in β-cell physiology contribute to disparities in T2D risk.

  10. High-intensity interval training without weight loss improves exercise but not basal or insulin-induced metabolism in overweight/obese African American women. (United States)

    Arad, Avigdor D; DiMenna, Fred J; Thomas, Naketa; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline; Weil, Richard; Geliebter, Allan; Albu, Jeanine B


    The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine the effect of a 14-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention with weight stability on metabolic flexibility, insulin sensitivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary, premenopausal, nondiabetic, overweight/obese African American women. Twenty-eight subjects were allocated to one of two groups: HIIT, which performed three sessions per week of four high-intensity cycling intervals, or a control group (CON), which maintained their normal level of physical activity. Diet was controlled for all subjects to ensure weight stability. Pre- and postintervention (pre/post), subjects completed an incremental cycling test to limit of tolerance and, following a 10-day high-fat controlled feeding period, a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation. Nine members of HIIT (age, 29 ± 4 yr; body mass, 90.1 ± 13.8 kg) and eleven members of CON (age, 30 ± 7 yr; body mass, 85.5 ± 10.7 kg) completed the study. HIIT experienced an increased limit of tolerance (post, 1,124 ± 202 s; pre, 987 ± 146 s; P exchange threshold (post, 1.29 ± 0.34 liters/min; pre, 0.97 ± 0.23 liters/min; P rate compared with CON (P flexibility were not different in HIIT compared with CON. High-intensity interval training with weight stability increased exercise fat oxidation and tolerance in subjects at risk for diabetic progression, but did not improve insulin sensitivity or fat oxidation in the postabsorptive or insulin-stimulated state.

  11. Implementing good participatory practice guidelines in the FEM-PrEP Preexposure Prophylaxis Trial for HIV Prevention among African Women: a focus on local stakeholder involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mack N


    Full Text Available Natasha Mack,1 Stella Kirkendale,1 Paul Omullo,2 Jacob Odhiambo,2 Malebo Ratlhagana,3 Martha Masaki,4 Phumzile Siguntu,5 Kawango Agot,2 Khatija Ahmed,3 Saidi Kapiga,4 Johan Lombaard,5 Lut Van Damme,1 Amy Corneli1 1FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA; 2Impact Research and Development Organization, Bondo, Kenya; 3Setshaba Research Centre, Soshanguve, South Africa; 4Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Moshi, Tanzania; 5Josha Research, Bloemfontein, South Africa Abstract: Biomedical HIV-prevention research is most likely to succeed when researchers actively engage with community stakeholders. To this effect, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition developed good participatory practice guidelines for biomedical HIV-prevention trials in 2007 and updated them in 2011. The Preexposure Prophylaxis Trial for HIV Prevention among African Women (FEM-PrEP clinical trial, testing once-daily Truvada as preexposure prophylaxis among women at higher risk of HIV in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania, included a community program to engage with local stakeholders. Following the trial, we revisited the community program to situate activities in the context of the 2011 guidelines. In the paper, we describe implementation of the six guidelines relevant to local stakeholder engagement – stakeholder advisory mechanisms, stakeholder engagement plan, stakeholder education plan, communications plan, issues management plan, trial closure, and results dissemination – in light of on-the-ground realities of the trial. We then identify two cross-cutting themes from our considerations: (1 stakeholder education beyond the good participatory practice recommendation to increase research literacy about the specific trial is needed; education efforts should also communicate a base of information on HIV transmission and prevention; and (2 anticipatory preparation is useful in communications planning, issues management, and trial closure and

  12. African Literature


    Recek, Denis


    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  13. Raloxifene Administration in Women Treated with Long Term Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist for Severe Endometriosis: Effects on Bone Mineral Density (United States)

    Cho, Young Hwa; Um, Mi Jung; Kim, Suk Jin; Kim, Soo Ah


    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of raloxifene in preventing bone loss associated with long term gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administration. Methods Twenty-two premenopausal women with severe endometriosis were treated with leuprolide acetate depot at a dosage of 3.75 mg/4 weeks, for 48 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated at admission, and after 12 treatment cycles. Results At cycle 12 of GnRH-a plus raloxifene treatment, lumbar spine, trochanter femoral neck, and Ward's BMD differed from before the treatment. A year after treatment, the lumbar spine and trochanter decreased slightly, but were not significantly different. Conclusions Our study shows that the administration of GnRH-a plus raloxifene in pre-menopausal women with severe endometriosis, is an effective long-term treatment to prevent bone loss. PMID:28119898

  14. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  15. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  16. Changes in body fat distribution through menopause increase blood pressure independently of total body fat in middle-aged women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. (United States)

    Park, Jin Kyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Gil; Shin, Jinho


    Blood pressure in women increases sharply in middle age, especially after menopause. As the menopausal transition is known to induce changes in body fat distribution, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body fat distribution as compared with the effect of total body fat on blood pressure through the menopausal transition. We analyzed 1422 subjects aged 45-55 years using the database from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. The waist circumference (WC) of post-menopausal women was larger than that of pre-menopausal women (80.44 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.36-81.52 vs. 78.94 cm, 95% CI 78.27-79.61, P=0.013), but there was no statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were significantly higher in post-menopausal women than in pre-menopausal women: SBP was 118.33 mm Hg, 95% CI 116.52-120.15 vs. 115.22 mm Hg, 95% CI 114.17-116.28 (P=0.003) and DBP was 76.94 mm Hg, 95% CI 75.88-77.99 vs. 75.25 mm Hg, 95% CI 74.57-75.93 (P=0.009). BMI and WC were positively correlated with BP. After adjustment for BMI, the correlation of WC with SBP remained significant (β=0.250, 95% CI 0.024-0.476, P=0.030). In a stratified analysis, WC correlated with SBP in women with BMIBMI25 kg m(-2). We conclude that the changes in body fat distribution through the menopausal transition are associated with SBP, independent of total body fat. This finding indicates that alterations in the localization of body fat are another cause of menopause-related changes in BP.

  17. The Current Waist Circumference Cut Point Used for the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome in Sub-Saharan African Women Is Not Appropriate


    Crowther, Nigel J.; Norris, Shane A.


    The waist circumference cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African subjects is based on that obtained from studies in European populations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders in an urban population of African females, a group at high risk for such diseases, and to determine the appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Anthropometry and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin levels wer...

  18. 《为母之乐》:透视非洲女性的新视角%The Joys of Motherhood:A New Perspective to Probe into African Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    长期以来,人们普遍认为非洲女性是受到了父权制社会残酷虐待的奴隶,是被父权制社会吞噬的“软食”,“生儿育女者”和“役畜”。然而,非洲女作家布奇·埃梅切特根据自己的人生经历创作的代表作之一《为母之乐》为我们提供了一个透视非洲女性的新视角。女主人公Nnu Ego一心想做母亲,最后实现了自己的愿望,养育了八个子女,但却未从中得到任何乐趣,最后孤零零地死在路边。文章通过分析Nnu Ego的悲剧成因后指出,做母亲并不总能带来幸福,女人的不幸在很大程度上是自己造成的;女人实际上有权力、有能力选择自己的命运。%African women have long been regarded as slaves brutalized and abused by the patriarchal society,as “smooth pap” served up to be devoured by patriarchy,“breeder,” and “beasts of burden”. However,The Joys of Motherhood written by Buchi Emecheta,an African female writer,provides us with a new perspective to probe into African women. What the heroine Nnu Ego wants to do most is to be a mother. Nevertheless,although she brings up eight children,she dies a lonely death in her middle age. So,this paper, by analyzing the life experience of the heroine Nnu Ego,proposes that being a mother cannot always bring women happiness and women’s unhappiness is brought about by women themselves. In fact,women have the power and ability to choose their own fate.

  19. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome. (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela


    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p HDL (HDL-C (r = -0.148, p HDL-C (r = -0.258, p HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among low-income, African American women with a history of intimate partner violence and suicidal behaviors: self-esteem, social support, and religious coping. (United States)

    Bradley, Rebekah; Schwartz, Ann C; Kaslow, Nadine J


    There is a dearth of research on risk/protective factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), presenting for suicidal behavior or routine medical care in a large, urban hospital. We examined self-esteem, social support, and religious coping as mediators between experiences of child maltreatment (CM) and IPV and symptoms of PTSD in a sample (N = 134) of low-income African American women. Instruments used included the Index of Spouse Abuse, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Taylor Self-Esteem Inventory, the Multidimensional Profile of Social Support, the Brief Religious Coping Activities Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. Both CM and IPV related positively to PTSD symptoms. Risk and resilience individual difference factors accounted for 18% of the variance in PTSD symptoms over and above IPV and CM, with self-esteem and negative religious coping making unique contributions. Both variables mediated the abuse-PTSD symptom link. In addition, we tested an alternate model in which PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between abuse and both self-esteem and negative religious coping.

  1. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat. (United States)

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne


    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  2. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.


    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  3. Advancing Understanding of the Characteristics and Capacity of African American Women Who Serve as Lay Health Advisors in Community-Based Settings (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S.; Erwin, Deborah O.


    Lay Health Advisor (LHA) programs hold tremendous promise for reducing health disparities and addressing social determinants of health in medically underserved communities, including African American populations. Very little is understood about the capacity of LHAs in these roles and the broader contributions they make to their communities. This…

  4. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.


    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  5. Sexe, juju et migrations. Regard anthropologique sur les processus migratoires de femmes africaines en France Sex, Juju and Migrations. An Anthropological Look at the Migratory Processes of African Women in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Guillemaut


    Full Text Available L’article propose une réflexion sur la problématique de la prostitution de fem­mes africaines dans les rues en France. S’agit-il de trafics d’êtres humains ou de phénomènes de migrations ? Quel est le rôle des rituels magiques (juju dans ce contexte ? Comment les femmes concernées vivent-elles leur situation ? Nous examinerons les différentes modalités de mobilité géographique des femmes africaines et nous entendrons comment les femmes elles-mêmes parlent du juju, de leurs rapports aux croyances magiques ou religieuses. Les résultats présentés ici sont le fruit d’un terrain de 12 années passées au contact quotidien des fem­mes concernées. En conclusion, nous tenterons de mettre en évidence les para­doxes que révèlent ces observations par rapport aux discours majoritaires et aux normes en vigueur sur le sujet de la traite des êtres humains.The article proposes studying the problematic of the prostitution of African women in the streets of France. Is it about a traffic of human beings or a migratory phenomena? What is the role of ritual magics (juju in this context? How do the women concerned live in their situation? We will examine the various methods of geographical mobility of the African women and we will listen to what the women themselves say about juju, and their relationships to magical or religious beliefs. The results presented here are the fruit of a 12 year field study in daily contact with the women concerned. In conclusion, we shall try to highlight the paradoxes these observations reveal in comparison with commonly heard talk and the standards in force on the subject of traffic in human beings.

  6. Lessons from Four "Bronze Muses" or How the Rhetoric of Nineteenth Century African-American Women Can Inform Writing Instruction in the Twenty-First Century. (United States)

    Logan, Shirley W.

    Considering the rhetorical strategies four 19th-century black women employed to address various audiences can be helpful in the continuing struggle to find effective means of teaching writing to college students. These four women used a variety of strategies to reach audiences which were, to one degree or another, hostile to them because of their…

  7. Empowering Women for Development through Community-Driven Sustainable Programmes: A Response to Traditional Patriarchal Power in the Southern African Region (United States)

    Braimoh, Dele; Lekoko, Rebecca; Alade, Eunice B.


    In the Southern Africa region, the act of prejudice against women mostly occurs where patriarchal power reigns. This type of power is felt in areas such as inheritance right, division of labour, access to political and economic resources and legal and social matters. Other areas of discrimination against women include access to educational and…

  8. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna K. Schrijvers


    Full Text Available Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years (n = 231 completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using measured height (cm and weight (kg; body fat percentage (BF% was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012 and BMI (p = 0.016 were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016 was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  9. The current waist circumference cut point used for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African women is not appropriate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J Crowther

    Full Text Available The waist circumference cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African subjects is based on that obtained from studies in European populations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders in an urban population of African females, a group at high risk for such diseases, and to determine the appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Anthropometry and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured in a cohort of 1251 African females participating in the Birth to Twenty cohort study in Soweto, Johannesburg. The waist circumference cut points for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (as defined using the new harmonised guidelines, insulin resistance, dysglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were obtained using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome were 50.1%, 14.3% and 42.1%, respectively. The appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing metabolic syndrome was found to be 91.5 cm and was similar to the cuts points obtained for detecting increased risk of insulin resistance (89.0 cm, dysglycaemia (88.4 cm, hypertension (90.1 cm, hypo-high density lipoproteinaemia (87.6 cm and hyper-low density lipoproteinaemia (90.5 cm. The present data demonstrates that urban, African females have a high prevalence of obesity and related disorders and the waist cut point currently recommended for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (80.0 cm in this population should be increased to 91.5 cm. This latter finding demonstrates a clear ethnic difference in the relationship between abdominal adiposity and metabolic disease risk. The similar waist cut points identified for the detection of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors demonstrates that the risk for different metabolic diseases increases at the same level of abdominal adiposity

  10. The current waist circumference cut point used for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African women is not appropriate. (United States)

    Crowther, Nigel J; Norris, Shane A


    The waist circumference cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African subjects is based on that obtained from studies in European populations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders in an urban population of African females, a group at high risk for such diseases, and to determine the appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Anthropometry and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured in a cohort of 1251 African females participating in the Birth to Twenty cohort study in Soweto, Johannesburg. The waist circumference cut points for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (as defined using the new harmonised guidelines), insulin resistance, dysglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were obtained using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome were 50.1%, 14.3% and 42.1%, respectively. The appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing metabolic syndrome was found to be 91.5 cm and was similar to the cuts points obtained for detecting increased risk of insulin resistance (89.0 cm), dysglycaemia (88.4 cm), hypertension (90.1 cm), hypo-high density lipoproteinaemia (87.6 cm) and hyper-low density lipoproteinaemia (90.5 cm). The present data demonstrates that urban, African females have a high prevalence of obesity and related disorders and the waist cut point currently recommended for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (80.0 cm) in this population should be increased to 91.5 cm. This latter finding demonstrates a clear ethnic difference in the relationship between abdominal adiposity and metabolic disease risk. The similar waist cut points identified for the detection of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors demonstrates that the risk for different metabolic diseases increases at the same level of abdominal adiposity suggesting a

  11. ‘Why don’t you just use a condom?’: Understanding the motivational tensions in the minds of South African women

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    Rachel Mash


    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS makes the largest contribution to the burden of disease in South Africa and consistent condom use is considered a key component of HIV-prevention efforts. Health workers see condoms as a straightforward technical solution to prevent transmission of the disease and are often frustrated when their simple advice is not followed.Objectives: To better understand the complexity of the decision that women must make when they are asked to negotiate condom use with their partner.Method: A literature review.Results: A key theme that emerged included unequal power in sexual decision making, with men dominating and women being disempowered. Women may want to please their partner, who might believe that condoms will reduce sexual pleasure. The use of condoms was associated with a perceived lack of ‘real’ love, intimacy and trust. Other factors included the fear of losing one’s reputation, being seen as ‘loose’ and of violence or rejection by one’s partner. For many women, condom usage was forbidden by their religious beliefs. The article presents a conceptual framework to make sense of the motivational dilemma in the mind of a woman who is asked to use a condom.Conclusion: Understanding this ambivalence, respecting it and helping women to resolve it may be more helpful than simply telling women to use a condom. A prevention worker who fails to recognise this dilemma and instructs women to ‘simply’ use a condom, may well encounter resistance.

  12. Psychodynamics of Coping and Survival of the African-American Female in a Changing World. (United States)

    Young, Carlene


    Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)

  13. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television. (United States)

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D


    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Self-Determination Needs and Gender-Power Constructs Among Rural South African Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpondo, Feziwe; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla S


    This study aimed to identify psychosocial correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by using constructs derived from the self-determination theory (SDT) and gender-power scales. Cross-sectional data (N = 238) were collected from women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and were used to test a st

  15. Gender Differences in South African Men and Women's Access to and Evaluation of Informal Sources of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) Information (United States)

    Stern, Erin; Cooper, Diane; Gibbs, Andrew


    While much research has documented unsatisfactory sexual and reproductive health (SRH) awareness among young people in South Africa, understanding of gender differences in access to and evaluation of SRH information is limited. This paper concerned itself with men and women's informal sources and content of SRH, and gendered divergences around…

  16. "I Could Have Done Everything and Why Not?": Young Women's Complex Constructions of Sexual Agency in the Context of Sexualities Education in Life Orientation in South African Schools (United States)

    Kruger, Lou-Marie; Shefer, Tamara; Oakes, Antoinette


    Progressive policies protecting women's rights to make reproductive decisions and the recent increase in literature exploring female sexual agency do not appear to have impacted on more equitable sexual relations in all contexts. In South Africa, gender power inequalities, intersecting with other forms of inequality in society, pose a challenge…

  17. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling


    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34 in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results: Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44, but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions: HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.

  18. Antepartum depression and anxiety associated with disability in African women: cross-sectional results from the CDS study in Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Bindt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders, particularly unipolar depressive disorders, rank among the top 5 with respect to the global burden of disease. As a major public health concern, antepartum depression and anxiety not only affects the individual woman, but also her offspring. Data on the prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We provide results from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: We subsequently recruited and screened n = 1030 women in the third trimester of their pregnancy for depressed mood, general anxiety, and perceived disability using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9, the 7-item Anxiety Scale (GAD-7, and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS 2.0, 12-item version. In addition to estimates of means and prevalence, a hierarchical linear regression model was calculated to determine the influence of antepartum depression and anxiety on disability. RESULTS: In Ghana, 26.6% of women showed substantially depressed mood. In Côte d'Ivoire, this figure was even higher (32.9%. Clear indications for a generalized anxiety disorder were observed in 11.4% and 17.4% of pregnant women, respectively. Comorbidity of both conditions was common, affecting about 7.7% of Ghanaian and 12.6% of Ivorian participants. Pregnant women in both countries reported a high degree of disability regarding everyday activity limitations and participation restrictions. Controlled for country and age, depression and anxiety accounted for 33% of variance in the disability score. CONCLUSIONS: Antepartum depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in our sample and contributed substantially to perceived disability. These serious threats to health must be further investigated and more data are needed to comprehensively quantify the problem in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

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    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  20. African-American Biography. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for women. A life course-events perspective

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    Arora Chander P.


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD in women is the most common cause of death and in 2009 accounted for one third of all deaths. The purpose of this paper is to present what conditions during pregnancy and during the pre-menopause period lead to a greater risk of CVD. The early recognition and the application of interventions may decrease this risk. To emphasize this point we have taken a «Life course-events perspective». Current data suggests that genetic predisposition to disease in conjunction with behavior and environmental factors during fetal life is related to permanent changes in fetalplacental-maternal physiology and function, resulting in fetal programming characterizing the phenotype of the child which may persist into adulthood. Longitudinal studies have identified biological, behavioral and environmental factors related to childhood diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance and mental health disorders. Gender differences have been identified and animal studies have suggested that estrogens in women are protective and when the risk of CVD in men is considered, the risk in women is delayed by 10 years. Thus, a normal pregnancy may be protective and reduce the risk of CVD in women. However, hypertension developing in women before or during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for women and diabetes further increases this risk of CVD, as does smoking. It is very clear that an «intervention action plan» must be developed. It is the current opinion of the authors that this action plan must be implemented early in life to decrease the risk for the development of CVS in women.

  2. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis. (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E


    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory.

  3. Luminal B tumors are the most frequent molecular subtype in breast cancer of North African women: an immunohistochemical profile study from Morocco

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    El Fatemi Hinde


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer may be classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling or immunohistochemical (IHC characteristics. The aim of our study is to show the molecular profile characteristic of breast cancer in the North African population of Morocco. This work showed preliminary results and correlations with clinicopathological and histological parameters. Three hundred and ninety primary breast carcinomas tumor tissues were immunostained for ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, CK8/18 and Ki67 using paraffin tissue. Methods We reviewed 390 cases of breast cancer diagnosed on January 2008 to December 2011 at the Department of pathology, Hassan II teaching hospital, Fez, Morocco. Age, size tumor, metastatic profile, node involvement profile, histological type and immunohistochemical profile were studied. Results The average age was 46 years; our patients were diagnosed late with a high average tumor size. Luminal B subtype was more prevalent (41.8%, followed by luminal A (30.5%, basal-like (13, 6%, Her2-overexpressing (9, 2%, and unclassified subtype (4.9%. Conclusion This study showed that molecular classification and biological profile may be different according to geographical distribution, to encourage further studies to know the genomic profile of tumors and the environment. Virtual slide

  4. Multi-institutional study of nuclear KIFC1 as a biomarker of poor prognosis in African American women with triple-negative breast cancer. (United States)

    Ogden, Angela; Garlapati, Chakravarthy; Li, Xiaoxian Bill; Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Wright, Nikita; Bhattarai, Shristi; Mittal, Karuna; Wetherilt, Ceyda Sönmez; Krishnamurti, Uma; Reid, Michelle D; Jones, Mildred; Gupta, Meenakshi; Osan, Remus; Pattni, Sonal; Riaz, Ansa; Klimov, Sergey; Rao, Arundhati; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Rida, Padmashree C G; Aneja, Ritu


    Nuclear KIFC1 (nKIFC1) predicts worse outcomes in breast cancer, but its prognostic value within racially distinct triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients is unknown. Thus, nKIFC1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 163 African American (AA) and 144 White TNBC tissue microarrays (TMAs) pooled from four hospitals. nKIFC1 correlated significantly with Ki67 in White TNBCs but not in AA TNBCs, suggesting that nKIFC1 is not merely a surrogate for proliferation in AA TNBCs. High nKIFC1 weighted index (WI) was associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (Hazard Ratios [HRs] = 3.5, 3.1, and 3.8, respectively; P = 0.01, 0.009, and 0.007, respectively) in multivariable Cox models in AA TNBCs but not White TNBCs. Furthermore, KIFC1 knockdown more severely impaired migration in AA TNBC cells than White TNBC cells. Collectively, these data suggest that nKIFC1 WI an independent biomarker of poor prognosis in AA TNBC patients, potentially due to the necessity of KIFC1 for migration in AA TNBC cells.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life Dynamics of HIV-positive South African Women up to ART Initiation: Evidence from the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Cohort Study


    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Karim, Salim S Abdool


    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3–6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global wel...

  6. African Trypanosomiasis (United States)


    Histol. 1977;375:53- 70. 42. Poltera AA, Owor R, Cox JN. Pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. A post - mortem survey of...nodular lesions , including anthrax or tick bite associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. The chancre is followed by a hemolymphatic stage, dur- ing...electrocardiograph- ic changes and, at times, terminal cardiac insufficiency.41 Pulmonary lesions specifically related to trypanosomiasis are not

  7. Interaction effects between estrogen receptor α and vitamin D receptor genes on age at menarche in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong XU; Ji-rong LONG; Miao-xin LI; Hong-wen DENG


    Aim: To evaluate whether estrogen receptor α (ER-α) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes are associated with the age at menarche in Chinese women.Methods:A total of 390 pre-menopausal Chinese women were genotyped at the ER-α PvuⅡ,XbaⅠ, and VDR ApaⅠ loci using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Results: Neither the ER-α gene nor the VDR gene individually had significant effects on the age at menarche in our subjects (P>0.10).However, evidence of interaction effects between the two genes were observed: with the aa genotype at the VDR ApaⅠ locus, subjects with haplotype PX at the ER-α gene had, on average, 6 months later onset of menarche than the non-carriers (P=0.01).Conclusion: We found that neither the ER-α gene or the VDR gene had a significant association with the age at menarche individually.However, potential interaction effects between the two genes were observed in Chinese women.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Symptom Severity among South African Women during Pregnancy and Postpartum: Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai


    Full Text Available Violence against women by intimate partners remains unacceptably common worldwide. The evidence base for the assumed psychological impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV is derived primarily from studies conducted in high-income countries. A recently published systematic review identified 13 studies linking IPV to incident depression, none of which were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed longitudinal data collected during the course of a 3-y cluster-randomized trial with the aim of estimating the association between IPV and depression symptom severity.We conducted a secondary analysis of population-based, longitudinal data collected from 1,238 pregnant women during a 3-y cluster-randomized trial of a home visiting intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Surveys were conducted at baseline, 6 mo, 18 mo, and 36 mo (85% retention. The primary explanatory variable of interest was exposure to four types of physical IPV in the past year. Depression symptom severity was measured using the Xhosa version of the ten-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In a pooled cross-sectional multivariable regression model adjusting for potentially confounding time-fixed and time-varying covariates, lagged IPV intensity had a statistically significant association with depression symptom severity (regression coefficient b = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.61-1.47, with estimates from a quantile regression model showing greater adverse impacts at the upper end of the conditional depression distribution. Fitting a fixed effects regression model accounting for all time-invariant confounding (e.g., history of childhood sexual abuse yielded similar findings (b = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.13-1.96. The magnitudes of the coefficients indicated that a one-standard-deviation increase in IPV intensity was associated with a 12.3% relative increase in depression symptom severity over the same time period. The most important limitations of our study

  9. Elevation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels, but not angiopoietin 2, in the plasma of human immunodeficiency virus-infected African women with clinical Kaposi sarcoma. (United States)

    Graham, Susan M; Rajwans, Nimerta; Richardson, Barbra A; Jaoko, Walter; McClelland, R Scott; Overbaugh, Julie; Liles, W Conrad


    Circulating levels of endothelial activation biomarkers are elevated in during infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and may also be increased in Kaposi sarcoma (KS). We compared 23 HIV-1-seropositive women with clinically diagnosed KS with 46 randomly selected controls matched for visit year, CD4 count, and antiretroviral therapy status. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify differences between cases and controls. The odds of clinical KS increased with increasing plasma viral load and with intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels above or equal to the median. There was a borderline association between increasing plasma angiopoietin 2 levels and KS. In multivariable modeling including plasma viral load, angiopoietin 2, and ICAM-1, plasma ICAM-1 levels above or equal to the median remained associated with clinical KS (odds ratio = 14.2, 95% confidence interval = 2.3-87.7). Circulating ICAM-1 levels should be evaluated as a potential biomarker for disease progression and treatment response among HIV-infected KS patients.

  10. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis) meals in West African women. (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Dossa, Romain A M; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D


    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with (57)Fe or (58)Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9) in FWFP (Pporridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  11. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis meals in West African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Koréissi-Dembélé

    Full Text Available Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16, using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat, each fortified with (57Fe or (58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed, with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU per g (whole wheat. Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C. Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8 in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9 in FWFP (P<0.0001. Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  12. A cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of peer mentors to support South African women living with HIV and their infants.

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    Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the effect of clinic-based support by HIV-positive Peer Mentors, in addition to standard clinic care, on maternal and infant well-being among Women Living with HIV (WLH from pregnancy through the infant's first year of life. METHODS: In a cluster randomized controlled trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eight clinics were randomized for pregnant WLH to receive either: a Standard Care condition (SC; 4 clinics; n = 656 WLH; or an Enhanced Intervention (EI; 4 clinics; n = 544 WLH. WLH in the EI were invited to attend four antenatal and four postnatal meetings led by HIV-positive Peer Mentors, in addition to SC. WLH were recruited during pregnancy, and at least two post-birth assessment interviews were completed by 57% of WLH at 1.5, 6 or 12 months. EI's effect was ascertained on 19 measures of maternal and infant well-being using random effects regressions to control for clinic clustering. A binomial test for correlated outcomes evaluated EI's overall efficacy. FINDINGS: WLH attended an average of 4.1 sessions (SD = 2.0; 13% did not attend any sessions. Significant overall benefits were found in EI compared to SC using the binomial test. Secondarily, over time, WLH in the EI reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms and fewer underweight infants than WLH in the SC condition. EI WLH were significantly more likely to use one feeding method for six months and exclusively breastfeed their infants for at least 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: WLH benefit by support from HIV-positive Peer Mentors, even though EI participation was partial, with incomplete follow-up rates from 6-12 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00972699.

  13. Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing.

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    Koleka Mlisana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. METHODS: 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5-9.8. Fifty-seven percent reported ≥1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR = 3.2; 1.4-7.1, rash (OR = 6.1; 2.4-15.4, sore throat (OR = 2.7; 1.0-7.6, weight loss (OR = 4.4; 1.5-13.4, genital ulcers (OR = 8.0; 1.6-39.5 and vaginal discharge (OR = 5.4; 1.6-18.4. A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r = 0.63; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.

  14. Plasma concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α and its relationship with zincemia in obese women

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    Maura Cristina Porto Feitosa


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In obesity, the excessive adipose tissue increases the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, which appear to alter the metabolism of minerals, such as zinc. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. This study investigated whether the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in plasma can to influence biochemical parameters of zinc in obese women. METHODS: Seventy-six pre-menopausal women, aged between 20 and 50 years, were divided into two groups: the case group, composed of obese women (n = 37 and the control group, composed of non-obese women (n = 39. Analysis of the plasmatic and erythrocytary zinc, and plasmatic cytokines were conducted by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and by ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: The plasmatic zinc and concentrations of IL-6 in plasma did not show significant differences between obese women and controls (p > 0.05. The erythrocytary zinc was 36.4±15.0µg/gHb in the case group, and 45.4±14.3µg/gHb (p = 0.025 in the control group. The concentrations of TNF-α in plasma were 42.0±11.9 pg/mL and 19.0±1.0 pg/mL in obese women and in controls, respectively (p < 0.001. The plasmatic zinc had a significant negative correlation with the values of TNF-α (r =-0.44, p = 0.015. CONCLUSION: Obese women presented lower concentrations of erythrocytary zinc than the control group. The study demonstrated a probable influence of the inflammatory process on metabolism of zinc in obese patients.

  15. Risk factors for unplanned and unwanted teenage pregnancies occurring over two years of follow-up among a cohort of young South African women

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    Nicola J. Christofides


    Full Text Available Background: Although teenage pregnancies in South Africa have declined, the short and longer term health and social consequences are a potential public health concern. This longitudinal study aimed to describe the range of risk and protective factors for incident unwanted and unplanned pregnancies occurring over 2 years of follow-up among a cohort of adolescent women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. It also investigated the relationship between gender inequality and gender-based violence and subsequent unplanned and unwanted pregnancies among the cohort. Objective: Teenage girls, aged 15–18 years (n=19, who were volunteer participants in a cluster randomized controlled trial and who had data from at least one follow-up were included in this analysis. To assess risk and protective factors for incident unwanted or unplanned pregnancies, we constructed multivariate polytomous regression models adjusting for sampling clusters as latent variables. Covariates included age, having a pregnancy prior to baseline, education, time between interviews, study intervention arm, contraceptive use, experience of intimate partner violence, belief that the teenage girl and her boyfriend are mutual main partners, and socioeconomic status. Results: Overall, 174 pregnancies occurred over the 2-year follow-up period. Beliefs about relationship control were not associated with unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, nor were experiences of forced first sex or coerced sex under the age of 15. Hormonal contraception was protective against unplanned pregnancies (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.21–0.79; however, using condoms was not protective. Physical abuse (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.05–2.72 was a risk factor for, and having a pregnancy prior to baseline was protective against an unwanted pregnancy (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.07–0.80. Higher socioeconomic status was protective for both unplanned and unwanted pregnancies (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.58–0.83 and OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.64–0.96. Believing

  16. Increased metabolic rate in obese women after ingestion of potassium, magnesium- and phosphate-enriched orange juice or injection of ephedrine. (United States)

    Jaedig, S; Henningsen, N C


    Thirty-six obese, pre-menopausal women were studied after an overnight fast and randomized to four different regimens of metabolic stimuli: group I (n = 12), 100 ml orange juice with dissolved K- and Mg-phosphates (K, 40 mmol; Mg, 17.5 mmol; HPO4, 35 mmol); group II (n = 8), 100 ml of water with electrolytes as in group I; group III (n = 8), 100 ml of orange juice; group IV (n = 8), injection of ephedrine intravenously, 0.25 mg/kg body weight. The women in groups I, II and III were further stimulated with ephedrine as in group IV and new measurements made. Thirty minutes after the first stimulus VO2, VCO2 and energy expenditure (EE) rose significantly (13.1-16.5 per cent) in groups I and IV only. In groups I and III the blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide rose significantly. After the second stimulus (ephedrine i.v.) no further increase in VO2, VCO2 and EE occurred in group I, but the increases from basal values became significant in group III. In all women at baseline, whole-body potassium was significantly correlated to VO2. Serum-magnesium was negatively correlated to A/I weight (actual/ideal weight). We conclude that the addition of K- and Mg-phosphates to glucose increases the postprandial thermogenesis in obese patients.

  17. Roots of women's union activism : South Africa 1973-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tshoaedi, Cynthia Malehoko


    This study examines the mobilisation of South African women into trade union activities between the period 1973 and 2003. Firstly, it underscores the role of South African women in fighting for workers’ rights in the workplace and their contributions in the building of the labour movement at the nat

  18. Women and Higher Education Leadership in Kenya: A Critical Analysis (United States)

    Odhiambo, George


    This paper undertakes a critique of the gendered nature of leadership in modern universities in Kenya. The paper argues that the inclusive nature of African feminism makes it easier for both men and women to join in this discussion since African feminism demands a more holistic perspective that does not pit men against women but encourages them to…

  19. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa


    From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girls....... This Focus draws on academic research, media reports and interviews with national team players to highlight the struggles and victories of South African women footballers over the last 40 years. Despite numerous challenges and setbacks, womenB football has experienced immense growth over the past 15 years....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  20. Lessons in Spiritual Leadership from Kenyan Women (United States)

    Ngunjiri, Faith Wambura


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explicate spiritual leadership lessons of beneficence, courage, hope and ubuntu/humanness that are derived from the experiences of women leaders in Kenya. The paper seeks to connect African data with existing literature on spiritual leadership, to demonstrate where African spiritual leadership is similar…

  1. Caracterização da qualidade de vida segundo o estado menopausal entre mulheres da Região Sul do Brasil Characterization of the quality of life by menopausal status among women in the South region of Brazil

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    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar a qualidade de vida de mulheres climatéricas residentes na Região Sul segundo o estado menopausal delas. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistadas 236 mulheres com idades entre 40 e 65 anos, durante feira de saúde realizada em cidade do Sul do Brasil, em março de 2005. Na avaliação da qualidade de vida, utilizou-se a versão brasileira do instrumento Menopause Rating Scale. RESULTADOS: das entrevistadas, 133 eram pré-menopáusicas e 103 pós-menopáusicas. As primeiras referiram sintomas climatéricos moderados e severos em 37,6% e 24,0%, respectivamente, enquanto as mulheres pós-menopáusicas, relataram sintomas moderados e severos em 36,9% e 39,4% dos casos, respectivamente. Os escores globais de qualidade de vida não mostraram diferenças entre os grupos estudados (p=0,12, ainda que o grupo pré-menopáusico tenha referido mais sintomas psicológicos (p=0,05 e o pós-menopáusico mais sintomas somato-vegetativos (pOBJECTIVES: to characterize the quality of life of climacteric women residing in the South region by menopausal status. METHODS: two hundred and thirty-six women aged between 40 and 65 were interviewed during a health fair held in March 2005 in a city in the South of Brazil. Their quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Menopause Rating Scale. RESULTS: of those interviewed, 133 were pre-menopausal and 103 post-menopausal. Moderate and severe climacteric symptoms were reported by 37.6% and 24.0% of the former, respectively, while 36.9% and 39.4% of the post-menopausal women reported moderate and severe symptoms, respectively. There were no differences between the two groups studied in terms of overall scores on the quality of life scale (p=0.12, although the pre-menopausal group reported more psychological symptoms (p=0.05 and the post-menopausal group more somatic-vegetative (p<0.01 and urinogenital (p=0.01 symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: quality of life was not influenced by menopausal status

  2. Depression and African Americans (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  3. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: the Hilo Women's Health Study. (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Sievert, Lynnette L; Brown, Daniel E; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela


    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1,824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai'i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai'i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as "natural," to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai'i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai'i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women's attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

  4. Relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in the African American female. (United States)

    Cook, D L; Barber, K R


    Increasing numbers of minorities are seeking mental health assistance. Inclusion of cultural considerations is important for increasing sensitivity to those whose life experiences differ. For African Americans, therapy is better facilitated if one operates from a cultural specific frame of reference. African American women attending a women's support group were surveyed. Questionnaires querying dimensions on family relationships, self-esteem and dependency were utilized. Results indicated a relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in African American females. Social support and self-esteem were inversely associated with codependency. This study provides insight for mental health professionals in counseling African American females.

  5. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives. (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert


    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  6. Health Conditions Common in African American Women (United States)

    ... delay diabetes is lost. Generations of racism and poverty also play a part. So do lack of ... information about behaviors to avoid, as well as lifestyle changes you can make to improve your health. ...

  7. Assessment of bone mineral density by DXA and the trabecular microarchitecture of the calcaneum by texture analysis in pre- and postmenopausal women in the evaluation of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunanithi R


    Full Text Available The in vivo evaluation of trabecular bone structure could be useful in the diagnosis of osteoporosis for the characterization of therapeutic response and understanding the role of parameters other than bone mineral density (BMD in defining skeletal status. This study was made to evaluate changes taking place in the trabecular architecture of bone with age and menopausal status in women. The findings are compared with the femoral neck bone as well as the trochantar bone mineral density determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, which is a standard reference test for evaluation of osteoporosis. Seventy females were recruited for the study, 25 pre-menopausal (mean age ± SD: 39.4 ± 3.8 and 45 postmenopausal (mean age ± SD: 57.9 ± 7.9 women. The right femoral neck bone mineral density was measured for them by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. For the same individuals, lateral view radiographs of the right calcaneum were taken as well. The radiographs were digitized and the region of interest (ROI of 256 x 256 pixels was selected, the run-length matrix was computed for calculating seven parameters [Table 1] and the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform of the image was calculated. Using the FFT, the power spectral density (PSD was derived and the root mean square (RMS value was determined. Our results confirm that age has a significant influence on the texture of the trabecular bone and bone mineral density.

  8. Internalization of the Thin Ideal as a Predictor of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in African, African-American, and Afro-Caribbean Female College Students (United States)

    Gilbert, Stefanie C.; Crump, Stacey; Madhere, Serge; Schutz, William


    This study, conducted at a historically Black university, evaluated the impact of awareness and internalization of the Western thin ideal of beauty on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia in African-American, African, and Caribbean women. The relationship between internalization of the thin ideal and disordered eating was…

  9. Minority Women's Health: HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... races include: Poverty — One in 4 African-American women lives in poverty, which is strongly linked to HIV risk. People living in poverty also get lower-quality health care in general, which can ... commonly spread to women through sexual contact. Untreated STIs that break the ...

  10. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett


    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  11. Quality of Life determinants in women with breast cancer undergoing treatment with curative intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratheesan Kuttan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of breast cancer and its subsequent treatment has significant impact on the woman's physical functioning, mental health and her well-being, and thereby causes substantial disruption to quality of life (QOL. Factors like patient education, spousal support and employment status, financial stability etc., have been found to influence QOL in the breast cancer patient. The present study attempts to identify the determinants of QOL in a cohort of Indian breast cancer patients. Patients and methods Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B Version 4 Malayalam was used to assess quality of life in 502 breast cancer patients undergoing treatment with curative intent. The data on social, demographic, disease, treatment, and follow-up were collected from case records. Data was analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression. Results The mean age of the patients was 47.7 years with 44.6% of the women being pre-menopausal. The FACT-B mean score was 90.6 (Standard Deviation [SD] = 18.4. The mean scores of the subscales were – Physical well-being 19.6 (SD = 4.7, Social well-being 19.9 (SD = 5.3, Emotional well-being 14 (SD = 4.9, Functional well-being 13.0 (SD = 5.7, and the Breast subscale 23.8 (SD = 4.4. Younger women ( Conclusion QOL derangements are common in breast cancer patients necessitating the provisions for patient access to psychosocial services. However, because of the huge patient load, a screening process to identify those meriting intervention over the general population would be a viable solution.

  12. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya


    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  13. Humor as "Cultural Reconciliation" in South African Situation Comedy: "Suburban Bliss" and Multicultural Female Viewers. (United States)

    Roome, Dorothy


    Conducts interviews with nine groups of South African women, examining their responses to episodes of "Suburban Bliss," a South African television sitcom that attempted to use humor as a catalyst to transcend the aftermath of apartheid. Evaluates whether "cultural reconciliation" is possible through harnessing the varying…

  14. Racial Discrimination, Coping, Life Satisfaction, and Self-Esteem among African Americans. (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Amy L.; Cancelli, Anthony A.


    Study examines the coping strategies used by African Americans in managing the stressful effects of racism. Results indicate that women preferred avoidance coping for racism experienced on a personal level. For African Americans in general, seeking social support and racism condition were the best predictors of racism-related stress. Life…

  15. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans. (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.


    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  16. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community (United States)

    Lewis, LaToya L.


    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  17. Differences in African American and White Women’s Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (United States)

    Vincent, Wilson; Peterson, John L.; Parrott, Dominic J.


    The aim of the present study was to examine racial differences in women’s attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and to offer an understanding of these differences. Participants were 224 18–30 year old heterosexual African American (64%) and White (36%) female undergraduates from a large urban university in the southeastern United States. Participants completed measures of social demographics, sexual orientation, and sexual prejudice. Results showed that African American, relative to White, women endorsed more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Also, unlike White women, African American women reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than lesbians. Implications are discussed regarding differences in cultural contexts that exist between African American and White women. PMID:20161368

  18. Taking up the cudgels against gay rights? Trends and trajectories in African Christian theologies on homosexuality. (United States)

    van Klinken, Adriaan S; Gunda, Masiiwa Ragies


    Against the background of the HIV epidemic and the intense public controversy on homosexuality in African societies, this article investigates the discourses of academic African Christian theologians on homosexuality. Distinguishing some major strands in African theology, that is, inculturation, liberation, women's and reconstruction theology, the article examines how the central concepts of culture, liberation, justice, and human rights function in these discourses. On the basis of a qualitative analysis of a large number of publications, the article shows that stances of African theologians are varying from silence and rejection to acceptance. Although many African theologians have taken up the cudgels against gay rights, some "dissident voices" break the taboo and develop more inclusive concepts of African identity and African Christianity.

  19. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  20. African Literature as Celebration. (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua


    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and…

  1. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  2. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.


    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  3. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron


    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  4. Women's Health (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  5. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson


    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  6. Changes of the expression of thyroid hormone functional receptor in vaginal wall mucosa between pre-and post menopausal women%绝经前后妇女阴道壁黏膜甲状腺激素功能性受体表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓沁; 马庆良; 周宇


    目的 探讨绝经前后阴道壁黏膜甲状腺激素功能性受体(thyroid hormone functional receptors,TR)表达的变化.方法 选取绝经后Ⅲ期子宫脱垂伴阴道前后壁脱垂妇女24例为绝经组,未绝经妇女13例为未绝经组.两组患者均行全子宫切除术加阴道前后壁修补术.采用免疫组化二步法和全自动图像分析检测阴道壁组织中的甲状腺激素功能性受体α1、β1和β2的表达情况.结果 两组患者阴道壁组织中均存在TRα1、TRβ1、β2的表达.绝经组TRα1、TBβ1、TBβ2的阳性表达率分别为(19.22±7.30)%、(10.99±4.97)%和(8.45±5.64)%,未绝经组TRα1、TRβ1、TRβ2的阳性表达率分别为(45.14±20.30)%、(32.38±12.30)%和(16.26±5.09)%,两组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 绝经前后妇女阴道壁组织中均有甲状腺激素功能性受体的表达,而绝经后阴道壁黏膜甲状腺激素功能性受体的表达下降,与绝经后妇女阴道壁黏膜萎缩的发生有一定的关系.%Objective To investigate the change of thyroid hormone functional receptors (TR) in vaginal wall between pre - and post - menopausal women. Methods 24 post - menopausal patients with uterine prolapse were randomly chosen as post- menopausal group and 13 pre- menopausal women were chosen as control group. 100 milligram vaginal wall mucosa were obtained from the two groups during hysterectomy and (or) colporrhaphia anterior- posterior. The expression of thyroid hormone functional receptor (TRα1, TRβ1, TRβ2) in vaginal wall mucosa were analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry and automatic image analysing system. Results Immu-nohistochemistry and histomorphologic analysis revealed that the expression of TRα1, TRβ1 and TRβ2 were existed in both groups. The positive expression rate of TRα1, TRβ1 and TRβ2 in post - menopausal group was (19. 22 ± 7.30)%, (10.99 ± 4.97)% and (8.45 ± 5.64)%, respectively. While in pre- menopausal group

  7. Violence against women. (United States)


    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  8. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown


    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  9. Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Suicidal Behavior among African American Females. (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Lane, Danielle Bradshaw; Kingree, J. B.


    Investigates how childhood maltreatment and current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) predict nonfatal suicide attempts among 335 African American women. PTSD in combination with any of the maltreatments of childhood increased the risk of suicide attempts. Suggests that interventions designed to reduce suicidal behavior should focus on women…

  10. Allostatic Load and Health Status of African Americans and Whites (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily


    Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…

  11. African Otter Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reed-Smith


    Full Text Available All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Otter Network website and social media network, apublic Otter Awareness facebook page, encouraging online reporting of otter sightings, conducting otter awareness surveys, and emphasising the need for communication with the public, other members of the network and other professionals. information not shared or documented is information LOST. A Second African Otter Workshop should be held in 2017 elsewhere in Africa to encourage attendance from a wider range of countries.

  12. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  13. An evidence-based approach to hormonal therapies for premenopausal women with fibroids. (United States)

    Lethaby, Anne E; Vollenhoven, Beverley J


    Ovarian steroids, particularly oestrogen, are important factors for fibroid growth. This has provided a rationale for the investigation of hormonal therapies for women with fibroids. This chapter will assess the role of hormonal therapies for pre-menopausal women with fibroids. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was undertaken in December 2006. Twenty-nine relevant randomized controlled trials and two systematic reviews were found. The included studies assessed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) alone, GnRHa plus add-back (with either progestagen, tibolone, combined oestrogen and progestagen, or raloxifene) and GnRHa given for at least 3 months prior to surgery for fibroids. Two trials assessed the effects of raloxifene alone. One trial assessed the effects of low-dose mifepristone, and a pilot study assessed the role of the selective progesterone receptor modulator, asoprisinil. GnRHa reduce fibroid and uterine volume and heavy bleeding but are associated with menopausal symptoms and bone loss, which limit long-term use. There is some evidence that add-back therapy, either progestagen, tibolone, combined oestrogen and progestagen, or raloxifene, can reduce the menopausal symptoms associated with GnRHa and/or loss of bone density, but there is insufficient good-quality research to make definitive conclusions. GnRHa given for at least 3 months before fibroid surgery improve pre-operative haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit, reduce uterine and pelvic symptoms, and reduce the rate of vertical incisions during laparotomy. Women undergoing hysterectomy are more likely to have a vaginal than an abdominal procedure. Limited evidence suggests that raloxifene may be useful in older premenopausal women with lower concentrations of background oestradiol. Limited short-term evidence of two progestogenic therapies indicates that low-dose mifepristone may improve quality of life and bleeding in the short term, and asoprisinil may improve bleeding

  14. Acculturation and acculturative stress as indicators for suicide risk among African Americans. (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L


    The literature on African American suicide and the acculturation literature were examined to derive a possible explanation for increases in suicide deaths for African American men and apparent resilience for African American women. Historically, African Americans were believed to be unaffected by suicide because of protective factors (e.g., strong religious values and cohesive familial support systems) embedded in the culture. However, minority mental health investigators have found that acculturation sometimes leads to negative consequences for individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Accordingly, acculturation and acculturative phenomena are proposed as a model to shed light on African American male suicide as African Americans increasingly engage mainstream values, beliefs, and practices in the absence of traditional protective factors.

  15. The South African Constitution requires men to be feminist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lótter


    Full Text Available Can a man be a feminist? If so, what would it mean? I want to participate in a dialogue between women and men on how to accommodate women's moral concerns. I propose that the fundamental values of justice embodied in the South African constitutional democracy require men to be feminist. These values provide the best safeguard of the important interests and values of both women and men. Men who accept these values can support the main concerns of feminism. The implications of the argument in this article range from public issues to the most private aspects of marriage.

  16. Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study. (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Strbo, Natasa; Romero, Laura; Jones, Deborah L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Bolivar, Hector; Podack, Eckhard R; Fischl, Margaret A


    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to

  17. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe


    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.

  18. Activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and risk of lung cancer among rural women in India who cook with biomass fuel. (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayali; Dutta, Anindita; Siddique, Shabana; Ray, Manas Ranjan


    The impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel burning on the risk of carcinogenesis in the airways has been investigated in 187 pre-menopausal women (median age 34years) from eastern India who cooked exclusively with biomass and 155 age-matched control women from same locality who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control, Papanicolau-stained sputum samples showed 3-times higher prevalence of metaplasia and 7-times higher prevalence of dysplasia in airway epithelial cell (AEC) of biomass users. Immunocytochemistry showed up-regulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt(ser473) and p-Akt(thr308)) proteins in AEC of biomass users, especially in metaplastic and dysplastic cells. Compared with LPG users, biomass-using women showed marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating oxidative stress. There were 2-5 times more particulate pollutants (PM(10) and PM(2.5)), 72% more nitrogen dioxide and 4-times more particulate-laden benzo(a)pyrene, but no change in sulfur dioxide in indoor air of biomass-using households, and high performance liquid chromatography estimated 6-fold rise in the concentration of benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine of biomass users. Metaplasia and dysplasia, p-Akt expression and ROS generation were positively associated with PM and t,t-MA levels. It appears that cumulative exposure to biomass smoke increases the risk of lung carcinogenesis via oxidative stress-mediated activation of Akt signal transduction pathway.

  19. African literature to-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sulzer


    Full Text Available Being interested in African literature one seems to swim from the very beginning in a terminological maelstrom. What is African literature? Is it literature written by any African author in any language? That would mean approaching the question from a purely racial basis. It would imply the art of demonstrating that any piece of such literature could infallibly be recognised as African, a thing which, as far as I know has never been done. Or is African literature strictly bound to traditional African culture?

  20. CYP2B6*6 and CYP2B6*18 Predict Long-Term Efavirenz Exposure Measured in Hair Samples in HIV-Positive South African Women. (United States)

    Röhrich, Carola R; Drögemöller, Britt I; Ikediobi, Ogechi; van der Merwe, Lize; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Wright, Galen E B; McGregor, Nathaniel; Warnich, Louise


    Long-term exposure to efavirenz (EFV) measured in hair samples may predict response to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Polymorphisms in CYP2B6 are known to alter EFV levels. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between CYP2B6 genotype, EFV levels measured in hair, and virological outcomes on ART in a real-world setting. We measured EFV levels in hair from HIV-positive South African females who had been receiving EFV-based treatment for at least 3 months from the South African Black (SAB) (n = 81) and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA) (n = 53) populations. Common genetic variation in CYP2B6 was determined in 15 individuals from each population using bidirectional Sanger sequencing. Prioritized variants (n = 16) were subsequently genotyped in the entire patient cohort (n = 134). The predictive value of EFV levels in hair and selected variants in CYP2B6 on virological treatment outcomes was assessed. Previously described alleles (CYP2B6*2, CYP2B6*5, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*17, and CYP2B6*18), as well as two novel alleles (CYP2B6*31 and CYP2B6*32), were detected in this study. Compared to noncarriers, individuals homozygous for CYP2B6*6 had ∼109% increased EFV levels in hair (p = .016) and CYP2B6*18 heterozygotes demonstrated 82% higher EFV hair levels (p = .0006). This study confirmed that alleles affecting CYP2B6 metabolism and subsequent EFV exposure are present at significant frequencies in both the SAB and CMA populations. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the use of hair samples for testing EFV concentrations may be a useful tool in determining long-term drug exposure in resource-limited countries.