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Sample records for african pre-menopausal women

  1. Oral contraceptive therapy increases oxidative stress in pre-menopausal women

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    Jui Tung Chen

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of OCT may increase oxidative stress levels, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in pre-menopausal women, providing new insights to the primary prevention of vascular complications in these subjects.

  2. Hormonal modulation of breast cancer gene expression: implications for intrinsic subtyping in pre-menopausal women

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    Sarah M Bernhardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinics are increasingly adopting gene expression profiling to diagnose breast cancer subtype, providing an intrinsic, molecular portrait of the tumour. For example, the PAM50-based Prosigna test quantifies expression of 50 key genes to classify breast cancer subtype, and this method of classification has been demonstrated to be superior over traditional immunohistochemical methods that detect proteins, to predict risk of disease recurrence. However, these tests were largely developed and validated using breast cancer samples from post-menopausal women. Thus, the accuracy of such tests has not been explored in the context of the hormonal fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone that occur during the menstrual cycle in pre-menopausal women. Concordance between traditional methods of subtyping and the new tests in pre-menopausal women is likely to depend on the stage of the menstrual cycle at which the tissue sample is taken, and the relative effect of hormones on expression of genes versus proteins. The lack of knowledge around the effect of fluctuating estrogen and progesterone on gene expression in breast cancer patients raises serious concerns for intrinsic subtyping in pre-menopausal women, which comprise about 25% of breast cancer diagnoses. Further research on the impact of the menstrual cycle on intrinsic breast cancer profiling is required if pre-menopausal women are to benefit from the new technology of intrinsic subtyping.

  3. Abnormal uterine bleeding in pre-menopausal women.

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    Singh, Sukhbir; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy Lynn

    2013-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is the direct cause of a significant health care burden for women, their families, and society as a whole. Up to 30% of women will seek medical assistance for this problem during their reproductive years. This guideline replaces previous clinical guidelines on the topic and is aimed to enable health care providers with the tools to provide the latest evidence-based care in the diagnosis and the medical and surgical management of this common problem. To provide current evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) among women of reproductive age. Outcomes evaluated include the impact of AUB on quality of life and the results of interventions including medical and surgical management of AUB. Members of the guideline committee were selected on the basis of individual expertise to represent a range of practical and academic experience in terms of location in Canada, type of practice, subspecialty expertise, and general gynaecology background. The committee reviewed relevant evidence in the English medical literature including published guidelines. Recommendations were established as consensus statements. The final document was reviewed and approved by the Executive and Council of the SOGC. This document provides a summary of up-to-date evidence regarding diagnosis, investigations, and medical and surgical management of AUB. The resulting recommendations may be adapted by individual health care workers when serving women with this condition. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common and sometimes debilitating condition in women of reproductive age. Standardization of related terminology, a systematic approach to diagnosis and investigation, and a step-wise approach to intervention is necessary. Treatment commencing with medical therapeutic modalities followed by the least invasive surgical modalities achieving results satisfactory to the patient is the ultimate goal of all therapeutic interventions

  4. No. 292-Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Pre-Menopausal Women.

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    Singh, Sukhbir; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy Lynn

    2018-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is the direct cause of a significant health care burden for women, their families, and society as a whole. Up to 30% of women will seek medical assistance for this problem during their reproductive years. This guideline replaces previous clinical guidelines on the topic and is aimed to enable health care providers with the tools to provide the latest evidence-based care in the diagnosis and the medical and surgical management of this common problem. To provide current evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) among women of reproductive age. Outcomes evaluated include the impact of AUB on quality of life and the results of interventions including medical and surgical management of AUB. Members of the guideline committee were selected on the basis of individual expertise to represent a range of practical and academic experience in terms of location in Canada, type of practice, subspecialty expertise, and general gynaecology background. The committee reviewed relevant evidence in the English medical literature including published guidelines. Recommendations were established as consensus statements. The final document was reviewed and approved by the Executive and Council of the SOGC. This document provides a summary of up-to-date evidence regarding diagnosis, investigations, and medical and surgical management of AUB. The resulting recommendations may be adapted by individual health care workers when serving women with this condition. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common and sometimes debilitating condition in women of reproductive age. Standardization of related terminology, a systematic approach to diagnosis and investigation, and a step-wise approach to intervention is necessary. Treatment commencing with medical therapeutic modalities followed by the least invasive surgical modalities achieving results satisfactory to the patient is the ultimate goal of all therapeutic interventions

  5. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

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    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki

    2005-01-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress

  6. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

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    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki [Gachon Medical School, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress.

  7. Goserelin with chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function in pre-menopausal women with early breast cancer: menstruation and pregnancy outcomes.

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    Wong, M; O'Neill, S; Walsh, G; Smith, I E

    2013-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure and infertility following chemotherapy in early breast cancer (EBC) are major concerns for young women. The role of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists with chemotherapy in EBC in reducing the incidence of chemotherapy-induced early menopause remains uncertain, and long-term data on the recovery of fertility are sparse. We report an audit of our experience with the GnRH agonist, goserelin (Zoladex®), used with chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function and maintain fertility. Pre-menopausal women were given goserelin subcutaneously every 28 days during chemotherapy, starting 0-14 days before treatment. The main clinical end point was recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy. The other end points were rate of successful conception and median time to recovery of menses. About 84% of 125 women recovered menstruation with the median time to recovery of 6 months (1-43 months), including 76% of 71 patients aged over 35. Of the 42 patients who attempted pregnancy, 71% (n=30) managed to achieve pregnancies. At the time of analysis, there were 42 pregnancies and 30 healthy deliveries. The GnRH agonist, goserelin, given with chemotherapy for EBC is associated with a low risk of long-term chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea and a high chance of pregnancy. Further randomised trials are needed.

  8. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

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    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  9. Ultrasonography of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women

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    Carolyn S. Dupuis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute-onset pelvic pain is an extremely common symptom in premenopausal women presenting to the emergency department. After excluding pregnancy in reproductive-age women, ultrasonography plays a major role in the prompt and accurate diagnosis of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain, such as hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, endometriosis, ovarian torsion, and tubo-ovarian abscess. Its availability, relatively low cost, and lack of ionizing radiation make ultrasonography an ideal imaging modality in women of reproductive age. The primary goal of imaging in these patients is to distinguish between adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain that may be managed conservatively or medically, and those requiring emergency/urgent surgical or percutaneous intervention.

  10. Patient Satisfaction with Physician Discussions of Treatment Impact on Fertility, Menopause and Sexual Health among Pre-menopausal Women with Cancer

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    Maura Scanlon, Anne Blaes, Melissa Geller, Navneet S Majhail, Bruce Lindgren, Tufia Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pre-menopausal women with cancer are at risk of therapy-associated infertility, premature menopause, and sexual dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether oncologists adequately address these risks during treatment planning. We conducted a study to evaluate physician-patient discussions addressing the impact of cancer treatment and actual treatment effects on fertility, menopause status, and general sexual health.METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in four oncology clinics specializing in breast, gynecologic, general hematology-oncology, and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT cancer care at a single institution. Eligible participants were pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis and either actively receiving or within 24 months from completion of treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at enrollment and at 1-year follow-up.RESULTS: Of the 104 eligible women, a majority were satisfied with the quality (68% and length (66% of reproductive health discussions, with the highest satisfaction levels in the gynecologic cancer clinic (85% and the lowest levels in the BMT clinic (53%. Fertility preservation was desired by 20% of women, including some >40 years old. Women were more interested in discussing treatment impact on menopause status and sexual health than fertility. Rates of discussions on treatment impact on sexual health were low despite 77% of women reporting severe sexual dysfunction at 1-year follow-up.CONCLUSIONS: One-third of women are dissatisfied with the quality and length of discussions regarding the impact of cancer treatment on reproductive health. There is notably inadequate counseling on the effect of treatment on fertility in women > 40 and on sexual function in all women. Oncologists must offer better resources and improve communication on the effect of treatment on reproductive health to pre-menopausal women with cancer.

  11. Study on the changes of serum levels of PINP, ICTP and 25-OH-VitD3 in pre-menopausal women and their relationship with BMD changes

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    Zhang Jinshan; Luo Liangping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and 25-OH-VitD 3 in premenopausal women and their relationship with changes of bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: BMD (at L 1 -L 4 and hip region) was examined with dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA) and serum levels of PINP, ICTP, 25-OH-VitD 3 were determined with RIA in 67 pre-menopausal women. Results: (1) Of the 67 women tested, 19 (28.4%) were found to be with low BMD. The mean BMD values in this group were significantly lower than those in the other 48 women. (2) The serum levels of PINP and ICTP in the 19 women with lower BMD (56.9±18.2 μg/L and 3.78±0.83 μg/L respectively) were much higher than those in the other 48 women (43.8±15.1 μg/L and 3.45±0.98 μg/L respectively, for PINP, P 0.05). The serum 25-OH-VitD 3 levels in the two groups of pre-menopausal women were not significantly different (25.6±7.8 ng/ml vs 27.4±9.2 ng/ml, P>0.05). (3) PINP levels were positively correlated with BMD values (r=0.274∼0.402, P 3 levels were not significantly correlated with BMD levels (r=-0.226∼0.083, P>0.05). PINP levels were weakly positively correlated with 25-OH-VitD 3 levels (r=0.395, P<0.05). Conclusion: There was tendency of increasing rate of bone turnover in pre-menopausal women, which might lead to development of osteoporosis. Early detection with BMD and serum markers of bone resorption (e.q. ICTP) measurement would be highly valuable for implement of prophylactic measures. (authors)

  12. Dyadic sexual communication in pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia and their partners: associations with sexual function, sexual distress and dyadic adjustment.

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    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Verhaeghe, Johan; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Enzlin, Paul

    2015-02-01

    While there is increasing interest in studying aspects of communication processes in sex research, the association between dyadic sexual communication and relationship and sexuality outcomes has not yet been examined in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia. To examine the associations between dyadic sexual communication and pain, sexual distress, sexual function and dyadic adjustment in women with self-reported dyspareunia and their male partners. Pre-menopausal women (n=38; M age=24.92, SD=6.12) with self-reported dyspareunia from a community sample and their partners (n=38; M age=26.71, SD=6.59) completed an online survey. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used in order to investigate both actor and partner effects. Both members of the couple completed: (i) the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale and (ii) the Dyadic Adjustment Scale; women also completed (iii) the Female Sexual Function Index, (iv) the Female Sexual Distress Scale, and (v) a Visual Analogue Scale on pain during intercourse; and men also completed (vi) the International Index of Erectile Functioning. Controlling for relationship duration, women's better dyadic sexual communication was significantly associated with their higher levels of sexual function (P=0.028), lower levels of sexual distress (P=0.003) and higher levels of dyadic adjustment (P=0.005), but not with their pain or men's sexual function or dyadic adjustment. Controlling for relationship duration, men's better dyadic sexual communication was associated with their higher levels of dyadic adjustment (P=0.027) but not with their sexual function, nor with women's sexual function or dyadic adjustment. These findings contribute to the theoretical knowledge on interaction processes in couples with dyspareunia and suggest that it may be important to enhance open and direct communication about sexual matters in couples with dyspareunia. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

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    Skibola Christine F

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  14. Association of Circulating Orexin-A Level With Metabolic Risk Factors in North Indian Pre Menopausal Women.

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    Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Sameeksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Mishra, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the association between circulating Orexin-A level with metabolic risk factors in North Indian adult women. 342 women were enrolled for the case-control study, 172 women were with metabolic syndrome (mets) and 170 healthy control women were without metabolic syndrome, (womets) according to (NCEP ATP III criteria). Circulating Orexin-A level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Observations indicated low levels of orexin-A (26.06 ± 6.09 ng/ml) in women with mets and other metabolic risk factors compared to women without metabolic syndrome (36.50 ± 10.42 ng/ml). Further, in women with metabolic syndrome, circulating Orexin A was significantly associated with waist circumference, triglyceride (negative correlation) and hyperdensity lipoprotein (positive correlation). Our study shows that circulating Orexin A was found to be significantly associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and obesity-related disorders in North Indian premenopausal women.

  15. Blood Lead Level and Δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in Pre-Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women

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    I.R Elezaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship of blood lead levels (BLL and blood, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(ALAD activity and haematocrit value(Hct to menopause , were examined 17 pre-or perimenopausal (PreM and 17 postmenopausal women (PosMfrom Prishtina City, the capital ofRepublic Kosovo. The mean age of the PreM women was 28.8 years (21-46, with a mean blood lead level of 1.2 μg/dL (SD=0.583 μg/dL , the mean blood ALAD activity53.2 U/LE (SD= 2.8 U/LE and haematocrit value42.1 % (SD= 4.3 %. The mean age of the PosM women was 53.6 years (43-67, with a mean blood lead level1.9 μg/dL (SD=0.94 μg/dL, the mean blood ALAD activity 44.4 U/LE(SD=7.2 U/LE and haematocrit value 42.1 % ( SD= 4.3 % and 42.2 % (SD=4.4 %. The BPb level of PosM women was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with the BPb level in PreM women. The blood ALAD activity of PosM was significantly inhibited (P<0.002 in comparison with blood ALAD activity in PreM women. The haematocrit values were relatively unchanged. There was established significantly negative correlation between BPb and blood ALAD activity (r=- 0.605; P<0.01 in the PreM women.These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with adverse health effects on women in menopause transition.

  16. Metabolic response to 6-week aerobic exercise training and dieting in previously sedentary overweight and obese pre-menopausal women: A randomized trial

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    Petri Wiklund

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that small weight loss does not produce measurable health benefits, whereas short-term regular aerobic exercise can improve glucose and lipid metabolism even in the absence of weight loss in previously sedentary overweight and obese women.

  17. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

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    Victoria L M Herrera

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting blood pressure (BP in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001 and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001 F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50 and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65, four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5 were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  18. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

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    Herrera, Victoria L M; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting blood pressure (BP) in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R)-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001) and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001) F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50) and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65), four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5) were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  19. Rural African women and development.

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    Kabadaki, K

    1994-01-01

    70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of

  20. Recovery of menstruation after long-term chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in pre-menopausal patients with breast cancer.

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    Sakurai, Kenichi; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

    2011-04-01

    A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist and tamoxifen (TAM) are used in hormonal therapy following pre- and post-operative chemotherapy in pre-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients who are positive for hormone receptors. However, it remains to be clarified how often patients recover menstruation after long-term LH-RH agonist plus TAM therapy. In this study, the incidence of menstruation recovery after therapy was examined. The subjects included 125 pre-menopausal patients with breast cancer who were positive for hormone receptors and had undergone surgery at our institution. They were treated with four cycles of the CEF regimen and four cycles of docetaxel (Doc) before surgery as adjuvant chemotherapy. Thereafter, they were treated with an LH-RH agonist plus TAM for 24 months and followed to determine menstruation recovery. Menstruation resumed in 24 cases (19.2%) after the last LH-RH agonist treatment session. It took 7.3 ± 2.8 months for the patients to recover menstruation. The rate of menstruation recovery was 42.1% in patients aged 40 or younger and 9.2% in those aged 41 or older; the difference was significant. The period until menstruation recovery tended to be longer in older patients at the end of treatment. The menstruation recovery rate after therapy was higher in younger women. However, since ovarian function may be lost even in younger patients, the potential consequences of this therapy should be fully explained beforehand to patients who may wish to become pregnant.

  1. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

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    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  2. Pre-menopausal triple-negative breast cancer at HAM hospital medan

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    Betty; Laksmi, L. I.; Siregar, K. B.

    2018-03-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are a type of breast cancer that does not have any or lack expression of the three receptors of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2). This cross-sectional study was performed on patients TNBC in HAM hospital Medan from 2013 to 2016 by immunohistochemistry stained. A total 60 invasive breast cancer samples with TNBC. The more frequent in TNBC group were 51-60 years (19 cases, 31.66%) and pre-menopause (34 cases, 57%). Tumor size T3 and T4 with staging IIIA and IIIB, histology sub-type IC-NOS and ILC with grade 2 and grade 3 of histologic was more common in TNBC.

  3. Body fatness and breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; McCann, Susan E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while increasing risk in postmenopausal women. However, the current evidence is largely based on studies in Caucasian populations. Associations in women of African ancestry (AA), who have a higher prevalence of obesity, have been evaluated in few studies and results suggest different effects. We evaluated the impact of body size, body fat distribution, and body composition on breast cancer risk among AA women (978 cases and 958 controls) participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, a multi-site case–control study in New York City (NYC) and New Jersey (NJ). Cases were newly diagnosed with histologically confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer, age 20–75 yrs. In NYC, cases were recruited through hospitals with the largest referral patterns for AA women and controls through random digit dialing (RDD). In NJ, cases were identified in seven counties in NJ thorough the NJ State Cancer Registry, and controls through RDD and community-based recruitment. During in-person interviews, questionnaires were administered and detailed anthropometric measurements were obtained. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI did not have a major impact on pre- or post-menopausal breast cancer, but was significantly associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- tumors among postmenopausal women (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15-0.96 for BMI > 30 vs. BMI < 25). Furthermore, increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was found for higher waist and hip circumferences after adjusting for BMI, with ORs of 2.25 (95% CI: 1.07-4.74) and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.39-6.10), respectively, comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile. While ORs for higher fat mass and percent body fat among postmenopausal women were above one, confidence intervals included the null value. Our study suggests that in AA women BMI is generally unrelated to breast cancer. However, higher

  4. Resistance Stories of African-Brazilian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of an intervention using narrative workshops as a device to stimulate the empowerment of women. Ten women, victims of gender violence, took part in a workshop developed by non-governmental organization for African-Brazilian women Maria Mulher, which gives assistance to women living in Vila Cruzeiro do Sul, in the city of Porto Alegre. The main objective of the research was to debate questions related to gender and violence, making use of stories and histories related to the feminine, specifically African-Brazilian stories. Five meetings were held, where the women told and were told stories, took part in group discussions, experiences and rituals. The workshops gave those women a space where they could tell and hear stories, take part in the rituals of the orixás [African-Brazilian deities] of the black culture and tell their personal histories using those experiences. This intervention was an attempt at invoking different subjective experiences, and made it possible to empower the women who took part in the research, contributing for the rescue of the individual and collective memory of this group.

  5. Hormonal modulation of breast cancer gene expression: implications for intrinsic subtyping in pre-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah M Bernhardt; Pallave Dasari; David Walsh; Amanda R Townsend; Amanda R Townsend; Timothy J Price; Timothy J Price; Wendy V Ingman

    2016-01-01

    Clinics are increasingly adopting gene expression profiling to diagnose breast cancer subtype, providing an intrinsic, molecular portrait of the tumour. For example, the PAM50-based Prosigna test quantifies expression of 50 key genes to classify breast cancer subtype, and this method of classification has been demonstrated to be superior over traditional immunohistochemical methods that detect proteins, to predict risk of disease recurrence. However, these tests were largely developed and val...

  6. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  7. A histerectomia simples realizada no menacme e a densidade mineral óssea da mulher na pós-menopausa Pre-menopausal simple hysterectomy and post-menopausal female bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Daniel Hobeika

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a densidade mineral óssea de mulheres na pós-menopausa, com o antecedente de histerectomia com conservação ovariana bilateral, realizada no menacme, comparadas a um grupo de mulheres com menopausa natural, não histerectomizadas. Tratou-se de um estudo de corte transversal, com trinta mulheres na pós-menopausa e histerectomizadas no menacme e 102 mulheres menopausadas naturalmente, comparando-se as respectivas densitometrias ósseas, em nível do fêmur e coluna lombar. A análise mostrou que as variáveis idade e índice de massa corporal estavam fortemente associadas à densidade mineral óssea do fêmur e da coluna lombar, sendo o índice de massa corporal diretamente e a idade inversamente associados. Posteriormente, as trinta mulheres histerectomizadas, foram pareadas por idade e índice de massa corporal, com trinta mulheres não-histerectomizadas, não apresentando diferenças estatisticamente significantes da densidade mineral óssea. Esses resultados sugerem que a histerectomia com conservação ovariana bilateral, realizada em mulheres no menacme, não parece ocasionar redução adicional da massa óssea, quando avaliadas na pós-menopausa.This study aimed to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD of post-menopausal women with previous pre-menopausal hysterectomy including bilateral ovarian conservation compared to a group of non-hysterectomized women with natural menopause. Data from a cross-sectional study of 30 pre-menopausally hysterectomized women evaluated in the post-menopause were compared with 102 naturally post-menopausal women, analyzing their respective bone densitometry, measuring the femoral and lumbar spinal BMD. Multiple regression analysis of the 132 women showed that age and body mass index (BMI were heavily associated with femoral and lumbar spinal BMD, BMI directly associated, and age inversely associated with BMD. In addition, 30 hysterectomized women were matched by age and BMI to the

  8. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.

  9. Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players. ... 78% of them were influenced by family members to play volleyball, 81% continued to play the game due to success, and 64% envisaged that ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. The advertising of nutritional supplements in South African women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advertising of nutritional supplements in South African women's magazines: a descriptive ... These types of products are increasingly advertised and the advertisements frequently contain health claims. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Fibroadenoma in women in Ghana | Bewtra | Pan African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fibroadenoma is the commonest benign tumor of female breast. It is particularly common in young women in Africa. Method: This paper describes the clinicopathologic features of fibroadenoma of breast in African women from central Ghana and compares them to the data from African-American women.

  12. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.

  13. Association of the Joint Effect of Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cancer in African American Women: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sarpong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the US and in Mississippi. Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women, and the underlying pathophysiology remains unknown, especially among African American (AA women. The study purpose was to examine the joint effect of menopause status (MS and hormone replacement therapy (HRT on the association with cancers, particularly BC using data from the Jackson Heart Study. The analytic sample consisted of 3202 women between 35 and 84 years of which 73.7% and 22.6% were postmenopausal and on HRT, respectively. There were a total of 190 prevalent cancer cases (5.9% in the sample with 22.6% breast cancer cases. Menopause (p < 0.0001, but not HRT (p = 0.6402, was independently associated with cancer. Similar results were obtained for BC. BC, cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, prevalent cardiovascular disease, physical activity and certain dietary practices were all significantly associated with the joint effect of menopause and HRT in the unadjusted analyses. The family history of cancer was the only covariate that was significantly associated with cancer in the age-adjusted models. In examining the association of cancer and the joint effect of menopause and HRT, AA women who were menopausal and were not on HRT had a 1.97 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.38 times odds of having cancer compared to pre-menopausal women after adjusting for age; which was attenuated after further adjusting for family history of cancer. Given that the cancer and BC cases were small and key significant associations were attenuated after adjusting for the above mentioned covariates, these findings warrant further investigation in studies with larger sample sizes of cancer (and BC cases.

  14. "Women...mourn and men carry on": African women storying mourning practices: a South African example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-09-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to highlight the navigation of some cultural and gendered issues relating to mourning, against the backdrop of the everyday experiences of loss of life in South Africa due to violence and HIV/AIDS. The article draws on African womanist and feminist scholarship and focuses on the intersections between cultural and gender practices of bereavement in the lives of professional urban African women. The authors argue for the use of positioning theory and witnessing practices to honor and story the ongoing struggle of African women as these women take different agentic positions by accepting, questioning, resisting, and/or changing cultural mourning practices while they compassionately witness the self and others in the narratives they live.

  15. Proverbial Oppression of Women in Yoruba African Culture: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proverbial Oppression of Women in Yoruba African Culture: A Philosophical ... and that they are indicators of discrimination against women in Yoruba culture. ... aspect in gender discourse lies in the proverbial resources of the community.

  16. Obesity literacy and culture among African American women in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ivette A; Boston, Patricia Q; Dutton, Matthew; Jones, Chauneva Glenn; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Vilme, Helene

    2014-07-01

    To explore causal explanations of obesity among African-American women of diverse weight across the life spectrum. In-depth interviews were conducted with adult African-American women of healthy weight (N = 10), overweight (N = 10), and obese weight (N = 20) to evaluate the relationship between causal explanations of obesity and weight. Generally overlooked dimensions of health definitions were discovered. Differences in weight definitions were detected between women of different weights. Terminology, symptoms, and solutions to obesity were detected between the women of different weights and public health recommendations. Identified causal discrepancies will help bridge the disconnection between public health recommendations and African-American women's perceptions with tailored interventions.

  17. Building South African women's leadership: A cohort model for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the University of the Western Cape (UWC) and California State University, Fullerton's ... limited representation of women in positions of academic leadership in African ... There was a need and interest from South African higher education faculty and ... of five black women and their experiences in this pilot PhD programme.

  18. African American Women and Obesity through the Prism of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    Background: There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic.…

  19. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  20. Book review: Musical echoes: South African women thinking in jazz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Title: Musical echoes: South African women thinking in jazz. Author: Muller, Carol and Sathima, Bea Benjamin. Publisher: Duke University Press. Publication year: 2011. ISBN 978-0-8223-4914-3 ...

  1. South African women writings: Tracing the journey of their presence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African women writings: Tracing the journey of their presence, development, expansion and self-expression as a form of ... Gender and Behaviour ... This in itself was a feminist struggle to change societal perceptions and stereotypes.

  2. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita

    2004-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCAl/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  3. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought.

  4. Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie N Fongwa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors

  5. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI ...

  6. Depression in African women presenting for psychological services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression in these women was related to poverty, overcrowding, unemployment, high levels of crime, lack of services and sexual abuse. Conclusion: African women return to a social context within which depression is increasingly prevalent. Establishing psychological services relevant to needs as well as means of ...

  7. African Women Commuter Traders in Nairobi in the First Decade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates African women commuter trading activities in Nairobi in the first decade after World War One. Its findings derive mainly from a research project carried out in 1989-1996. The major source of data for the study was oral interviews with the women who traded in Nairobi during the years under study, ...

  8. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    August 16,20 10 APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: "Eahng Behaviors and Obesity in Afncan Amelican and Caucasian Women " Name of Candidate: Elena A...AND OBESITY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN WOMEN " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright...Caucasian Women Elena A. Spieker1,2,3, Robyn Osborn1,2, and Tracy Sbrocco1,2 1 Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services

  9. Food insecurity and women's roles in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimet, J E

    1997-01-01

    Food insecurity is most severe in the African continent, with 200 million of the 800 million people suffering from food insecurity found in sub-Saharan Africa. The main causes of food insecurity in Africa are natural disasters and conflict. Since African women are often the main food producers, income earners and guardians of family health and nutrition at the rural level, they play a key role in dealing with the continent's food insecurity problem. During the Women's Conference in Kenya in 1985, women were encouraged to play a central role in the development and production of food and agriculture, while governments were asked to provide women with access to land, child care facilities, and education. If given the right tools and support from the government and community, women could become vital players in eliminating world hunger.

  10. Portraits of South African Women in Lauren Beukes’ Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraivan Luiza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study some of Lauren Beukes’ feminine characters and to draw a parallel between them and some famous South African personalities presented in her non-fiction work Maverick: Extraordinary Women from South Africa’s Past. To this end, I will analyse three of her novels, Moxyland (2008, Zoo City (2010 and The Shining Girls (2012, in order to draw attention to the part played by South African women in Apartheid and post-Apartheid society.

  11. Initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in african american women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Street, Darlene J

    2010-01-01

    To explore issues related to initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African American women. Qualitative design using focus groups, guided by Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality. Three different regions of a southeastern state in the United States. Fifteen self-identified African American women who had recently breastfed were recruited by lactation consultants and by word of mouth. Three focus groups were conducted with initial guiding questions. New ideas that emerged were fully explored in the group and included as a guiding question for the next group. Categories identified from the data were reasons to start and stop breastfeeding, advice about breastfeeding that was useful or not useful, and cultural issues related to breastfeeding that were perceived to be unique among African Americans. Three overall themes were identified that cut across categories: perceived lack of information about benefits and management of breastfeeding, difficulties breastfeeding in public, and lack of a support system for continued breastfeeding. Women need to be taught early in their pregnancies about the benefits of breastfeeding and offered continuing support and teaching once breastfeeding is established. Peer support groups for breastfeeding African American women should be established. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  12. The Influence of Racism and Sexism in the Career Development of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…

  13. The Meaning of African American College Women's Experiences Attending a Predominantly White Institution: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…

  14. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.

  15. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  16. Politics of predation: food distribution and women | Alliyu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergent on the African conception of food as a significant human physiological need which in most cases defines poverty; this paper discussed the possibility of unique political participation based on the effectiveness of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Within the context of these conceptual issues, women in ...

  17. Barriers and Motivators to Physical Activity among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Efunbumi, Orisatalabi; Harville, Cedric; Sears, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the study were to identify the barriers and motivators for physical activity (PA) and to assess whether these factors vary by weight status. A self-administered survey was completed by 413 African American women. Each woman provided verbal informed consent and was weighed and measured by a research team member. The participants' mean…

  18. Aggressive Angiomyxoma in African Women: A report of Two Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a rare soft tissue tumour usually of the perineum. There is no report in the surgical literature of a description of AAM in black Africans. OBJECTIVE: To report the first description of AAM in black Africa women in the surgical literature and to highlight the value of special ...

  19. Successful African American Women School Leaders in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron-Asuncion, Alma

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…

  20. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita

    2005-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  1. CAPACITY BUILDING FOR WOMEN IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    In spite of ongoing efforts, the status of women remains low. ... of poverty due to low incomes and poor access to paid employment all lead to the poor .... significant for the following reasons: There is need to tackle the problem of gender ... inequality which exist between men and women, which has constrained their full ...

  2. Factors That Influence Breastfeeding Initiation Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Tyonne D; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Spatz, Diane L

    2018-05-01

    To examine cultural and socioenvironmental factors that affect breastfeeding initiation among African American women. Qualitative descriptive design and conventional content analysis. A large, inner-city, primary care center affiliated with a 500-bed children's hospital within a large, Northeastern U.S. city. Participants were 34 U.S.-born African American mothers of healthy term infants 0 to 3 months of age. Six focus groups were conducted using a 16-question, scripted interview guide. A number of complex factors that influenced breastfeeding initiation included certain cultural beliefs about sexuality, the influence of family and peer networks, information sources, intentions, and a variety of other barriers and facilitators. Our findings suggest that the decision to initiate breastfeeding is not solely determined by the woman within the African American community. Because this decision is contingent on multiple factors external to the woman, it is important to recognize the role that partners, grandmothers, communities, information sources, and health care providers/organizations play in women's decisions. Implementation of multilevel strategies is critical to increase breastfeeding initiation among African American mothers. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of health insurance ownership among South African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwabu Germano M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-sectional national household sample derived from the South African Health Inequalities Survey (SANHIS. The study subjects consisted of 3,489 women, aged between 16 and 64 years. It was a non-interventional, qualitative response econometric study. The outcome measure was the probability of a respondent's ownership of a health insurance policy. Results The χ2 test for goodness of fit indicated satisfactory prediction of the estimated logit model. The coefficients of the covariates for area of residence, income, education, environment rating, age, smoking and marital status were positive, and all statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05. Women who had standard 10 education and above (secondary, high incomes and lived in affluent provinces and permanent accommodations, had a higher likelihood of being insured. Conclusion Poverty reduction programmes aimed at increasing women's incomes in poor provinces; improving living environment (e.g. potable water supplies, sanitation, electricity and housing for women in urban informal settlements; enhancing women's access to education; reducing unemployment among women; and increasing effective coverage of family planning services, will empower South African women to reach a higher standard of living and in doing so increase their economic access to health insurance policies and the associated health services.

  4. African women, industrialization and another development. A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steady, F C

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the women of Africa have been differentially integrated into the world economic system, serving primarily as a labor reserve and a mainstay for the subsistence and reproductive sectors. If and when necessary, female proletarianization can come into effect. African women, by virtue of their strategic role in traditional food systems, have acquired certain skills compatible with labor intensive food processing industries. Consequently, in some countries they have been involved in the handling, processing, and packing of food. In many 3rd world nations regulations protecting minimum wage levels do not exist and collective bargaining activities are not strongly in force. Economic hardship and the desperate need to survive can lead some groups to accept even lower wages. Consequently, although the employment of women at lower wages violates the principle of equal pay for equal work, agroindustries with monopolies can deliberately and with impunity hire women at lower wages than men. In general, when women are hired in industries the nature of their employment is precarious, frequently being of a casual and seasonal nature and in greatest demand during peak periods. In an effort to understand the implications of industrialization for African women a global perspective is necessary, for at present the incorporation of the African women in direct industrialization is minimal. Racism has played an important role in the exploitation of the African continent, and no serious study of class and gender inequality in Africa can overlook that important fact. Numerous studies have shown how industry perpetuates the sexual division of labor. Even in the industrialized nations, women often have held the least paid and most precarious jobs in industry. Women's vulnerability is further worsened by several factors, the most obvious being their reproductive capabilities. In addition to being more vulnerable to industrial hazards, their employment can be truncated by

  5. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  6. A Qualitative Study of African American Women in Engineering Technology Programs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…

  7. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  8. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  9. Insulin-resistance and lipids metabolism in women at menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dmitrуina Gresko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes lipid metabolism in women during premenopausal and considered their relationship with the level of insulin sensitivity and abdominal obesity. Examined 20 women aged 46-48 years, with fixed transition to pre-menopause on the bases of menstrual cycle dysfunction or amenorrhea during a year as well as a decrease of visualized follicular reserve according to the results of ultrasonic examination of the organs of the small pelvis, were involved into investigation. Body mass increase with abdominal obese formation and disorders of the lipid metabolism against a background of insulin resistance is observed in women during pre-menopause against a background of sexual hormones deficiency.

  10. Skin lightening practices: an epidemiological study of South African women of African and Indian ancestries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlova, N C; Hamed, S H; Tsoka-Gwegweni, J; Grobler, A

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous adverse sequelae of skin lightening creams present with myriad skin complications and affect dermatology practice, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where such products are widely used, with a prevalence of 25-67%. To examine the skin lightening practices of both African and Indian women living in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in the general outpatient departments of two regional university hospitals in Durban, South Africa. All consenting African and Indian women aged 18-70 years were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire. Six hundred women completed the questionnaire, of whom 32·7% reported using skin lightening products. The main reasons cited were treatment of skin problems (66·7%) and skin lightening (33·3%). Products were purchased from a variety of sources. Twenty-five percent reported using sunscreen. The use of skin lightening cosmetics is common among darkly pigmented South African women, including those of both African and Indian ancestries. Despite more than 20 years of governmental regulations aimed at prohibiting both the sale of cosmetics containing mercury, hydroquinone and corticosteroids, and the advertising of any kind of skin lightener, they are far from having disappeared. The main motivations for using these products are the desire to treat skin disorders and to achieve a lighter skin colour. Television and magazine advertisements seem to influence women's choice of these products and, thus, would be efficient channels for raising public awareness about the dangers of using uncontrolled skin lighteners. © 2015 The Authors BJD © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Contribution of "Women's Gold" to West African livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariéve

    2012-01-01

    Contribution of ``Women's Gold'' to West African Livelihoods: The Case of Shea ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) in Burkina Faso. This paper (i) quantifies the contribution that Vitellaria paradoxa makes to the total income of rural households belonging to different economic groups in two areas of Burkina ...... not be considered as a remedy to poverty but instead as a way for households to diversify their livelihood strategy and decrease their vulnerability to food insecurity and climate variability....

  12. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  13. Liposuction breast reduction: a prospective trial in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Martin J; Baxt, Sherwood A; Jain, Aridaman K; Hausman, Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Recently published case reports and outcome studies support the use of liposuction alone as an effective technique for ameliorating symptoms of breast hypertrophy. This study is the first prospective trial to examine the effectiveness of liposuction breast reduction as a primary modality of breast reduction. In addition, this study examines the role that liposuction breast reduction can play in the treatment of African American women, given the known scarring difficulties that darker skinned patients can encounter with traditional breast reduction surgery. Twenty African American women were recruited through newspaper and Internet advertisements. Patients aged 20 to 60 years were serially accepted to the study. Patients with a chief complaint of breast ptosis were excluded. No other exclusion criteria were used. Previously validated questionnaire instruments were used preoperatively and postoperatively to measure breast-related symptoms, general patient health perception, bodily pain, and self-esteem. Comorbid conditions, demographics, financial status, prior treatments, and smoking history were also documented. Seventeen patients completed the preoperative and postoperative questionnaires. An average of 1075 cc of tissue was removed per breast during liposuction breast reduction surgery. Postoperative assessment showed a significant decrease in breast-related symptoms, a significant decrease in patient pain, and a significant improvement in overall patient health perception. Liposuction breast reduction is a useful breast reduction modality in the properly selected patient. African American women, who may traditionally forego breast reduction surgery because of scarring, are excellent candidates for this type of reduction procedure.

  14. From reproduction to reinvention. Women's roles in African cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, A

    1995-01-01

    African governments are expressing a new awareness that interventions focused on women's health, education, political participation, and human rights are essential to the control of population growth. Lacking, however, are formal models of innovative techniques for mobilizing endogenous resource bases and maximizing popular participation. Marginalized from social and economic development, African urban women have been able to elaborate new forms of social economies and reciprocal interaction that merit attention. In the shift from the household production and reproduction characteristic of parochial rural economies to the cross-circuitry of urban trade, women have facilitated the formation of interhousehold alliances and the sharing of opportunities and resources essential to urban survival. Because women tend to operate in informal contexts outside the realm of bureaucratic control, they have been able to improvise new forms of solidarity, information exchange, and income generation. Moreover, through their ability to link disparate households, compounds, and neighborhoods, women are evolving new processes of institutional reform that cut across territory, class position, and other forms of stratification.

  15. Decreased live births among women of Middle Eastern/North African ethnicity compared to Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, W H; Abdullah, A; Abuzeid, O; Bendikson, K; Sharara, F I; Abuzeid, M

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if IVF outcome disparities exist among MENA women in the USA in comparison to a control group of Caucasian women. A retrospective cohort study comparing MENA (N = 190) and Caucasian (N = 200) women undergoing their first IVF cycle between 5/2006 and 5/2014 was carried out at an academically affiliated fertility practice. All MENA cycles during that time period undergoing IVF/ICSI using autologous embryos and blastocyst transfers were compared to a control group of Caucasian women. MENA women were significantly younger (32.9 vs 34.5, P Middle Eastern/North African women have worse IVF outcomes with decreased live birth rates per blastocyst transfer and increased miscarriage rates compared to Caucasian women.

  16. Alternative methods for measuring obesity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ashley E; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A

    2013-03-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women.

  17. Mammography Screening Among African-American Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipkus, Issac

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...

  18. Emerging models of power among South African women business leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kinnear

    2016-11-01

    Research purpose: The purpose was to critically analyse emerging models of power among South African women business leaders to include their perspectives in the process of theory building. Motivation for the study: Women in senior leadership positions are not necessarily enabling the transformation of organisations to include greater representation of women at senior levels. A critical understanding of women’s models of power may highlight unconscious processes contributing to this as well as emerging models that can facilitate change. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research was conducted within a feminist social constructionist framework, using the method of discourse analysis of narrative texts to identify emerging models of power. The 10 women in the study included executives within corporations across a range of industry sectors in South Africa. Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide approaches to gender transformation efforts in organisations and raise women leaders’ awareness of their conscious and unconscious impact on gender empowerment. Contribution/value-add: A novel contribution of this study is the emerging transformative model of power and the tensions women experience in asserting this power.

  19. African American college women: constructing a hierarchy of sexual arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, F E

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the safer sex decision-making processes of a group of African American college women. The study participants consisted of 15 women aged 19 to 33, who were full-time students attending a four-year university in Texas. The women self-identified as having been sexually active with at least one male partner within the past year. Semi-structured in-depth interviews lasting approximately 1.5 hours provided data. Theme and domain analysis of the interviews and field notes revealed that women employed both emotional and philosophical strategies to determine their safer sex behaviour. These strategies involved the use of a 'self-defined' sexual arrangements hierarchy. This hierarchy served to define the way women ordered and valued different types of sexual arrangement, from casual to committed. The resulting hierarchy also guided the safer sex behaviour of these women. The implications for intervention programmes that are targeted at increasing safer sex behaviour and HIV risk reduction are discussed in light of these findings.

  20. Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Raju; Borgdorff, Hanneke; Jespers, Vicky; Francis, Suzanna C; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Kyongo, Jordan K; Hardy, Liselotte; Menten, Joris; Crucitti, Tania; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Schuren, Frank; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M

    2015-02-21

    Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli may cause inflammation, which may facilitate HIV acquisition and other adverse reproductive health outcomes. We characterized the VMB of women in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania (KRST) using a 16S rDNA phylogenetic microarray. Cytokines were quantified in cervicovaginal lavages. Potential sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates were also evaluated. Three hundred thirteen samples from 230 women were available for analysis. Five VMB clusters were identified: one cluster each dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus (KRST-I) and L. iners (KRST-II), and three clusters not dominated by a single species but containing multiple (facultative) anaerobes (KRST-III/IV/V). Women in clusters KRST-I and II had lower mean concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α (p vaginal candidiasis (ptrend = 0.09), but these associations did not reach statistical significance. Women who reported unusual vaginal discharge were more likely to belong to clusters KRST-III/IV/V (p = 0.05). Vaginal dysbiosis in African women was significantly associated with vaginal inflammation; the associations with increased prevalence of STIs and UTI, and decreased prevalence of vaginal candidiasis, should be confirmed in larger studies.

  1. The African Women's Protocol: bringing attention to reproductive rights and the MDGs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesl Gerntholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Gibbs and colleagues discuss the African Women's Protocol, a framework for ensuring reproductive rights are supported throughout the continent and for supporting interventions to improve women's reproductive health, including the MDGs.

  2. 11. PO Ngesa African Women Commuter Traders in Nairobi in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGINALDS

    Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK) .... The history of women commuter traders in present day Nairobi goes back to pre- ... The African market became a focal point in the continuing women's trade,.

  3. Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Perspectives about Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Holden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaining greater understanding about the various psychosocial, socio-cultural, and environmental factors that may influence experiences of depression among African American women (AAW helps elucidate how this mental illness impacts the lives of this population. Sixty-three adult AAW comprised the study’s convenience sample.  Specifically, focus group cohorts inclusive of women from an academic institution, a primary healthcare clinic, and an urban community setting were conducted.  Results indicated six (6 dominant common themes as issues that may increase risk for depression among diverse AAW.  Similarities and differences about perspectives that contributed to depression were delineated among the three cohorts of AAW.  These results are important for mental/behavioral health researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals that are engaged in the design and implementation of culturally centered and gender-specific prevention and intervention strategies targeted to AAW at risk for depression.  

  4. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Investigate Meaningful Prenatal Care Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A multilevel understanding of HIV/AIDS disease burden among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M

    2014-01-01

    Disproportionate HIV/AIDS rates among African American women have been examined extensively, primarily from an individual-centered focus. Beyond individual behaviors, factors such as the hyperincarceration of African American men and geographically concentrated disadvantage may better explain inequitable disease burden. In this article I propose a conceptual model of individual, social, and structural factors that influence HIV transmission among African American women. The model can be used to develop comprehensive assessments and guide prevention programs in African American communities. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  6. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2010-01-01

    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  7. Testing a Culture-Specific Extension of Objectification Theory regarding African American Women's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…

  8. Psychological and Neuropsychological Predictors of Non-Compliance to Mammography Screening Among High-Risk African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Sharon L; Lewis-Jack, Ometha

    2005-01-01

    The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. national figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...

  9. Psychological and Neuropsychological Predictors of Non-Compliance to Mammography Screening Among High-Risk African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. National figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...

  10. Metabolic Syndrome After HIV Acquisition in South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Naicker, Nivashnee; Feinstein, Addi; Gray, Clive M; Masson, Lindi; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2016-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases are common among chronically infected patients with HIV in the developed world, but little is known about these conditions in African cohorts. We assessed the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among young South African women during the first 3 years after HIV acquisition. A total of 160 women were followed prospectively in the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study. Metabolic syndrome was defined as a constellation of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia/diabetes, and abdominal obesity. Time trends were assessed using generalized estimation equation models. Median age was 24 years and body mass index 27 kg/m. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome at infection was 8.7% increasing to 19.2% over 36 months (P = 0.001). The proportion of women with body mass index >30 kg/m increased from 34.4% to 47.7% (P = 0.004), those with abnormal waist circumference and elevated blood pressure increased from 33.5% to 44.3% (P = 0.060) and 23.8% to 43.9% (P metabolic syndrome was 9.13/100 person-years (95% CI: 6.02 to 13.28). Predictors of metabolic syndrome were age (per year increase odds ratio (OR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.16), time postinfection (per year OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.92), family history of diabetes (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.71 to 5.72), and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*81:01 allele (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.21 to 7.17), whereas any HLA-B*57 or B*58:01 alleles were protective (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.77). HIV-1 RNA (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.27) and CD4 count (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.11) did not predict metabolic syndrome. The high burden of metabolic conditions in young South African HIV-infected women highlights the need to integrate noncommunicable disease and HIV care programs. Interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease must start at HIV diagnosis, rather than later during the disease course.

  11. Emotional intelligence in South African women leaders in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude-Hélène Mayer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study contributes to an in-depth understanding of emotional intelligence (EI in women leaders in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs in South Africa from an inside perspective. Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore EI in South African women leaders working in HEIs to identify women leader’s strengths, foci and their possible areas of development. The aim is to get deeper insights in EI in women leaders because EI is associated with effective leadership qualities, creativity and innovation, as well as empathetic communication which is needed in the challenging HEI workplaces. Motivation for the study: Emotional intelligence is an important source for women leaders to increase leadership qualities. This study is motivated by a deep interest to explore aspects of EI in women leaders in this specific professional context. Research design, approach and method: The study uses a qualitative research design and an approach based on Dilthey’s modern hermeneutics of ‘Verstehen’ (understanding. Twenty-three women leaders of the Higher Education Research Service (HERS-SA network were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. One researcher observed behaviour in one HEI to support the interpretation of the data. Data were analysed through content analysis. Main findings: Findings show that women leaders mainly refer to intrapersonal emotional quotient (EQ, followed by interpersonal EQ, adaptability, stress management and, finally, general mood. The most highly rated components of EQ are self-regard, followed by interpersonal relationships, problem solving, empathy, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, impulse control and social responsibility. Findings also provide ideas on what EQ components can be further developed. Practical/managerial implications: New insights are provided on what components of EI should be developed in women leaders to increase overall EI, on cognitive and behavioural levels

  12. Life Styles of African Women [And] A Swimming Pool for Mansa Musa's Wife [And] A Yoruba Naming Ceremony [And] Metropolis: African and American Style. Mini-Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    Four modules dealing with African culture are combined in this document. The first module discusses various life-styles of African women, including warrior, queen, ruler, and matriarch. A lesson plan uses a question-and-answer format to encourage discussion of the effects of tradition, society, and nation upon African women. Questions asked…

  13. The relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann

    2012-07-01

    In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.

  14. Obesity-Associated Hypertension: the Upcoming Phenotype in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne

    2017-05-01

    The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.

  15. Coping with perceived racism: a significant factor in the development of obesity in African American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L

    2011-07-01

    African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.

  16. Separate and unsanitary: African American women railroad car cleaners and the Women's Service Section, 1918-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Robin Dearmon

    2011-01-01

    The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners during this period but they were routinely denied adequate facilities, including toilets, locker rooms, and dining facilities throughout the railroad system. By raising the issues of facilities, workers' rights, and public health, these women shaped federal policy and widened the agenda of the WSS to include a direct attack on segregated workplaces. This article argues that African American women car cleaners launched an industrial campaign that wove together concerns about racism, sexism, and health issues, and successfully removed barriers to women working in a predominately male industry.

  17. Why Not Academia?--The Streamlined Career Choice Process of Black African Women Engineers: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2017-01-01

    Black African women are grossly underrepresented as academic staff in engineering programs at South African universities. The problem is exacerbated at historically White institutions (HWI) where Black women are simply absent as engineering research and teaching staff. The absence of Black African women in the academy occurs despite Black African…

  18. Race, Gender, and Critique: African-American Women, White Women, and Domestic Violence in the 1980s and 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on young adult working class and poor African American women and white women, who currently live in a largely inhospitable economy, this paper examines where these women lodge social critique (where they place the cause and imagine the remedy for their troubles). Data from indepth interviews indicate that respondents see the world with a…

  19. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rana, Aadia; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2012-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women, or the social, structural and behavioural factors influencing concurrency. We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioural factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships, guided by grounded theory. Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors included social normalisation of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners' concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting partners. Lack of trust was the most commonly cited reason that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners' dependence on women for economic support and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioural factors included alcohol and cocaine use. Social, structural and behavioural factors strongly influenced these African American women's concurrent sexual partnerships. Many HIV interventions disseminated by the CDC focus largely on behavioural factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women's sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women's HIV risks are urgently needed.

  20. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, ...

  1. Intimate partner violence among African American and African Caribbean women: prevalence, risk factors, and the influence of cultural attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila K. Stockman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective: In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI. We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV influences abuse. Design: Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions: Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to

  2. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2002-01-01

    .... During Year 02, we conducted technical analyses of completed Phase 1 interviews that were obtained from African American women who were eligible to receive, but who chose to decline, free screening mammograms...

  3. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  4. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  5. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2004-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study was to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  6. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  7. Bacterial vaginosis among African American women who have sex with women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Sunesara, Imran R; Austin, Erika L; Mena, Leandro A; Schwebke, Jane R

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a frequent cause of vaginal discharge that may be more common among women reporting sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of BV and predictors of infection among a sample of African American WSW. African American WSW aged 18 years or older presenting to the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic between 2009 and 2010 and reporting a history of sexual activity with a female partner during the preceding year were invited to participate. A survey on sexual history and sexual behavior characteristics was completed. Bacterial vaginosis was defined by Amsel criteria. Associations with participant characteristics were determined using logistic regression analysis. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 93 (47.4%) of 196 women. Bisexual identity (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.66; P = 0.04), douching within the past 30 days (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.09-3.43; P = 0.02), age 18 years or less at first sexual encounter with a female partner (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.16-8.71; P = 0.02), and report of more than 1 lifetime male sexual partners (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.74; P = 0.04) were significant predictors of BV in bivariate analysis. Bacterial vaginosis was less common among women who reported more than 1 lifetime female sexual partner (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76; P = 0.01). In multivariable analysis, age 18 years or less at first sex with a female partner approached significance, while report of 1 lifetime female sexual partner remained strongly associated with BV. Bacterial vaginosis was common in this sample of African American WSW and significantly associated with report of 1 lifetime female sexual partner.

  8. African American and White women׳s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-03-01

    To describe African American and White women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy and to explore differences in perceptions by race. Qualitative interview study. Two Ob/Gyn clinics in South Carolina, USA. Thirty pregnant women (15 African American, 15 White) between 20 and 30 weeks gestation, equally represented across pre-pregnancy BMI categories (10 normal weight, 10 overweight, and 10 obese). White women more frequently described intentions to meet weight gain, physical activity, and dietary guidelines in pregnancy than African American women. African American women were more concerned with inadequate weight gain while White women more commonly expressed concerns about excessive weight gain. More White women discussed the importance of physical activity for weight management. Regardless of race, few women described risks of excessive weight gain or benefits of physical activity as it relates to the baby's health. The primary cited barrier of healthy eating was the high cost of fresh produce. Several knowledge gaps as well as race differences were identified in women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy. Future interventions should seek to educate women about common misperceptions. It may be necessary to culturally tailor gestational weight gain interventions to optimise health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... pre-menopausal black women living in Bloemfontein in South Africa. .... nity health worker explained the purpose of the study to possible participants. .... was almost three times higher than the RDA of 130 g/day. .... The beneficial metabolic effects of a ... disease viewpoint, excessive dietary fat intake may be.

  10. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625

  11. VALIDATING THE EVIDENCE OF VIOLENCE IN PARTNER RELATIONSHIPS WITH REGARD TO XHOSA AFRICAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesatywa, Nontando Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on how African women understand the forms and meaning of violence in partner relationships. The findings suggest that many African women experience physical, emotional and economic abuse. Some of the reasons for abuse which emerged include a patriarchal system, alcohol abuse, infidelity and failure to support children financially. The influence of Xhosa African practices on violent partner relationships was explored. The study indicates a need for ethnically sensitive interdisciplinary programmes for social service practitioners, and an effective, accessible legal system for rural women to reduce incidences of abuse.

  12. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y)

  13. Women in the Academy: Ambiguity and Complexity in a South African University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    1997-01-01

    Explores experiences of six women on two senior academic committees at a South African university to understand how practices in such committees contribute to the marginalization and exclusion of women and to constructions of subjectivity. Discusses how the presence of women on such committees challenges the consciousness of all members. (SLD)

  14. The West in Africa and African women in the West: shifting identity and the migration of heroines in the work of African women writers

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Hrastnik

    2009-01-01

    In the works of African women writers, Africa is seen in the grip of change – through the combined eff ects of colonialism and post-colonialism, the growth of urbanization, the redefi ning of traditional culture, and the blending of the traditional and the modern. Th e ideas of transition and transformation, the blending of old and new values, the increasing disintegration of traditional culture, and uncritical adoption of western values all frequently underpin the plots and themes of African...

  15. African American women's experiences with the initial discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, N R; Gates, M F; Brown, G

    2001-04-01

    To describe the experiences of African American women living with breast cancer following the primary diagnosis and while undergoing initial treatment. Phenomenologic. 13 African American women (ages 30-66) purposefully selected from two oncology clinics in the mid-South. Phenomenologic interviews (transcribed verbatim) and field notes were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of phenomenologic description and analysis. Experience Trajectory, Femininity, and Spirituality were the three major themes. The Experience Trajectory subthemes were finding the lump, getting the diagnosis, undergoing surgery and adjuvant treatment. The Femininity subthemes were loss of all or part of the breast, loss of hair, and sexual attractiveness to a man. Spirituality was reflected as a reliance on God. Telling the story of their experience trajectory during their breast cancer experience is valuable in assessing African American women's feelings, emotions, and fears of body changes that occur during surgery and treatment. Their spirituality helps them through this experience. Research involving both African American women and their partners would provide greater insight into specific relationship patterns and communication related to sexuality during this experience. Nurses need to listen to the stories of African American women about the initial experience of discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer so they can be more informed advocates for these women. African American women need more information from healthcare providers regarding the whole experience trajectory.

  16. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  17. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  18. Trauma in African women and children: a study of the Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma in African women and children: a study of the Kenyan experience as illustration of the phenomenon. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... This paper describes the effects of this type of globalization on Africans ...

  19. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women Using the Internet

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.

  20. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.

  1. African American women making race work in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with

  2. Counseling African-American women with the Sistas Embracing Empowerment (SEE) model

    OpenAIRE

    Stepney, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Research from the last two decades indicates that African-American women have faced extreme mental health challenges in overcoming experiences of isolation, depression and somatization. Unfortunately, the sources of these stressors are largely attributed to racial and gender discrimination and societal expectations and norms associated with African-American women. Additionally, minimal research has been conducted to determine the most effective counseling approaches to aid this population. A ...

  3. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  4. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...

  5. Differences in Knowledge of Breast Cancer Screening Among African American, Arab American, and Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hamade, Hiam; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Palamisono, Gloria; Zambrana, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Methods Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 20...

  6. Differences in knowledge of breast cancer screening among African American, Arab American, and Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E

    2011-01-01

    We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.

  7. Breast cancer characteristics at diagnosis and survival among Arab-American women compared to European- and African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley Alford, Sharon; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B; Merajver, Sofia D

    2009-03-01

    Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973-2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American women. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women.

  8. Acceptability of Early Antiretroviral Therapy Among South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nigel; Norman, Emily; Leask, Kerry; Naicker, Nivashnee; Asari, Villeshni; Majola, Nelisile; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karim, Salim S Abdool

    2018-03-01

    WHO guidelines recommend immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all individuals at HIV diagnosis regardless of CD4 count, but concerns remain about potential low uptake or poor adherence among healthy patients with high CD4 counts, especially in resource-limited settings. This study assessed the acceptability of earlier treatment among HIV-positive South African women, median age at enrollment 25 (IQR 22-30), in a 10 year prospective cohort study by (i) describing temporal CD4 count trends at initiation in relation to WHO guidance, (ii) virological suppression rates post-ART initiation at different CD4 count thresholds, and (iii) administration of a standardized questionnaire. 158/232 (68.1%) participants initiated ART between 2006 and 2015. Mean CD4 count at initiation was 217 cells/µl (range 135-372) before 2010, and increased to 531 cells/µl (range 272-1095) by 2015 (p suppression rates at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months were consistently above 85% with no statistically significant differences for participants starting ART at different CD4 count thresholds. A questionnaire assessing uptake of early ART amongst ART-naïve women, median age 28 (IQR 24-33), revealed that 40/51 (78.4%) were willing to start ART at CD4 ≥500. Of those unwilling, 6/11 (54.5%) started ART within 6 months of questionnaire administration. Temporal increases in CD4 counts, comparable virological suppression rates, and positive patient perceptions confirm high acceptability of earlier ART initiation for the majority of patients.

  9. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Overweight and Obese African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terryl J. Hartman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18.3% of total energy intake. The most commonly reported beverage was plain water, consumed by 88.2% of participants, followed closely by sweetened beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened teas, sweetened coffees and sweetened/flavored waters consumed by 78.9% of participants. In multiple regression analyses total energy and percent energy from beverages and specific categories of beverages were not significantly associated with current body mass index (BMI. It is widely accepted that negative energy balance may lead to future weight loss. Thus, reducing consumption of beverages that contribute energy but not important nutrients (e.g., sugar sweetened beverages could be an effective strategy for promoting future weight loss in this population.

  10. Maternity and paternity leave and career progression of black African women in dual-career couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky L. Motaung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focused on examining the perceptions of dual-career couples at a stateowned company about the influence of taking maternity and paternity leave on the career progression of black African women in middle management and leadership occupations. Research purpose: The primary purpose of the study was to identify core barriers in relation to maternity and paternity leave that contribute negatively in the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples. Motivation for the study: To obtain insight into the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Research design, approach and method: This study was qualitative, comprising a sample of 10 black African women and 10 black African men, with data collected through in-depth semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the interview dialogues. Main findings: The findings established that taking maternity leave has a negative influence on the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples at the state-owned company. The participants further confirmed that involuntary time off work and productiveness were principal influencing barriers of taking maternity leave, leading to other undesirable consequences, such as unproductiveness and reliability. Practical and managerial implications: The state-owned company should review its current talent management and recruitment and selection policies, in order to positively contribute to increasing the representation and facilitating career progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Contributions or value-add: Insights were provided on the influences of taking maternity and paternity leave in the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations.

  11. African American women and prenatal care: perceptions of patient-provider interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Villarruel, Antonia M; Ronis, David L

    2015-02-01

    Poor patient-provider interaction among racial/ethnic minorities is associated with disparities in health care. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we examine African American women's perspectives and experiences of patient-provider interaction (communication and perceived discrimination) during their initial prenatal visit and their influences on perceptions of care received and prenatal health behaviors. Pregnant African American women (n = 204) and their providers (n = 21) completed a pre- and postvisit questionnaire at the initial prenatal visit. Women were also interviewed face to face at the subsequent return visit. Women perceived high quality patient-provider communication (PPC) and perceived low discrimination in their interaction with providers. Multiple regression analyses showed that PPC had a positive effect on trust in provider (p prenatal care satisfaction (p prenatal health behaviors. Findings suggest that quality PPC improves the prenatal care experience for African American women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Accustomed to enduring: experiences of African-American women seeking care for cardiac symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Angela D; Malone, Ruth E

    2005-01-01

    Understand the meaning of delayed treatment seeking in African-American women with unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Phenomenologic analysis of in-depth interview data and field notes on 12 African-American women hospitalized with unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Women's interpretation of and response to symptoms were informed by experiences of marginalization and their self-understanding as people who were strong and who had endured life's hardships. When hospitalized, some women experienced trivialization of their complaints by clinicians and a focus on technological procedures over respectfully attending to their concerns, which provided further disincentives to seeking care. Three major themes emerged: misrecognition and discounting of symptoms, enduring, and influence of faith. Experiences of marginalization shape responses to symptoms, care-seeking behavior, and interpretation of subsequent care experiences for African-American women with cardiac disease, who may experience different symptoms as well as interpret them differently than members of other groups.

  13. Reflecting about gender violence and african american women: The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and to the subjectivation modes of African American women attended by the SOS Racism program. The women showed intense emotional suffering due to discrimination and racism they have faced. In the group process new meanings for the violence were produced, transforming the personal narrative into a public report. 

  14. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men's and women's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-07-01

    Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.

  15. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  16. African American grandmother raising grandchildren: a phenomenological perspective of marginalized women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Bene, Susan B

    2010-08-01

    More African American grandmothers are becoming caregivers for their grandchildren when the parents are unable or unwilling to provide care. This qualitative study used hermeneutic phenomenology based on in-dept interviews with 15 African American women who have assumed the role of caregivers. The following themes, with subthemes emerged regarding this new role for the grandmothers: Finding a Voice to Match Medical Needs, The Role of the Confidante: The Power of the Group, The Relationship with the Biological Parents, and Legal Issues. These finding provide rich understand. These findings provide rich understanding of the African American women and the challenges they face related to culture, race, lack of political voice and power, and limited resources--in essence, the impact of marginalization in society. The underlying point is the potential impact on this population and the degree to which the health profession can draw on an interdisciplinary model to frame, analyze and dress future health care problems in marginalized African American women.

  17. The impact of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians: French zone on church and African theology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasie M. Maponda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We can understand that the Circle must work on two dimensions to provide a future for new woman theology in Africa. The first dimension is based on the intuitive fundamental and innovative sense of a woman from Ghana, Mercy Amba Oduyoye, that leads to the creation of the Circle: she impulsed the idea that women should make their own theology from their dailylife experiences and their subjectivity as women, in order to think on faith and Gospel in a different way. It is necessary to question that intuitive sense. The second dimension aims to revisit the great personalities of African woman theologians of the Circle. What are the essential points of their research? How has the research changed African theology? I particularly think of Musimbi Kanyoro, Nyambura Njoroge and Musa Dub� in the Africa English zone and Helene Yinda, Liz Vuadi, Kasa Dovi and Bernadette Mbuyi Beya in Africa French zone. The essence of their thinking is still actual and that is why they are good enough to project in to the future.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article presents the history of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians from creation to now. Issues related to traditional culture, gender and sexual-based violence, gender-based injustice, and HIV and AIDS are discussed under different approaches such as the biblical approach, hermeneutical approach, ethical approach, historical approach and practical approach. The impact of African Women Theologians speaking French will be particularly highlighted.Keywords: theology; women theologians; women empowerment; HIV/AIDS; gender

  18. Protective Factors and Resiliency: A Case Study of How African American Women Overcome Barriers en Route to the Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberry, Francemise St. Pierre

    2015-01-01

    An underrepresentation of African American women in the superintendency exists in K-12 public schools. There is also a lack of research on their leadership and experiences in education. Although the number of women superintendents has increased over the years, the superintendency remains a male-dominated field and African American women remain in…

  19. A review of the health effects of sexual assault on African American women and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie

    2013-01-01

    To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Psychometrics of the "Self-Efficacy Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables Scale" in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittner, Lisaann S; Gittner, Kevin B

    2017-08-01

    Assess the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy Consumption of Fruit and Vegetable Scale (F/V scale) in African American women. Midwestern Health Maintenance Organization. 221 African American women age 40-65 with BMI≥30 MEASURES: F/V scale was compared to eating efficacy/availability subscale reported on the WEL and mean micronutrient intake (vitamins A, C, K, folate, potassium, and beta-carotene reported on 3-day food records. F/V scale construct validity and internal consistency were assessed and compared to: 1) the original scale validation in Chinese women, 2) WEL scale, and 3) to micronutrient intake from 3-day food records. Total scale scores differed between African American women (μ=1.87+/-0.87) and Chinese (μ=0.41). In a Chinese population, F/V scale factored into two subscales; the F/V factored into one subscale in African American women. Construct validity was supported with correlation between the F/V scale and the eating efficacy WEL subscale (r 2 =-0.336, p=0.000). There was not a significant correlation between dietary consumption of micronutrients representative of fruit and vegetable intake and the F/V scale. The F/V scale developed for Chinese populations can be reliably used with African American women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Weight Loss Maintenance in African American Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Tussing-Humphreys

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

  2. Risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Sabrina; Salihu, Hamisu M; Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Jeffers, Dee; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Mishkit, Vanessa R

    2009-11-01

    Data on risk factors for major antenatal depression among African American women are scant. In this study, we seek to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women receiving prenatal services through the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start (CHHS). Women were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff of > or =13 as positive for risk of major antenatal depression. In total, 546 African American women were included in the analysis. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for major antenatal depression. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology consistent with major antenatal depression was 25%. Maternal age was identified as the main risk factor for major antenatal depression. The association between maternal age and risk for major antenatal depression was biphasic, with a linear trend component lasting until age 30, at which point the slope changed markedly tracing a more pronounced likelihood for major depression with advancing age. Women aged > or =30 were about 5 times as likely to suffer from symptoms of major antenatal depression as teen mothers (OR = 4.62, 95% CI 2.23-9.95). The risk for major antenatal depression increases about 5-fold among low-income African American women from age 30 as compared to teen mothers. The results are consistent with the weathering effect resulting from years of cumulative stress burden due to socioeconomic marginalization and discrimination. Older African American mothers may benefit from routine antenatal depression screening for early diagnosis and intervention.

  3. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  4. Factors Associated With Increased Cesarean Risk Among African American Women: Evidence From California, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We studied if both observed and unobserved maternal health in African American women in hospitals or communities were associated with cesarean delivery of infants. Methods. We examined the relationship between African American race and cesarean delivery among 493 433 women discharged from 255 Californian hospitals in 2010 using administrative data; we adjusted for patient comorbidities and maternal, fetal, and placental risk factors, as well as clustering of patients within hospitals. Results. Cesarean rates were significantly higher overall for African American women than other women (unadjusted rate 36.8% vs 32.7%), as were both elective and emergency primary cesarean rates. Elevated risks persisted after risk adjustment (odds ratio generally > 1.27), but the prevalence of particular risk factors varied. Although African American women were clustered in some hospitals, the proportion of African Americans among all women delivering in a hospital was not related to its overall cesarean rate. Conclusions. To address the higher likelihood of elective cesarean delivery, attention needs to be given to currently unmeasured patient-level health factors, to the quality of provider–physician interactions, as well as to patient preferences. PMID:25790391

  5. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L

    2016-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.

  6. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  7. Women in west African societies under colonial rule: a study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the process, West African women demonstrated uncommon resilience that kept the indigenous productive processes and economic systems afloat in the face of ... a critical review of the place and role of women in contemporary affairs of the region be undertaken as a possible way out of the region's crisis of development.

  8. Capacity Building for Women in African Countries: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capacity Building for Women in African Countries: A Case Study of Sierra Leone. ... In the case of women this has further inured from histories of discrimination most of which stems from socio-cultural factors and forces. Ongoing ... The paper is informed by conceptual analysis of existing literature and official documentation.

  9. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  10. Empowerment of African American Women Leaders in Higher Education: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives on empowerment held by African American women who work in executive positions within higher educational settings. This study also seeks to provide other women with a deeper level of awareness regarding the journey towards executive leadership. Current literature explores…

  11. Comparing Three South African Student Cohorts on Their Attitudes to the Rights of Working Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Cynthia Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares three cohorts (1998-1999, 2005-2006 and 2010) of undergraduate psychology students at a South African university on the level of support for working women (women in paid employment) on various issues considered to be feminist. Cohort 1 (n?=?244), cohort 2 (n?=?311) and cohort 3 (n?=?266) completed an adapted version of a…

  12. African American Women Aspiring to the Superintendency: Lived Experiences and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Roma B.; Killacky, Jim; Johnson, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the absence of a viable population of African American women in the superintendency, this study addressed barriers described by 10 credentialed, district-level Southern women who hold advanced education degrees coupled with years of leadership experience. This phenomenological study used interview methodology to uncover the lived…

  13. Women, smoking, and social disadvantage over the life course: a longitudinal study of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Margaret E; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Juon, Hee-Soon; Pearson, Jennifer L; Robertson, Judith A

    2009-10-01

    We compare life course characteristics of a cohort of African American women (N=457) by their smoking status at age 42: never smoker (34.1%), former smoker (27.8%), or current smoker (38.1%). The Woodlawn population from which our sample is drawn has been followed from first grade (1966-67) to mid adulthood (2002-3) and is a cohort of children from a disadvantaged Chicago community. Examination of the effects of cumulative disadvantage on smoking behavior showed that nearly half of women who first lived in poverty as children, dropped out of school, became teen mothers, and were poor as young adults currently smoked; less than 22% of women with none of these difficulties were current smokers. Regression analyses focusing on smoking and evidence of social disadvantage in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood showed that women with more education were much less likely to be current smokers. Women reporting low parental supervision in adolescence and less frequent church attendance in young adulthood and those whose mothers' reported regular smoking were significantly more likely to be current smokers. Poverty and marital status in young adulthood varied significantly among smoking categories in bivariate relationships, but not in final multivariate regression models. Few other studies have examined smoking careers with data from age 6-42, comparing social disadvantage characteristics over the life course. While marital status, church involvement and parental supervision are not usually included as measures of socioeconomic status, they represent advantages in terms of social capital and should be considered mechanisms for transmitting disparities.

  14. Values expressed through intergenerational family food and nutrition management systems among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahye, Brenda A; Devine, Carol M; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2006-01-01

    This grounded theory investigation aimed to understand intergenerational family roles and the food management strategies of African American women from a social-ecological perspective. Thirty women from 10 low/moderate-income 3-generation urban families participated in interviews covering roles, health, nutrition, and food management strategies. Four dynamic family systems for managing food and nutrition emerged from qualitative data analysis. Participants expressed values of responsibility, social connections, caretaking, reward, and equal opportunity, and fulfilling responsibilities for family care, connections, and finances. These values and systems provide a basis for culturally appropriate, interpersonal-level nutrition interventions among African American women that build on family structures, needs, and resources.

  15. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women.

  16. Evidence for Stress-like Alterations in the HPA-Axis in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Johannes; König, Johanna; Homuth, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Using oral contraceptives has been implicated in the aetiology of stress-related disorders like depression. Here, we followed the hypothesis that oral contraceptives deregulate the HPA-axis by elevating circulating cortisol levels. We report for a sample of 233 pre-menopausal women increased...

  17. An increase in plasma adiponectin multimeric complexes follows hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss in obese and overweight pre-menopausal women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, J.; Kováčová, Z.; Jacek, M.; Klimčáková, E.; Kováčiková, M.; Vítková, M.; Kuda, Ondřej; Šebela, M.; Samcová, E.; Štich, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 11 (2007), s. 557-565 ISSN 0143-5221 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adiponectin * adipose tissue * dietary intervention Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2007

  18. Obesity is associated with breast cancer in African-American women but not Hispanic women in South Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2011-08-15

    Obesity is considered a risk factor for breast cancer. Modifying life styles that reduce obesity offers the potential for prevention and improved outcomes from cancer. The effects of obesity and breast cancer among African-American women and Hispanic women have been explored in a limited number of studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity with breast cancer in a minority cohort. This was a cross-sectional study of 471 African-American and Hispanic women with and without breast cancer in South Los Angeles. Data regarding body mass index (BMI) and clinical factors were obtained by medical record abstraction. Data were assessed using logistic regression with multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess disease-free survival. Women with breast cancer were more likely to be obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) than women without breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; P = .01). There was a significant association of being overweight or obese and breast cancer among postmenopausal women (OR, 2.3 [P = .03] and 2.9 [P obesity and breast cancer was significant only among African-American women (OR, 2.70; P American women (OR, 4.8; P obesity and later disease stage at diagnosis (P = .06). An association also was observed between higher BMI (for cutoff points of both 30 kg/m(2) and 28 kg/m(2)) and poorer disease-free survival (P = .045 and P = .019, respectively). The current data suggested an association between obesity and breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and most significantly in the African-American cohort. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  19. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  20. African American women's limited knowledge and experiences with genetic counseling for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Vanessa B; Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n = 13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n = 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community.

  1. Teaching strategies to facilitate breast cancer screening by African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations.

  2. A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Palmer, Julie R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A; Chanock, Stephen J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Conti, David V; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-15

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Promoting women and minority owned enterprises in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The paper shows the need to accelerate economic development in. African ... companies. This in turn would create jobs and add economic value to ...... Entrepreneurial History, Harvard University. Research Center ... York: Basic Books. Wilken ...

  4. Ties that bind: implications of social support for rural, partnered African American women's health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Angela R; Cook, Jennifer L; Murry, Velma McBride; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2005-01-01

    Ecological theory was used to explore the pathways through which intimate relationship quality influenced health functioning among rural, partnered African American women. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from 349 women in Georgia and Iowa. Women's intimate relationship quality was positively associated with their psychological and physical health functioning. Support from community residents moderated this link, which was strongest for women who felt most connected with their neighbors and for women who believed their neighborhood to have a sense of communal responsibility. Future research should identify other factors salient to health functioning among members of this population.

  5. Discriminatory Experiences and Depressive Symptoms among African American Women: Do Skin Tone and Mastery Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Keith, Verna M.; Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    We apply structural equation modeling techniques to data from the National Survey of American Life to investigate the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among African American women ages 18–98 years (N=2,299). In addition, we evaluate whether or not personal mastery accounts for the intensity of African American women’s psychological response to discrimination and whether or not exposure to discrimination varies by skin complexion. Findings reveal that discr...

  6. Theory of perceived access to breast health care in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmon, Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    The theory presented in this article proposes an alternative view of access to care on the basis of an African American woman's perception of the necessity, availability, and appropriateness of breast health care. The theory of perceived access to breast health care in African American women may also be useful in framing future research studies exploring the relationship between access to care and utilization of primary, secondary, and tertiary clinical preventive services related to breast health care.

  7. Relationship between Early Familial Influences and Personality Traits in Relation to Career Success Outcomes of African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Keeba G.

    2010-01-01

    This study will examine the relationship between career success outcomes of African American women and early familial factors, as well as personality traits. Using a cross-sectional case-control design. the study will use participants who self-identified as African American with two African American parents. They will be randomly selected from a…

  8. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for African American Women at Familial Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddie; Bovbjerg, Dana

    2005-01-01

    ...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. To date, little research has been done on women of African descent with family histories of breast cancer, despite the fact that they may be at particularly high risk for chronic distress due...

  9. The Influence of Personal and Group Racism on Entry into Prenatal Care among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Misra, Dawn P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Racism has been hypothesized as a barrier to accessing healthcare. No quantitative study has directly assessed its influence on women's initiation of prenatal care (PNC). We examined the relationship between PNC entry and experiences of personal and group racism among low-income African American women. We also examined whether the use of denial of racism as coping mechanism was associated with a delay in accessing PNC. Methods Using a prospective/retrospective cohort design we collected data from 872 African American women (prenatally: n=484; postpartum: n=388). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the overall denial of racism index and PNC initiation. Findings PNC entry was not significantly associated with personal experiences of racism (p=0.33); it was significantly associated with group experiences (pracism experienced by other AAs was a barrier to early PNC among low-income African American women. Delayed access to PNC may be rooted in the avoidance of racialized experiences among less empowered women when faced with discrimination. Our findings have important implication for the engagement of African American women into the PNC delivery system and the health care system postpartum. PMID:24041828

  10. Mammography Screening Trends: The Perspective of African American Women Born Pre/Post World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Lo, Yun-Jia; Penner, Louis A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have traditionally combined aging women (aged ≥50 years) when reporting their mammography use. This may inadvertently mask important cohort effects in mammography use, which are likely to result from distinct personal life experiences and generational differences. Using the Health and Retirement Study samples of 1998, 2000, and 2004, we examined cohort differences in mammography use between African American women born before 1946 (non–baby boomers) and those born in 1946 to 1953 (baby boomers). Between 1998 and 2004, screening rates for non–baby boomers declined, while those for baby boomers remained relatively steady. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses suggest that while screening rates decreased with age (OR, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.947–0.968) cohort effects may have partially reversed the age effect, with non–baby boomers having an increased likelihood of receiving a mammogram compared to baby boomers (OR, 1.697; 95% CI, 1.278–2.254). Because African American women are diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer, documentation of cohort differences in mammography use among older African American women is important as health care professionals design intervention programs that are maximally effective for women from different cohorts. This is particularly critical as more African American women in the baby boomer cohort become part of the aging population. PMID:20575209

  11. HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among West African immigrant women in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D; Mizan, Ayse; Wright, Bernadette

    2008-09-01

    Most women who live in sub-Saharan countries have heard of HIV/AIDS, but there is still widespread misunderstanding about how HIV is spread, the consequences of infection, and how to protect against infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge about HIV and attitudes towards condom use in West African refugees who had settled in Perth, Western Australia, within the past 5 years. Knowledge about transmission of HIV, myths about how HIV is spread, incorrect beliefs about protective factors, the effectiveness of condoms in protecting against sexually transmissible infections, and attitudes towards condom use were investigated by survey in 51 West African women, and in 100 Australian women for comparison. Where possible, each West African woman was matched for age and level of education with an Australian woman. Knowledge of HIV was poorest in the least educated West African women, but many of the more highly educated women also had misconceptions about how HIV is spread, how to protect against HIV, and the effectiveness of condoms in protecting against HIV. Moreover, most West African women held negative attitudes towards condom use. Within the Australian sample, HIV knowledge was greatest in women with tertiary qualifications, and was greater in younger than older women; in addition, attitudes towards condom use differed across the age span. The findings in the present study suggest that educational programs that focus on knowledge about HIV should be tailored to meet the needs and cultural sensitivities of newly emerging immigrant communities, and should target particular demographic groups within the Australian population.

  12. The perceptions of African women regarding natural menopause in Mamelodi, Tshwane district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria N. Makuwa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of South African aging population are women, who spend late adulthood experiencing natural menopause. Despite the government spending billions of rand on different services for ageing women, menopausal challenges to African women still receive little attention. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of African women regarding natural menopause, in order to propose recommendations for health and social support systems for women in Mamelodi, Tshwane district. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used to conduct the study. The population of the study consisted of menopausal women, between the ages 45 and 60 years or more, visiting the clinics for collection of chronic medication and othe rhealth assessment. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a semi-structured interview guide to collect data. Tesch’s method of qualitative data analysis was used in the study. Results: The main theme that emerged from the study was ‘attitude toward menopause’, which was supported by cultural beliefs and experience. The African menopausal women expressed the importance of health support systems that will meet their needs within their context. Conclusion: Women’s health programs and educational health information at facilities should include menopausal education to promote and improve health of all African menopausal women during their adulthood. There is a need to establish a women’s health support group network within communities to share menopausal experiences with peers. The training and education curriculum of healthcare providers should include detailed menopause in order to provide comprehensive, congruent care.

  13. Attitudes, perceptions and behaviours towards HIV testing among African-American and East African immigrant women in Washington, DC: implications for targeted HIV testing promotion and communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine and compare the HIV testing attitudes, perceptions and behaviours between African-American and East African immigrant women in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Adopting an inductive, qualitative methodological approach, we conducted a total of 40 in-depth, semistructured interviews between October 2012 and March 2013. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Overall, African-American women held more favourable views towards HIV testing than East African immigrant women. Very few East African immigrant women sought HIV testing intentionally. The majority of East African participants were tested inadvertently, while others tested for immigration-related or employment-related purposes. There were many barriers that impede women from seeking an HIV test including negative assumptions (eg, "Getting an HIV test implies that I am HIV positive"), negative emotions (eg, "Fear of being diagnosed with HIV and what this will mean for me") and potential negative reactions from partner or others (eg, "Getting an HIV test can signal distrust, disrespect, or infidelity"). There were nuances in how each group articulated some of these barriers and East African women expressed unique concerns that originated from experiences in their home countries. The study shed light into the complexity of factors that constrain women from presenting themselves voluntarily for an HIV test and highlighted the nuances between African-American and East African perceptions. Implications of findings for effective targeted HIV screening promotion and communication strategies among these groups of women are discussed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Possible Contribution of PTSD to Altered Cortisol Activity in Young Adult Obese African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.

  15. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.

    2016-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533

  16. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.

  17. Depression in African women presenting for psychological services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one in five women.2 Depression in women, world wide, seems to manifest mostly as .... Results. Demographic distribution. A total of 54 clinical files were analyzed. The patients' .... business can help and will reduce the stigma associated with.

  18. Development and Implementation of an AIDS Prevention Program for African-American Women at a Child Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moten-Tolson, Paula

    This program was designed to provide Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention education for African-American women of child bearing age at a child care center which serves low income high risk families. The primary goal was to reduce the risk of African-American women at the child care center for contracting the Human Immunodeficiency…

  19. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  20. Idealization of Female Characters by African Women Writers: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women, therefore, write not to idealize female characters but to validate woman's personality, authenticate her experience, reveal her psyche and provide a more realistic and complete image of woman as a separate human entity from man. It has become compelling for women to write to elucidate to fellow women and to ...

  1. Voice of the voiceless: The legacy of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel O. Ayanga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians (the Circle formally came into existence in 1989 in Accra, Ghana. Under the charismatic leadership of Mercy Amba Oduyoye, the Circle sought to be the voice of African Christian women at the grass roots level. To this end research and publication was and still is one of the major pillars and activities of the Circle. The main objective of the Circle is �to write and publish theological literature written by African women from their own experience of religion and culture on this continent�. In this regard the Circle has been and continues to be the voice for and on behalf of the African woman in religion, culture and theology. However, 25 years down the line there is need for an evaluation of the legacy of the Circle. How has the Circle been a voice for the voiceless, a mentoring instrument for women venturing into the academia? This article seeks to do this evaluation by examining the activities of the Circle including research publication.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article seeks to evaluate the achievements of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians in relation to the Circle�s stated objectives. The article picks up the notion of the Circle theologians as the voice of the voiceless women of Africa. The general approach of the article brings together discussions on social issues like gender, poverty and marginalisation as well as language. Theological and religious perspectives on these issues are understood from a Circle point of view.Keywords: women; voice; voicelessness; poverty; gender; The Circle; theology

  2. Longitudinal analysis of domain-level breast cancer literacy among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia; Todem, David; Templin, Thomas N

    2010-02-01

    Functional breast cancer literacy was assessed among African-American women and measured at the domain level over time. We used the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention to educate 161 African-American women on three domains of breast cancer literacy: (i) cancer awareness, (ii) knowledge of breast cancer screening modalities and (iii) cancer prevention and control. A breast cancer literacy assessment was administered pre- and post-educational intervention at two time points followed by another assessment 12 months after the second intervention. Generalized estimating equations were specified to predict the probability of correctly answering questions in each domain over time. Domain-level literacy differentials exist; at baseline, women had higher test scores in the breast cancer prevention and control domain than the cancer awareness domain (odds ratio = 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.34). After Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, African-American women consistently improved their breast cancer literacy in all domains over the five time stages (P < 0.001) though at different rates for each domain. Differences in domain-level breast cancer literacy highlight the importance of assessing literacy at the domain level. Interventions to improve African-American women's breast cancer literacy should focus on knowledge of breast cancer screening modalities and cancer awareness domains.

  3. Chronic stress and decreased physical exercise: impact on weight for African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Greene, Gracie M; Gross, Susan M; Silver, Kristi D; Perrino, Carrol S

    2012-01-01

    African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Cross-sectional study African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P = .004) and health compared to others (P = .006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r = .319) but was not correlated with BMI (r = .095). Decreased physical exercise (P = .02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population.

  4. Pleasing the masses: messages for daily life management in African American women's popular media sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Angela Rose; Peacock, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the "strong Black woman" (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Using the search term "strong Black woman," we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management ("please the masses"), emotional suppression ("game face"), and postponement of self-care ("last on the list") incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources.

  5. Family Violence and Associated Help-Seeking Behavior among Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Anuradha; Tucker, Alyce; Mckenzie-Mack, LaTasha; Thompson, Nancy; Kaslow, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    Objective Little is known about how older African American women define family violence (FV) and what FV survivors might expect from their healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to understand how these women define FV, where they seek help for FV, and what barriers they face in these efforts. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups with 30 African American women over the age of 50, including some FV survivors, at a large, inner-city public hospital. Results Participants defined FV broadly, citing examples of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional and financial) and neglect. Spiritual sources were cited over physicians as being available to help FV survivors. Barriers to receiving assistance included negative encounters with physicians, lack of trust in the system and dearth of age-appropriate resources. Conclusions For older African American women, FV takes many forms of which many may not be obvious during the clinical encounter. Like younger FV survivors, they expect physicians to serve as a resource for FV. Practice implications Physicians caring for older African American women need to remember to ask them about FV, and when making referrals for abuse and neglect, consider offering referrals to pastoral care if appropriate. PMID:17644300

  6. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins EL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  7. Use of electric bedding devices and risk of breast cancer in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kangmin; Hunter, Sandra; Payne-Wilks, Kathleen; Roland, Chanel L; Forbes, Digna S

    2003-10-15

    In this case-control study, the authors aimed to examine whether use of an electric bedding device increased breast cancer risk in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American patients diagnosed with breast cancer during 1995-1998 who were aged 20-64 years and lived in one of three Tennessee counties. Controls were 305 African-American women without breast cancer who were selected through random digit dialing and frequency-matched to cases by age and county. Information on the use of an electric blanket or heated water bed and other risk factors was collected through telephone interviews. Breast cancer risk associated with use of an electric bedding device increased with the number of years of use, the number of seasons of use, and the length of time of use during sleep. When women who used an electric bedding device for more than 6 months per year (and therefore were more likely to have used a heated water bed, which generates lower magnetic fields) were excluded, the corresponding dose-response relations were more striking. Similar trends in dose response were shown in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women and for both estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. The use of electric bedding devices may increase breast cancer risk in African-American women aged 20-64 years. Such an association might not vary substantially by menopausal status or estrogen receptor status.

  8. Initial feasibility of a woman-focused intervention for pregnant african-american women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.

  9. Exploitation of the Urban African Novel for Women's Liberation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For instance, female characters like Esi the protagonist and her friend Opokuya, in spite of attempts to assert their independence and autonomy because of their economic empowerment as wage – earners in the city, still treasure the African traditional values of marriage. To corroborate the fact that foreign or nonindigenous ...

  10. Teaching How to Fish: Employment Skills for African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zira J.

    1996-01-01

    Agrees with Jeremy Rifkin that "human labor is being systematically eliminated from the economic process" and deplores educators' slowness to recognize implications. Since individuals must create their own work, educational programs should stress entrepreneurship and self-employment skills, not job-seeking behaviors. African American…

  11. Healing and women healers in Yoruba religion and African Christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healing in African indigenous cultures is a corporate matter involving the totality of the person, family and community. Healing presupposes sickness; its practice is therefore interlocked with a people's conception of sickness and diseases. In Africa, sickness is an attestation to the fact that an individual is out of tune with ...

  12. Rural Women Lifestyles: Lessons From Nigeria | Fawole | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1-2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  14. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  15. The African Women Theologians� contribution towards the discussion about alternative masculinities

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    Zorodzai Dube

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a celebratory mood because of the unparalleled, heroine works of the Circle of Concerned African Female Theologians, from hereon the CIRCLE, I pose to assess their use of critical tools such as alternative masculinities. Largely, the CIRCLE writers engaged with the concept of alternative masculinity from the perspective of Christology, associating Jesus with �motherlike� virtues of caring and loving, which also became the basis to critique African hegemonic masculinities and patriarchy. While success has been achieved from a cultural perspective, in this study I suggest that emphasis should be diverted towards exploring strategies that empower women economically.Intradisciplinary and/orinterdisciplinary implications: The study uses theories from cultural studies, critical theory, and contextual and gender studies to locate the voices of African women theologians in their discussion of Alternative masculinity. By using contextual Christologies based on the African woman�s experience, the study adds to knowledge concerning the discussion of gender and alternative masculinities, in the process, highlighting the voices of African women theologians to the discussion.Keywords: Alternative masculinities; racial stereotypes; capitalism; socialisation

  16. Appearance Self-Attitudes of African American and European American Women: Media Comparisons and Internalization of Beauty Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.

    2009-01-01

    African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…

  17. College Graduation Reduces Vulnerability to STIs / HIV among African-American Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218

  18. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systemati...

  19. Lifetime Exposure to Family Violence: Implications for the Health Status of Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprauve-Holmes, Nancy E; Gaughan, John; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Family violence among older women encompasses intimate partner violence (IPV) and elder maltreatment, both linked to poor health status. Little is known about the association between family violence and the health status of older innercity African American women. Methods One hundred fifty-eight African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in the ambulatory clinics of a large public hospital. Lifetime family violence exposure as an adult was measured by the Family Violence against Older Women (FVOW) scale; physical and mental health status were measured by the physical and mental component summary scores of the Short Form 8® scale. Results Mean participant age was 61.5 years (SD 7.1). Participants with FVOW scores in the top quartile were considered to have high lifetime family violence exposure. Participants with higher family violence exposure and those younger, unemployed, or disabled reported worse physical and mental health status. Lower income and not having Medicare were associated with worse physical and mental health status, respectively. Using stepwise linear regression techniques, only employment status and high family violence exposure were associated with worse physical (F = 7.16, p = 0.0011) and mental health (f = 7.09, p = 0.0012) status. Women with high FVOW scores reported physical and mental component summary scores that were 4.18 and 4.6 points lower, respectively, than those of women with lower FVOW scores. Conclusions Among older, innercity, African American women, lack of employment and high levels of family violence exposure as an adult are associated with worse physical and mental health status. Clinicians caring for older African American women need to be cognizant of the role both current and prior violence exposure may play in their patients' current health status. PMID:19183088

  20. Body shape and size depictions of African American women in JET magazine, 1953-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke C. Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.

  2. Inflammatory signatures distinguish metabolic health in African American women with obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V Denis

    Full Text Available Obesity-driven Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a systemic inflammatory condition associated with cardiovascular disease. However, plasma cytokines and tissue inflammation that discriminate T2D risk in African American women with obese phenotypes are not well understood. We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study. We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and compared results to obese women without these co-morbidities, as well as to lean women without the co-morbidities. We then used hierarchical clustering to generate inflammation signatures by combining the effects of identified cytokines and chemokines and summarized the signatures using an inflammation score. The analyses revealed six distinct signatures of sixteen cytokines/chemokines (P = 0.05 that differed significantly by prevalence of T2D (P = 0.004, obesity (P = 0.0231 and overall inflammation score (P < E-12. Signatures were validated in two independent cohorts of African American women with obesity: thirty nine subjects with no metabolic complications or with T2D and hypertension; and thirteen breast reduction surgical patients. The signatures in the validation cohorts closely resembled the distributions in the discovery cohort. We find that blood-based cytokine profiles usefully associate inflammation with T2D risks in vulnerable subjects, and should be combined with metabolism and obesity counselling for personalized risk assessment.

  3. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.

  4. Impact of Selection Practices on Career Advancement of African American Women in Community College Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy-Tooks, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative ethnographic study was to explore the experiences of African American women about their perceptions of factors (i.e. senior administrator selection practices, institutional practices, barriers, and coping strategies) that hinder or facilitate advancement in community college administration. The following questions…

  5. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  6. The Lived Experiences of African American Women with Breast Cancer: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, LaTasha K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…

  7. Prenatal care of African American women in selected USA urban and rural cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnonursing research was to systematically discover, describe, and analyze the beliefs, practices, and values of African American women related to prenatal care. The domain of inquiry was prenatal care of African American women within their familiar cultural contexts. The study was conceptualized within Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality which enabled the researcher to study professional and generic care as influenced by the worldview, social structural factors, cultural values and beliefs, ethnohistory, and environmental context. The goal of the study was to discover knowledge that could be used by health professionals to provide culturally congruent prenatal care that would increase the health and well being of the people. The rationale for the study was based on studies that showed the lack of prenatal care in the African American cultural group leads to low birth weights and high infant mortality rates. Four major themes that focused on the domain of inquiry were identified: 1) Cultural care meant protection, presence, and sharing; 2) social structural factors that greatly influenced the health and well being were spirituality, kinship, and economics; 3) professional prenatal care was seen by the women as necessary and essential but there was distrust of noncaring professionals, and barriers to such care; and 4) folk health beliefs, practices, and indigenous health care providers were widely used by women in the African American community.

  8. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  9. Emotional Benefits and Barriers of Psychological Services Scale: Initial construction and validation among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Singleton, Natalie N; Okunoren, Oladoyin; LoParo, Devon; Hunter, Carla D

    2017-11-01

    The current study used the Health Belief Model to develop a measure that assessed the emotional benefits and barriers of professional psychological services in an African American women sample. Data from 251 African American women recruited from online organizations from across the United States (n = 164) and a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 87) were used for exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 2-factor structure of the Emotional Benefits and Barriers of Psychological Services (EBBPS) Scale: Life Enhancement and Concerns about Distress, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed with data from 208 African American women who were recruited from a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 81), Mturk (n = 104), and online organizations across the United States (n = 23). Results confirmed the EFA 2-factor model and demonstrated superior fit compared with a unidimensional model as well as a 3 factor model. Both factors exhibited excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was supported given that EBBPS factors were correlated with theoretically related constructs, like psychological help-seeking attitudes, intentions to seek counseling, and cultural identity, as well as uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated constructs, like psychological distress. These findings support the utility and cultural relevance of the EBBPS with African American women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Simulating the Impact of Crime on African American Women's Physical Activity and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wong, Michelle S; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity among African American women. An agent-based model was developed in 2016 to represent resource-limited Washington, DC, communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African American women under different circumstances. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African American women had a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations were accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreased the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African American women to exercise to 37.5% further increased the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). These simulations showed that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e., economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  11. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  12. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  13. "Views from the Nano Edge": Women on Doctoral Preparation Programmes in Selected African Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the conceptual views of "critical mass", alongside micro experiences, of women, at a practice level, on a doctoral preparation programme which was implemented within the South African Development Community (SADC) and Ethiopian contexts. At the strategising level of policies, insufficient attention has been paid to the…

  14. Acceptability of the female condom by Sub-Saharan African women: A literature review 

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.T.P.; Driel, F.T.M. van; Jansen, W.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African women are affected disproportionately highly by AIDS, while experiencing lack of choice for devices which protect them against sexual transmitted diseases, including HIV. One should expect that global policy makers react positive to the female condom, a contraceptive device which

  15. Explaining and improving breast cancer information acquisition among African American women in the Deep South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Ross, Levi; Johnson, Jarrett; Hastrup, Janice L; Green, B Lee; Kohler, Connie L

    2012-06-01

    A major challenge facing contemporary cancer educators is how to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer prevention and control information to African American women in the Deep South who are believed to be cancer free. The purpose of this research was to provide insight into the breast cancer information-acquisition experiences of African American women in Alabama and Mississippi and to make recommendations on ways to better reach members of this high-risk, underserved population. Focus group methodology was used in a repeated, cross-sectional research design with 64 African American women, 35 years old or older who lived in one of four urban or rural counties in Alabama and Mississippi. Axial-coded themes emerged around sources of cancer information, patterns of information acquisition, characteristics of preferred sources, and characteristics of least-preferred sources. It is important to invest in lay health educators to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer information to African American women who are believed to be cancer free in the Deep South.

  16. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

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    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  17. African-American Women in the Professoriate: Addressing Social Exclusion and Scholarly Marginalization through Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    African-American women and other underrepresented faculty members often report experiences of social exclusion and scholarly marginalization in mainstream institutions of higher education. This lack of inclusion challenges their retention and hinders them from becoming productive members of the professoriate, positioning them at a disadvantage for…

  18. STEPS to a Healthier Heart: Improving Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Knowledge among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia Williams; Alexander, Dayna S.; Cummins, Kayla; Price, Amanda Alise; Anderson-Booker, Marian

    2018-01-01

    Background: African American women have the highest risk of death from heart disease among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups due to sedentary behaviors. Purpose: This article describes an intervention among 2 groups--a program group and an information group (intervention and comparison)--that assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge among…

  19. Rest Among African American Women: The Current State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert Harris, Eboni T; Hillfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Timmons, Shirley M; Felder, Tisha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson

    Effective health promotion among African American women requires knowledge and understanding of cultural influences and practices. This scoping review focused on rest, related concepts, and cultural perspectives and practices. We found a lack of conceptual distinction between fatigue and sleep and limited research on cultural meanings and practices of rest.

  20. An empirical study exploring body perception and apparel fit preferences for South African women

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandarum, R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study examines the body shapes and apparel fit incongruities experienced by a convenience sample of South African women (n=155), aged 20 to 65 years. Also examined was the extent to which apparel manufactured using the currently...

  1. Ethnic, Women's, and African American Studies Majors in U.S. Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olzak, Susan; Kangas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    African American Studies, Ethnic Studies, and Women's Studies programs in higher education have received wide support from faculty members and students, yet few programs offer a major or have tenure-line faculty positions. Our analysis used sociological theories to generate testable implications about the chances that an institution will offer…

  2. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Ronald J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and

  3. No African Futures without the Liberation of Women: A Decolonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Making use of Maria Lugones' theoretical framework, we should be able to understand that the instrumentality of the colonial/modern gender system is subjecting both men and women of colour in all domains of existence and therefore allows us to reveal that the gender transformation discourse is not just a women's ...

  4. Taking It One Day at a Time: African American Women Aging with HIV and Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65. Topics...

  5. Psychosocial effects of mastectomy on married African women in Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, V I; Tanaka, Rika; Yusufu, L M D; Gomna, A; Odigie, E C; Dawotola, D A; Margaritoni, Marko

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have examined the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and its treatment on African women who come from a poverty-stricken, uneducated background in a developing country. The purpose of this study was to describe the specific psychosocial effects of breast cancer on married African women in order to help physicians educate and counsel future women and their families in Northwestern Nigeria. Two semi-structured, self-report questionnaires were given to 81 consenting married African women treated with unilateral total mastectomy secondary to operable breast cancer at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital. Questionnaires were answered at the time of the diagnosis and treatment consultation and at 6 months postmastectomy and included questions about demographics, frequency of conjugal relations and how the woman's sense of femininity was affected. Marital status was also tracked up to 3 years. Six months after surgery, the survey responses revealed that 67.9% of women felt inadequate as a woman because of the mastectomy and that 79.0% experienced a decrease in frequency of conjugal relations. Three years after primary breast cancer treatment, 61.7% of the participants were still married while 38.3% reported being divorced/separated from their husbands. These results indicated that married African women face significant physical, emotional and social changes and difficulties following primary breast cancer treatment. Culturally sensitive therapeutic groups and interventions should be established to help Nigerian women with breast cancer and their spouses and families understand and cope with the disease and its long-term health and quality-of-life implications. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women with severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Saloojee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI taking antipsychotic medication. Further, this prevalence was compared to the prevalence in a matched control group of black South African men and women without SMI. Setting: A general hospital psychiatric unit. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of MetS in a group of multi-ethnic participants with SMI treated with antipsychotic medication and a matched control group without SMI, applying the 2009 Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Here, we included only the black African participants to compare MetS prevalence between men and women. Results: There were 232 participants in the group with SMI (male 155 and female 77 and without SMI (male 156 and female 76. The prevalence of MetS was more than three times higher in women with SMI compared to men with SMI (37.7% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of MetS in men or women between the groups with and without SMI. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR] 7.66, advancing age (OR 1.08 and longer duration of illness (OR = 1.15 were significant risk factors for MetS in SMI. Conclusion: In black South Africans with SMI on antipsychotic medication, there is a higher prevalence and risk for MetS in women compared to men.

  7. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism). Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women.

  8. South African women's conceptualisations of and responses to sexual coercion in relation to hegemonic masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie; Cooper, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Despite the documented relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinities and South African men's use of sexual violence, less is known about how women's engagement with norms of masculinity influences their agency in sexually coercive experiences. This study applied a narrative approach to assess how women's understandings of hegemonic male norms affected their perceptions of and responses to sexually coercive experiences. Twenty-five sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with women across five South African provinces representing a range of ages, language and sociocultural backgrounds. Interviews elicited stories of first experiences of sex and the range of sexual relationships through adulthood. Data were analysed using principles of thematic and narrative analysis. Coercive sexual experiences informed many women's normative ideas about men's sexuality including being impulsive, controlling and aggressive. This could underpin women's limited ability to exercise agency and their increased vulnerability to sexual abuse. Some women reported levels of trust and respect in subsequent relationships, which typically involved deconstructing norms of men's use of coercion and moving beyond self-blame and guilt. The findings highlight the need to appreciate the fluid and situated nature of women's agency from a relational perspective in terms of how women condone and challenge gender norms that support men's use of sexual violence in their relationships.

  9. [Integrated screening for HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in the Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, E P; Nambei, W S; Kamandji, L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis and toxoplasmosis infection in pregnant women in the Central African Republic who were and were not HIV-infected, in the framework of HIV surveillance. This case-control study included 270 HIV(+) and 217 HIV(-) pregnant women among 4 750 women who attended prenatal-care clinics throughout the Central African Republic from November 2011 through January 2012. Blood specimens were collected and serological evidence of HIV1/2 was analyzed by ELISA1 and ELISA2. The Toxoplasma gondii antibody was detected with the Toxo-Hai Fumouze(®) diagnostic kit. A VDRL test was performed to screen for syphilis in all study participants. Of the 434 samples tested, 33 (7.60%) were positive for syphilis: 21 (9.7%) among HIV(+) and 12 (5.5%) among HIV(-) women (p = 0.1031); 221 (50.90%) were positive for toxoplasmosis: 117 (53.9%) among HIV(+) and 104 (47.9%) among HIV(-) women (p = 0, 2119). Coinfection with HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis was found in 6.00%. No association was found between coinfection and age, parity, and residence area. The rate of syphilis infection was very high in pregnant women living in rural areas (ORcrude = 4.37; 95% CI = 2,11, 9.05). This study showed a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and syphilis in pregnant women in the Central African Republic, regardless of their HIV infection status. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in pregnant women living in rural areas. It may be appropriate to include routine serological screening tests to determine of toxoplasmosis, syphilis and HIV in pregnant women in this country.

  10. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Coping Strategies of Tri-Dimensional Problems of Premenopausal Women – A Community Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Enu; Jamil, MD; Roy, Aakash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pre-menopause in women presents with diverse symptoms, encompassing the tri-dimensional spheres of physical, social and psychological domains, which requires development of appropriate coping strategies to overcome these problems. Aim To assess level of knowledge about tri-dimensional problems in pre-menopausal women and evaluate effectiveness of self instruction module on coping strategies of these problems by pre-test and post-test analysis. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional, community based study, in pre-menopausal women aged 40-49years baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was assessed in 300 pre-menopausal women, selected by convenient sampling after satisfying selection criteria, by a pre-formed questionnaire. This was followed by administration of a pre-tested, Self-Instructional Module (SIM). The SIM dealt with imparting knowledge about coping strategies regarding pre-menopausal problems and the participants were required to read and retain the SIM. Post-test was conducted using same questionnaire after seven days. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test/ Paired t-test was used for comparing ratios. A ‘p-value’ <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was adequate in 10%, moderate in 73% and inadequate in 17% women with a pre-test mean knowledge score of 8.66±2.45. The post-test mean knowledge score was higher (19.11±3.38) compared to the pre-test score. The post-test mean knowledge difference from pre-test was -10.45 with a highly significant paired t-value of -47.45 indicating that the self-instructional module was effective in increasing the knowledge score of pre- menopausal women under study. Conclusion Administration of self instructional module was shown to significantly increase the knowledge scores in all areas of pre-menopausal tri-dimensional problems. Such self-instructional module can be used as an effective educational tool in increasing the knowledge

  11. Promoting African American women and sexual assertiveness in reducing HIV/AIDS: an analytical review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C

    2011-01-01

    African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.

  12. Pastoral care to or with sex-starved pregnant women in an African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight some African women’s problematic sex life, even in their married lives, as a result of prescribed and lengthy periods of abstinence from sex – especially during pregnancy. Literature studies, especially on Yoruba sexual practices, showed that forced abstinence from sexual activity during pregnancy is rife and that many women seem content with the situation, probably as a result of their internalisation of patriarchal beliefs and values, prescribed as a means of socialisation. This phenomenon of abstinence from sexual intercourse during pregnancy by the women in some African societies is the focus of the study. The article examined the following: views of sex amongst Black African people, medical views of sex and views of sex in Christian tradition. Also examined at length was the phenomenon of abstinence from sex in an African context. The findings led to a critical evaluation of the phenomenon and a search for pastoral guidelines that could facilitate transformation, intimacy and committed sexual life in African families.

  13. 1995 World Conference on Women. African Regional Preparatory Conference, November 94, Dakar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    During the African Regional Preparatory Conference, held in Dakar in November 1994, the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) organized a workshop on "Traditional Practices and Beliefs as a Violation of the Human Rights of the Woman and the Girl Child" in collaboration with the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). Eight panelists shared their country experiences and made proposals for eradicating harmful traditional practices. A film was shown, and Mrs. Marianne Sidibe, president of the Senegalese IAC National Committee, gave a vivid description of female genital mutilation (FGM). Proposals made during the workshop include 1) a follow-up workshop in Beijing; 2) inclusion of IAC concerns in the Platform of Action; 3) integration of IAC concerns into the national health programs of African nations with allocated budgets for implementation; 4) strengthening of interagency collaboration with governments; 5) adoption of legislation prohibiting harmful traditional practices such as FGM; 6) a minimum legal age for marriage of 18 years; 7) inclusion of information on traditional practices and gender sensitivity in primary and high school curricula; 8) involvement of youth in the campaign against harmful traditional practices; 9) regular evaluation of IAC activities; and 10) education of parents concerning gender equality. The African Platform for Action adopted by the conference considers FGM a form of violence against women.

  14. Cultural values and secondary prevention of breast cancer in african american women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Klassen, Ann C

    2008-01-01

    Improving mammography initiation and maintenance among African American women has been suggested as a strategy for reducing breast cancer mortality in this population. We examined cultural values in relation to self-reported breast cancer screening among 572 low-income, urban, African American women. Cultural values examined included time orientation, family authority, employment aspirations, value of past vs modern life, and reliance on medical professionals. Also, implications for continued development of culturally tailored health interventions and opportunities for the consideration of cultural values in health communication are discussed. Bivariate analyses showed that more traditional values were associated with worse screening histories and lower intentions for future screening. In multivariate analyses, two interactions were observed between cultural values and age: for younger women, more traditional values were associated with lower odds of having ever received a mammogram, and for older women, more traditional values were associated with lower odds of intentions to receive a mammogram in the next 2 years. This study adds to the evidence that cultural constructs, such as values, are associated with secondary prevention of breast cancer and supports the consideration of cultural constructs as important in increasing mammography and reducing breast cancer disparities for African American women.

  15. Physical activity and the incidence of obesity in young African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Kipping-Ruane, Kristen L; Boggs, Deborah A; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-09-01

    Obesity occurs more commonly among African-American women than among other racial/ethnic groups, and most weight gain occurs before middle age. The study prospectively investigated the relationship of vigorous exercise and brisk walking to the incidence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) among African-American women aged American women who were aged obese at baseline. BMI, exercise, and walking were assessed at baseline and on biennial follow-up questionnaires. Data for BMI were collected through 2009. Data for exercise and walking were collected through 2007. Validation and reproducibility data indicated that reporting was more accurate for vigorous exercise than for brisk walking. Cox proportional hazards models estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs of incident obesity for hours/week of vigorous exercise and walking relative to "little or no exercise" (obesity decreased with increasing vigorous exercise; the IRR was 0.77 (95% CI=0.69, 0.85) for ≥ 7 hours/week relative to little or no exercise; the IRRs were reduced both among women with a healthy weight (BMI obesity among young African-American women. Results for brisk walking were inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control.

  17. Critical consciousness, racial and gender discrimination, and HIV disease markers in African American women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2014-07-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.

  18. Psychosocial and sociocultural correlates of depressive symptoms among diverse African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kisha B; Hall, Stephanie P; Robinson, Maryam; Triplett, Sharra; Babalola, Dolapo; Plummer, Valens; Treadwell, Henrie; Bradford, L DiAnne

    2012-01-01

    African American women are faced with many challenges regarding their historical, cultural, and social structural position in the United States that may heighten their vulnerability for depression, one of the most prevalent disorders that can engender poor functionality. The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to foster greater understanding about the occurrence and correlates of depressive symptoms among a diverse convenience sample of 63 African American women recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic (n = 23), a small private academic institution (n = 25), and an urban community setting (n = 15). Self-report data concerning selected psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors were collected. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results indicated several similarities and differences among the 3 groups of women concerning levels of depressive symptoms and their correlates. Among the total sample, symptoms of depression were mild among 65% of the women. Depressive symptoms were significant and positively associated with negative and ruminative thinking (r = 0.79, p indication of chronic diseases (r = 0.34, p data concerning contributors to depressive symptoms for African American women.

  19. African American women's beliefs about mental illness, stigma, and preferred coping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma.

  20. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458

  1. Ebony and Ivory? Interracial dating intentions and behaviors of disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B

    2015-09-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Faith and feminism: how African American women from a storefront church resist oppression in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrums, Mary

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented that racism in the US healthcare system, including the objectification and disparagement of women of color, contributes to disparities in health status. However, it is a mistaken notion to characterize women of color as unknowing victims. In this study, black feminist standpoint epistemology is used in methodological approach and analysis to understand how a small group of African American church-going women use religious beliefs to help them cope with and resist the racism and discriminatory objectification they encounter in healthcare encounters.

  3. Drawing the line: how African, Caribbean and White British women live out psychologically abusive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Kelly, Moira; Feder, Gene

    2013-09-01

    This study explores how African, Caribbean and White British women worked to hide psychological partner abuse as they experienced it, "do gender," and appear competent in social roles. They prioritized negotiated competencies as "good partners," actively setting socially and culturally embedded boundaries to their abuser's behaviors: an inner boundary encompassing normal behaviors and an outer one of "acceptable" behaviors projected as normal through remedial work. Behaviors breaching the outer boundary (e.g., if the women narrowed the bounds of the "acceptable") compromised the women's competence. This sometimes led them to actively use support services. Appropriate advice and support may change the boundaries.

  4. Factors associated with work-family conflict stress among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Portia L; Secret, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered.

  5. Breast cancer screening practices of African migrant women in Australia: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide Oluyemisi; Kwok, Cannas; Fan, Lee Chun

    2017-04-17

    Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among women and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, globally. Breast cancer mortality can be improved through routine cancer screening, yet migrant populations have lower participation rates. While African migrants are among the fastest growing migrant population in Australia, their breast cancer screening behaviour is under-studied. The aims of this study were to report breast cancer screening status of African migrant women and factors associated with their breast cancer screening behaviour in Australia. A descriptive, cross-sectional approach was utilised for this study. Two hundred and sixty four African migrant women aged 18-69 years and recruited from a number of organisations responded to a self-reported African version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ). Main research variables are breast cancer screening practices and demographic characteristics and total scores on each of the BCSBQ subscales. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the demographic variables on the likelihood of women in the target age range 50-74 years having screening practices as recommended. While most of the participants heard of breast awareness (76.1%) and mammogram (85.2%), only 11.4% practised monthly breast awareness, whereas 65.9% had ever had a mammogram as frequently as recommended. Age and employment were determining factors for participating in mammogram. Significant different scores were found in the "Practical barriers" between women at the target age who had and had not performed breast awareness (80.4 versus 77.5, p-value = 0.002) and mammogram (77.1 versus 70.3, p-value = 0.009) regularly as recommended. Moreover, attitudes towards general health check-ups subscale scores were significantly higher in women who had performed clinical breast examination as frequently as recommended than those who had not. The research reveals that practical

  6. Sexual harassment and prior sexual trauma among African-American and white American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G E; Riederle, M

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sexual harassment in work, educational, and social settings and sexual abuse in childhood and/or adulthood in a stratified community sample of 248 African-American and white American women. The cumulative impact of sexual victimization on women's sense of general well-being was also examined. Those most likely to be sexually harassed in work and social settings were women with contact sexual abuse histories, regardless of ethnicity. The work status of harassers of women with sexual abuse histories differed significantly by ethnic group. Although women with prior sexual abuse experiences from both ethnic groups most frequently reported a response to sexual harassment at work, they least frequently did so in social settings. A history of childhood sexual abuse was more negatively associated with African- American women's well-being than were repeated experiences of sexual violence. Future research should address the implications of ethnic and cultural issues on the cumulative impact of incidents of sexual violence on women of color.

  7. Jeopardy not bonus status for African American women in the work force: why does the myth of advantage persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Hucles, J V

    1997-10-01

    African American women in the United States have a long history of employment outside of their homes. Their experiences are unique from other groups of majority and minority men and women due to the interaction of race, gender, and class. Despite long-standing and continuing struggles against discrimination, harassment, low pay, tokenism, and stereotypes, a myth that African American women enjoy a bonus or advantaged status in the work force has developed and persisted. In this article, Black women's work force experiences are examined from a social constructionist framework, misperceptions of Black women are critiqued, explanations are developed that explain the unique status of African American women and recommendations are proposed to eradicate the discrimination and marginal status that Black women have endured in the work force.

  8. The effects of maternal weight gain patterns on term birth weight in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sing, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goals of our study were 1) to estimate the trends in maternal weight gain patterns and 2) to estimate the influence of variation in maternal weight and rate of weight gain over different time periods in gestation on variation in birth weight in African-American and non-African-American gravidas. Study Design and Setting Data from a prospective cohort study in which pregnant women were monitored at multiple time points during pregnancy were analyzed. Maternal weight was measured at three times during pregnancy, preconception (W0); 16-20 weeks gestation (W1); and 30-36 weeks gestation (W2), in a cohort of 435 women with full-term singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age-adjusted birth weight (aBW) and measures of maternal weight and rate of weight gain across pregnancy was estimated using a multivariable longitudinal regression analysis stratified on African-American race. Results The aBW was significantly associated with maternal weight measured at any visit in both strata. For African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with variation in the rate of maternal weight gain in the first half of pregnancy (W01) but not the rate of maternal weight gain in the second half of pregnancy (W12); while for non-African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with W12 but not W01. Conclusion Factors influencing the relationship between aBW and maternal weight gain patterns depend on the context of the pregnancy defined by race. Clinical decisions and recommendations about maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy may need to account for such heterogeneity. PMID:20632908

  9. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  10. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Kadidiatou; Sankore, Rotimi; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Scolaro, Elisa; Bustreo, Flavia; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2012-02-16

    With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010).This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and impact. AU policies related

  11. Defects in cortical microarchitecture among African-American women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E W; Putman, M S; Derrico, N; Abrishamanian-Garcia, G; Finkelstein, J S; Bouxsein, M L

    2015-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have increased fracture risk. We found that African-American women with DM2 have increased cortical porosity and lower cortical bone density at the radius than non-diabetic controls. These cortical deficits are associated with hyperglycemia and may contribute to skeletal fragility associated with DM2. Fracture risk is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) despite normal areal bone mineral density (aBMD). DM2 is more common in African-Americans than in Caucasians. It is not known whether African-American women with DM2 have deficits in bone microstructure. We measured aBMD at the spine and hip by DXA, and volumetric BMD (vBMD) and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia by HR-pQCT in 22 DM2 and 78 non-diabetic African-American women participating in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). We also measured fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. Age, weight, and aBMD at all sites were similar in both groups. At the radius, cortical porosity was 26% greater, while cortical vBMD and tissue mineral density were lower in women with DM2 than in controls. There were no differences in radius total vBMD or trabecular vBMD between groups. Despite inferior cortical bone properties at the radius, FEA-estimated failure load was similar between groups. Tibia vBMD and microarchitecture were also similar between groups. There were no significant associations between cortical parameters and duration of DM2 or HOMA-IR. However, among women with DM2, higher fasting glucose levels were associated with lower cortical vBMD (r=-0.54, p=0.018). DM2 and higher fasting glucose are associated with unfavorable cortical bone microarchitecture at the distal radius in African-American women. These structural deficits may contribute to the increased fracture risk among women with DM2. Further, our results suggest that hyperglycemia may be involved in mechanisms of skeletal fragility associated with DM2.

  12. African American Transgender Women's Individual, Family, and Organizational Relationships: Implications for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith B; Whitaker-Brown, Charlene D

    2017-06-01

    Guided by the relational cultural theory, we conducted a qualitative study to examine the relationship experiences of African American transgender women living in North Carolina. A convenience sample of 15 transgender women participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, guided by an investigator-developed interview guide, were used to explore the personal experiences of transgender women on individual, family, and organizational levels. The findings provide a scheme for understanding the process through which transgender women's relationships hinder or enhance their ability to connect with individuals, family, and organizations. Nurses can use these findings to better understand the connectedness that occurs or does not occur in transgender women's relationships and provide culturally competent care to empower them to become resilient.

  13. Optimism, Social Support, and Adjustment in African American Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Rebecca A.; Crespin, Tim R.; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla M.; Lamdan, Ruth M.; Siegel, Jamie E.; Taylor, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    Past studies show that optimism and social support are associated with better adjustment following breast cancer treatment. Most studies have examined these relationships in predominantly non-Hispanic White samples. The present study included 77 African American women treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer. Women completed measures of optimism, social support, and adjustment within 10-months of surgical treatment. In contrast to past studies, social support did not mediate the relationship between optimism and adjustment in this sample. Instead, social support was a moderator of the optimism-adjustment relationship, as it buffered the negative impact of low optimism on psychological distress, well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Women with high levels of social support experienced better adjustment even when optimism was low. In contrast, among women with high levels of optimism, increasing social support did not provide an added benefit. These data suggest that perceived social support is an important resource for women with low optimism. PMID:18712591

  14. Does weight status influence perceptions of physical activity barriers among African-American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkinger, Jeanine M; Jehn, Megan L; Sapun, Marcella; Mabry, Iris; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2006-01-01

    Many African-American women fail to participate in regular physical activity. Weight status may influence physical activity barriers. This study examined the frequency and type of barriers. Participants in this study were enrolled in Project EXE-L (Exercising Ladies Excel), a six-month, church-based, randomized trial of moderate-intensity physical activity based in Baltimore city and county in Maryland. Participants were composed of African-American women who attended one of the participating churches, had friends who were church members, or who lived in neighborhoods surrounding one of the churches. Individuals who were between the ages of 25 and 70 years, were not regularly physically active (defined as not engaging in moderate-intensity activity more than three times per week), and were able to participate in moderate-intensity activity met eligibility criteria to participate in the trial. Barriers to physical activity were evaluated with the Steinhardt/Dishman Barriers for Habitual Physical Activity Scale at baseline. One hundred twenty women were classified as normal weight (body mass index [BMI]: or = 30 kg/m2). Obese participants were more likely to report "lack of motivation" as a barrier compared with normal-weight participants (63% vs 31%). Normal-weight and overweight participants were more likely to report no barriers compared with the obese (31%, 0%, 5%, respectively, P<.05). Barriers for African-American women may vary by BMI status. By defining these unique barriers, effective physical activity interventions can be developed.

  15. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21-39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995-2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of > or = 2 times/week compared with or = 2 drinks/day compared with obesity among young African American women.

  16. Message framing strategies to increase influenza immunization uptake among pregnant African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Heather A; Malik, Fauzia; Shapiro, Eve; Omer, Saad B; Frew, Paula M

    2014-09-01

    We explored the attitudes, opinions, and concerns of African American women regarding influenza vaccination during pregnancy. As influenza immunization coverage rates remain suboptimal in the United States among this population, we elicited message framing strategies for multicomponent interventions aimed at decreasing future incident cases of maternal and neonatal influenza. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 21) were conducted with pregnant African American women at urban OB/GYN clinics who had not received an influenza vaccine. Interviews were transcribed, subjected to intercoder reliability assessment, and content analyzed to identify common thematic factors related to acceptance of the influenza vaccine and health communication message preferences. Four major themes were identified. These were communication approaches, normal vaccine behavior, pregnancy vaccination, and positive versus negative framing. Two strong themes emerged: positively-framed messages were preferred over negatively-framed messages and those emphasizing the health of the infant. Additionally, previous immunization, message source, and vaccine misperceptions also played important roles in decision-making. The majority of women indicated that positively framed messages focusing on the infant's health would encourage them to receive an influenza vaccine. Messages emphasizing immunization benefits such as protection against preterm birth and low birth weight outcomes have potential to overcome widespread negative community perceptions and cultural beliefs. Additionally, messages transmitted via interpersonal networks and social media strongly influence motivation to obtain vaccination during pregnancy. The findings of this study will assist in developing tailored messages that change pregnant African American women's influenza vaccination decision-making to achieve improved coverage.

  17. Barriers and motivators to blood and cord blood donations in young African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Brenda; Watkins, Andre R; Fleming, Faye; Debaun, Michael R

    2005-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess potential barriers and motivators to blood and cord blood donation among African-American women. A telephone survey of African-American women, ages 18-30 years, in the St. Louis metropolitan area was performed. The survey was administered by trained telemarketing personnel using a Computer-Assisted Direct Interview (CADI) system. One hundred sixty-two women were surveyed. Common barriers to blood donation were inconvenience of donor sites (19%), fear of needles (16%), and too much time required to donate (15%). Potential motivators were increasing awareness of need for blood (43%), increasing the number of convenient donor locations (19%), and encouragement by spiritual leaders to have blood drives at their church (17%). Lack of awareness was the only identified barrier to cord blood donation. Most women surveyed (88%) indicated that they definitely or probably would donate cord blood. Strategies to increase the proportion of African-American blood and cord blood donations may include educating potential donors about the process and benefits of donation to particular patient populations and engaging church leadership in supporting blood and cord blood donations.

  18. CAPACITY BUILDING FOR WOMEN IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    Centre for Contemporary International Relations Studies ... the particular case of Sierra Leone, gender discrimination in education could be ... to take on public roles, the few girls who had the opportunity were prepared to .... Some women, particularly single parents are the breadwinners of their homes and sole sponsors of.

  19. Research on food security makes a difference for African women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 avr. 2014 ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to meeting the challenges of improving food and nutrition security, and enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty. A central objective of the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is ...

  20. Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and lipids in African women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... high‑density lipoprotein (TG/HDL), total cholesterol (TC)/HDL, and atherogenic index of ... Key words: Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, triglycerides, women ... been reported that a TG/HDL ratio of >3.0 is predictive of.

  1. Research on food security makes a difference for African women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to meeting the challenges of improving food and nutrition security, and enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty. A central objective of the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is ...

  2. Women's Leadership: A Study of African American Female Principal Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, women's leadership has been overlooked and underappreciated by researchers and policymakers although this leadership has been vital to America's ultimate success and infrastructure. Simply stated, contributions of female leadership have been overshadowed by a system that primarily values patriarchal forms of leadership and oppresses…

  3. The experience of African American women living with HIV: creating a prevention film for teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E; DeMarco, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    The personal and social costs of HIV are well documented. What remains unknown is the effect of public disclosure of HIV status on the individual who is doing the disclosing. This study describes the experience of four African American women living with HIV who participated in the development of an intergenerational education intervention for African American adolescent girls. These women suggested that they be filmed discussing the "dark side" of HIV in an effort to create an intergenerational education intervention that would alter the risk-taking behavior that they observed in young women in their community. After a rough cut of the film was completed, these women viewed the film and participated in a focus group during which they discussed what it was like to reveal and revisit their own painful experiences associated with becoming infected and then living with HIV. Findings from content analysis of transcribed dialogue included the following positive themes: (a) self-acceptance by telling one's own story and hearing the stories of the other women, (b) a sense of liberation by disclosing publicly one's image and message and letting go of others' judgments, (c) feeling supported by meeting other women who share the same experience, (d) value of using the film to impact or save young people from the pain one has experienced. A negative theme emerged related to personal pain in reliving the individual's history with HIV.

  4. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  5. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpleton, Asher M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  6. Do You See What I See? Effects of Group Consciousness on African American Women's Attributions to Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kimberly R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three types of group consciousness among African American women ("ethnic," "feminist," and "womanist") on prejudice attributions and appraised personal significance ("centrality") of a negative intergroup event. African American female college students (N = 123) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in…

  7. The concept of motherhood among three generations of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell

    2011-06-01

    To provide an understanding of the experiences of three generations of African American women in the transition to motherhood. Hermeneutic phenomenology from an Afrocentric feminist perspective is the methodological approach used in this study. Using the snowball technique, a purposive sample of 18 African American women from three generations who were mostly middle class, partnered, and educated was recruited. Individual open-ended interviews were used to identify information-rich cases that would provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Generation 1 included seven women, between the ages of 65 and 83 years, who became mothers between 1950 and 1970, prior to the Civil Rights Movement. Generation 2 included five women, between the ages of 51 and 58 years, who became mothers between 1971 and 1990, after the Civil Rights Movement. There were six women in Generation 3, between the ages of 30 and 41 years, who became mothers between 1991 and 2003. Three constitutive patterns and their associated themes were identified. The first pattern, It Took Me a Minute, had three themes: Finding Out, Realizing What Mothers Do, and Way Tricked! The second pattern, Preserving Our Home, had four themes: Mothering Within the isms: Racism, Classism, and Sexism, I Did the Best I Could, Mothers and Others, and Spiritual Mothers. Eat the Meat, Throw Away the Bone, the third pattern, had two themes: The Ways in Which We Learn and Someone Who Looks Like Me. The results of this study reveal some consistency with current descriptions of maternal identity and becoming a mother and add to our understanding of the complexities that racism, classism, and sexism play in the lives of African American mothers and their families. The data from this study also suggest that future development of theoretical frameworks and analytical tools, used to assess the effects of stress and other psychosocial factors on health, need to be grounded in a historic understanding of the African American

  8. Lives in isolation: stories and struggles of low-income African American women with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael; Mills, Terry L; Deleon, Jessica M; Hartzema, Abraham G; Haddad, Judella

    2009-01-01

    Research evidence points to the existence of racial-ethnic disparities in both access to and quality of mental health services for African Americans with panic disorder. Current panic disorder evaluation and treatment paradigms are not responsive to the needs of many African Americans. The primary individual, social, and health-care system factors that limit African Americans' access to care and response to treatment are not well understood. Low-income African American women with panic disorder participated in a series of focus-group sessions designed to elicit (1) their perspectives regarding access and treatment barriers and (2) their recommendations for designing a culturally consistent panic treatment program. Fear of confiding to others about panic symptoms, fear of social stigma, and lack of information about panic disorder were major individual barriers. Within their social networks, stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and the mentally ill, discouragement about the use of psychiatric medication, and perceptions that symptoms were the result of personal or spiritual weakness had all interfered with the participants' treatment seeking efforts and contributed to a common experience of severe social isolation. None of the focus-group members had developed fully effective therapeutic relationships with either medical or mental health providers. They described an unmet need for more interactive and culturally authentic relationships with treatment providers. Although the focus-group sessions were not intended to be therapeutic, the women reported that participation in the meetings had been an emotionally powerful and beneficial experience. They expressed a strong preference for the utilization of female-only, panic disorder peer-support groups as an initial step in the treatment/recovery process. Peer-support groups for low-income African American women with panic disorder could address many of the identified access and treatment barriers.

  9. Contraceptive method and pregnancy incidence among African women in HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGURE, Kenneth; HEFFRON, Renee; MUGO, Nelly R.; CELUM, Connie; COHEN, Craig R.; ODOYO, Josephine; REES, Helen; KIARIE, James N.; WERE, Edwin; BAETEN, Jared M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective contraception reduces unintended pregnancies and is a central strategy to reduce vertical HIV-1 transmission for HIV-1 infected women. Methods Among 2269 HIV-1 seropositive and 1085 seronegative women from 7 African countries who were members of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships and who were participating in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial, we assessed pregnancy incidence for women using various contraceptive methods using multivariate Andersen-Gill analysis. Results Compared with women using no contraceptive method, pregnancy incidence was significantly reduced among HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative women using injectable contraception (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.24, p=0.001 and aHR 0.25, ppregnancy risk only among HIV-1 seropositive women (aHR 0.51, p=0.004) but not seronegative women (aHR 0.64, p=0.3), and, for both seropositive and seronegative women, oral contraceptive pill users were more likely to become pregnant than injectable contraceptive users (aHR 2.22, p=0.01 for HIV-1 seropositive women and aHR 2.65, p=0.09 for HIV-1 seronegative women). Condoms, when reported as being used as the primary contraceptive method, marginally reduced pregnancy incidence (aHR 0.85, p=0.1 for seropositive women and aHR 0.67, p=0.02 for seronegative women). There were no pregnancies among women using intrauterine devices, implantable methods or who had undergone surgical sterilization, although these methods were used relatively infrequently. Conclusions Family planning programs and HIV-1 prevention trials need innovative ways to motivate uptake and sustained use of longer acting, less user-dependent contraception for women who do not desire pregnancy. PMID:22156966

  10. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  11. Biomarkers of vascular function in pre- and recent post-menopausal women of similar age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Seidelin, Kåre; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function, however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched pre- and post-menopausal...... women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Thirteen pre-menopausal and ten recently post-menopausal (1.6±0.3 (mean±SEM) years after final menstrual period) women only separated by three years (48±1 vs. 51±1 years) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular...... adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1...

  12. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for African American Women at Familial Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddie; Bovbjerg, Dana

    2005-01-01

    ... to their fatalistic attitudes towards the disease. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional, biological, and cognitive processes among women of African descent at familial breast cancer risk...

  13. Physical Activity, Exercise, And Nutrition Interventions For Weight Control In African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Asare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutritionrelated weight control interventions done with African American women that were publishedbetween 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studiesmet the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard to impact ofintervention. Twelve of those studies revealed significant increase in physical activity and weightreduction behavior. In terms of use of theory in designing the interventions only five interventionsused a theory. In three of those cases social cognitive theory was used. Appropriate sample sizewas found to be the major strength of most of the interventions. Six interventions usedrandomized controlled design. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of physicalactivity interventions in African American women are presented.

  14. The state of measurement of self-esteem of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    This article critically reviews the state of measurement of self-esteem in African American women. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory are three commonly used measures. However, their validity for African American women has not been adequately tested. Given the unique nature of the self-esteem of this group, related to experiences of racism and sexism, the accurate measurement of this construct is important. This review provided support for the internal consistency of each measure with alpha coefficients ranging from .74 to .87. However, the validity of the measures was not fully supported. Suggestions for further research specific to the unique needs of this population are discussed.

  15. Anxiety Mediates Perceived Discrimination and Health in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Simons, Ronald L; Beach, Steven R H

    2016-11-01

    We examined the mediational role of symptoms of anxiety in accounting for the association of discrimination and chronic health conditions among African-American women. Participants were 646 African-American women who completed self-report measures of perceived racial discrimination, symptoms of anxiety, and diagnosed chronic health problems. We examined the mediation hypothesis using a path analytic procedure. Mediational analyses indicated that, above and beyond symptoms of depression, age, and education status, anxiety symptoms were associated with both racial discrimination (β = .03, SE = .01, p role of symptoms of anxiety in the process that occurs from an individual's perception of discrimination to reported chronic health outcomes. Future research expanding our understanding of the interconnection of psychosocial stressors, discrimination, and their biological sequelae is needed.

  16. Methadone-maintenance outcomes for Hispanic and African-American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, F D; Brown, L S; Alterman, A I; Sage, R E; Cnaan, A; Cacciola, J; Rutherford, M

    1999-03-01

    Six-month methadone-maintenance response and outcome were examined for African-American and Hispanic men and women in a large urban sample. A consistent pattern of improvement was indicated for both races and genders on the addiction severity index (ASI). There were virtually no statistically significant differences in ASI outcomes between Hispanics and African-Americans and men and women using conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures. Results from an additional equivalence analysis, however, indicated that baseline to 6-month changes for the different groups were generally not similar enough to consider them equivalent. Urine toxicologies obtained during the 6-month treatment period were also not statistically equivalent by race and gender. Evaluating outcomes by gender and race are discussed, as are the implications of using equivalence tests when examining group differences.

  17. The relationship between demographic variables and well-being of women in South African workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: It is important to investigate the determinants of well-being among working women. Given the unique demographic diversity within the South African context, differences in the experience of well-being among women are expected. Purpose: The study investigated the effects of age, race, marital status and educational status on psychological meaningfulness, life satisfaction, work–family conflict and social support of working women. Motivation: With the increase of women in the workplace, there is a need for knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the well-being of women. This study aims to investigate demographic variables as determinants of well-being among working women. Method: Cross-sectional surveys were used to gather data from a sample (n = 540 of women from various South African companies. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, the Psychological Meaningfulness Scale (PMS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the WorkRole Conflict Scale and the Job Demands Resources Scale (JDRS were administered. Results: Significant relationships were found between life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement, respectively, and marital status. Higher levels of education showed significant relationships with life satisfaction and work-to-family conflict. Being white showed significant positive relationships with life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement. With regard to social support and psychological meaningfulness, race explained significant amounts of variance in psychological meaningfulness, as did age. Practical, managerial and methodological implications: The findings indicate that the experiences of well-being among women vary by age, race, marital status and educational status. It is therefore imperative that human resource practitioners appropriately measure these differences, accommodate them in policies through relevant supportive practices and also champion these

  18. Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Infection among African Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Lut; Corneli, Amy; Ahmed, Khatija; Agot, Kawango; Lombaard, Johan; Kapiga, Saidi; Malahleha, Mookho; Owino, Fredrick; Manongi, Rachel; Onyango, Jacob; Temu, Lucky; Monedi, Modie Constance; Mak’Oketch, Paul; Makanda, Mankalimeng; Reblin, Ilse; Makatu, Shumani Elsie; Saylor, Lisa; Kiernan, Haddie; Kirkendale, Stella; Wong, Christina; Grant, Robert; Kashuba, Angela; Nanda, Kavita; Mandala, Justin; Fransen, Katrien; Deese, Jennifer; Crucitti, Tania; Mastro, Timothy D.; Taylor, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF–FTC) or placebo once daily. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of TDF–FTC in preventing HIV acquisition and to evaluate safety. RESULTS HIV infections occurred in 33 women in the TDF–FTC group (incidence rate, 4.7 per 100 person-years) and in 35 in the placebo group (incidence rate, 5.0 per 100 person-years), for an estimated hazard ratio in the TDF-FTC group of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.52; P = 0.81). The proportions of women with nausea, vomiting, or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the TDF–FTC group (P = 0.04, P<0.001, and P = 0.03, respectively). Rates of drug discontinuation because of hepatic or renal abnormalities were higher in the TDF–FTC group (4.7%) than in the placebo group (3.0%, P = 0.051). Less than 40% of the HIV-uninfected women in the TDF–FTC group had evidence of recent pill use at visits that were matched to the HIV-infection window for women with seroconversion. The study was stopped early, on April 18, 2011, because of lack of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS Prophylaxis with TDF–FTC did not significantly reduce the rate of HIV infection and was associated with increased rates of side effects, as compared with placebo. Despite substantial counseling efforts, drug adherence appeared to be low. (Supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and others; FEM-PrEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00625404.) PMID:22784040

  19. Vitamin D nutritional status and antenatal depressive symptoms in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Johnson, Dayna A; Li, Jia; Rao, D Sudhaker

    2012-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression; however, no studies have examined the relationship of vitamin D and antenatal depression. Antenatal depression increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and poorer postpartum maternal and infant health. African American women are at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency and antenatal depression. Thus, we examined if early pregnancy vitamin D nutrition (VDN) was associated with antenatal depressive symptoms among African American women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Women (n=178) were recruited from obstetrics clinics of a large health system. VDN was assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD). Depression symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale; CES-D≥16 equates with criteria for clinical depression. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of log-transformed 25-OHD and elevated depression symptoms (CES-D≥16). Mean 25-OHD was 13.4±8.4 ng/mL; most women (82.6%, n=147) were vitamin D inadequate or deficient (25-OHD<20 ng/mL). Mean CES-D was 15.2±10.7, and 74 (41.6%) women had a CES-D≥16, suggestive of clinical depression. A significant inverse relationship was found between log (25-OHD) and CES-D≥16 (odds ratio [OR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.99, p=0.046). For every 1-unit increase in log (25-OHD) (corresponding to ~2.72 ng/mL increase in 25-OHD), the odds of CES-D≥16 decreased by 46%. African American women with lower VDN exhibit increased depressive symptoms. Research on vitamin D supplementation for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms is needed.

  20. Effect of obesity on cardiovascular disease risk factors in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Okafor, Queen; Cowan, Patricia A; Wicks, Mona N; Rice, Muriel; Husch, Donna S; Khoo, Michelle S C

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is a growing health care concern with implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity and CVD morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent among African American women. This pilot study examined the association between obesity and the traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in a sample of African American women. Participants comprised 48 women (27 obese, 21 normal weight) aged 18-45. with no known history of CVD. The women completed demographic and 7-day physical activity recall questionnaires. Height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI). Hypertension risk was assessed using the average of two resting blood pressure (BP) measurements. Lipid profile, blood glucose, fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and E-selectin (eSel) levels were assessed using fasting blood samples. Laboratory findings were interpreted using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III reference guidelines as well as manufacturers' reference ranges for the novel CVD risk factors. The most common traditional risk factors were physical inactivity (72.9%), positive family history of CVD (58.3%), and obesity (56.3%). Obese individuals had elevated systolic BP (p = .0002), diastolic BP (p = .0007) and HDL-cholesterol (p = .01), triglyceride (p = .02), hs-CRP (p = .002), and fibrinogen (p = .01), when compared with normal-weight women. The findings suggest an association between obesity and higher prevalence of both traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in young African American women.

  1. Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Lauver, D. (1994). Care-seeking behavior with breast cancer symptoms in Caucasian and African-American women. Research in Nursing and Health, 17, 421...Disorders the Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 4, 47-5 8. 181. Waller, G. & Hodgson, S. (1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia ...1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: the role of perceived and actual control. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184

  2. The representation of women in a sample of post-1994 South African school History textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Schoeman

    2009-01-01

    History curriculum revisions post 1994 were followed by a range of new History textbooks intended to meet the needs of teachers seeking to implement the revised curriculum. I sought to establish whether or not a sample of these textbooks had built upon the gender equality initiatives introduced after 1994. A qualitative intrinsic case study was conducted to determine the extent of the representation of women in three South African school History textbooks. The results demonstrated that, despi...

  3. Perceptions of guided imagery for stress management in pregnant African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of adiponectin and socioeconomic status in African American men and women: the Jackson heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K. Davis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent emphasis has been placed on elucidating the biologic mechanism linking socioeconomic status (SES to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Positive associations of inflammatory biomarkers provide evidence suggestive of a biologic pathway by which SES may predispose to CVD. African Americans have disproportionately lower SES and have a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors compared to most ethnic/racial groups. Adiponectin (an anti-inflammatory marker is also lower. The objective of this study was to assess the association of adiponectin with SES among African American men and women using the Jackson Heart Study. Methods Study sample included 4340 participants. Linear regression was performed separately by SES and stratified by sex. Annual household income and level of education was used as proxies for SES. Crude, age, health behavior and health status adjusted models were analyzed. The main outcome was log-transformed adiponectin. Results Men in the lowest income group had significantly higher adiponectin than those in the highest income group in the fully adjusted model (ß/standard error [se], p value = .16/.08, p = .0008. Men with < high school level of education had significantly higher adiponectin in the crude and age adjusted models than those with ≥ college degree (.25/.05, p < .0001; .14/.05/ p = .005, respectively. Women with some college or vocational training in the crude and age adjusted models had lower adiponectin compared to women with ≥ college degree (−.09/.03, p = .004; −.06/.03, p = .04, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest a potential inverse biologic pathway between annual household income and adiponectin among African American men. There was no such finding among women. Findings suggest interventions should be targeted for higher SES African American men to improve adiponectin levels.

  5. Estimates of fruit and vegetable intake in childhood and adult dietary behaviors of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Kreuter, Matthew K; Holt, Cheryl; Steger-May, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how estimates of one's fruit and vegetable intake in childhood are related to 3 current dietary behaviors among African American women: intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure to and preference for fruits and vegetables, and preference for trying new foods. Baseline data from a randomized dietary intervention trial. Ten urban public health centers in St. Louis, Missouri. 1227 African American women. A 33-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, items measuring estimates of childhood fruit and vegetable intake, adult fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to and preference for fruit and vegetable, and preference for trying new foods. Linear regression evaluated the association between predictors and continuous measures; logistic regression determined the association between predictors and categorical measures. Estimates of one's vegetable intake as a child were significantly related to exposure and preference for both fruits and vegetables, trying of new foods, and intake of both fruits and vegetables in adulthood. Estimates of eating fruit as a child were not significantly associated with these adult dietary behaviors. Developmental influences on adult dietary patterns may be stronger for vegetables than fruits among African American women. Additional emphasis is needed regarding exposure to and preference for vegetable intake in childhood.

  6. Effects of a Culturally Informed Intervention on Abused, Suicidal African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Farah; Zhang, Huaiyu; Snead, Kara; Jones, Ashley D.; Blackmon, Brittane; Bryant, Rachel J.; Siegelman, Asher E.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined 1) the relative efficacy of a culturally-sensitive empowerment group intervention (Nia) aimed at increasing three protective factors—self-esteem, hopefulness, and effectiveness of obtaining resources—versus treatment as usual (TAU) for low-income, abused African American women who recently had attempted suicide and 2) the impact of participants’ readiness to change with regard to their abusive relationship and suicidal behavior on their levels of each protective factor in the two conditions. Methods The sample included 89 African American women who reported intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and a recent suicide attempt. Results Multivariate general linear modeling revealed that those in Nia showed greater improvements in self-esteem, but not in hopefulness or effectiveness of obtaining resources. However, significant interactions emerged in which participants that were “less ready to change” (i.e., earlier in the stages of change process) their IPV situation and suicidal behavior endorsed greater levels of hopefulness and perceived effectiveness of obtaining resources, respectively, following Nia. Conclusion Findings suggest that abused, suicidal African American women who are more reluctant initially to changing their abusive situation and suicidal behavior may benefit from even a brief, culturally-informed intervention. PMID:25403027

  7. Effects of a culturally informed intervention on abused, suicidal African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Farah; Zhang, Huaiyu; Snead, Kara; Jones, Ashley D; Blackmon, Brittane; Bryant, Rachel J; Siegelman, Asher E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2015-10-01

    This study examined (a) the relative efficacy of a culturally sensitive empowerment group intervention (Nia) aimed at increasing 3 protective factors-self-esteem, hopefulness, and effectiveness of obtaining resources-versus treatment as usual (TAU) for low-income, abused African American women who recently had attempted suicide and (b) the impact of participants' readiness to change with regard to their abusive relationship and suicidal behavior on their levels of each protective factor in the 2 conditions. The sample included 89 African American women who reported intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and a recent suicide attempt. Multivariate general linear modeling revealed that those in Nia showed greater improvements in self-esteem, but not in hopefulness or effectiveness of obtaining resources. However, significant interactions emerged in which participants who were "less ready to change" (i.e., earlier in the stages of change process) their IPV situation and suicidal behavior endorsed greater levels of hopefulness and perceived effectiveness of obtaining resources, respectively, following Nia. Findings suggest that abused, suicidal African American women who are more reluctant initially to changing their abusive situation and suicidal behavior may benefit from even a brief, culturally informed intervention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Race and gender matter: a multidimensional approach to conceptualizing and measuring stress in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L; Lobel, Marci

    2008-07-01

    Based on prior research and theory, the authors constructed a multidimensional model of stress in African American women comprised of race-related, gender-related, and generic stress. Exposure to and appraisal of these three types of stress were combined into a higher-order global stress factor. Using structural equation modeling, the fit of this stress factor and its ability to predict distress symptoms were examined in 189 socioeconomically diverse African American women aged 21 to 78. Results support the multidimensional conceptualization and operationalization of stress. Race-related, gender-related, and generic stress contributed equally to the global stress factor, and global stress predicted a significant amount of variance in distress symptoms and intensity. This model exhibited better fit than a model without a global stress factor, in which each stress component predicted distress directly. Furthermore, race-related, gender-related, and generic stress did not contribute to distress beyond their representation in the global stress factor. These findings illustrate that stress related to central elements of identity, namely race and gender, cohere with generic stress to define the stress experience of African American women. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The representation of women in a sample of post-1994 South African school History textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Schoeman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available History curriculum revisions post 1994 were followed by a range of new History textbooks intended to meet the needs of teachers seeking to implement the revised curriculum. I sought to establish whether or not a sample of these textbooks had built upon the gender equality initiatives introduced after 1994. A qualitative intrinsic case study was conducted to determine the extent of the representation of women in three South African school History textbooks. The results demonstrated that, despite the introduction of gender equality initiatives, in the sample selected the role of men in history continued to receive emphasis. In South African history men have indeed been more prominent than women, and have been viewed as the decision-makers, yet there is room in standard South African History textbooks for the inclusion of the ordinary daily events in which women participated or through which they exercised an influence on decision- making by men. Shepherd's media literacy curriculum model, incorporating the Department of Education's approaches to critical media education, is proposed as a tool to empower in-service History teachers to teach learners to deconstruct patriarchal or hegemonic power relations in school History textbooks.

  10. "Jimmy Cap Before You Tap": Developing Condom Use Messages for African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Kristina B; Shook, Natalie J; Belgrave, Faye Z

    This study examined which characteristics of persuasive communications are most effective in changing African American women's condom use attitudes. Focus groups were convened with 40 African American women (M age  = 25.54, SD = 4.67) to assess their opinions on current effective strategies used to promote condom use among their peers. Participants discussed effective characteristics of messaging campaigns (i.e., source, message type, channel) and how these could be used in future prevention messages. Findings revealed that making messages that are fun, catchy, and informative, delivered frequently through social media, TV, or radio by a peer or celebrity would be perceived as most effective in changing young African American women's attitudes. Other themes that emerged were that condom use is more strongly associated with pregnancy prevention than HIV prevention and that sexual partners were perceived to have negative condom use attitudes. Recommendations centered on increasing exposure of HIV prevention messages by placing messages on the Internet and including a funny phrase or jingle in the message so that it is easy to remember and could potentially serve as a conversation starter for discussing safe sex with partners.

  11. African American Women's Recollected Experiences of Adherence to Breast Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiney, Sue P; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Felder, Tisha M; Phelps, Kenneth W; Quinn, Jada C

    2017-03-01

    To explore African American women's recollected experiences of breast cancer treatment.
. Qualitative description and narrative analysis.
. South Carolina Oncology Associates, an outpatient oncology clinic serving rural and urban populations.
. 16 African American women with breast cancer previously enrolled in the control arm (n = 93) of a completed randomized, controlled trial. 
. Feminist narrative analysis of in-depth individual interviews.
. The authors identified three themes within the African American breast cancer survivors' recollected experiences of treatment adherence. Although little evidence was presented of shared decision making with providers, patients were committed to completing the prescribed therapies. The narratives highlighted the value of in-depth examination of patients' perspectives, particularly among minority and underserved groups. With the exception of voicing personal choice of surgical treatment, the women trusted providers' recommendations with a resolve to "just do it." Although trust may enhance treatment adherence, it may also reflect power differentials based on gender, race, education, and culture.
. Nurses should listen to patients describe their experience with cancer treatment and compare the themes from this study with their patients' story. This comparison will help nurses support patients through various aspect of diagnosis and treatment.

  12. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Yann C; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10(-5) in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors.

  13. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy.

  14. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Coetzee, D J; Fehler, H G; Bellingan, A; Dangor, Y; Radebe, F; Ballard, R C

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken in a rural area of South Africa, to develop a non-laboratory tool to screen for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among family planning clients. A cross sectional study was performed of 249 consecutive women attending a family planning service between November and December 1994. A questionnaire was administered, and a clinical examination and laboratory tests conducted. Sociodemographic, clinical, and other non-laboratory variables that were significantly associated with laboratory evidence of infection were combined to produce non-hierarchical scoring systems for three "syndromes": gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervical infection, trichomoniasis, and cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis combined. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the scoring systems as a screening tool were assessed against the gold standard of laboratory tests. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections among the study participants was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis 12%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 18%, and bacterial vaginosis 29%. Although vaginal discharge and other symptoms were frequently reported, symptoms bore no relation to the presence of infection. The following independent associations with gonococcal/chlamydial cervical infection were found: age less than 25 years and cervical mucopus and/or friability. Abnormal discharge on examination, visible inflammatory changes of the cervix (increased redness), no recent travel, and unemployment were associated with trichomoniasis. The combination of trichomonas and/or cervical infection ("STD syndrome") was associated with cervical mucopus/friability, unemployment, lack of financial support, and increased redness of the cervix. Of the three scoring systems developed on the basis of these associations, that of the "STD syndrome" achieved the best performance characteristics as a screening tool, with a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 74%, and

  15. Solo status and self-construal: being distinctive influences racial self-construal and performance apprehension in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaquaptewa, Denise; Waldman, Andrew; Thompson, Mischa

    2007-10-01

    A preliminary study and main experiment tested the hypothesis that racial solo status (being the only member of one's race in a group) increases racial self-construal among African Americans. The preliminary study showed that African American men and women reported greater collectivist (i.e., group-based) over individualist self-construal under solo compared to nonsolo status, whereas Whites did not. The main experiment showed that the increased collectivism among African American solo women appears to be strongly reflected in racial identity becoming a salient aspect of self-construal. African American participants were also more likely than Whites to perceive that their anticipated performance would be generalized to their race, to feel like representatives of their race, and to show greater performance apprehension (indirectly evidenced by increased self-handicapping) when in racial solo status. The implications of solo status for African Americans in evaluative situations (such as academic testing sessions) are discussed. 2007 APA

  16. Periodontal disease early in pregnancy is associated with maternal systemic inflammation among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Amanda L; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Jared, Heather L; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

    2008-07-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is a chronic oral infection with local and systemic inflammatory responses and may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study determined whether maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy is associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and whether maternal race influences the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and systemic inflammatory responses. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy study was conducted. Healthy women at Periodontal disease was categorized by clinical criteria, and maternal serum was analyzed for CRP levels using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. An elevated CRP level was defined as >75th percentile. Demographic and medical data were obtained from the women's charts. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine maternal factors associated with an elevated CRP. An adjusted odds ratio (OR) for elevated CRP levels was calculated and stratified by race and periodontal disease category. The median (interquartile) CRP level was 4.8 (0.6 to 15.7) microg/ml, and an elevated CRP level (>75th percentile) was 15.7 microg/ml. African American race and moderate/severe periodontal disease were significantly associated with elevated CRP levels. When stratified by race, moderate/severe periodontal disease remained associated with an elevated CRP level among African American women (adjusted OR: 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2 to 8.5) but not among white women (adjusted OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.2 to 3.6) after adjusting for age, smoking, parity, marital status, insurance status, and weight. Among African American women, moderate/severe periodontal disease is associated with elevated CRP levels early in pregnancy.

  17. Are there ethnic differences in pregnancy rates in African-American versus white women undergoing frozen blastocyst transfers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csokmay, John M; Hill, Micah J; Maguire, Marcy; Payson, Mark D; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer pregnancy rates (PR) are lower in African-American compared with white women. Retrospective review of frozen blastocyst cycles. University-based assisted reproductive technology (ART) program. All patients who underwent a frozen blastocyst transfer between 2003 and 2008. None. Live birth rate. One hundred sixty-nine patients underwent transfer of a frozen-thawed blastocyst. African-American women had a higher incidence of leiomyoma (40% vs. 10%) and tubal and uterine factor infertility. There was no difference in the live birth rate for African-American patients (28.0%) compared with white patients (30.2%). Of the patients who underwent a frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, 58% (n=98) had their fresh, autologous IVF cycle, which produced the cryopreserved blastocyst, at Walter Reed Medical Center. A higher peak serum E2 level was noted in African-American patients (5,355 pg/mL) compared with white patients (4,541 pg/mL). During the fresh cycle, the live birth rates between African-American and white patients were significantly different at 16.7% versus 39.7%, respectively. Live birth rates after frozen blastocyst transfer are not different between African-American and white women despite a fourfold higher incidence of leiomyomas in African-American women. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity.

  19. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  20. Examining the burdens of gendered racism: implications for pregnancy outcomes among college-educated African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, F M; Phillips, M T; Hogue, C J; Curry-Owens, T Y

    2001-06-01

    As investigators increasingly identify racism as a risk factor for poor health outcomes (with implications for adverse birth outcomes), research efforts must explore individual experiences with and responses to racism. In this study, our aim was to determine how African American college-educated women experience racism that is linked to their identities and roles as African American women (gendered racism). Four hundred seventy-four (474) African American women collaborated in an iterative research process that included focus groups, interviews, and the administration of a pilot stress instrument developed from the qualitative data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data from the responses of a subsample of 167 college-educated women was conducted to determine how the women experienced racism as a stressor. The responses of the women and the results from correlational analysis revealed that a felt sense of obligations for protecting children from racism and the racism that African American women encountered in the workplace were significant stressors. Strong associations were found between pilot scale items where the women acknowledged concerns for their abilities to provide for their children's needs and to the women's specific experiences with racism in the workplace (r = 0.408, p gendered racism that precede and accompany pregnancy may be risk factors for adverse birth outcomes.

  1. The use of traditional medicine in maternity care among African women in Africa and the diaspora: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewamene, Zewdneh; Dune, Tinashe; Smith, Caroline A

    2017-08-02

    There is a paucity of literature describing traditional health practices and beliefs of African women. The purpose of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the use of traditional medicine (TM) to address maternal and reproductive health complaints and wellbeing by African women in Africa and the diaspora. A literature search of published articles, grey literature and unpublished studies was conducted using eight medical and social science databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, Infomit, Ovid Medline, ProQuest, PsychINFO, PubMed and SCOPUS) from the inception of each database until 31 December 2016. Critical appraisal was conducted using a quality assessment tool (QAT). A total of 20 studies conducted in 12 African countries representing 11,858 women were included. No literature was found on African women in the diaspora related to maternal use of TM or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The prevalence of TM use among the African women was as high as 80%. The most common TM used was herbal medicine for reasons related to treatment of pregnancy related symptoms. Frequent TM users were pregnant women with no formal education, low income, and living far from public health facilities. Lack of access to the mainstream maternity care was the major determining factor for use of TM. TM is widely used by African women for maternal and reproductive health issues due to lack of access to the mainstream maternity care. Further research is required to examine the various types of traditional and cultural health practices (other than herbal medicine), the beliefs towards TM, and the health seeking behaviors of African women in Africa and the diaspora.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding HPV vaccination: ethnic and cultural differences between African-American and Haitian immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Natalie Pierre; Clark, Jack A; Bauchner, Howard; Walsh, Jared P; Mercilus, Glory; Figaro, Jean; Bibbo, Caroline; Perkins, Rebecca B

    2012-01-01

    Black women have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of HPV vaccination than White women in the United States, and Haitians may be an especially vulnerable subgroup of Black women. To reduce these disparities, understanding differences among subgroups of Black women is crucial. The objective of our study was to assess similarities and differences in the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices toward HPV vaccination and actual vaccination rates among African-American and Haitian immigrant women and their daughters. We used validated surveys of HPV knowledge, trust in physicians, acculturation, and constructs of the health belief model: Perceived susceptibility, severity, and barriers. We probed women's thought processes about vaccination using open-ended questions. We then reviewed medical records to determine vaccination rates. Nineteen African Americans and 51 Haitians participated. Although 75% of Haitians and 63% of African Americans intended to vaccinate their daughters, only 47% of African-American and 31% of Haitian daughters were vaccinated. African Americans were more knowledgeable than Haitians and had more prior experience with HPV disease. Most African Americans felt that vaccination fell within the parental role, whereas many Haitians felt uncomfortable vaccinating against sexually transmitted infections because they felt children should not be having sex. Both ethnic groups wanted more information about HPV vaccines. Cultural differences between African-American and Haitian immigrant mothers revealed distinct barriers for vaccine acceptance. Improving HPV vaccine rates in Black women may require culturally competent and sensitive approaches that address ethnic-specific barriers. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Low bone mass prevalence and osteoporosis risk factor assessment in African American Wisconsin women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, Srividya; Partington, Susan; Binkley, Neil

    2005-11-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is seen in all racial groups. With the increasing population and longevity of minority groups, osteoporosis is becoming an important health concern. Data regarding risk factors for, and prevalence of, low bone mass and awareness of osteoporosis risk in African American (AA) women are limited. This article evaluates the risk factors for, and prevalence of, low bone mass in a population of urban AA women in Wisconsin and assesses this group's perceived risk for osteoporosis. One hundred fifty consecutive community-dwelling AA women > or = 45 years old from Milwaukee, Wis were asked to complete a questionnaire based on currently accepted osteoporosis risk factors. Additionally, their perception of osteoporosis risk was assessed using a Likert scale. All subjects underwent quantitative calcaneal ultrasound. Subject mean age was 54 +/- 7 years. Mean T- and Z-scores were 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. Applying World Health Organization criteria, osteopenia (bone mineral density T-score 2 children), postmenopausal state, and current smoking were associated with lower calcaneal bone mass. Higher education and presence of diabetes were associated with a higher bone mass. Only 25% of the women surveyed thought they were at moderate to high risk for osteoporosis. Low bone mass was present in 33% of these AA women despite their relative young age. Many AA women do not perceive osteoporosis as a health risk. It is necessary to develop strategies to educate AA women regarding osteoporosis risk.

  4. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in eclamptic and preeclamptic African women postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, A; Mahomed, K; Malinow, M R; Sorenson, T K; Woelk, G B; Williams, M A

    1999-09-01

    To examine the relationship between plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of eclampsia and preeclampsia among sub-Saharan African women who delivered at Harare Maternity Hospital in Zimbabwe. We ran a hospital-based, case-control study at Harare Maternity Hospital, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe comprising 33 pregnant women with eclampsia and 138 with preeclampsia. Controls were 185 normotensive pregnant women. Plasma was collected postpartum and homocyst(e)ine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Women with eclampsia or preeclampsia had significantly higher mean homocyst(e)ine levels than normotensive controls (12.54 or 12.77 micromol/L versus 9.93 micromol/L, respectively, Pine distribution (median 13.9 micromol/L) compared with women in the lowest quartile (median 6.2 micromol/L). The corresponding OR for preeclampsia was 4.57. Nulliparas with elevated homocyst(e)ine had a 12.90 times higher risk of preeclampsia compared with multiparas without elevated homocyst(e)ine. Postpartum plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations are higher among Zimbabwean women with eclampsia and preeclampsia compared with normotensive women.

  5. The influence of personal and group racism on entry into prenatal care among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Misra, Dawn P

    2013-01-01

    Racism has been hypothesized as a barrier to accessing health care. No quantitative study has directly assessed its influence on women's initiation of prenatal care (PNC). We examined the relationship between PNC entry and experiences of personal and group racism among low-income, African-American (AA) women. We also examined whether the use of denial of racism as a coping mechanism was associated with a delay in accessing PNC. Using a prospective/retrospective cohort design we collected data from 872 AA women (prenatally, n = 484; postpartum, n = 388). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the overall denial of racism index and PNC initiation. PNC entry was not associated with personal experiences of racism (p = .33); it was significantly associated with group experiences (p racism experienced by other AAs was a barrier to early PNC among low-income, AA women. Delayed access to PNC may be rooted in the avoidance of racialized experiences among less empowered women when faced with discrimination. Our findings have important implication for the engagement of AA women into the PNC delivery system and the health care system postpartum. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Community based participatory research of breastfeeding disparities in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, Tamar Ringel; Jensen, Elizabeth; McLaurin, Sue; Woods, Elizabeth; Kotch, Jonathan; Labbok, Miriam; Bowling, Mike; Dardess, Pamela; Baker, Sharon

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lack of support for breastfeeding mothers has been consistently identified in the literature as a barrier for breastfeeding across racial and ethnic groups. Using a community-based participatory approach, academic and community-based partners conducted an iterative process to assess barriers, facilitators and potential mediating interventions for breastfeeding in the African-American community in Durham, North Carolina. METHODS: Eight focus groups were conducted with African-American mothers, fathers and grandmothers. Researchers transcribed and coded each focus group and analyzed using Atlas ti. 5.2. Patterns and themes that emerged informed the development of community stakeholder interviews; 41 interviews were conducted with community representatives. These findings informed the development of a support group pilot intervention. The pilot support groups were evaluated for increase in knowledge of attendees. RESULTS: Focus group and community interviews indicate that African Americans may disproportionately experience inadequate support for breastfeeding. This lack of support was reported in the home, the workplace, among peers, and from healthcare providers. The pilot support groups resulted in increased knowledge of breastfeeding among group participants OR=3.6 (95% CI: 2.5, 5.2). CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this research underscore the importance of a multi-level approach to breastfeeding support for African American women to address breastfeeding disparities.

  7. Smoking and pregnancy outcome among African-American and white women in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Dole, N; Terry, J W; Zhou, H; Thorp, J M

    2001-11-01

    Despite extensive research on tobacco smoking during pregnancy, few studies address risks among African-American and white women, groups that differ in brand preference and smoking habits. The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study is a prospective cohort study that included 2,418 women with detailed information on smoking during pregnancy, including brand, number of cigarettes per day, and changes during pregnancy. We analyzed risk of preterm birth (age deliveries in relation to tobacco use. Pregnant African-American smokers differed markedly from whites in brand preference (95% vs 26% smoked menthol cigarettes) and number of cigarettes per day (1% of African-Americans and 12% of whites smoked 20+ cigarettes per day). Smoking was not related to risk of preterm birth overall, but cotinine measured at the time of delivery was (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.5). A clear association and dose-response gradient was present for risk of fetal growth restriction (risk ratio for 20+ cigarettes/day = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.4-4.0). Associations of tobacco use with preterm premature rupture of amniotic membrane resulting in preterm birth were notably stronger than the associations with other types of preterm birth.

  8. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    , a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following......Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  9. Experiences of South African multiparous labouring women using the birthing ball to encourage vaginal births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindiwe James

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the experiences of South African multiparous labouring women on their use of the birthing ball during the first stage of labour. The authors used a qualitative research approach using unstructured audiotaped interviews as the data collection method and data were collected over a period of one calendar month. The sample for the study were women who were six hours to six weeks post-delivery, had at least one child already, used the birthing ball, were on no medication, and had delivered a live infant. The sample consisted of twelve purposively selected participants, two of whom were used for the pilot study. The data analysis method was Data Analysis Spiral. The authors made use of an independent coder to assist with coding the data and three major themes were identified. The results revealed that the labouring women experienced the birthing ball as a useful labour tool, as shortening the labour process and as empowering them during labour.

  10. Peer led HIV/AIDS prevention for women in South African informal settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara Murdock, Peggy; Garbharran, Hari; Edwards, Mary Jo; Smith, Maria A; Lutchmiah, Johnny; Mkhize, Makhosi

    2003-07-01

    South African women who live in informal settlement communities are at high risk of HIV/AIDS infection due to their poor economic and social status. Prevention programs must include methods for improving their social conditions as well as their sexual risk behaviors. Members of Partners trained 24 women from informal settlements to lead HIV/AIDS education workshops for 480 residents. When these participants reached out to their neighbors, this participatory community-based approach resulted in providing HIV/AIDS prevention messages to more than 1,440 residents. Program leaders from three settlements said in focus group discussions that results from this social influences peer led approach demonstrated that women residents are a valuable resource in providing effective HIV/AIDS prevention programs to South Africa's most vulnerable residents.

  11. Factors that Enable Women of South Asian and African Descent to Succeed in Leadership Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamassah, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This research study focused on the factors that enable women of South Asian and African descent to succeed as leaders in the college system. The findings were derived from online questionnaires and in-depth interviews of 16 racialized women from two Greater Toronto Area (GTA) colleges. Many factors and recommendations were shared. Some of the…

  12. Socioeconomic determinants of haemoglobin levels of African women are less important in areas with more health facilities: a multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, M; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Meijerink, H.; Ven, André van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND : The prevalence of anaemia in Africa is the highest in the world. Especially women are at risk because of blood loss during menstruation and increased iron requirements during pregnancy. This study examined determinants of the haemoglobin (Hb) level of African women at

  13. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting among Rural African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women's relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning,…

  14. Family Planning Knowledge: The Role of Social Networks and Primary Care Providers as Information Sources for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…

  15. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  16. Rural black women's agency within intimate partnerships amid the South African HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thege, Britta

    2009-12-01

    In a particular way, the HIV pandemic exposes the prevailing gender relations and the definitions of male and female gender roles, both in intimate relationships and in the wider society. The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high since they suffer notably from subordination and socio-economic hardships. Negotiating safer sex in marriage or intimate partnerships is very difficult for them in view of the traditional spaces in which they find themselves, where patriarchal structures are pervasive. Based on data obtained from a case study, this paper examines socio-cultural constraints to rural women's sexual agency in a patriarchal social order. These rules are based on a patriarchal code of respect, which is still pervasive in many aspects of the community under investigation. In terms of gender relations, the patriarchal code of respect is founded on an assumed 'naturalisation' of the two genders and the natural superiority of the male over the female. In terms of sexuality it is translated into male sex-right. The fear of HIV infection is omnipresent and results in unmarried women engaging in the negotiation of their wants and needs. Owing to the patriarchal code of respect, married women are perceived as having no choice in negotiating safer sex and are forced to put their lives at risk in contracting HIV. Unmarried women have greater although not endless choices in this regard. Although the study participants unexpectedly displayed a rather negative perception of other women, in order to strengthen women in their proximal environment the HIV epidemic may be seen as a vehicle for building solidarity among women in the community.

  17. Defining new categories of pregnancy intention in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan; Peacock, Nadine; McRae, Kenya; Seymour, Rachel; Gilliam, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Half of all U.S. pregnancies are categorized as unintended at conception, but concerns persist that existing measures of pregnancy intention do not adequately reflect the complexities of reproductive desires and preferences. We explored new strategies for categorizing viewpoints toward future pregnancy focusing on young, low-income, African-American women, and assessed the stability of these viewpoints over time. For pregnancies that occurred during the study, we examined the utility of the newly derived categories for predicting retrospective measures of intendedness. Data were collected using Q-methodology, a technique for eliciting subjective viewpoints and identifying shared patterns among individuals. African-American women ages 15 to 25 and at risk for pregnancy were recruited at clinics serving low-income populations. The women sorted statements reflecting attitudes and preferences regarding future pregnancy into a distribution on a continuum from "least true for me" to "most true for me." We used by-person factor analysis to derive latent viewpoints. We identified six factors each reflecting a unique viewpoint about future pregnancy. These were a pregnancy seeking factor, one reflecting both ambivalence and low reproductive control, and four reflecting pregnancy avoidance, with distinctions around social support, reproductive control, and desired pregnancy timing. Distribution of factors differed by age group, as well as by retrospective categorization of pregnancy intention for those women who became pregnant during the study. Our categories provide a nuanced reflection of women's points of view about future pregnancies, and, with further validation, may prove useful for predicting or preventing contraceptive nonuse, undesired conceptions, and associated adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  19. Breaking the chains: examining the endorsement of modern Jezebel images and racial-ethnic esteem among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L; White-Johnson, Rhonda L; Griffin-Fennell, Felicia D

    2013-01-01

    The historical image of the Black Jezebel - a hypersexual, seductive and manipulative slave woman - has been one of the most pervasive and evolving images influencing the sexual socialization and perceptions of African American women today. This preliminary study examined generational differences in the endorsement of modern depictions of the Jezebel, as well as the relationship between racial-ethnic esteem and endorsement of this sexualised image. A total of 249 African American women completed an online, self-report questionnaire assessing study variables. Results suggested that younger women (aged 18-34) may exhibit higher endorsement of the modern Jezebel depictions. Additionally, aspects of racial-ethnic esteem may be linked to lower endorsement of modern Jezebel depictions among younger and older (55 years and older) African American women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  20. Novel Recruitment Techniques for a Study of Culture-Specific Diet, Metabolic Variability, and Breast Cancer Risk in African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambrosone, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Little is known regarding explanations for racial disparities in breast cancer incidence among younger women and tumor aggressiveness, perhaps because of the difficulty in enrolling African-Americans...

  1. Novel Recruitment Techniques for a Study of Culture-Specific Diet, Metabolic Variability and Breast Cancer Risk in African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambrosone, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Little is known regarding explanations for racial disparities in breast cancer incidence among younger women and tumor agressiveness, perhaps because of the difficulty in enrolling African-Americans...

  2. Relationships among neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and preterm birth in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1)  = 33 with preterm birth; n(2)  = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Social processes used by African American women in making decisions about mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Barbara Ann

    2006-01-01

    To describe the social processes used by African American (AA) women ages > or = 50 years in making decisions about mammography screening. Grounded theory methodology. Tape-recorded interviews with a researcher-designed, semi-structured interview guide with an initial and theoretical sample of 30 AA women ages 52 to 71 of diverse socioeconomic status. Interviews occurred in various settings such as the church rectory, women's homes, and work settings. Extensive written field notes and tapes were transcribed verbatim immediately after the interviews by an experienced transcriptionist. The women's decisions about mammography screening were associated with five social processes: (a) acknowledging prior experiences with healthcare providers and systems; (b) reporting fears and fatalistic beliefs of breast cancer and related treatment; (c) valuing the opinions of significant others; (d) relying on religious beliefs and supports; and (e) caregiving responsibilities of significant others. The processes were further differentiated by three distinct decision-making styles: taking charge, enduring, and protesting. Each of the social processes was reported equally and emphasized by the diverse sample of AA women in decisions related to mammography screening. Mammography screening decisions were heavily influenced by caregiving responsibilities. Further research is needed to explain and understand this social process on the health and well-being of AA women over time.

  4. Beliefs about Racism and Health among African American Women with Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110

  5. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley White-Means

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  6. Exploring disparities in prenatal care between refugees and local South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiribiri, Edith T; Moodley, Dhayendre; Groves, Allison K; Sebitloane, Motshedisi H

    2016-02-01

    To explore possible disparities in prenatal care between refugees and South African women attending public health facilities in an urban setting in South Africa. A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted at four public health clinics providing prenatal services in Durban between January 29, 2013, and June 15, 2013. Pretested client-satisfaction questionnaires were administered to 200 women attending immunization services at the clinics whose infants were aged 6 months or younger. An additional 16 refugees participated in in-depth interviews. Finally, a maternity chart audit was conducted to compare the quality of basic prenatal care. Among the women enrolled, 78 (39.0%) were refugees and 122 (61.0%) were South African citizens. Dissatisfaction was reported by 23 (19.3%) of 119 citizens and 32 (43.2%) of 74 refugees (Prefugees, 37 citizens) did not reveal significant disparities in the quality of prenatal care. The most recurring categories arising in the in-depth interviews were linguistic barriers and the challenges faced when using informal interpreters. There were no significant disparities in prenatal care; however, refugees unable to communicate in the local languages reported that they were not provided with relevant health information and occasionally faced restricted access to prenatal services. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of patient-centered outcomes among African American women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephania T; Akohoue, Sylvie A; Brooks, Malinda A

    2014-12-01

    African American women carry a disproportionate diabetes burden, yet there is limited information on strategies to identify outcomes women perceive as important intervention outcomes (patient-centered outcomes). This study presents a brief strategy to solicit these outcomes and to describe outcomes identified using the highlighted strategy. Thirty-four African-American women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in group-based, diabetes/weight management interventions. A diabetes educator asked participants to write down their intervention expectations followed by verbal sharing of responses. Expectation-related themes were identified using an iterative, qualitative, team analytic approach based on audio-recorded responses. The majority of the expectation-related themes (6 of 10) were reflective of self-care education/management and weight loss-related patient-centered outcomes. The remaining themes were associated with desires to help others prevent or manage diabetes, reduce negative diabetes-related emotions, get rid of diabetes, and stop taking diabetes medications. This study adds to a limited body of knowledge regarding patient-centered outcomes among a group that experiences a disproportionate diabetes burden. Future work could include integrating outcomes that are less commonly addressed in diabetes-related lifestyle interventions (e.g., diabetes-related negative emotions), along with more commonly addressed outcomes (e.g., weight loss), to increase the patient-centeredness of the interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships Among Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and Plasma Cytokines in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Gerald V; Sebastiani, Paola; Andrieu, Guillaume; Tran, Anna H; Strissel, Katherine J; Lombardi, Frank L; Palmer, Julie R

    2017-11-01

    The principal objective of this investigation was to identify novel cytokine associations with BMI and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cytokines were profiled from African American women with obesity who donated plasma to the Komen Tissue Bank. Multiplex bead arrays of analytes were used to quantify 88 cytokines and chemokines in association with clinical diagnoses of metabolic health. Regression models were generated after elimination of outliers. Among women with obesity, T2D was associated with breast adipocyte hypertrophy and with six plasma analytes, including four chemokines (chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 2, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 16, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 1, and chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 16) and two growth factors (interleukin 2 and epidermal growth factor). In addition, three analytes were associated with obesity independently of diabetes: interleukin 4, soluble CD40 ligand, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3. Profiling of inflammatory cytokines combined with measures of BMI may produce a more personalized risk assessment for obesity-associated disease in African American women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  10. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  11. African-American women: considering diverse identities and societal barriers in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, B

    1996-06-18

    Effective psychotherapy with African-American women explicitly requires cultural literacy and competence of its practitioners. Cultural literacy includes understanding the collective social plight of African-American women and the individual client in the context of the prevailing reality of race, gender, and sexual orientation bias and the interpersonal and institutional barriers that result from that bias. Cultural literacy presumes a willingness on the part of the therapist to educate himself or herself about the clients cultural background and milieu and validate the client's accurate perceptions of discrimination and bias and their impact on the client's life. Cultural competence may be seen as the appropriate level of technical skill in applying those concepts to the understanding of the client and the conduct of the psychotherapeutic inquiry. The culturally literate practitioner will acknowledge and appreciate the wide range of diversity within African-American women as a group. The individual client's intrapsychic and familial endowments and personal relationship history as they are embedded in the aforementioned context should be carefully explored and understood as well as are all relevant social factors. Finally, therapists must be willing to scrutinize their own feelings and motivations for working with African-American women. What should follow is a careful analysis of the developmental interactions of these variables, how they promote an individual's view of the world, her perceptions of her options, her strategies for negotiating institutional barriers, her relationships with other persons, as well as any contributions she makes, consciously or unconsciously, to her own dilemma. A culturally literate and antiracist therapist must begin with an understanding of the role of multiple identities and oppressions in client's lives and must have or be willing to acquire a familiarity with the clients' cultural and ethnic heritage and the role of

  12. A One-Size-Fits-All HIV Prevention and Education Approach?: Interpreting Divergent HIV Risk Perceptions Between African American and East African Immigrant Women in Washington, DC Using the Proximate-Determinants Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Taylor, Juanita; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    To date, there are very few comparative US studies and none in DC that distinguish between US-born and foreign-born black women to examine and compare their perceptions of HIV risk. This qualitative study, therefore, analyzes African American and East African women's perceptions of HIV risk in the Washington DC Metropolitan area, which has the highest AIDS rate in the United States. Forty in-depth, semistructured interviews and 10 cognitive interviews were conducted among a sample of 25 African American women and 25 East African born women between October 2012 and March 2013 to examine perceptions regarding HIV risk. The in-depth semistructured interviews were preceded by the cognitive interviews and accompanying survey. Study protocol was reviewed and approved by the American University Institutional Review Board. Adopting Boerma and Weir's Proximate Determinants conceptual framework to interpret the data, the results of the study demonstrate that African American and East African immigrant women have divergent perceptions of HIV risk. Although African American women ascribe HIV risk to individual-level behaviors and choices such as unprotected sex, East African women attribute HIV risk to conditions of poverty and survival. Study findings suggest that addressing HIV prevention and education among black women in DC will require distinct and targeted strategies that are culturally and community-centered to resonate with these different audiences.

  13. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females.

  14. The occupational health status of African-American women health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C W

    1996-01-01

    Race, ethnicity, and gender are significant indicators of occupational status, general health status, and thus, occupational health status. Although African-American women constitute only 6.8% of the total U.S. labor force, they hold 20% of the jobs in the health care industry and are disproportionately represented in those jobs that have the highest levels of workplace exposure to hazards. As a result, they are therefore more likely to be at greater exposure and risk to the spectrum of occupational health problems. In order to gain insight into the effects of race and gender on the occupational health status of African-American women health care workers, this article uses three data sources that provide different but complementary sources of information on the demographic characteristics of workers, location of categories of occupations, working conditions of jobs, and other job and worker characteristics. Given the concentration of African-American women in health care positions where there exists a greater likelihood of being exposed to occupational hazards, it is therefore both logical and appropriate for primary care physicians, especially those engaged in office-based practices, to identify this target population for special services and to be more aware of the type of health issues with which these patients are more likely to present and to experience during their working lives. Health care providers have a responsibility to assess occupational factors related to a patient's health problems and to incorporate this information into their treatment protocols and into the design and explanation of each patient's care plan.

  15. Visual Representation of Body Shape in African-American and European American Women: Clinical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice L. Capers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Body mass index (BMI has been used widely among clinicians to assess obesity in their patients due to its ease and availability. However, BMI has some diagnostic limitations and other measures related to health risks; in particular, body shape may be of greater relevance to health outcomes. Objective The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of body shape assessments above and beyond BMI and its relationship to health risk among a sample of African-American and European American women. Methods African-American and European American women aged 19–78 years ( n = 552 in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited and stratified by menopausal status (ie, pre- or postmenopausal. Pictorial body shapes were derived from digital photographs, while body fat distribution defined by android-gynoid ratio (AGR and body composition were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Images of BMI and age-matched women illustrate variability in fat distribution. Among both menopausal status groups, more than 50% of women had a pear body shape (AGR < 1. An apple body shape was associated with higher odds of having diabetes (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–9.3, hypertension (unadjusted OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.0–4.7, and high cholesterol (unadjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–5.1. Conclusion Use of visual cues alongside traditional methods of weight status assessment may help to facilitate weight management conversations between physicians and female patients. However, next steps should include the validation of visual assessments of body shape in women for use by physicians.

  16. Family Violence Exposure and Health Outcomes Among Older African American Women: Do Spirituality and Social Support Play Protective Roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Family violence (FV), spirituality, and social support are salient psychosocial determinants of health. FV is associated with poor health among older African American women. The effect of spirituality and social support levels on the health of older African American women is unknown. Methods To assess the role of spirituality and social support as culturally relevant determinants of health status for older African American women independent of FV levels, we used a cross-sectional observational study. Two hundred twelve African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in two urban primary care practices. The measures used were (1) Family Violence Against Older Women (FVOW) scale, (2) Physical and Mental Composite Scores of the Short-Form 8® scale, (3) Medical Outcomes of Social Support survey (MOSS), and (4) Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Spearman correlation coefficients estimated to test associations among lifetime FV exposure, spirituality, social support, and health status outcomes and multivariate regression models were used to examine the independent effect of spirituality and social support on physical and mental health status, controlling for FV and significant demographic variables. Results Mean participant age was 63.9 years. Higher spirituality levels were significantly associated with better physical health status after adjusting for FV levels and demographic factors (F = 6.17, p = 0.0001). Similarly, higher levels of spirituality and social support both significantly correlated with better mental health status in the multivariate model (F = 13.45, p < 0.0001) that controlled for lifetime FV levels and demographic factors. Conclusions Spirituality and social support are two potentially modifiable determinants of health for older African American women. Culturally appropriate mechanisms to enhance social support and spirituality levels need to be explored as potential inteventions to improve the health of those

  17. Low-income, pregnant, African American women's views on physical activity and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to gain insight into how low-income, pregnant, African American women viewed physical activity and approached nutrition during pregnancy. Three focus groups with a total of 26 women were conducted utilizing open-ended questions related to physical activity and diet during pregnancy. Content analysis was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Groups were compared and contrasted at the within-group and between-group levels to identify themes. Two themes that related to physical activity during pregnancy were identified: 1) fatigue and low energy dictate activity and 2) motivation to exercise is not there. Three themes were identified that related to diet: 1) despite best intentions, appetite, taste, and cravings drive eating behavior; 2) I'll decide for myself what to eat; and 3) eating out is a way of life. Women reported that being physically active and improving their diets was not easy. Women indicated that their levels of physical activity had decreased since becoming pregnant. Attempts at improving their diets were undermined by frequenting fast food restaurants and cravings for highly dense, palatable foods. Women ceded to the physical aspects of pregnancy, often choosing to ignore the advice of others. A combination of low levels of physical activity and calorie-dense diets increased the risk of excessive gestational weight gain in this sample of women, consequently increasing the risk for weight retention after pregnancy. Health care providers can promote healthy eating and physical activity by building on women's being "in tune with and listening to" their bodies. They can query women about their beliefs regarding physical activity and diet and offer information to ensure understanding of what contributes to healthy pregnancy outcomes. Intervention can focus on factors such as cravings and what tastes good, suggesting ways to manage pregnancy effects within a healthy diet. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Racial disparities in survival outcomes by breast tumor subtype among African American women in Memphis, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Gregory; Bursac, Zoran; Miranda-Carboni, Gustavo; White-Means, Shelley; Starlard-Davenport, Athena

    2017-07-01

    Racial disparities in survival among African American (AA) women in the United States have been well documented. Breast cancer mortality rates among AA women is higher in Memphis, Tennessee as compared to 49 of the largest US cities. In this study, we investigated the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in survival outcomes among Memphis women are attributed to differences in breast tumor subtype and treatment outcomes. A total of 3527 patients diagnosed with stage I-IV breast cancer between January 2002 and April 2015 at Methodist Health hospitals and West Cancer Center in Memphis, TN were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare survival outcomes among 1342 (38.0%) AA and 2185 (62.0%) non-Hispanic White breast cancer patients by race and breast tumor subtype. Over a mean follow-up time of 29.9 months, AA women displayed increased mortality risk [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-2.03] and were more likely to be diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. AA women with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) had the highest death rate at 26.7% compared to non-Hispanic White women at 16.5%. AA women with TNBC and luminal B/HER2- breast tumors had the highest risk of mortality. Regardless of race, patients who did not have surgery had over five times higher risk of dying compared to those who had surgery. These findings provide additional evidence of the breast cancer disparity gap between AA and non-Hispanic White women and highlight the need for targeted interventions and policies to eliminate breast cancer disparities in AA populations, particularly in Memphis, TN. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychological Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Predominantly African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley

    2017-07-01

    Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.

  20. Leveraging the Family Influence of Women in Prostate Cancer Efforts Targeting African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, O N; Rutherford, C A; Witherspoon, S F

    2017-08-25

    Incidence rate of prostate cancer among African American (AA) men is 1.6 times that in White men. Prevention efforts in this population have typically been through faith-based organizations and barber shops, with a few including significant others. Culturally, women are known to have a strong influence in the AA family. The current study assessed prostate cancer knowledge and explored perceptions on the roles of women in prostate cancer prevention. To assess prostate cancer knowledge, a 25-item questionnaire was administered to convenience samples of AA women (n = 297) and men (n = 199). Four focus groups were conducted to explore perceptions on the role of women in prostate cancer prevention. Men had a higher mean score (13.2; max of 25) than women (11.4) for knowledge of prostate cancer. For the men, higher knowledge scores were associated with having a family member diagnosed with prostate cancer and likelihood to engage healthcare providers about prostate cancer (p men to seek regular primary care. This affords men opportunities for dialog with healthcare providers about prostate cancer and informed decision making regarding screening.

  1. The meaning and use of spirituality among African American women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmida, Safiya George; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Laderman, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning and use of spirituality among African American (AA), predominantly Christian women with HIV. A nonrandom sample of 20 AA women from a large infectious disease clinic in Metro-Atlanta participated in the study. The study used focus groups and individual interviews to interview women about their lived spiritual experience. Content analysis and NUDIST software were used to analyze transcripts. The findings revealed the spiritual views and practices of AA women with HIV. The following themes (and subthemes) emerged: Spirituality is a process/journey or connection (connection to God, higher power, or spirit and HIV brought me closer to God), spiritual expression (religion/church attendance, prayer, helping others, having faith), and spiritual benefits (health/healing, spiritual support, inner peace/strength/ability to keep going, and here for a reason or purpose/a second chance). Findings highlight the importance of spirituality in health and well-being among AA women with HIV/AIDS.

  2. Women's empowerment and choice of contraceptive methods in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Kurimoto, Nami

    2012-03-01

    It is generally believed that women's lack of decision-making power may restrict their use of modern contraceptives. However, few studies have examined the different dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use in African countries. Data came from the latest round of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Namibia, Zambia, Ghana and Uganda. Responses from married or cohabiting women aged 15-49 were analyzed for six dimensions of empowerment and the current use of female-only methods or couple methods. Bivariate and multivariate multinomial regressions were used to identify associations between the empowerment dimensions and method use. Positive associations were found between the overall empowerment score and method use in all countries (relative risk ratios, 1.1-1.3). In multivariate analysis, household economic decision making was associated with the use of either female-only or couple methods (1.1 for all), as was agreement on fertility preferences (1.3-1.6) and the ability to negotiate sexual activity (1.1-1.2). In Namibia, women's negative attitudes toward domestic violence were correlated with the use of couple methods (1.1). Intervention programs aimed at increasing contraceptive use may need to involve different approaches, including promoting couples' discussion of fertility preferences and family planning, improving women's self-efficacy in negotiating sexual activity and increasing their economic independence.

  3. Active smoking and survival following breast cancer among African American and non-African American women in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Humberto; Sun, Xuezheng; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A; Conway, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    To examine racial differences in smoking rates at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent survival among African American and non-African American women in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (Phases I/II), a large population-based North Carolina study. We interviewed 788 African American and 1,020 Caucasian/non-African American women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1993 to 2000, to assess smoking history. After a median follow-up of 13.56 years, we identified 717 deaths using the National Death Index; 427 were breast cancer-related. We used Cox regression to examine associations between self-reported measures of smoking and breast cancer-specific survival within 5 years and up to 18 years after diagnosis conditional on 5-year survival. We examined race and estrogen receptor status as potential modifiers. Current (vs never) smoking was not associated with 5-year survival; however, risk of 13 year conditional breast cancer-specific mortality was elevated among women who were current smokers at diagnosis (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.25), compared to never smokers. Although smoking rates were similar among African American (22.0%) and non-African American (22.1%) women, risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was elevated among African American (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.85), but only weakly elevated among non-African American (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.70-2.14) current (vs. never) smokers (P Interaction  = 0.30). Risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was also elevated among current (vs never) smokers diagnosed with ER - (HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.35-4.93), but not ER + (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.69-1.78) tumors (P Interaction  = 0.17). Smoking may negatively impact long-term survival following breast cancer. Racial differences in long-term survival, as related to smoking, may be driven by ER status, rather than by differences in smoking patterns.

  4. Enhancing Breastfeeding Rates Among African American Women: A Systematic Review of Current Psychosocial Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601

  5. A one-size-fits-all HIV prevention and education approach?: Analyzing and interpreting divergent HIV risk perceptions between African American and East African immigrant women in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Taylor, Juanita; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, there are very few comparative US studies and none in DC that distinguish between US-born and foreign-born Black women to examine and compare their perceptions of HIV risk. This qualitative study, therefore, analyzes African American and East African women’s perceptions of HIV risk in the Washington DC Metropolitan area, which has the highest AIDS rate in the US. Methods Forty in-depth, semi-structured interviews and 10 cognitive interviews were conducted among a sample of 25 African American women and 25 East African born women between October 2012 and March 2013 to examine perceptions regarding HIV risk. The in-depth semi-structured interviews were preceded by the cognitive interviews and accompanying survey. Study protocol was reviewed and approved by the American University Institutional Review Board. Results Adopting Boerma and Weir’s Proximate Determinants conceptual framework to interpret the data, the results of the study demonstrate that African American and East African immigrant women have divergent perceptions of HIV risk. While African American women ascribe HIV risk to individual-level behaviors and choices such as unprotected sex, East African women attribute HIV risk to conditions of poverty and survival. Conclusions Study findings suggest that addressing HIV prevention and education among Black women in DC will require distinct and targeted strategies that are culturally and community-centered in order to resonate with these different audiences. PMID:26766523

  6. Increasing tobacco quitline calls from pregnant african american women: the "one tiny reason to quit" social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, May G; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L; Garland, Sheryl L; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan

    2013-05-01

    Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but "quitlines" are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality.

  7. Increasing Tobacco Quitline Calls from Pregnant African American Women: The “One Tiny Reason to Quit” Social Marketing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L.; Garland, Sheryl L.; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but “quitlines” are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. Methods The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. Results There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. Conclusion A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality. PMID:23621745

  8. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  9. Structural and sociocultural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American women in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.

  10. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  11. Engaged mothering: the transition to motherhood for a group of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, L M

    1999-01-01

    Using grounded theory methodology, 17 first-time African American mothers were interviewed to elicit their experiences of pregnancy and motherhood. Participants had a mean age of 30 years, were mostly married, employed, middle income, college educated, and all received adequate prenatal care. Engaged Mothering was identified as the core category, denoting the active, involved, and mutual process in which a woman prepares to be a mother, cares for herself and her infant, and dreams about and plans for the future to have a good life for her child. Strategies women used in this process included getting ready, dealing with the reality, settling in, and dreaming. Conditions of intentionality of the pregnancy and prior history of miscarriage or health problems of the mother affected the process. Women described the effects of racism on their daily lives and on the criteria they used to choose providers. Nursing interventions are proposed based on these results.

  12. Experiences addressing health-related financial challenges with disease management among African American women with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Id-Deen, Effat; Clark, Noreen M

    2014-06-01

    Despite economic hardship, compliance with self-management regimens is still evident among individuals and families managing chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to describe how women with asthma address cost-related challenges to management of their condition. In 2012 and 2013, four focus groups were conducted in Southeast Michigan with 26 African American women with asthma, recruited based on maximum variation sampling procedures. A semi-structured interview protocol was employed by trained facilitators. Coded transcripts were analyzed for themes regarding means to reduce the impact of the cost of asthma management. Major themes identified were acceptance of the status quo; stockpiling and sharing medicines; utilizing community assistance programs; reaching out to healthcare providers and social networks for help; foregoing self-management; and utilizing urgent care. Awareness of strategies that are helpful to patients in reducing out-of-pocket costs may better equip service providers and others to develop interventions to make useful strategies more widely available.

  13. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  14. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashing-Giwa, K

    1999-01-01

    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  16. Exploring Predictors of Information Use to Self-Manage Blood Pressure in Midwestern African American Women with Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany; Pressler, Susan J; Coleman-Burns, Patricia; McCall, Alecia

    2018-06-01

    Self-management of hypertension requires patients to find, understand, and use information to lower their blood pressure. Little is known about information use among African American women with hypertension, therefore the purpose of this study was to examine predictors of self-reported information use to self-manage blood pressure. Ninety-four Midwestern African American women (mean age = 59) completed questionnaires about information behaviors (seeking, sharing, use) and personal beliefs (attitude, social norms) related to self-management of blood pressure. Linear regression was used to identify significant predictors of information use. The total variance explained by the model was 36%, F(7, 79) = 6.29, p < .001. Information sharing was the only significant predictor (beta = .46, p < .001). These results provide evidence that information sharing is a potential health behavior to support intervention strategies for African American women with hypertension.

  17. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation Among Low-SES African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally-specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical sociology, and the stress process, we explore the adverse impact of gendered racism experiences and potential moderating factors in a sample of 204 predominantly low-SES African American women. We find that African American women’s risk for suicidal ideation is linked to stressors occurring as a function of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. In addition, we find that gendered racism has no effect on suicidal ideation among women with moderate levels of well-being, self-esteem, and active coping, but has a strong adverse influence in those with high and low levels of psychosocial resources. PMID:23565018

  18. Improvement of systolic and diastolic heart function after physical training in sedentary women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Juel; Hansen, Peter Riis; Søgaard, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiac effects of football training and running for inactive pre-menopausal women by standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to two training groups (football: FG; n=19; running; RG; n=18) training 1 h with equal.......0+/-1.3 mm (PRight ventricle diameter increased by 12% in FG and 10% in RG (P

  19. Pastoral care to or with sex-starved pregnant women in an African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight some African women’s problematic sex life, even in their married lives, as a result of prescribed and lengthy periods of abstinence from sex – especially during pregnancy. Literature studies, especially on Yoruba sexual practices, showed that forced abstinence from sexual activity during pregnancy is rife and that many women seem content with the situation, probably as a result of their internalisation of patriarchal beliefs and values, prescribed as a means of socialisation. This phenomenon of abstinence from sexual intercourse during pregnancy by the women in some African societies is the focus of the study. The article examined the following: views of sex amongst Black African people, medical views of sex and views of sex in Christian tradition. Also examined at length was the phenomenon of abstinence from sex in an African context. The findings led to a critical evaluation of the phenomenon and a search for pastoral guidelines that could facilitate transformation, intimacy and committed sexual life in African families. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die problematiese seksuele lewens van sommige vrouens in Afrika na vore te bring. Die probleme kom voor ten spyte van die feit dat hulle getroud is omdat lang tydperke van onthouding, veral tydens swangerskap, vir hulle voorgeskryf word. ’n Literatuurstudie, veral oor die Yoruba se seksuele praktyke, dui daarop dat gedwonge onthouding van seksuele aktiwiteite gedurendede swangerskap heersend is. Verder kom dit ook voor asof baie vrouens nie daarmee probleme ervaar nie, waarskynlik as gevolg van hulle geïnternaliseerde patriargale oortuigings en waardes, wat vir sosialiseringsdoeleindes voorgeskryf word. Hierdie studie fokus op die verskynsel van onthouding van geslagsomgang gedurende swangerskap deur vrouens in sommige Afrika-gemeenskappe. Die artikel ondersoek die volgende: Swart Afrikane se tradisionele seksbeskouing, die mediese seksbeskouing

  20. African American women in the workplace: relationships between job conditions, racial bias at work, and perceived job quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D; Dodge, M A

    1997-10-01

    Although studies have described work processes among employed African American women, few have examined the influence of these processes on job outcomes. This study examined relationships between African American women's exposure to a range of occupational stressors, including two types of racial bias--institutional discrimination and interpersonal prejudice--and their evaluations of job quality. Findings indicated that institutional discrimination and interpersonal prejudice were more important predictors of job quality among these women than were other occupational stressors such as low task variety and decision authority, heavy workloads, and poor supervision. Racial bias in the workplace was most likely to be reported by workers in predominantly white work settings. In addition, Black women who worked in service, semiskilled, and unskilled occupations reported significantly more institutional discrimination, but not more interpersonal prejudice, than did women in professional, managerial, and technical occupations or those in sales and clerical occupations.

  1. Severe obesity, heart disease, and death among white, African American, and Hispanic postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, Kathleen M; Chang, Yue-Fang; Eaton, Charles; Garcia, Lorena; Johnson, Karen C; Lewis, Cora E; Liu, Simin; Mackey, Rachel H; Robinson, Jennifer; Rosal, Milagros C; Snetselaar, Linda; Valoski, Alice; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-03-01

    To compare mortality, nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD), and congestive heart failure (CHF) risk across BMI categories in white, African American, and Hispanic women, with a focus on severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40), and examine heterogeneity in weight-related CHD risk. Among 156,775 Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trial participants (September 1993-12 September 2005), multivariable Cox models estimated relative risk for mortality, CHD, and CHF. CHD incidence was calculated by anthropometry, race, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF incidence generally rose with BMI category. For severe obesity versus normal BMI, hazard ratios (HRs, 95% confidence interval) for mortality were 1.97 (1.77-2.20) in white, 1.55 (1.20-2.00) in African American, and 2.59 (1.55-4.31) in Hispanic women; for CHD, HRs were 2.05 (1.80-2.35), 2.24 (1.57-3.19), and 2.95 (1.60-5.41) respectively; for CHF, HRs were 5.01 (4.33-5.80), 3.60 (2.30-5.62), and 6.05 (2.49-14.69). CVRF variation resulted in substantial variation in CHD rates across BMI categories, even in severe obesity. CHD incidence was similar by race/ethnicity when differences in BMI or CVRF were accounted for. Severe obesity increases mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF risk in women of diverse race/ethnicity. CVRF heterogeneity contributes to variation in CHD incidence even in severe obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  3. Contraceptive Use and Uptake of HIV-Testing among Sub-Saharan African Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Center

    Full Text Available Despite improved availability of simple, relatively inexpensive, and highly effective antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS, the disease remains a major public health challenge for women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Given the numerous barriers in access to care for women in this region, every health issue that brings them into contact with the health system should be optimized as an opportunity to integrate HIV/AIDS prevention. Because most non-condom forms of modern contraception require a clinical appointment for use, contraception appointments could provide a confidential opportunity for access to HIV counseling, testing, and referral to care. This study sought to investigate the relationship between contraceptive methods and HIV testing among women in SSA. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey from four African countries-Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Uganda-was used to examine whether modern (e.g., pills, condom or traditional (e.g., periodic abstinence, withdrawal forms of contraception were associated with uptake of HIV testing. Data for the current analyses were restricted to 35,748 women with complete information on the variables of interest. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between uptake of HIV testing and respondents' baseline characteristics and contraceptive methods. In the total sample and in Mozambique, women who used modern forms of contraception were more likely to be tested for HIV compared to those who did not use contraception. This positive association was not demonstrated in Congo, Nigeria, or Uganda. That many women who access modern contraception are not tested for HIV in high HIV burden areas highlights a missed opportunity to deliver an important intervention to promote maternal and child health. Given the increasing popularity of hormonal contraception methods in low-income countries, there is an urgent need to integrate HIV counseling, testing, and treatment

  4. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: talking story about menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Brown, Daniel E; Sievert, Lynnette L; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2014-05-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multiethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i, describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared with peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause.

  5. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266

  6. Mediators of the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness association in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A; Wilson, Christina K; Shahane, Amit A; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-08-01

    Although there is an association between experiencing childhood emotional abuse and feeling hopeless as an adult, it is critical to understand the factors that may be protective in this relationship. The goal of this study was to determine if two protective factors, namely spiritual well-being, including both religious and existential well-being, and positive self-esteem, served to mediate the association between childhood emotional abuse and adult hopelessness. The sample for this investigation was low-income African American women suicide attempters who were abused by a partner in the prior year (N=121). A path analysis revealed that in this sample, the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness link was mediated by existential well-being and positive self-esteem, as well as by the two-mediator path of emotional abuse on existential well-being on self-esteem on hopelessness. Results suggested that existential well-being may be a more salient protective factor for hopelessness than religious well-being among abused, suicidal African American women who experienced childhood emotional abuse. Findings highlight the value of culturally relevant strategies for enhancing existential well-being and self-esteem in this at-risk population to reduce their vulnerability to feelings of hopelessness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial Characteristics and Gestational Weight Change among Overweight, African American Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe psychosocial factors identified as contributors of weight gain in the general population and to examine the relationship between these factors and gestational weight gain among low socioeconomic status, African American, overweight pregnant women. Methods. African American women (n=120 with a pregravid body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 completed measures of eating, sleep, and depressed mood between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation. Weight was tracked. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and linear regression modeling were used to characterize the sample and examine predictors of gestational weight gain. Results. Four percent screened positive for night eating syndrome, with 32% consuming at least 25% of their daily caloric intake after dinner (evening hyperphagia. None met criteria for binge eating disorder; 4% reported occasional binge episodes. Cognitive restraint over eating was low. Participants slept 7.1 (SD=1.9 h per night and reported 4.3 (SD=3.6 awakenings per week; 18% reported some level of depressed mood. Night and binge eating were related to each other, sleep quality, and depressed mood. Eating due to cravings was the only psychosocial variable to predict gestational weight gain. Conclusions. Depressed mood, night eating, and nighttime awakenings were common in this cohort, while cognitive restraint over eating was low. Most psychosocial variables were not predictive of excess gestational weight gain.

  8. HIV Treatment in African American Women-Care That Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Olihe; Odedina, Folakemi

    2017-06-01

    African American women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV disease. Socioeconomic and psycho-social factors while adding to the vulnerability of this population also contribute to non-adherence and consequently poor outcomes. The provider-patient relationship has the potential to enhance HIV medication adherence in this population. Using in-depth interviews, patient and provider perspectives are explored to identify specific elements of the provider-patient interaction that enhance patient satisfaction with care and consequently improve HIV medication adherence. Themes associated with provider attitudes and actions perceived as positively impacting care in this patient group include (1) physical touch, (2) treating (the patient) "as a person", (3) actively listening to the patient, (4) showing empathy, (5) being non-judgmental, and (6) being readily accessible. These findings suggest that the demonstration of care and commitment from the provider as perceived by the patient is important to African American women living with HIV and may significantly influence adherence behavior and enhance treatment outcomes in this population.

  9. PCR-based identification of eight Lactobacillus species and 18 hr-HPV genotypes in fixed cervical samples of South African women at risk of HIV and BV.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, J.A.M.; Reid, G.; Kort, R.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Tempelman, H.; Bontekoe, T.R.; Korporaal, H.; van der Veer, E.M.; Smit, P.W,; Boon, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli assessed by PCR-based microarray and PCR-based genotyping of HPV in South African women at risk for HIV and BV. Vaginal lactobacilli can be defined by microarray techniques in fixed cervical samples of South African women. Cervical brush samples suspended in the coagulant

  10. PCR-based identification of eight lactobacillus species and 18 hr-HPV genotypes in fixed cervical samples of south african women at risk of HIV and BV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, J.A.M.; Reid, G.; Kort, R.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Tempelman, H.; Bontekoe, T.R.; Korporaal, H.; Veer, E.M. van der; Smit, P.W.; Boon, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli assessed by PCR-based microarray and PCR-based genotyping of HPV in South African women at risk for HIV and BV. Vaginal lactobacilli can be defined by microarray techniques in fixed cervical samples of South African women. Cervical brush samples suspended in the coagulant

  11. "You Excluded Us for so Long and Now You Want Us to Be Patriotic?": African American Women Teachers Navigating the Quandary of Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Amanda E.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on how 5 African American women social studies teachers utilized their experiential knowledge and understanding of history to make sense of the construct of citizenship. Drawing from Black feminism, this study asks how African American women social studies teachers define and teach the construct of citizenship.…

  12. My Sister, Myself: The Identification of Sociocultural Factors That Affect the Advancement of African-American Women into Senior-Level Administrative Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia-Bailey, Antoinette Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1800s African-American women have been involved in educational processes in meaningful ways despite challenges to their efforts and advancements. African-American women have made significant strides in breaking the glass ceiling within higher education. This qualitative research study explores and compares the perceptions of challenges…

  13. A Phenomenological Study of the Barriers and Challenges Presented to African American Women in Leadership Roles at Four-Year Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Marquia V.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have noted that African American women are a triple jeopardy. They are discriminated against because of three aspects: class, race, and gender (Sanchez-Hucles & Davis, 2010). In terms of education, African American women have a long history of educating other individuals, even those outside of their race (Perkins, 2015), as well as…

  14. An Exploration of Identity and Career Development of African American Women in Higher Education Leadership: Does Hair Style Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Yasmine Osir

    2016-01-01

    African American women, a group that endures the intersectionality of being both a woman and an African American, have many obstacles in their path as they advance in their career. Despite the strides that have been made in America to improve things for women and people of color, the interwoven societal standards of beauty do not include African…

  15. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women.

  16. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-01

    Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women. © 2016 UICC.

  17. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Sarcopenia in Black South African Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J; Tieland, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = -.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = -.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength. Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

  18. Utility of Social Cognitive Theory in Intervention Design for Promoting Physical Activity among African-American Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Mathis, LaTanya; Hooker, Steven P; Keller, Colleen

    2017-09-01

    We examined the cultural relevance of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) in the design of a physical activity intervention for African-American women. A qualitative study design was used. Twenty-five African-American women (Mean age = 38.5 years, Mean BMI = 39.4 kg·m2) were enrolled in a series of focus groups (N = 9) to elucidate how 5 SCT constructs (ie, Behavioral Capability, Outcome Expectations, Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, Social Support) can be culturally tailored in the design of a physical activity program for African-American women. For the construct of Behavioral Capability, participants were generally unaware of the amount, intensity, and types of physical activity needed for health benefits. Outcome Expectations associated with physical activity included increased energy, improved health, weight loss, and positive role modeling behaviors. Constructs of Self-efficacy and Self-regulation were elicited through the women perceiving themselves as a primary barrier to physical activity. Participants endorsed the need of a strong social support component and identified a variety of acceptable sources to include in a physical activity program (ie, family, friends, other program participants). Findings explicate the utility of SCT as a behavioral change theoretical basis for tailoring physical activity programs to African-American women.

  19. Maternity health care: The experiences of Sub-Saharan African women in Sub-Saharan Africa and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohale, Hlengiwe; Sweet, Linda; Graham, Kristen

    2017-08-01

    Increasing global migration is resulting in a culturally diverse population in the receiving countries. In Australia, it is estimated that at least four thousand Sub-Saharan African women give birth each year. To respond appropriately to the needs of these women, it is important to understand their experiences of maternity care. The study aimed to examine the maternity experiences of Sub-Saharan African women who had given birth in both Sub-Saharan Africa and in Australia. Using a qualitative approach, 14 semi-structured interviews with Sub-Saharan African women now living in Australia were conducted. Data was analysed using Braun and Clark's approach to thematic analysis. Four themes were identified; access to services including health education; birth environment and support; pain management; and perceptions of care. The participants experienced issues with access to maternity care whether they were located in Sub-Saharan Africa or Australia. The study draws on an existing conceptual framework on access to care to discuss the findings on how these women experienced maternity care. The study provides an understanding of Sub-Saharan African women's experiences of maternity care across countries. The findings indicate that these women have maternity health needs shaped by their sociocultural norms and beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth. It is therefore arguable that enhancing maternity care can be achieved by improving women's health literacy through health education, having an affordable health care system, providing respectful and high quality midwifery care, using effective communication, and showing cultural sensitivity including family support for labouring women. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A longitudinal study of the aftermath of rape among rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu; Zhang, Muyu; Wong, Lauren H; Nicholson, Fiona; Sarkissian, Alissa Der; Makhado, Lufuno; Myers, Hector F

    2017-05-01

    Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up. Two hundred nine (N = 209) South African women were recruited from rural rape clinics in the Limpopo Province (LP) and North West Province (NWP) of South Africa. Interviews were conducted at baseline (within 6 months of the rape incident) and at 6 and 12 months by trained staff at the clinics in English or the women's native languages. Women were interviewed after services were provided in a private room. One hundred thirty-two (n = 132) women were lost to follow-up at 12 months, resulting in 77 women with interview data for all time points. Undermining by the survivor's social support system and an increased belief in myths about rape were associated with increased dysfunctional sexual practices and symptoms of depression. These findings demonstrate the need for interventions that address the most pervasive effects of rape over time. These behaviors can increase risks for revictimization and reduce psychological well-being in the aftermath of rape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Fine mapping of breast cancer genome-wide association studies loci in women of African ancestry identifies novel susceptibility markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Falusi, Adeyinka G; Nathanson, Katherine L; John, Esther M; Hennis, Anselm J M; Ambs, Stefan; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Simon, Michael S; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, Maria Cristina; Odetunde, Abayomi; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Afolabi, Chibuzor; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Christopher O; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-07-01

    Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these SNPs were primarily discovered and validated in women of European and Asian ancestry. Because linkage disequilibrium is ancestry-dependent and heterogeneous among racial/ethnic populations, we evaluated common genetic variants at 22 GWAS-identified breast cancer susceptibility loci in a pooled sample of 1502 breast cancer cases and 1378 controls of African ancestry. None of the 22 GWAS index SNPs could be validated, challenging the direct generalizability of breast cancer risk variants identified in Caucasians or Asians to other populations. Novel breast cancer risk variants for women of African ancestry were identified in regions including 5p12 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.76; P = 0.004), 5q11.2 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.36; P = 0.00053) and 10p15.1 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.38; P = 0.0015). We also found positive association signals in three regions (6q25.1, 10q26.13 and 16q12.1-q12.2) previously confirmed by fine mapping in women of African ancestry. In addition, polygenic model indicated that eight best markers in this study, compared with 22 GWAS-identified SNPs, could better predict breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry (per-allele OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.16-1.27; P = 9.7 × 10(-16)). Our results demonstrate that fine mapping is a powerful approach to better characterize the breast cancer risk alleles in diverse populations. Future studies and new GWAS in women of African ancestry hold promise to discover additional variants for breast cancer susceptibility with clinical implications throughout the African diaspora.

  2. Cigarette smoking and the association with serous ovarian cancer in African American women: African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Abbott, Sarah; Qin, Bo; Peres, Lauren Cole; Moorman, Patricia G; Wallace, Kristin; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cartmell, Kathleen; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Paddock, Lisa E; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Alberg, Anthony J; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2017-07-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for mucinous ovarian cancer (OvCa) in Caucasians. Whether a similar association exists in African Americans (AA) is unknown. We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident OvCa in AA women across 11 geographic locations in the US. A structured telephone interview asked about smoking, demographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) were estimated from 613 cases and 752 controls using unconditional logistic regression in multivariable adjusted models. Associations were greater in magnitude for serous OvCa than for all OvCa combined. Compared to never smokers, increased risk for serous OvCa was observed for lifetime ever smokers (1.46, 1.11-1.92), former smokers who quit within 0-2 years of diagnosis (5.48, 3.04-9.86), and for total pack-years smoked among lifetime ever smokers (0-5 pack-years: 1.79, 1.23-2.59; >5-20 pack-years: 1.52, 1.05-2.18; >20 pack-years: 0.98, 0.61-1.56); however, we observed no dose-response relationship with increasing duration or consumption and no significant associations among current smokers. Smoking was not significantly associated with mucinous OvCa. Associations for all OvCa combined were consistently elevated among former smokers. The proportion of ever smokers who quit within 0-2 years was greater among cases (23%) than controls (7%). Cigarette smoking may be associated with serous OvCa among AA, which differs from associations reported among Caucasians. Exposure misclassification or reverse causality may partially explain the absence of increased risk among current smokers and lack of dose-response associations. Better characterization of smoking patterns is needed in this understudied population.

  3. African ancestry is associated with facial melasma in women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Brandão, Marcela Calixto; de Andrade Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; Dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-02-17

    Melasma is a chronic acquired focal hypermelanosis affecting photoexposed areas, especially for women during fertile age. Several factors contribute to its development: sun exposure, sex steroids, medicines, and family history. Melanic pigmentation pathway discloses several SNPs in different populations. Here, we evaluated the association between genetic ancestry and facial melasma. A cross-sectional study involving women with melasma and an age-matched control group from outpatients at FMB-Unesp, Botucatu-SP, Brazil was performed. DNA was extracted from oral mucosa swabs and ancestry determined by studying 61 INDELs. The genetic ancestry components were adjusted by other known risk factors by multiple logistic regression. We evaluated 119 women with facial melasma and 119 controls. Mean age was 39 ± 9 years. Mean age at beginning of disease was 27 ± 8 years. Pregnancy (40%), sun exposure (37%), and hormonal oral contraception (22%) were the most frequently reported melasma triggers. All subjects presented admixed ancestry, African and European genetic contributions were significantly different between cases and controls (respectively 10% vs 6%; 77% vs 82%; p ancestry (OR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07), first generation family history (OR = 3.04; 95% CI 1.56 to 5.94), low education level (OR = 4.04; 95% CI 1.56 to 5.94), and use of antidepressants by individuals with affected family members (OR = 6.15; 95% CI 1.13 to 33.37) were associated with melasma, independently of other known risk factors. Facial melasma was independently associated with African ancestry in a highly admixed population.

  4. Autoras africanas: A favor de las mujeres=African authors: In favor of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socorro Suárez Lafuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La cultura occidental produce binomios de poder fuertemente inscritos en el lenguaje y el imaginario colectivo. Las subversiones aparecen primero en la zona dominante, como el feminismo, que se extiende, posteriormente, a otros feminismos, igualmente lógicos y reivindicativos, pero con menos capacidad de visibilización en un mundo globalizado. Las mujeres de grupos minorizados que han conseguido acceder a la educación han levantado sus voces y utilizado su potencial creativo a favor de las silenciadas de su cultura, a las que no alcanzaban el feminismo blanco occidental. Amma Darko, Bessie Head y Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie son algunos de los nombres que encabezan un movimiento africano feminista, que prioriza la libertad individual de las mujeres y les hace sentirse orgullosas de ser africanas.   Abstract Western culture produces binaries of power that are deeply inscribed both in language and in the collective imaginarium. Subversions tend to appear in the more affluent class, as is the case with feminism, which later extend to other feminisms, equally important and vindicatory, but with fewer opportunities to become visible within a globalized world. Many women from minoritized groups have had access to education, have been able to use their creative force and have become the voice of many silent women who were not included in the successive waves of Western feminisms. Amma Darko, Bessie Head and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie are but a few names at the forefront of African feminism, a movement that fights for the individual rights of women and makes them feel proud of their Africanism.

  5. Culture and Food Practices of African American Women With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumlin, Lisa L; Brown, Sharon A

    2017-12-01

    Purpose The goals of this descriptive ethnographic study were to (1) describe the day-to-day selection, preparation, and consumption of food among African American women (AAW) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); (2) identify their typical food selections and consumption practices when dining out at restaurants and at social gatherings (ie, church functions, holidays); (3) highlight the valued behaviors and beliefs that influence these women's food practices; and (4) determine how social interactions influence those food practices. Methods Symbolic interactionism, a sensitizing framework, guided this study. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 20 AAW from 35 to 70 years of age diagnosed with T2DM who shopped and prepared meals for their families and attended church functions where food was served. Data collection consisted of one-on-one interviews and observations of participants during church fellowship dinners, grocery shopping, and food preparation. A social anthropological approach to content analysis was used to describe behavioral regularities in food practices. Results Informants exhibited a constant struggle in food practices, particularly within the home setting. Difficulties in making dietary modifications resulted from conflicts between the need to change dietary practices to control diabetes and personal food preferences, food preferences of family members, and AAW's emotional dedication to the symbolism of food derived from traditional cultural food practices passed down from generation to generation. Conclusions African American women are the gatekeepers for family food practices, holding the keys to healthy dietary practices. This study helps to fill the research gap regarding cultural dietary food practices within this population.

  6. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for

  7. HIV risk and barriers to care for African-born immigrant women: a sociocultural outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro ON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Olihe N Okoro,1 Shanasha O Whitson2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Duluth, 2Community Partnership Collaborative 2.0, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: Data from the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2015 show that African-born (AB women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. In 2015, these women accounted for more than half (54% of all new cases of HIV reported among females in Minnesota and 34% of all known female cases in the state. This study was a needs assessment for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in vulnerable subgroups within the AB population and adequacy of HIV care for AB persons. The primary objective of this study was to gain an insight into the strategies that will limit the spread of HIV infection and enhance HIV care among AB immigrants. Methods: Community advocates, community-based organizations (CBOs, clinicians, and other HIV-related service providers were invited to participate in a focus group, structured interview or complete an assessment tool using the same questionnaire about HIV and PrEP among AB persons. A thematic analysis was then conducted on the open-ended questions addressing perceived barriers. Results: Findings suggest the following gender-specific sociocultural factors that drive HIV transmission and constitute barriers to HIV treatment for AB women: domestic/intimate partner violence, gender-biased stigma, discriminatory cultural beliefs and normative values/expectations, unprotected sex with husbands who have sex with other men, gender discordance in health care (preference for female provider, and sexual/reproductive health illiteracy. Recommendation: Based on recommendations, a community-based sexual and reproductive health education is being initiated with a curriculum that will be 1 broad (inclusive but not limited to HIV, 2 culturally sensitive/responsive, and 3 at appropriate

  8. African American women and sexually transmitted infections: The contextual influence of unbalanced sex ratios and individual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oser, Carrie B; Pullen, Erin; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea L; Havens, Jennifer R; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2017-10-01

    This study uses data from 564 African American women to examine the correlates of lifetime prevalence of a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Specifically, we test the effects of perceptions about the availability of African American males, five partner characteristics, and drug history. At the bivariate-level, women with an STI diagnosis were significantly more likely to have dated a man who was married, older, had sex with another man, involved in concurrent partnerships, and had been incarcerated. About half of the participants stated it was difficult to find an eligible African American male and attributed the limited pool of same-race partners to drug trafficking, a lack of monogamy, and high rates of incarceration. Multivariate analyses revealed having dated a man who had concurrent sexual partnerships or had been incarcerated, as well as drug use during sex were positively associated with ever having an STI. Individual and contextual implications are addressed.

  9. Women School Leaders: Entrepreneurs in Low Fee Private Schools in Three West African Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Cordeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the opportunities and challenges of women who own low-fee private schools in three West African nations. With the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in 2000 and the Sustainable Development Goals in 2016, it has become obvious to policymakers that school leadership needs to be a policy priority around the world. Increased school autonomy and a greater focus on schooling and school results have made it essential to understand and support the role of school leaders. Few countries however have strong and systematic initiatives to professionalize school leadership and to nurture and support current school leaders. This becomes even more complex for governments given the rise of private schooling in low and middle-income countries worldwide; thus, it is crucial for governments to understand the importance of leadership at the school level and how to nurture and professionalize it. In this study, the authors examine the roles of women school leaders in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Liberia within the context of MDG 3: promote gender equality and empower women. Because of the many challenges in the public sector in education in low and middle-income countries, the private sector has responded by creating thousands of small businesses. Since a large and growing number of women are leading these private schools, this study presents the findings on the nature of the leadership of these women entrepreneurs. Fourteen school proprietors participated in face-to face interviews about their reasons for founding a school as well as the supports and challenges they face. Findings discuss the limited professional learning opportunities for school leaders in these nations. The study describes the school leaders’ desires to help build their nations, and the unique cultural and contextual factors in each country.

  10. Lifecourse educational status in relation to weight gain in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia E; Wise, Lauren A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for Black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in Black compared to White women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged Women's Health Study, which began in 1995. We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk.

  11. The impact of African ethnicity and migration on pregnancy in women living with HIV in the UK: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Shema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pregnancies in women with diagnosed HIV in the UK increased from 80 in 1990 to over 1400 in 2010; the majority were among women born in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a paucity of research on how social adversity impacts upon pregnancy in HIV positive women in the UK; furthermore, little is known about important outcomes such as treatment uptake and return for follow-up after pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. Methods and design This was a two phase mixed methods study. The first phase involved analysis of data on approximately 12,000 pregnancies occurring between 2000 and 2010 reported to the UK’s National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. The second phase was based in London and comprised: (i semi-structured interviews with 23 pregnant African women living with HIV, 4 health care professionals and 2 voluntary sector workers; (ii approximately 90 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV charity; and (iii approximately 40 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in a Pentecostal church. Discussion We have developed an innovative methodology utilising epidemiological and anthropological methods to explore pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. The data collected in this mixed methods study are currently being analysed and will facilitate the development of appropriate services for this group.

  12. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  13. A Faith-Based and Cultural Approach to Promoting Self-Efficacy and Regular Exercise in Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W. Kent

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions…

  14. How Peer Conversations About HIV/AIDS Media Messages Affect Comprehension and Beliefs of Young South African Women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubinga, Elizabeth; Maes, A.; Jansen, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations

  15. Smartphone Usage, Social Media Engagement, and Willingness to Participate in mHealth Weight Management Research among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Harville, Cedric, II

    2018-01-01

    Background: African American women (AAW) are in a unique position to be recruited into mobile (mHealth) weight management research and programs due to their high rates of obesity and their high ownership of smartphones. Aim: This study examined smartphone usage, social media engagement, and willingness to participate in mHealth weight management…

  16. The role of knowledge, language, and insurance in endorsement of cancer screening in women of African origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B. Sheppard

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Average cancer knowledge in the sample was low as were non-conventional causes of cancer. Study results highlight the importance of improving cancer knowledge and reducing barriers related to language and insurance. Future studies are needed to consider nuances among diverse women of African origin.

  17. Hearing the Community: Evolution of a Nutrition and Physical Activity Program for African American Women to Improve Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David; Harris, Angelique; Horner-Ibler, Barbara; Harris, Kimberly Salas; Burns, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Listening to the needs of the community is an important step toward reducing health disparities. Researchers may need to adjust their methods to maximize participation and benefit to the community. This report describes how the project team adjusted its approach to a weight loss intervention to support a community of African American women seeking to improve their health.

  18. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation among Low Socioeconomic Status African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin L.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical…

  19. Gender Roles Revisited: The Development of the "Woman's Place" among African American Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Norma J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the black female's role in U.S. society, particularly with regard to working outside the home, and argues that one cannot understand what African American women are today without having a historical perspective for what their ancestors and their ancestors' roles, functions, and responsibilities were. An Afrocentric perspective is…

  20. "I Worry about My Community": African American Women Utilizing Communal Notions of Citizenship in the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study utilizes a Black feminist ethic of caring (Collins, 2009; Thompson, 1998) to explore how three African American women social studies teachers draw on their personal and community knowledge to conceptualize and teach the construct of citizenship to their students of color. Instead of conveying traditional…

  1. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  2. Influence of obesity assessments on cardiometabolic risks in African and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, L Jerome; Proctor, Larry; Cole, Calvin L

    2014-01-01

    African American women (AAW) have increased odds of developing cardiometabolic (CME) risks and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) compared with European American women (EAW). The influence of obesity on other CME risks and the CVD disparity is unclear. The purpose of our study was to develop a CME index and evaluate the obesity and CME risk index relationships based on race. A comparative research design was employed in our study as 213 women (132 AAW; 81 EAW) from the Louisiana Delta were evaluated for CME risk clustering patterns by race, based on BMI, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry % body fat and waist conference. Fasting glucose, triglyceride (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were the measured CME risks. In summary, when the CME indexes were evaluated by obesity classification categories the ones that were CVD risk or near risk for the AAW were SBP and TG. The trend of CME index risk for the EAW was SBP and glucose. The stepwise regression equations indicate that HDL-C and SBP/DBP were the best indicators of the effects of obesity on CME risks in AAW and that SBP/DBP and glucose were the best indicators of CME risks in EAW. Our results indicate that CME risks as evaluated based on obesity categories are different for AAW than for EAW.

  3. The impact of structured support groups for pregnant South African women recently diagnosed HIV positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Jonathan P; Visser, Maretha J; Makin, Jennifer D; Kershaw, Trace S; Forsyth, Brian W C; Jeffery, Bridget; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-08-31

    The authors of this study evaluated a structured 10-session psychosocial support group intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed pregnant South African women. Participants were expected to display increases in HIV disclosure, self-esteem, active coping and positive social support, and decreases in depression, avoidant coping, and negative social support. Three hundred sixty-one pregnant HIV-infected women were recruited from four antenatal clinics in Tshwane townships from April 2005 to September 2006. Using a quasi-experimental design, assessments were conducted at baseline and two and eight months post-intervention. A series of random effects regression analyses were conducted, with the three assessment points treated as a random effect of time. At both follow-ups, the rate of disclosure in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001). Compared to the comparison group at the first follow-up, the intervention group displayed higher levels of active coping (t=2.68, p<0.05) and lower levels of avoidant coping (t=-2.02, p<0.05), and those who attended at least half of the intervention sessions exhibited improved self-esteem (t=2.11, p<0.05). Group interventions tailored for newly HIV positive pregnant women, implemented in resource-limited settings, may accelerate the process of adjusting to one's HIV status, but may not have sustainable benefits over time.

  4. [Plummer-Vinson syndrome or related syndrome in 3 black African women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Oddes, B; Chazouillères, O; Lebourgeois, M; Delanoue, G; Seurat, P L

    1985-01-01

    The Plummer-Vinson syndrome or "sideropenic dysphagia" is exceptional among Blacks. One case was recently reported in a female patient from Guadeloupe. This study pertains to three cases observed in Senegalese Black women aged 28, 27, and 41 years. These three women were admitted for a dysphagia, in fact in evidence 10, 4, and 7 years respectively before the diagnosis was made. A clinical anemia was noted twice in addition to mucocutaneous disorders (cases 1 and 2). The laboratory tests showed in all three cases a hypochromic microcytic sideropenic anemia (serum iron levels at 32, 14, and 31 mcg 100 ml respectively). Barium swallow films showed esophageal rings in front of C5-C6 (case 1) of T2-T3 (case 2) and a web of fine mucosal folds in front of C5-C6 (case 3). These films were confirmed cineradiographically by esophagoscopy. The treatment consisted of blood transfusions (cases 1 and 2) and administration of iron by injections and or per os. The endoscopic exams were repeated two or three times. Medical treatment rapidly changed the course of disease for the better. No cause for bleeding was found. A chemical achlorhydria (case 1), a provoked hypoachlorhydria (cases 2 and 3) can be retained as associated factors. In light of the frequency of esophageal membranes in the general population and the incidence of sideropenic anemias among African women, the Plummer-Vinson syndrome should be more often detected in Black Africa.

  5. Attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors toward HIV testing among African American and East African immigrant women in Washington, D.C.: Implications for targeted HIV testing promotion and communication strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to examine and compare the HIV testing attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors between African American and East African immigrant women in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan area. Methods Adopting an inductive, qualitative methodological approach, we conducted a total of 40 in-depth, semi-structured interviews between October 2012 and March 2013. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Overall, African American women held more favorable views toward HIV testing than East African immigrant women. Very few East African immigrant women sought HIV testing intentionally. The majority of East African participants were tested inadvertently, while others tested for immigration- or employment-related purposes. There were many barriers that impede women from seeking an HIV test including: negative assumptions (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test implies that I am HIV positive’); negative emotions (e.g., ‘Fear of being diagnosed with HIV and what this will mean for me’); and potential negative reactions from partner or others (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test can signal distrust, disrespect, or infidelity’). There were nuances in how each group articulated some of these barriers and East African women expressed unique concerns that originated from experiences in their home countries. Conclusions The study shed light into the complexity of factors that constrain women from presenting themselves voluntarily for an HIV test and highlighted the nuances between African American and East African perceptions. Implications of findings for effective targeted HIV screening promotion and communication strategies among these groups of women are discussed. PMID:25897146

  6. A new customized fetal growth standard for African American women: the PRB/NICHD Detroit Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarca, Adi L.; Romero, Roberto; Gudicha, Dereje W.; Erez, Offer; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Bhatti, Gaurav; Pacora, Percy; Maymon, Eli; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2018-01-01

    Background The assessment of fetal growth disorders requires a standard. Current nomograms for the assessment of fetal growth in African American women have been derived either from neonatal (rather than fetal) biometry data or have not been customized for maternal ethnicity, weight, height, parity, and fetal sex. Objective We sought to 1) develop a new customized fetal growth standard for African American mothers; and 2) compare such a standard to three existing standards for the classification of fetuses as small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age. Study Design A retrospective cohort study included 4,183 women (4,001 African American and 182 Caucasian) from the Detroit metropolitan area who underwent ultrasound examinations between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation (the median number of scans per pregnancy was 5, interquartile range 3-7) and for whom relevant covariate data were available. Longitudinal quantile regression was used to build models defining the “normal” estimated fetal weight (EFW) centiles for gestational age in African American women, adjusted for maternal height, weight, parity, and fetal sex, and excluding pathologic factors with a significant effect on fetal weight. The resulting Perinatology Research Branch/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (hereinafter, PRB/NICHD) growth standard was compared to 3 other existing standards—the customized gestation-related optimal weight (GROW) standard; the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (hereinafter, NICHD) African American standard; and the multinational World Health Organization (WHO) standard—utilized to screen fetuses for SGA (90th centile) based on the last available ultrasound examination for each pregnancy. Results 1) First, the mean birthweight at 40 weeks was 133g higher for neonates born to Caucasian than to African American mothers and 150g higher for male than female neonates; maternal weight

  7. Resilience: Protective Factors for Depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among African American Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Holden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need to carefully examine issues that may elevate one’s risk for mental illness and develop strategies to mitigate risk and cultivate resilience.  African Americans, specifically African American women (AAW, are disproportionately affected by mental illness, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD.  Higher rates of PTSD among AAW may be explained by significant rates of trauma exposure.  Higher resiliency in individuals with mental illnesses is associated with better treatment response/outcomes.  An examination of two (2 promising psycho-educational curricula for AAW at risk for depression and PTSD supports consideration of resilience as a protective factor among this population.  Strengthening psychological resilience among diverse AAW at risk for depression and/or PTSD may serve as a protective factor for symptom severity.  Multidimensional prevention and intervention strategies should incorporate culturally-centered, gender-specific, and strengths-based (resilience models of care to help encourage mental health help-seeking and promotion of wellness for AAW.

  8. Cognitive Function and Salivary DHEA Levels in Physically Active Elderly African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greggory R. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS concentration has been associated with several health parameters associated with aging including cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength. However, the effectiveness of salivary DHEA for the prediction of cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength in older adults is currently unknown. Thirty elderly African American females provided early morning salivary samples and DHEA levels were determined using a commercially available immunoassay. Participants completed testing for psychomotor and executive function via Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B, respectively. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA was used to bone density and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP was used to determine isometric strength. Age significantly correlated with time on TMT A (r=0.328 and B (r=0.615 but was not related to DHEA, BUA, or IMTP outcomes. Elevated DHEA was associated with longer time to completion for TMT A (χ2=5.14 but not to TMT B. DHEA levels were not associated with BUA or IMTP outcomes. While elevated levels of DHEA were correlated with impaired psychomotor function, salivary DHEA is not associated with executive function, bone mineral density, or isometric strength in elderly African American women.

  9. Participant evaluation of teleconference support for African American women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiney, Sue P; Adams, Swann Arp; Wells, Linda M; Johnson, Hiluv; King, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    African American women with breast cancer face obstacles such as transportation and family obligations when attending standard support groups. Teleconference support circumvents barriers such as transportation to participation, but few evaluations have been reported about teleconference support. The purpose of this article was to describe the format of a teleconference group and to provide a descriptive account of the participants' feedback about a teleconference group intervention. A descriptive design was used. Participants completed the Overall Support Group Evaluation tool at the end of the 10th group session. Teleconference group participants' feedback indicated that they perceived they had gained knowledge about breast cancer and coping. The participants expressed that the group helped them to reach out and ask for support and improved family and work relationships. Also, participants rated the group highly for the presence of therapeutic factors. On a scale of 1 to 4, with 4 being the highest, mean scores ranged from 3.97 to 3.56. The participants gave high ratings of satisfaction in terms of knowledge gained, leadership style, and benefits. The participants perceived that the group increased their knowledge about cancer, improved family connections, and increased their ability to deal with their cancer. Using teleconferencing technology to deliver a support group to African American breast cancer patients is a beneficial method to reach a disadvantaged population that may be unable to attend face-to-face groups.

  10. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Q E; Baird, D D

    2015-06-01

    Is use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) a risk factor for or a protective factor against prevalent uterine leiomyoma? Ever use of DMPA was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 0.9) of prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women. Although progesterone is associated with growth of leiomyoma, previous epidemiological studies have shown a protective association for DMPA use. These previous studies may have been biased by studying clinically diagnosed leiomyoma (DMPA may mask symptoms thus delaying diagnoses). Cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of 1696 African American women. Community-based recruitment (e.g. letters, flyers, radio and TV announcements) were used to enroll African American women between 23 and 34 years old without a previous diagnosis of leiomyoma in the Metropolitan Detroit area. Extensive questionnaire data were used to determine DMPA use and screening ultrasound detected the presence of leiomyoma ≥0.5 cm in diameter. Relative risks with adjustment for covariates were calculated for the presence of leiomyoma based on ever use of DMPA as well as duration and recency of use. Among the 1696 volunteers who enrolled, 43% had used DMPA. Leiomyoma were detected in 17% of those who had ever used DMPA compared with 26% of those who had never used DMPA. The reduction in prevalence remained after adjustment for potential confounders and was highest among women who had used DMPA for more than 4 years (adjusted RR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). The reduction in risk was seen for women whose most recent use was up to 8 years prior to study enrollment. The use of cross-sectional data means that the timing of initial fibroid development is not known, so the temporality of the association is uncertain. However in this sample of young women, most fibroids were small, suggesting that DMPA exposure may have occurred before leiomyoma development. Our findings are in

  11. Cell Phone Information Seeking Explains Blood Pressure in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany C; Pressler, Susan J

    2018-05-01

    Although cell phone use and Internet access via cell phone is not marked by racial disparities, little is known about how cell phone use relates to blood pressure and health information seeking behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (a) describe Internet activities, cell phone use, and information seeking; (b) determine differences in blood pressure and information seeking between cell phone information seekers and nonseekers; and (c) examine cell phone information seeking as a predictor of blood pressure in African American women. Participants ( N = 147) completed a survey and had their blood pressure measured. Independent-sample t tests showed a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in cell phone information seekers and nonseekers. Linear regression revealed cell phone information seeking as an independent predictor of systolic blood pressure, despite confounders. It is possible that cell phone information seekers were using health information to make decisions about self-management of blood pressure.

  12. Safer sexual practices among African American women: intersectional socialisation and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L; Blackmon, Sha'Kema; Shiflett, Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    Scholars have posited that childhood socialisation experiences may play a key role in influencing behaviours and attitudes that contribute to the acquisition of HIV. This study examined the links between past ethnic-racial and gender socialisation, sexual assertiveness and the safe sexual practices of African American college women utilising a cluster analytic approach. After identifying separate racial-gender and ethnic-gender socialisation profiles, results indicated that ethnic-gender socialisation cluster profiles were directly associated with sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Greater levels of ethnic socialisation and low traditional gender role socialisation were found to be associated with greater sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Further analysis showed that sexual assertiveness mediated the links between the identified ethnic-gender socialisation profiles and safer sex behaviour. Implications for policy and programme development are discussed.

  13. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. NEIGHBORHOOD CRIME AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: GENETIC MODERATION AND EPIGENETIC MEDIATOIN OF EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. Objective The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Methods Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Results Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Conclusion The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. PMID:26513121

  15. Neighborhood crime and depressive symptoms among African American women: Genetic moderation and epigenetic mediation of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin D intake is associated with insulin sensitivity in African American, but not European American, women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster Robert A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher among African Americans (AA vs European Americans (EA, independent of obesity and other known confounders. Although the reason for this disparity is not known, it is possible that relatively low levels of vitamin D among AA may contribute, as vitamin D has been positively associated with insulin sensitivity in some studies. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary vitamin D would be associated with a robust measure of insulin sensitivity in AA and EA women. Methods Subjects were 115 African American (AA and 137 European American (EA healthy, premenopausal women. Dietary intake was determined with 4-day food records; the insulin sensitivity index (SI with a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling; the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR with fasting insulin and glucose; and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Vitamin D intake was positively associated with SI (standardized β = 0.18, P = 0.05 and inversely associated with HOMA-IR (standardized β = -0.26, P = 0.007 in AA, and the relationships were independent of age, total body fat, energy intake, and % kcal from fat. Vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with indices of insulin sensitivity/resistance in EA (standardized β = 0.03, P = 0.74 and standardized β = 0.02, P = 0.85 for SI and HOMA-IR, respectively. Similar to vitamin D, dietary calcium was associated with SI and HOMA-IR among AA but not EA. Conclusions This study provides novel findings that dietary vitamin D and calcium were independently associated with insulin sensitivity in AA, but not EA. Promotion of these nutrients in the diet may reduce health disparities in type 2 diabetes risk among AA, although longitudinal and intervention studies are required.

  17. Childhood stress and birth timing among African American women: Cortisol as biological mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Shannon L; Christian, Lisa M; Alston, Angela D; Salsberry, Pamela J

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) occurs among 1:11U.S. white women and 1:7.5 African American women and is a significant driver of racial disparities in infant mortality. Maternal stress is the most common clinical phenotype underlying spontaneous PTB. Specific patterns of stress and biological mediators driving PTB remain unclear. We examined the effect of childhood stress on birth timing among African American women and evaluated maternal cortisol elevation as a biological mediator. A prospective observational design was employed, with a single study visit at 28-32 weeks gestation and medical record review. The Stress and Adversity Inventory was administered, which provides a comprehensive estimate of childhood stress, stress in adulthood, and five core characteristic subscales (interpersonal loss, physical danger, humiliation, entrapment, role disruption). Venipuncture was performed between 11:00am and 4:00pm and plasma cortisol quantified by ELISA. Analyses controlled for stress in adulthood. Among a final sample of 89, cumulative childhood stress predicted birth timing (p=0.01). The association was driven by stress related to interpersonal loss and physical danger, with support for maternal cortisol as a biological mediator (ab=0.02, 95% CI [0.001, 0.045]; ab=0.02, 95% CI [0.001, 0.043], respectively). Results were similar, overall, in sub-group analyses among spontaneously laboring women (n=53); however, role disruption arose as an additional predictor, as mediated by cortisol elevations (ab=0.03, 95% CI [0.005, 0.074]). Of note, cortisol was no longer supported as a mediator linking physical danger to birth timing after adjusting for sleep quality and hours awake prior to venipuncture (ab=0.02, 95% CI [-0.0001, 0.046]). We provide preliminary evidence that, independent of stress in adulthood, childhood stress of specific core characteristics may shape birth timing, with cortisol elevation as a biological mediator. Further investigation is warranted and may bolster the

  18. Weight-loss study in African-American Women: lessons learned from project take HEED and future, technologically enhanced directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Pamala J; Williams, Roger L

    2013-01-01

    African-American women are more overweight and have greater difficulty maintaining weight loss than do Caucasian women. Evidence suggests that African-American women are more successful with culturally tailored weight-loss programs. Begun in 2005, an 18-month randomized clinical trial, Project Take HEED (Healthy Eating and Exercise Decisions), culturally adapted an evidence-based dietary approach and exercise program to fit the female African-American population in an attempt to improve program attrition rates. The study was conducted with 223 African-American women (120 women in the experimental group; 103 controls), age 35 to 65 years, with a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or higher. The experimental group received education and instruction at 24 group sessions and were asked to record their daily food intake and physical activity. Cultural adaptation included social and spiritual components. Controls received usual care (referral to a dietitian). After 18 months, Project Take HEED demonstrated the following outcomes: ATTRITION: the treatment group consisted of 12 African-American women at the end of month 18-(an attrition rate of 87%). (It had been 70% at the end of month 15.)FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ATTRITION INCLUDED: caregiver responsibilities, transportation difficulties, work schedules, and others. Those clients that did remain, however, provided the impetus for our next study. The remaining participants had, by and large, begun the study as being low in self-efficacy regarding weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Initial Findings: The high self-efficacy that some women had at the beginning of the intervention did not translate into the desired behavior change. The inverse relationship seen in this study suggests that treatments that improve participants' self-efficacy may result in greater weight loss. New Directions: A new study, commencing in 2013, will use at-home Web-based and virtual reality technology (avatars) in an attempt to enhance client

  19. African American women in STEM: Uncovering stories of persistence and resilience through an examination of social and cultural capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Danielle Stevens

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the key factors that successful African American women said influenced their persistence and resilience in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field at two key time periods; before beginning post-secondary education and during post-secondary education. Many researchers have expressed concern about missing out on the creativity and innovation of African American women that could be used to enhance or lead to scientific discoveries (Hanson, 2004; Ong et al., 2011; Perna et al., 2008). While there has been a fair amount of research on the lack of representation of African American women in the STEM field, it is very limited in its breathe and depth. Very few of these studies include the "voice" of African American women and most of the studies rely heavily on quantitative data. Therefore in this study, I used a qualitative, case study approach to interpret the stories of eight African American women currently working in a variety of STEM fields to understand how each of the factors that they said aided in their persistence and resilience related to the concepts of social and cultural capital. Furthermore, this study investigated the role cultural brokers played in their lives and the strategies these women used to create resilience. Narratives for each woman were created to provide insight into their experiences. Before beginning post-secondary education four themes emerged from this study; 1. Two parent households were important, 2. Science experiences outside of school sparked their interest, 3. All of the women participated in extracurricular activities, and 4. Religion was important. Cultural brokers were beneficial for some but not all of the women. During post-secondary education five themes emerged; 1. The majority of the women had a desire to help others, 2. Scholarships played an important role, 3. Parents were supportive, 4. Sexism/racism became evident, and 5. Religion was still

  20. Calcium status in premenopausal and post menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, H.J.; Hussain, G.; Bashir, M.U.; Latif, N.; Riaz, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In postmenopausal women, the two major causes of bone loss are oestrogen deficiency after menopause and age related processes. Bone turnover increases to high levels and oestrogen deficiency may induce calcium loss by indirect effects on extra skeletal calcium homeostasis. Objective of this study was to evaluate calcium status in pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in 34 premenopausal women and 33 postmenopausal women, in Department of Physiology, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore. Height and weight of each woman were taken to find out the body mass index (BMI). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin levels of each subject were determined. Results: Premenopausal women were obese (BMI>30 Kg/m/sup 2/) while postmenopausal women were overweight (BMI>25 Kg/m/sup 2/). Serum calcium levels were significantly lower in postmenopausal women than in pre-menopausal women, while serum parathyroid hormone levels were significantly higher in postmenopausal woman. Serum calcitonin level was not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women are calcium deficient and have increased bone turnover as indicated by increased serum parathyroid hormone levels. (author)

  1. Lifecourse educational status in relation to weight gain in African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F.; Wise, Lauren A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in black compared to white women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. Design We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged less than age 55 in the longitudinal Black Women’s Health Study which began in 1995. Main Outcome Measures We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). Results The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity for was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Conclusions Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk. PMID:22764643

  2. Gender norms in South Africa: implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Needham, Sarah L; Smit, Jennifer Ann; Hoffman, Susie; Cebekhulu, Queen; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M; Mabude, Zonke; Beksinska, Mags; Stein, Zena A; Milford, Cecilia

    2009-02-01

    In post-Apartheid South Africa, women are constitutionally guaranteed protections and freedoms that were previously unknown to them. These freedoms may have positive implications for women's ability to negotiate sexual protection with partners and hence prevent unintended pregnancy and decrease their risk of HIV. Among tertiary institution students, who are a relatively 'privileged' group, there is little information on gender norms that might shape responses to HIV-prevention programmes. To elicit gender norms regarding women's and men's roles, condom and contraceptive use, sexual communication and sexual pleasure, we conducted 10 semi-structured focus group discussions with African and Indian female tertiary institution students in order to understand how norms might be used to buttress HIV- and pregnancy-prevention. Participants reported dramatic changes in the structure of gender norms and relations with the formal recognition of women's rights in the post-Apartheid context. These generational shifts in norms are supported by other research in South Africa. At the same time, women recognized the co-existence of traditional constructions of gender that operate to constrain women's freedom. The perceived changes that have taken place provide an entry point for intervention, particularly for reinforcing emerging gender norms that promote women's protection against unintended pregnancy and HIV/STIs.

  3. Neighborhood safety and adipose tissue distribution in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Quyen Pham

    Full Text Available Patterns of fat distribution are heavily influenced by psychological stress, sex, and among women, by menopause status. Emerging evidence suggests the lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime may contribute to psychological stress and obesity among exposed residents. Our objective is to determine if perceived neighborhood safety is associated with abdominal adiposity among African-American men and women, and among pre- and postmenopausal women in the Jackson Heart Study.We examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety, fat distribution, and other individual-level covariates among Jackson Heart Study participants (N = 2,881. Abdominal adiposity was measured via computed tomography scans measuring the volumes of visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue. We also measured body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between perceived neighborhood safety, adiposity, and covariates by sex and menopause status.Adjusting for all covariates, women who strongly disagreed their neighborhood was safe from crime had a higher BMI compared to women who felt safe [Std B 0.083 95% CI (0.010, 0.156]. Premenopausal women who felt most unsafe had higher BMI, waist circumference, and volumes of visceral and total adipose tissue than those who felt safe [Std B 0.160 (0.021, 0.299, Std B 0.142 (0.003, 0.280, Std B 0.150 (0.014, 0.285, Std B 0.154 (0.019, 0.290, respectively]. We did not identify associations between neighborhood safety and adiposity among men and postmenopausal women.Our data suggest that abdominal adipose tissue distribution patterns are associated with perceived neighborhood safety in some groups, and that patterns may differ by sex and menopause status, with most associations observed among pre-menopausal women. Further research is needed to elucidate whether there are causal mechanisms underlying sex and menopause-status differences that may mediate

  4. Psychosocial and perceived environmental correlates of physical activity in rural and older african american and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Bopp, Melissa; Oberrecht, Larissa; Kammermann, Sandra K; McElmurray, Charles T

    2003-11-01

    African American and rural older women are among the least active segments of the population. This study, guided by social cognitive theory, examined the correlates of physical activity (PA) in 102 rural older women (41% African American; 70.6 +/- 9.2 years). In bivariate associations, education, marital status, self-efficacy, greater pros than cons, perceived stress, social support, and perceived neighborhood safety were positively associated with PA; age, depressive symptoms, perceived sidewalks, health care provider discussion of PA, and perceived traffic were negatively associated with PA. In a hierarchical regression analysis, the sociodemographic (R(2) = 23%), psychological (IR(2) = 9%), social (IR(2) = 6%), and perceived physical environmental (IR(2) = 9%) sets of variables were significant (p motivators; falls, injuries, and heart attacks were identified most often as risks. These findings support the importance of multilevel influences on PA in older rural women and are useful for informing PA interventions.

  5. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  6. Sexual agency versus relational factors: a study of condom use antecedents among high-risk young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Salazar, Laura F; Head, Sara; Rose, Eve; McDermott-Sales, Jessica

    2008-03-01

    The influence that female partners exert regarding condom use is not well known. In the present study, the relative roles of personal sexual agency and relational factors in determining whether young African American women engaged in unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) were studied. A cross sectional study of 713 young, African American women (aged 15-21 years) was conducted. Data were collected using an audio-computer assisted self-interview. Three measures of sexual agency were assessed and three relational factors were assessed. To help assure validity in the outcome measure, condom use was assessed in five different ways. Multivariate analyses were used to determine whether variables independently predicted UVS. Two of the six predictor variables achieved multivariate significance with all five measures of condom use: (1) fear of negotiating condom use with male partners, and (2) indicating that stopping to use condoms takes the fun out of sex. A relational factor (male-dominated power imbalances) achieved multivariate significance for four of the five measures of UVS. A sexual agency factor (whether young women greatly enjoyed sex) achieved multivariate significance for three of the five measures. The results suggest that young African American women at high-risk of sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV acquisition may experience male-dominated power imbalances and also fear the process of negotiating condom use with their male partners. Although these factors were independently associated with UVS, two factors pertaining to sexual agency of these young women were also important predictors of UVS. Intervention efforts designed to avert STI/HIV acquisition among young African American women should therefore include programs to address both sexual agency and relational factors.

  7. "I got caught up in the game": generational influences on contraceptive decision making in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2013-03-01

    Reproductive health disparities are a significant issue for African-American adolescents. This study was designed to explore the cross-generational influences on adolescent sexuality in a cohort of daughters/granddaughters of U.S. born African-American women. Data were generated through interviews with triads of African-American women: grandmothers, and their daughters and granddaughters, to gain insight into the phenomena of early sexual debut, high rates of unintended pregnancies, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections from a cross-generational perspective. Six themes emerged from the data: southern influences; a worldview of relationships; communication-key to preparedness; seeking information from mom; "I got caught up in the game"; and contraceptive use and beliefs. In this sample, mothers' and grandmothers' culture, values, and beliefs significantly influenced the adolescents' sexual and reproductive decision making. Clinicians' knowledge of African-American culture, beliefs, and family values is key when providing guidance about contraception to these young women. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Differential response to targeted recruitment strategies to fitness promotion research by African-American women of varying body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K; Miles, O L; McCarthy, W J; Sandoval, G; Hill, J; Leslie, J J; Harrison, G G

    2001-01-01

    To assess patterns of recruitment into a community-based NCI-funded physical activity and dietary lifestyle change program targeting African-American women. Acquisition of a convenience sample to be screened for participation in a randomized, controlled prevention intervention. African-American-owned and -operated health club located in an area of Los Angeles in which African Americans are concentrated. 893 African-American women. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES: Social networking/word-of-mouth, staff presentations, mass and targeted media, and physician referral. Completion of screening questionnaire indicating a desire to enroll in the study. Screening questionnaire domains included self-reported height and weight, recent participation in organized weight loss programs, ability to walk one mile unassisted, current medication use, smoking status, personal medical history of cancer, sociodemographic variables, and recruitment source. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics distinguished between respondents obtained through different recruitment strategies. In particular, women with a higher body mass index (BMI) were more likely than those with lower BMIs (P = .014) to be recruited through more personalized methods (eg, social networking). Culturally tailored recruitment strategies are critical in securing the participation of members of "hard-to-reach" populations, who are both under-represented in health promotion research and at high risk for chronic diseases.

  9. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  10. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  12. Addressing the problem of obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk in black South African women - time for action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H

    2017-01-01

    The PhD thesis of Gradidge, entitled 'Factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in an ageing cohort of black women living in Soweto, Johannesburg (Study of Women in and Entering Endocrine Transition [SWEET])', attempts to understand the determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of urban-dwelling black South African women. A conceptual framework is presented, which positions obesity as the central risk factor for MetS, and includes the possible influence of socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviours and body size perceptions, as key determinants of obesity. This commentary focuses on the two main findings of Gradidge's thesis, namely, (i) physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and (ii) body composition and adiponectin, as risk factors for obesity and MetS in black South African women. Despite a high prevalence of obesity (48%), Gradidge showed that 75% of the women taking part in the study were meeting WHO guidelines on physical activity. This commentary suggests that the relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk may be confounded by socioeconomic status. Alternatively, the intensity, and not necessarily the volume, of activity, as well as high rates of sedentary behaviour are posited as important determinants of obesity and MetS in black South African women. Accordingly, this commentary questions the veracity of the WHO guidelines on physical activity in developing countries, where most women meet the guidelines but have very poor cardiorespiratory fitness, are obese and are at high risk of MetS. Gradidge also showed that the most consistent and significant correlate of MetS in this cohort of middle-aged women was low serum levels of adiponectin. This commentary highlights various lifestyle interventions that have been shown to increase adiponectin levels. Finally, the importance of immediate action to address the problem of obesity and MetS is emphasised.

  13. Genetic variants demonstrating flip-flop phenomenon and breast cancer risk prediction among women of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengfeng; Qian, Frank; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William; Nathanson, Katherine L; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Ambs, Stefan; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated the performance of existing breast cancer risk prediction models among women of African ancestry. In replication studies of genetic variants, a change in direction of the risk association is a common phenomenon. Termed flip-flop, it means that a variant is risk factor in one population but protective in another, affecting the performance of risk prediction models. We used data from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in the African diaspora (The Root consortium), which included 3686 participants of African ancestry from Nigeria, USA, and Barbados. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were constructed from the published odds ratios (ORs) of four sets of susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Discrimination capacity was measured using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Flip-flop phenomenon was observed among 30~40% of variants across studies. Using the 34 variants with consistent directionality among previous studies, we constructed a PRS with AUC of 0.531 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.512-0.550), which is similar to the PRS using 93 variants and ORs from European ancestry populations (AUC = 0.525, 95% CI: 0.506-0.544). Additionally, we found the 34-variant PRS has good discriminative accuracy in women with family history of breast cancer (AUC = 0.586, 95% CI: 0.532-0.640). We found that PRS based on variants identified from prior GWASs conducted in women of European and Asian ancestries did not provide a comparable degree of risk stratification for women of African ancestry. Further large-scale fine-mapping studies in African ancestry populations are desirable to discover population-specific genetic risk variants.

  14. A GROUNDED THEORY STUDY OF THE PROCESS USED TO NEGOTIATE CONDOM USE AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Teressa Sanders; Tilley, Donna Scott

    2015-01-01

    This review of the literature identifies themes, variable, goals, and gaps in the literature related to HIV and AIDS among African American women. Black Feminist Epistemology and symbolic interactionism are used as a theoretical perspective and philosophical framework to examine experiences and social behaviors of African-American women and to guide and framework to explain the findings from the literature. This theoretical perspective/philosophical framework can also be used in understanding processes used by African-American women in behavioral, social, and intimate interactions.

  15. Health behavior and perceptions among African American women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Varun Malayala

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different risk factors (abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol that predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. African American women (AAW are easily predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to higher levels of insulin resistance. Various sociodemographic factors further contribute to higher prevalence. Aim: This study evaluates the current prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AAW and identifies the related sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: The study utilized 2007–11 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data sets from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC. The sample was divided into two groups: AAW with and without metabolic syndrome. Sociodemographic, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and health perceptions were compared between the two groups. Results: Out of the available sample of 30,442 individuals, 1918 (6.4% met the inclusion criteria (AAW, age>20, non-pregnant women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 47%. Older age, lower education level, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status, low physical activity level, and smoking were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. The prevalence of borderline hypertension, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in AAW with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion: In spite of the focus on prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and elimination of ethnic and gender disparities, metabolic syndrome is still widely prevalent in AAW and poses a threat to the goals of Healthy People 2020.

  16. Experiences addressing health-related financial challenges with disease management among African American women with asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Id-Deen, Effat; Clark, Noreen M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Despite economic hardship, compliance with self-management regimens is still evident among individuals and families managing chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to describe how women with asthma address cost-related challenges to management of their condition. Methods In 2012 and 2013, four focus groups were conducted in Southeast Michigan with 26 African American women with asthma, recruited based on maximum variation sampling procedures. A semi-structured interview protocol was employed by trained facilitators. Coded transcripts were analyzed for themes regarding means to reduce the impact of the cost of asthma management. Results Major themes identified were acceptance of the status quo; stockpiling and sharing medicines; utilizing community assistance programs; reaching out to healthcare providers and social networks for help; foregoing self-management; and utilizing urgent care. Conclusions Awareness of strategies that are helpful to patients in reducing out-of-pocket costs may better equip service providers and others to develop interventions to make useful strategies more widely available. PMID:24471517

  17. Parity and breastfeeding among African-American women: differential effects on breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor status in the Women's Circle of Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; Ruszczyk, Melanie; Shankar, Jyoti; Hong, Chi-Chen; McIlwain, Demetra; Roberts, Michelle; Yao, Song; McCann, Susan E; Ciupak, Gregory; Hwang, Helena; Khoury, Thaer; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Pawlish, Karen; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-02-01

    It has long been held that parity reduces risk of breast cancer. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of parity, as well as breastfeeding, may vary according to estrogen receptor (ER) status. We evaluated these associations in a case-control study among African-American women in New York City and New Jersey. In the Women's Circle of Health Study, including 786 African-American women with breast cancer and 1,015 controls, data on reproductive histories were collected from in-person interviews, with tumor characteristics abstracted from pathology reports. We calculated number of live births and months breastfeeding for each child, and examined each in relation to breast cancer by ER status, and for triple-negative (TN) breast cancer. Although associations were not statistically significant, having children was associated with reduced risk of ER+ breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.58-1.16], but increased risk of ER- tumors, with associations most pronounced for TN breast cancer (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 0.93-3.51). Breastfeeding gave no additional benefit for ER+ cancer, but reduced the risk of ER- disease associated with parity. Accumulating data from a number of studies, as well as our own in African-American women, indicate that the effects of parity and breastfeeding differ by ER status. African-American women are more likely to have children and not to breastfeed, and to have ER- and TN breast cancer. It is possible that breastfeeding in this population could reduce risk of more aggressive breast cancers.

  18. Case report: mechanisms of HIV elite control in two African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Yumna; Tanko, Ramla F; Ramsuran, Veron; Singh, Ravesh; Madzivhandila, Mashudu; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose; Selhorst, Philippe; Gounder, Kamini; Moore, Penny L; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Garrett, Nigel J; Burgers, Wendy A

    2018-01-25

    The majority of people living with HIV require antiretroviral therapy (ART) for controlling viral replication, however there are rare HIV controllers who spontaneously and durably control HIV in the absence of treatment. Understanding what mediates viral control in these individuals has provided us with insights into the immune mechanisms that may be important to induce for a vaccine or functional cure for HIV. To date, few African elite controllers from high incidence settings have been described. We identified virological controllers from the CAPRISA 002 cohort of HIV-1 subtype C infected women in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, two (1%) of whom were elite controllers. We examined the genetic, clinical, immunological and virological characteristics of these two elite HIV controllers in detail, to determine whether they exhibit features of putative viral control similar to those described for elite controllers reported in the literature. In this case report, we present clinical features, CD4 + T cell and viral load trajectories for two African women over 7 years of HIV infection. Viral load became undetectable 10 months after HIV infection in Elite Controller 1 (EC1), and after 6 weeks in Elite Controller 2 (EC2), and remained undetectable for the duration of follow-up, in the absence of ART. Both elite controllers expressed multiple HLA Class I and II haplotypes previously associated with slower disease progression (HLA-A*74:01, HLA-B*44:03, HLA-B*81:01, HLA-B*57:03, HLA-DRB1*13). Fitness assays revealed that both women were infected with replication competent viruses, and both expressed higher mRNA levels of p21, a host restriction factor associated with viral control. HIV-specific T cell responses were examined using flow cytometry. EC1 mounted high frequency HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses, including a B*81:01-restricted Gag TL9 response. Unusually, EC2 had evidence of pre-infection HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses. We identified some features typical of

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Two Stages of Cigarette Smoking in African-American and European-American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Calvert, Wilma J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to determine whether the higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) but lower rates of cigarette smoking in African-American vs. European-American women can be explained in part by a lower magnitude of association between CSA and smoking in African-American women. Methods Data were drawn from a same-sex female twin study of substance use (n=3,521; 14.3% African-American). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA to predict smoking initiation and progression to regular smoking were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Co-twin status on the smoking outcome was used to adjust for familial influences on smoking (which may overlap with family-level influences on CSA exposure). Results After adjusting for co-twin status, CSA was associated with smoking initiation in European Americans (hazards ratio (HR)=1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.26–1.62) and with smoking initiation ≤16 in African Americans (HR=1.70, CI: 1.26–2.29). CSA was associated with regular smoking onset ≤15 in European Americans (HR=1.63, CI:1.21–2.18), with no change in HR after adjusting for co-twin status. In the African-American subsample, the HR for CSA was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for co-twin status (from HR=3.30, CI:1.23–8.89 to HR=1.16, CI:0.71–1.92 for regular smoking ≤15). Conclusions CSA is associated with moderate elevation in risk for initiating smoking among African-American and European-American women. By contrast, CSA is associated with elevated risk for (adolescent onset) regular smoking only in European-American women. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between risk conferred by CSA and familial influences on regular smoking in African-American but not European-American women. PMID:27131220

  20. Ethnic Identity Attachment and Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise among Rural, Overweight, African-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bryant Smalley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise. Multivariate analyses, controlling for age, education status, insurance status, and body mass index revealed that attachment to ethnic identity was predictive of motivation for exercise but not for weight loss. Our findings suggest that attachment to ethnic identity may be an important factor in motivation for change among African-American women, particularly with respect to exercise, with direct implications for the development of culturally and geographically tailored weight loss interventions.

  1. "If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you're shattered": Perspectives on African American men's stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Distinguishing Positive Deviance Among Low-Income African American Women: A Qualitative Study on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cecilia E; Masho, Saba W; Carlyle, Kellie E; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2017-05-01

    Positive deviant individuals practice beneficial behaviors in spite of having qualities characterizing them as high risk for unhealthy behaviors. This study aimed to identify and understand factors distinguishing low-income African American women who breastfeed the longest (positive deviants) from those who breastfeed for a shorter duration or do not breastfeed. Seven mini-focus groups on infant-feeding attitudes and experiences were conducted with 25 low-income African American women, grouped by infant-feeding practice. Positive deviants, who had breastfed for 4 months or more, were compared with formula-feeding participants who had only formula fed their babies and short-term breastfeeding participants who had breastfed for 3 months or less. Positive deviant women had more schooling, higher income, breastfeeding intention, positive breastfeeding and unfavorable formula-feeding attitudes, higher self-efficacy, positive hospital and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children experiences, more exclusive breastfeeding, and greater comfort breastfeeding in public. Short-term breastfeeding women varied in breastfeeding intention and self-efficacy, seemed to receive insufficient professional breastfeeding support, and supplemented breastfeeding with formula. Some showed ambivalence, concern with unhealthy behaviors, and discomfort with breastfeeding in public. Formula-feeding women intended to formula feed, feared breastfeeding, thought their behaviors were incompatible with breastfeeding, were comfortable with and found formula convenient, and received strong support to formula feed. Tapping into the strengths of positive deviants; tailoring interventions to levels of general and breastfeeding self-efficacy; increasing social, institutional, and community supports; and removing inappropriate formula promotion may offer promising strategies to increase breastfeeding among low-income African American women.

  3. Prenatal Stress and the Cortisol Awakening Response in African-American and Caucasian Women in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; Holl, Jane L; Wolfe, Kaitlin A; Grobman, William A; Borders, Ann E B

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Prior studies have shown significant racial disparities in psychosocial stressors for pregnant women. One physiological mechanism by which prenatal stress is expressed is via the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, which itself differs by race. In this study, we examine differences in cortisol awakening response (CAR) for African-American and Caucasian pregnant women during late pregnancy, particularly whether racial disparities are evident after accounting for measures of psychosocial stress. Methods During their third trimester of pregnancy (32-40 weeks of gestation), we asked women to self-collect salivary samples at home over 2 days. We then measured salivary cortisol across the day for 30 pregnant women (18 Caucasian; 12 African-American) to examine the CAR by race and by multiple measures of self-reported psychosocial stress, including perceived discrimination. Results Although the women in our sample showed normative cortisol diurnal rhythms (high on waking, peak 30 min post-waking, lowest at bedtime), we found that African-American women had blunted (smaller) awakening responses compared to Caucasian women (p accounting for covariates in a multivariate equation. However, when we added measures of psychosocial stress to the multivariate equation, higher levels of stress were significantly associated with a smaller CAR (p < 0.05), and the association between maternal race and CAR was no longer significant. Conclusions Our results add to a growing body of evidence that racial differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with psychosocial stress during pregnancy.

  4. Association of breast cancer risk and the mTOR pathway in women of African ancestry in 'The Root' Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengfeng; Huo, Dezheng; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Zheng, Wei; Nathanson, Katherine L; Nemesure, Barbara; Ambs, Stefan; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Zheng, Yonglan

    2017-08-01

    Functional studies have elucidated the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in breast carcinogenesis, but to date, there is a paucity of data on its contribution to breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. We examined 47628 SNPs in 61 mTOR pathway genes in the genome wide association study of breast cancer in the African Diaspora study (The Root consortium), which included 3686 participants (1657 cases). Pathway- and gene-level analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) test for 10994 SNPs that were not highly correlated (r2 studies of breast cancer in the African Diaspora. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cross-sectional association between perceived discrimination and hypertension in African-American men and women: the Pitt County Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Calpurnyia B; Vines, Anissa I; Kaufman, Jay S; James, Sherman A

    2008-03-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of the frequency of discrimination on hypertension risk. The authors assessed the cross-sectional associations between frequency of perceived racial and nonracial discrimination and hypertension among 1,110 middle-aged African-American men (n = 393) and women (n = 717) participating in the 2001 follow-up of the Pitt County Study (Pitt County, North Carolina). Odds ratios were estimated using gender-specific unconditional weighted logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders and the frequency of discrimination. More than half of the men (57%) and women (55%) were hypertensive. The prevalences of perceived racial discrimination, nonracial discrimination, and no discrimination were 57%, 29%, and 13%, respectively, in men and 42%, 43%, and 15%, respectively, in women. Women recounting frequent nonracial discrimination versus those reporting no exposure to discrimination had the highest odds of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio = 2.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 5.02). A nonsignificant inverse odds ratio was evident in men who perceived frequent exposure to racial or nonracial discrimination in comparison with no exposure. A similar association was observed for women reporting perceived racial discrimination. These results indicate that the type and frequency of discrimination perceived by African-American men and women may differentially affect their risk of hypertension.

  6. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  7. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Storage

    Full Text Available Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  8. An Investigation of the Facilitative and Inhibitory Variables Impacting Breast Health Care Practices in Low Socioeconomic Status Black Women of African-American and Caribbean Descent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaSorsa, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    .... This will be accomplished in two separate waves. In the first wave, facilitators and barriers to breast cancer-screening participation among low-SES women of African-American and Caribbean descent will be determined through qualitative interview...

  9. Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: A structural equation model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherezade K. Mama

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: PA is more heavily influenced by intrapersonal factors related to weight. Improving intrapersonal factors related to weight and perceptions of the environment may lead to increased PA in African American and Hispanic women.

  10. The roles of spirituality in the relationship between traumatic life events, mental health, and drug use among African American women from one southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n = 206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included.

  11. Breast Cancer and Risk Factors Among African-American Women Aged 20-54: A Case-Control Study According to Estrogen Receptor Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Kangmin

    1999-01-01

    ...) status among African-American women. During the period of the project, we established collaborations with the Tennessee Cancer Reporting System, hospitals in the study areas, and basic science researchers...

  12. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Direct and Moderating Effects of Community Context on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Russell, Daniel W.; Hessling, Robert M.; Brown, P. Adama; Murry, Velma

    2007-01-01

    The effects of community characteristics on well-being were examined among 709 African American women. Direct and moderating effects of neighborhood characteristics on distress were tested. Aggregate-level ratings of neighborhood cohesion and disorder were significantly related to distress, although the relation between cohesion and distress became nonsignificant when individual risk factors were statistically controlled. Aggregate-level neighborhood variables interacted significantly with individual risk and resource variables in the prediction of distress, consistent with trait-situation interaction theories (D. Magnusson & N. S. Endler, 1977). Community cohesion intensified the benefits of a positive life outlook. Community disorder intensified both the benefits of personal resources and the detrimental effects of personal risk factors. Results showed evidence of resilience among African American women. PMID:11138756

  14. Coping with racism: the impact of prayer on cardiovascular reactivity and post-stress recovery in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Denise C; Thayer, Julian F; Waldstein, Shari R

    2014-04-01

    Prayer is often used to cope with racism-related stress. Little is known about its impact on cardiovascular function. This study examined how prayer coping relates to cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), post-stress recovery, and affective reactivity in response to racism-related stress. African American women (n =81; mean age=20 years) reported their use of prayer coping on the Perceived Racism Scale and completed anger recall and racism recall tasks while undergoing monitoring of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and hemodynamic measures. Prayer coping was examined for associations with CVR, recovery, and affective change scores using general linear models with repeated measures. Higher prayer coping was associated with decreased state stress and DBP reactivity during racism recall (p'sracism recall recovery(p'sracism by utilizing prayer may have cardiovascular benefits for African American women.

  15. Reconstructing a Deuteronomistic Athaliah in the (South African context: A critique of the patriarchal perception of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikhokele Mtshiselwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angie Motshekga, the president of the Women�s League of the ruling African National Congress (ANC 2014, is reported to have said that �South Africa is not ready to have a female president ...� What is perturbing about her statement is the presupposition that South-African society perceives women as presently incapable of leading the country as president. Given the variety of literature on female empowerment in South Africa, Motshekga�s statement comes both as a disappointment and a disempowering assertion as it does not exhibit a clear attempt to address patriarchy. This article re-interprets the character of Athaliah in 2 Kings 11 and probes it for the empowering possibility that it offers the women of South Africa. It argues that Athaliah was a politically astute queen and that the scarcity of female rulers in ancient Israel confirms the patriarchal bias against women. Thus, drawing from the reconstructed character of Athaliah and from the leadership demonstrated by selected women politicians against a patriarchal paradigm that is part of African cultures, the article submits that the perception of women as capable of leading South Africa as president is justified.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The present article partly responds to Angie Motshekga�s statement that �South Africa is not ready to have a female president ...� Thus, drawing from the insight in the fields of the Old Testament, social sciences and gender studies, this article submits that the perception that women are capable of leading South Africa as president is warranted.

  16. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting Among Rural African American Women*

    OpenAIRE

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women’s relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning, relationship well-being, and parenting were tested. Stressful events were related directly to diminished relationship well-being and heightened psyc...

  17. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women in three sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Qian

    Full Text Available Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women.We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97. Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00 and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23 were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001, with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84.We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.

  18. Relationship between obesity and anti-Müllerian hormone in reproductive-aged African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Lia A; Carnethon, Mercedes R; de Chavez, Peter J; Ikhena, Deborah E; Neff, Lisa M; Baird, Donna D; Marsh, Erica E

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between obesity and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) among reproductive-aged African American women (AAW). From the women participating in an ongoing National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences study, 1,654 AAW aged 23 to 35 were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements, personal health information, and serum AMH and adipokine levels were analyzed. The median body mass index (BMI) was 32.4 kg/m 2 , and the median AMH was 3.18 ng/mL. Participants with obesity had AMH concentrations that were 23.7% lower than those with a BMI ≤25 kg/m 2 (2.9 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ng/mL). In multivariable linear regression models, current BMI (β = -0.015; 95% CI -0.021 to -0.009), BMI at age 18 (β = -0.016; 95% CI -0.024 to -0.008), heaviest reported lifetime weight (β = -0.002; 95% CI -0.003 to -0.001), and leptin (β = -0.016; 95% CI -0.025 to -0.007) were inversely associated with AMH. There was no significant association between adiponectin and AMH. AMH was significantly lower (mean log = 0.91, SE = 0.11) in participants with obesity at age 18 and at enrollment when compared with those who were underweight or normal weight at age 18 but had obesity at enrollment (mean log = 1.16, SE = 0.12). In reproductive-aged AAW there is a significant association between obesity and AMH, suggesting that excess adiposity may compromise ovarian reserve. Effects of obesity on AMH may be cumulative. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. Beyond traditional gender roles and identity: does reconceptualisation better predict condom-related outcomes for African-American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T; Hood, Kristina B; Corneille, Maya A; Fitzgerald, Angela Y; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2010-08-01

    African-American women continue to be at high risk for HIV and better prevention efforts are needed. The current paper sought to investigate the relationship between gender roles and condom-related outcomes among African American women. The sample consisted of 398 African-American women, who were administered a survey that contained measures of condom-related outcomes and gender role beliefs. We factor analysed their responses and three domains emerged: caretaking/mindful, interpersonal sensitivity and persistent/active coping. Results indicated that the interpersonal sensitivity domain was a significant predictor of condom use and intention with higher interpersonal sensitivity scores associated with less condom use and intentions. The persistent/active coping domain was a significant predictor of condom negotiation efficacy and condom use with higher scores in this domain associated with more condom negotiation efficacy and use. Results suggest that re-conceptualisations offer a better understanding of underlying traits that may influence condom-related outcomes for this population.

  20. Barriers to early presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer among African women living in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Pomaa Akuoko

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC has been described as the leading cause of cancer deaths among women especially in the developing world including sub Saharan Africa (SSA. Delayed presentation and late diagnosis at health facilities are parts of the contributing factors of high BC mortality in Africa. This review aimed to appraise the contributing factors to delayed breast cancer presentation and diagnosis among SSA women.Five databases encompassing medical and social sciences were systematically searched using predefined search terms linked with breast cancer presentation and diagnosis and sub Saharan Africa. Reference lists of relevant papers were also hand searched. Quality of quantitative and qualitative articles were assessed using the National Institute of Health (NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP quality appraisal checklist. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the qualitative studies to integrate findings.Fourteen (14 quantitative studies, two (2 qualitative studies and one (1 mixed method study merited inclusion for analysis. This review identified low knowledge of breast cancer among SSA women. This review also found lack of awareness of early detection treatment, poor perception of BC, socio-cultural factors such as belief, traditions and fear as factors impacting African women's health seeking behavior in relation to breast cancer.Improving African women's knowledge and understanding will improve behaviors related to breast cancer and facilitate early presentation and detection and enhance proper management and treatment of breast cancer.

  1. The Effect of Message Framing on African American Women's Intention to Participate in Health-Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Hayes, Sharonne; Parker, Monica; Halyard, Michele; Enders, Felicity; Albertie, Monica; Pinn, Vivian; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effect of message framing on African American women's intention to participate in health-related research and actual registration in ResearchMatch (RM), a disease-neutral, national volunteer research registry. A community-engaged approach was used involving collaboration between an academic medical center and a volunteer service organization formed by professional women of color. A self-administered survey that contained an embedded message framing manipulation was distributed to more than 2,000 African American women attending the 2012 national assembly of The Links, Incorporated. A total of 391 surveys were completed (381 after exclusion: 187 containing the gain-framed message and 194 containing the loss-framed message). The majority (57%) of women expressed favorable intentions to participate in health-related research, and 21% subsequently enrolled in RM. The effect of message framing on intention was moderated by self-efficacy. There was no effect of message framing on RM registration; however, those with high self-efficacy were more than 2 times as likely as those with low self-efficacy to register as a potential study volunteer in RM (odds ratio = 2.62, 95% confidence interval [1.29, 5.33]). This investigation makes theoretical and practical contributions to the field of health communication and informs future strategies to meaningfully and effectively include women and minorities in health-related research.

  2. Rates and Predictors of Obesity Among African American Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Li, Chien-Ching; McConnell, Elizabeth; Aranda, Frances; Smith, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine rates of and risk factors for obesity in a community sample of African American sexual minority women (SMW). Data were collected using self-administered paper-and-pencil survey questionnaires (n = 219). Participants were primarily middle aged (M = 40.1; standard deviation [SD] = 10.5 years), well educated (56.9% with a college education and above), insured (82.3%), and had a median income range from $30,000 to $39,999. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 31.6 (SD = 8.0). Based on BMI scores, over half of the participants were identified as obese (53.9%) and 25.6% were overweight. A number of comorbid illnesses were reported that could be exacerbated by excess weight, including arthritis (21.3%), adult-onset diabetes (4.9%), back problems (23.2%), high cholesterol (15.3%), high blood pressure (19.2%), and heart disease (12%). Multiple risk factors for obesity were observed, including infrequent exercise (American SMW report high rates of obesity, chronic health conditions exacerbated by weight, and health and dietary behaviors that increase risk for weight-related health disparities. These study findings have implications for additional research and intervention development.

  3. Advancing understanding of the sustainability of lay health advisor (LHA) programs for African-American women in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O

    2017-09-01

    Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.

  4. Taking it one day at a time: African American women aging with HIV and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-07-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies.

  5. Project THANKS: Examining HIV/AIDS-Related Barriers and Facilitators to Care in African American Women: A Community Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka; Mahadevan, Meena; Opara, Ijeoma; Rodriguez, Monica; Trusdell, Megan; Kelly, Jessica

    2018-04-01

    Project THANKS, (Turning HIV/AIDS into Knowledge for Sisters), is an evidence-based intervention that utilizes a community-based participatory and empowerment building approach for African American female substance abusers living with HIV and other chronic diseases. This qualitative study sought to gain insight from women living with HIV on how to improve Project THANKS. African American women living with substance abuse disorders, HIV, and other comorbidities were recruited from three community based health centers in New Jersey (N = 31). Ninety minute focus group sessions were implemented in each health center. The focus group sessions were designed to understand the perceived factors influencing the participants' ability to self-manage their health conditions and challenges they are currently facing regarding their diagnoses. The barriers and suggestions presented by participants included addressing stigmatization, managing mental health symptoms, improving physician-patient trust, accessing health education, educating community members, and proper nutrition. In addition, an engaged and trusting relationship with their healthcare provider and having positive sources of support were cited as motivators to adhering to their HIV treatment regimen. Participants living with HIV/AIDS also expressed more concern with difficulty treating their comorbidities than participants with only HIV/AIDS. Receiving input from African American women living with HIV related comorbidities was essential in improving the intervention to include a behavioral and primary health approach. Future programmatic interventions of Project THANKS will include a targeted focus on addressing mental health needs in women by offering meditation services and mental health referrals. In addition, Project THANKS will incorporate activities to improve communication with physicians, families, and media outlets to empower women to take an active role in their primary and social support needs.

  6. Evaluation of two vaccine education interventions to improve pertussis vaccination among pregnant African American women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Jennifer L; Frew, Paula M; Cortes, Marielysse; Malik, Fauzia A; Chamberlain, Allison T; Seib, Katherine; Flowers, Lisa; Ault, Kevin A; Howards, Penelope P; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    2017-03-13

    Vaccination coverage with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in pregnancy or immediately postpartum has been low. Limited data exist on rigorously evaluated interventions to increase maternal vaccination, including Tdap. Tailored messaging based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) framework has been successful in improving uptake of some public health interventions. We evaluated the effect of two ELM-based vaccine educational interventions on Tdap vaccination among pregnant African American women, a group of women who tend to have lower vaccine uptake compared with other groups. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to pilot test two interventions - an affective messaging video and a cognitive messaging iBook - among pregnant African American women recruited during routine prenatal care visits. We measured Tdap vaccination during the perinatal period (during pregnancy and immediately postpartum), reasons for non-vaccination, and intention to receive Tdap in the next pregnancy. Among the enrolled women (n=106), 90% completed follow-up. Tdap vaccination in the perinatal period was 18% in the control group; 50% in the iBook group (Risk Ratio [vs. control group]: 2.83; 95% CI, 1.26-6.37), and 29% in the video group (RR: 1.65; 95% CI, 0.66-4.09). From baseline to follow-up, women's reported intention to receive Tdap during the next pregnancy improved in all three groups. Among unvaccinated women, the most common reason reported for non-vaccination was lack of a recommendation for Tdap by the woman's physician. Education interventions that provide targeted information for pregnant women in an interactive manner may be useful to improve Tdap vaccination during the perinatal period. However, larger studies including multiple racial and ethnic groups are needed to evaluate robustness of our findings. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01740310. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of face-to-face interview versus computer-assisted self-interview on disclosure of intimate partner violence among African American women in WIC clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Danielle; VanderEnde, Kristin; Colbert, Kia; Houry, Debra; Smith, L Shakiyla; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-03-01

    African American women in the United States report intimate partner violence (IPV) more often than the general population of women. Overall, women underreport IPV because of shame, embarrassment, fear of retribution, or low expectation of legal support. African American women may be especially unlikely to report IPV because of poverty, low social support, and past experiences of discrimination. The purpose of this article is to determine the context in which low-income African American women disclose IPV. Consenting African American women receiving Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in WIC clinics were randomized to complete an IPV screening (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales-Short Form) via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) or face-to-face interview (FTFI). Women (n = 368) reported high rates of lifetime and prior-year verbal (48%, 34%), physical (12%, 7%), sexual (10%, 7%), and any (49%, 36%) IPV, as well as IPV-related injury (13%, 7%). Mode of screening, but not interviewer race, affected disclosure. Women screened via FTFI reported significantly more lifetime and prior-year negotiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 10.54, 3.97) and more prior-year verbal (aOR = 2.10), sexual (aOR = 4.31), and any (aOR = 2.02) IPV than CASI-screened women. African American women in a WIC setting disclosed IPV more often in face-to-face than computer screening, and race-matching of client and interviewer did not affect disclosure. Findings highlight the potential value of face-to-face screening to identify women at risk of IPV. Programs should weigh the costs and benefits of training staff versus using computer-based technologies to screen for IPV in WIC settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Important Role of Menarche in Development of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; Hong, Chi-Chen; Yao, Song; Troester, Melissa A; Bandera, Elisa V; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N; Borges, Virginia; Park, Song-Yi; Chandra, Dhyan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R

    2015-09-01

    Menarche is a critical time point for diverging fates of mammary cells of origin. African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. In the AMBER Consortium, using harmonized data from 4426 African American women with breast cancer and 17 474 controls, we used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ages at menarche and first live birth (FLB), and the interval between, in relation to ER+ and ER- breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Risk of ER- breast cancer was reduced with later age at menarche among both parous and nulliparous women (≥15 vs fashion (OR for 20 year interval = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.79, P trend = .003), ER- risk was only increased for intervals up to 14 years and not beyond (P trend = .33). While ER- breast cancer risk was markedly reduced in women with a late age at menarche, there was not a clear pattern of increased risk with longer interval between menarche and FLB, as was observed for ER+ breast cancer. These findings indicate that etiologic pathways involving adolescence and pregnancy may differ for ER- and ER+ breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effects of racial and sexual harassment on work and the psychological well-being of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, NiCole T; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2008-04-01

    Research on workplace harassment has typically examined either racial or sexual harassment, without studying both simultaneously. As a result, it remains unknown whether the co-occurrence of racial and sexual harassment or their interactive effects account for unique variance in work and psychological well-being. In this study, hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the influence of racial and sexual harassment on these outcomes among 91 African American women involved in a sexual harassment employment lawsuit. Results indicated that both sexual and racial harassment contributed significantly to the women's occupational and psychological outcomes. Moreover, their interaction was statistically significant when predicting supervisor satisfaction and perceived organizational tolerance of harassment. Using a sample of African American women employed in an organizational setting where harassment was known to have occurred and examining sexual and racial harassment concomitantly makes this study unique. As such, it provides novel insights and an important contribution to an emerging body of research and underscores the importance of assessing multiple forms of harassment when examining organizational stressors, particularly among women of color.

  10. A genome-wide association study meta-analysis of clinical fracture in 10,012 African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira C. Taylor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem associated with excess disability and mortality. It is estimated that 50–70% of the variation in osteoporotic fracture risk is attributable to genetic factors. The purpose of this hypothesis-generating study was to identify possible genetic determinants of fracture among African American (AA women in a GWAS meta-analysis. Methods: Data on clinical fractures (all fractures except fingers, toes, face, skull or sternum were analyzed among AA female participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI (N = 8155, Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS (N = 504, BioVU (N = 704, Health ABC (N = 651, and the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project (JoCoOA (N = 291. Affymetrix (WHI and Illumina (Health ABC, JoCoOA, BioVU, CHS GWAS panels were used for genotyping, and a 1:1 ratio of YRI:CEU HapMap haplotypes was used as an imputation reference panel. We used Cox proportional hazard models or logistic regression to evaluate the association of ~2.5 million SNPs with fracture risk, adjusting for ancestry, age, and geographic region where applicable. We conducted a fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis. Genome-wide significance was set at P < 5 × 10−8. Results: One SNP, rs12775980 in an intron of SVIL on chromosome 10p11.2, reached genome-wide significance (P = 4.0 × 10−8. Although this SNP has a low minor allele frequency (0.03, there was no evidence for heterogeneity of effects across the studies (I2 = 0. This locus was not reported in any previous osteoporosis-related GWA studies. We also interrogated previously reported GWA-significant loci associated with fracture or bone mineral density in our data. One locus (SMOC1 generalized, but overall there was not substantial evidence of generalization. Possible reasons for the lack of generalization are discussed. Conclusion: This GWAS meta-analysis of fractures in African American women identified a potentially novel

  11. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speizer Ilene S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  12. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Acheampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.

  13. Concordance of self-reported hormonal contraceptive use and presence of exogenous hormones in serum among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyra, Maria; Lingappa, Jairam R; Heffron, Renee; Erikson, David W; Blue, Steven W; Patel, Rena C; Nanda, Kavita; Rees, Helen; Mugo, Nelly R; Davis, Nicole L; Kourtis, Athena P; Baeten, Jared M

    2018-04-01

    Studies that rely on self-report to investigate the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as other health outcomes, could have compromised results due to misreporting. We determined the frequency of misreported hormonal contraceptive use among African women with and at risk for HIV. We tested 1102 archived serum samples from 664 African women who had participated in prospective HIV prevention studies. Using a novel high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, we quantified exogenous hormones for injectables (medroxyprogesterone acetate or norethisterone), oral contraceptives (OC) (levonorgestrel or ethinyl estradiol) and implants (levonorgestrel or etonogestrel) and compared them to self-reported use. Among women reporting hormonal contraceptive use, 258/358 (72%) of samples were fully concordant with self-report, as were 642/744 (86%) of samples from women reporting no hormonal contraceptive use. However, 42/253 (17%) of samples from women reporting injectable use, 41/66 (62%) of samples from self-reported OC users and 3/39 (8%) of samples from self-reported implant users had no quantifiable hormones. Among self-reported nonusers, 102/744 (14%) had ≥1 hormone present. Concordance between self-reported method and exogenous hormones did not differ by HIV status. Among African women with and at risk for HIV, testing of exogenous hormones revealed agreement with self-reported contraceptive use for most women. However, unexpected exogenous hormones were identified among self-reported hormonal contraceptive users and nonusers, and an important fraction of women reporting hormonal contraceptive use had no hormones detected; absence of oral contraceptive hormones could be due, at least in part, to samples taken during the hormone-free interval. Misreporting of hormonal contraceptive use could lead to biased results in observational studies of the relationship between contraceptive use and health

  14. Predictors of Plasma DDT and DDE Concentrations among Women Exposed to Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Riana M.S.; Archer, Janet I.; Kudumu, Mwenda O.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined predictors of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels among residents in homes sprayed with DDT for malaria control with the aim of identifying exposure-reduction strategies. Methods: The present analysis included 381 women enrolled in the Study of Women and Babies (SOWB) during 2010–2011, from eight South African villages in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) occurred in half of the villages. Questionnaires regarding various demographic and medical factors were administered and blood samples were obtained. We classified the women into three exposure groups by type of residence: unsprayed village (n = 175), IRS village in household with a low likelihood of DDT use (non-DDT IRS household, n = 106), IRS village in household with a high likelihood of DDT use (DDT IRS household, n = 100). We used multivariable models of natural log-transformed DDT plasma levels (in micrograms per liter) and DDE (in micrograms per liter) to identify predictors for each group. Results: Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in unsprayed villages were 0.3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.1–0.9] and 1.7 (IQR: 0.7–5.5), respectively. Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in DDT IRS households were 2.6 (IQR: 1.1–6.6) and 8.5 (IQR: 4.7–18.0), respectively. In unsprayed villages, women with water piped to the yard, rather than a public tap, had 73% lower DDT (95% CI: –83, –57%) and 61% lower DDE (95% CI: –74, –40%) levels. In DDT IRS households, women who reported taking more than six actions to prepare their home before IRS (e.g., covering water and food) had 40% lower DDT levels (95% CI: –63, –0.3%) than women who took fewer than four actions. Conclusion: The predictors of DDT and DDE plasma levels identified in the present study may inform interventions aimed at decreasing exposure. Among households where DDT is likely to be used for IRS, education

  15. STRESS, RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION, AND HEALTH AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: GENETIC MODERATION OF EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Barr, Ashley B.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether romantic relationship satisfaction would serve as a link between early and later stressors which in turn would influence the Thyroid Function Index (TFI), an indicator of physiological stress response. Using the framework of genetic susceptibility theory combined with hypotheses derived from the vulnerability-stress-adaptation and stress-generation models, we tested whether the hypothesized mediational model would be conditioned by 5-HTTLPR genotype, with greater effects and stronger evidence of mediation among carriers of the “s” allele. In a sample of African American women in romantic relationships (n = 270), we found that 5-HTTLPR moderated each stage of the hypothesized mediational model in a “for better or for worse” manner. That is genetic polymorphisms function to exacerbate not only the detrimental impact of negative environments (i.e. “for worse effects”) but also the beneficial impact of positive environments (i.e. “for better effects”). The effect of early stress on relationship satisfaction was greater among carriers of the “short” allele than among those who did not carry the short allele, and was significantly different in both the “for better” and “for worse” direction. Likewise, the effect of relationship satisfaction on later stressors was moderated in a “for better” or “for worse” manner. Finally, impact on physiological stress, indexed using TFI level, indicated that the impact of later stressors on TFI level was greater in the presence of the short allele, and also followed a “for better” or “for worse” pattern. As expected, the proposed mediational model provided a better fit for “s” allele carriers. PMID:26376424

  16. Peer-to-Peer Mentoring for African American Women With Lupus: A Feasibility Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edith M; Hyer, J Madison; Viswanathan, Ramakrishnan; Faith, Trevor D; Voronca, Delia; Gebregzaibher, Mulugeta; Oates, Jim C; Egede, Leonard

    2018-06-01

    To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of peer mentoring to improve the disease self-management and quality of life of individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Peer mentors were trained and paired with up to 3 mentees to receive self-management education and support by telephone over 12 weeks. This study took place at an academic teaching hospital in Charleston, South Carolina. Seven quads consisting of 1 peer mentor and 3 mentees were matched, based on factors such as age, area of residence, and marital and work status. Mentee outcomes of self-management, health-related quality of life, and disease activity were measured using validated tools at baseline, mid-intervention, and post-intervention. Descriptive statistics and effect sizes were calculated to determine clinically important (>0.3) changes from baseline. Mentees showed trends toward lower disease activity (P = 0.004) and improved health-related quality of life, in the form of decreased anxiety (P = 0.018) and decreased depression (P = 0.057). Other improvements in health-related quality of life were observed with effect sizes >0.3, but did not reach statistical significance. In addition, both mentees and mentors gave very high scores for perceived treatment credibility and service delivery. The intervention was well received. Training, the peer-mentoring program, and outcome measures were demonstrated to be feasible with modifications. This result provides preliminary support for the efficacy, acceptability, and perceived credibility of a peer-mentoring approach to improve disease self-management and health-related quality of life in African American women with SLE. Peer mentoring may augment current rheumatologic care. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Novel correlates between antimüllerian hormone and menstrual cycle characteristics in African-American women (23-35 years-old)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Marsh (Erica E.); L.A. Bernardi (Lia A.); M.L. Steinberg (Marissa L.); P.J. de Chavez (Peter J.); J.A. Visser (Jenny); M.R. Carnethon (Mercedes R.); D.D. Baird (Donna D.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To characterize normative antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels and ascertain which factors are associated with AMH in a large cohort of reproductive-age women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Not applicable. Patient(s): A total of 1,654 African-American women (AAW) ages

  18. Exploring weathering: effects of lifelong economic environment and maternal age on low birth weight, small for gestational age, and preterm birth in African-American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Catherine; David, Richard J; Rankin, Kristin M; Collins, James W

    2010-07-15

    White women experience their lowest rate of low birth weight (LBW) in their late 20s; the nadir LBW for African-American women is under 20 years with rates rising monotonically thereafter, hypothesized as due to "weathering" or deteriorating health with cumulative disadvantage. Current residential environment affects birth outcomes for all women, but little is known about the impact of early life environment. The authors linked neighborhood income to a transgenerational birth file containing infant and maternal birth data, allowing assessment of economic effects over a woman's life course. African-American women who were born in poorer neighborhoods and were still poor as mothers showed significant weathering with regard to LBW and small for gestational age (SGA) but not preterm birth (PTB). However, African-American women in upper-income areas at both time points had a steady fall in LBW and SGA rate with age, similar to the pattern seen in white women. No group of white women, even those always living in poorer neighborhoods, exhibited weathering with regard to LBW, SGA, or PTB. In contrast, the degree of weathering among African-American women is related to duration of exposure to low-income areas and disappears for those with a life residence in non-poor neighborhoods.

  19. Racial Identity, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Self-Esteem: A Pilot Study of a Mediation Model for African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kimberly Williams; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether a sense of generalized self-efficacy (GSE) would mediate the relationship between African American women's racial identity attitudes and self-esteem. Surveys of women from churches and a misdemeanor probation institution indicated that GSE mediated the relationship between pre-encounter racial identity attitude and…

  20. “If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you’re shattered”: Perspectives on African American men’s stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Katrina; Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2015-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly specify the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men’s health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men’s health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 women (8 focus groups). Women’s perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men’s and women’s perceptions of men’s coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  1. Career And Life-Balance Of Professional Women: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Whitehead

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A woman’s ability to balance multiple life-roles is directly related to her physical and mental well-being, and her career performance and success. This study aims to infer a theoretical framework for the in-depth understanding of the phenomenon of life-balance in the lives of 24 South African professional women. The Grounded Theory as a qualitative method was applied to derive a theory about the phenomenon inductively. Purposeful sampling was used to identify 24 professional women. In-depth interviews and a group session were conducted to gather data, and to confirm themes and concepts on which the theoretical framework was based. It was concluded that life-balance is a life-process with a cyclical nature, and a useful tool for achieving personal growth. Life-balance is therefore not “one, single ultimate experience", but a series of individual experiences unfolding over time, which could be better described as “life-balance moments". Opsomming ‘n Vrou se vermoë om meervoudige lewensrolle te balanseer is direk verwant aan haar fisiese en geesteswelsyn en ook haar loopbaanprestasie en -sukses. Hierdie studie het ten doel om ‘n teoretiese raamwerk af te lei uit die indiepte begrip van die lewens-balansverskynsel van 24 Suid-Afrikaanse professionele vroue. Die Begronde Teorie as ‘n kwalitatiewe metode is toegepas om ‘n teoretiese model induktief van die verskynsels af te lei. Doelgerigte steekproefneming is gebruik om 24 professionele vroue te identifiseer. In-diepte onderhoude en ‘n groepsessie is gevoer om data in te samel en om die temas en konsepte waarop die teoretiese raamwerk gebaseer is, te bevestig. Daar is tot die slotsom gekom dat lewensbalans ‘n lewensproses is met ‘n sikliese aard en ‘n nuttige instrument om persoonlike groei te bewerkstellig. Lewensbalans is dus nie “een enkele beslissende erevaring" nie, maar ‘n reeks van individuele ervarings wat oor tyd ontvou en wat ten beste beskryf kan word as

  2. Body composition in the Study of Women Entering and in Endocrine Transition (SWEET): A perspective of African women who have a high prevalence of obesity and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaff, Nicole G; Norris, Shane A; Snyman, Tracy; Toman, Marketa; Crowther, Nigel J

    2015-09-01

    Little data are available for sub-Saharan African women on changes in body composition in menopause transition (MT). The study aimed to determine whether there are differences in body adiposity, lean muscle mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) across MT groups in urban African women, who have a high prevalence of obesity and HIV infection, and if this is related to an altered hormonal milieu. Participants were 702 black urban women. Menopause stage was defined using STRAW+10 criteria. Levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone (T) and sex hormone blinding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ultrasound scans. Whole body lean mass (p=0.002) and BMD (pART) correlated negatively with total fat mass (β=-2.92, p=0.008) and total bone mineral content (BMC; β=-78.8, p=0.003). The MT in this population is characterized by lower whole body lean mass and BMD in post- compared to premenopausal subjects but there are minimal differences in fat mass. Lower lean mass and BMD were associated with higher FSH and lower E2 serum levels, respectively. Use of ART was associated with lower fat mass and BMC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Differential effect of obesity on bone mineral density in White, Hispanic and African American women: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabon Lina

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporosis is a major public health problem with low bone mass affecting nearly half the women aged 50 years or older. Evidence from various studies has shown that higher body mass index (BMI is a protective factor for bone mineral density (BMD. Most of the evidence, however, is from studies with Caucasian women and it is unclear to what extent ethnicity plays a role in modifying the effect of BMI on BMD. A cross sectional study was performed in which records of postmenopausal women who presented for screening for osteoporosis at 2 urban medical centres were reviewed. Using logistic regression, we examined the interaction of race and BMI after adjusting for age, family history of osteoporosis, maternal fracture, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle on BMD. Low BMD was defined as T-score at the lumbar spine Among 3,206 patients identified, the mean age of the study population was 58.3 ± 0.24 (Years ± SEM and the BMI was 30.6 kg/m2. 2,417 (75.4% were African Americans (AA, 441(13.6% were Whites and 348 (10.9% were Hispanics. The AA women had lower odds of having low BMD compared to Whites [Odds ratio (OR = 0.079 (0.03–0.24 (95% CI, p There is thus a race-dependent effect of BMI on BMD. With each unit increase in BMI, BMD increases for White women, while a slight but significant decrease in BMD occurs in African American women.

  4. The association of breast density with breast cancer mortality in African American and white women screened in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfan; Ivy, Julie S; Diehl, Kathleen M; Yankaskas, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    The effect of breast density on survival outcomes for American women who participate in screening remains unknown. We studied the role of breast density on both breast cancer and other cause of mortality in screened women. Data for women with breast cancer, identified from the community-based Carolina Mammography Registry, were linked with the North Carolina cancer registry and NC death tapes for this study. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were developed to analyze the effect of several covariates on breast cancer mortality-namely, age, race (African American/White), cancer stage at diagnosis (in situ, local, regional, and distant), and breast density (BI-RADS( ® ) 1-4). Two stratified Cox models were considered controlling for (1) age and race, and (2) age and cancer stage, respectively, to further study the effect of density. The cumulative incidence function with confidence interval approximation was used to quantify mortality probabilities over time. For this study, 22,597 screened women were identified as having breast cancer. The non-stratified and stratified Cox models showed no significant statistical difference in mortality between dense tissue and fatty tissue, while controlling for other covariate effects (p value = 0.1242, 0.0717, and 0.0619 for the non-stratified, race-stratified, and cancer stage-stratified models, respectively). The cumulative mortality probability estimates showed that women with dense breast tissues did not have significantly different breast cancer mortality than women with fatty breast tissue, regardless of age (e.g., 10-year confidence interval of mortality probabilities for whites aged 60-69 white: 0.056-0.090 vs. 0.054-0.083). Aging, African American race, and advanced cancer stage were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio >1.0). After controlling for cancer incidence, there was not a significant association between mammographic breast density and mortality, adjusting

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women: a comparative study using drug induced sleep endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Ahn, Gun Young; Choi, Jang Won; Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Hoon; Moon, Ji Seung; Lee, Young Il

    The key to successful treatment of OSAS is to individually tailor such treatment. Thus, it is very important to determine the severity of OSAS, its pattern, and the extent of collapse, by gender, age, and BMI. The objective of the study was to understand the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women by comparing postmenopausal and premenopausal subjects, and men, using DISE. We hope that our work will help the medical community to consult on, diagnose, and treat OSAS more effectively. A total of 273 patients (195 males and 78 females) diagnosed with OSAS were enrolled. Female patients were divided into pre-menopausal (n=41) and post-menopausal patients (n=37). The group of post-menopausal female patients was matched with a group of male patients with similar age and body mass index (BMI). DISE findings were compared between pre-menopausal female patients and post-menopausal female patients, and also between post-menopausal female patients and male patients matched for age and BMI. Upon PSG examination, post-menopausal patients (who had a significantly higher BMI than did pre-menopausal patients; 25.6kg/m 2 vs. 23.5kg/m 2 ; p=0.019) tended to have a higher AHI and a lower lowest SaO 2 , but the differences did not attain statistical significance. With DISE analysis, post-menopausal female patients showed higher values in all obstruction sites, with significantly higher value in lateral diameter of retropalatal (1.49 vs. 0.90; p=0.001) and retrolingual levels (1.14 vs. 0.61; p=0.003) compared to pre-menopausal females patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed significantly more retrolingual collapse (antero-posterior, AP, p≤0.0001, and lateral diameter, p=0.042) in the lower BMI group (BMI<25) and more concentric retropalatal collapse (lateral diameter, p=0.017 and tonsillar obstruction, p=0.003) in higher BMI group (BMI≥25) than BMI and age matched male patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed a different pattern of airway

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women: a comparative study using drug induced sleep endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Kweon Koo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The key to successful treatment of OSAS is to individually tailor such treatment. Thus, it is very important to determine the severity of OSAS, its pattern, and the extent of collapse, by gender, age, and BMI. Objective: The objective of the study was to understand the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women by comparing postmenopausal and premenopausal subjects, and men, using DISE. We hope that our work will help the medical community to consult on, diagnose, and treat OSAS more effectively. Methods: A total of 273 patients (195 males and 78 females diagnosed with OSAS were enrolled. Female patients were divided into pre-menopausal (n = 41 and post-menopausal patients (n = 37. The group of post-menopausal female patients was matched with a group of male patients with similar age and body mass index (BMI. DISE findings were compared between pre-menopausal female patients and post-menopausal female patients, and also between post-menopausal female patients and male patients matched for age and BMI. Results: Upon PSG examination, post-menopausal patients (who had a significantly higher BMI than did pre-menopausal patients; 25.6 kg/m2 vs. 23.5 kg/m2; p = 0.019 tended to have a higher AHI and a lower lowest SaO2, but the differences did not attain statistical significance. With DISE analysis, post-menopausal female patients showed higher values in all obstruction sites, with significantly higher value in lateral diameter of retropalatal (1.49 vs. 0.90; p = 0.001 and retrolingual levels (1.14 vs. 0.61; p = 0.003 compared to pre-menopausal females patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed significantly more retrolingual collapse (antero-posterior, AP, p ≤ 0.0001, and lateral diameter, p = 0.042 in the lower BMI group (BMI < 25 and more concentric retropalatal collapse (lateral diameter, p = 0.017 and tonsillar obstruction, p = 0.003 in higher BMI group (BMI ≥ 25 than BMI and age matched

  7. Histórias de resistência de mulheres negras Resistance stories of African-Brazilian women

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    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta é uma pesquisa intervenção na qual foram usadas oficinas de narrativas de histórias como dispositivo para estimular o empoderamento de mulheres. Essas oficinas, que contaram com a participação de dez mulheres em situação de violência de gênero, foram realizadas na sede da organização não-governamental Maria Mulher, situada na Vila Cruzeiro do Sul, no município de Porto Alegre. A partir de oficinas de narrativas de histórias em que se tematizaram histórias do feminino, especialmente afro-brasileiras, a pesquisa teve como objetivo principal compreender o que acontece com as mulheres que sofreram ou sofrem violência. Realizadas em cinco encontros nos quais as mulheres contaram e ouviram histórias e participaram de vivências, as oficinas oportunizaram espaço para narrar, ouvir e ritualizar as histórias das orixás e ressignificar as vidas a partir dessas vivências. Essa intervenção operou com as subjetividades das mulheres que fizeram parte da pesquisa e mostrou-se capaz de fortalecer algumas delas. A experiência constituiu um dispositivo de estímulo ao empoderamento das mulheres e contribuiu para o resgate da memória individual e coletiva desse grupo.This study consists of an intervention using narrative workshops as a device to stimulate the empowerment of women. Ten women, victims of gender violence, took part in a workshop developed by non-governmental organization for African-Brazilian women Maria Mulher, which gives assistance to women living in Vila Cruzeiro do Sul, in the city of Porto Alegre. The main objective of the research was to debate questions related to gender and violence, making use of stories and histories related to the feminine, specifically African-Brazilian stories. Five meetings were held, where the women told and were told stories, took part in group discussions, experiences and rituals. The workshops gave those women a space where they could tell and hear stories, take part in the rituals of

  8. Women's empowerment and male involvement in antenatal care: analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in selected African countries.

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    Jennings, Larissa; Na, Muzi; Cherewick, Megan; Hindin, Michelle; Mullany, Britta; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-08-30

    Increasing women's status and male involvement are important strategies in reducing preventable maternal morbidity and mortality. While efforts to both empower women and engage men in maternal health care-seeking can work synergistically, in practice they may result in opposing processes and outcomes. This study examines whether a woman's empowerment status, in sum and across economic, socio-familial, and legal dimensions, is associated with male partner accompaniment to antenatal care (ANC). Women's empowerment was measured based on the sum of nine empowerment items in the 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys in eight sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso (n = 2,490), Burundi (n = 1,042), Malawi (n = 1,353), Mozambique (n = 414), Rwanda (n = 1,211), Senegal (n = 505), Uganda (n = 428) and Zimbabwe (n = 459). In cross-sectional analyses, bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of male partner accompaniment to ANC between women with above-average versus below-average composite and dimensional empowerment scores. In the majority of countries, male accompaniment to ANC was not uncommon. However, findings were mixed. Positive associations in women's composite empowerment and male involvement were observed in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.50) and Uganda (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.35), and in the economic empowerment dimension in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.47). In Malawi, significant negative associations were observed in the odds of male accompaniment to ANC and women's composite (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97) and economic empowerment scores (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94). No significant differences were observed in Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, or Zimbabwe. Women's empowerment can be positively or negatively associated with male antenatal accompaniment. Male involvement efforts may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's participation in social and economic spheres

  9. Disparities in breast cancer tumor characteristics, treatment, time to treatment, and survival probability among African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Kevin Chu; Fisher, James L; Lustberg, Maryam B; Gray, Darrell M; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R; Paskett, Electra D

    2018-01-01

    African American (AA) women have a 42% higher breast cancer death rate compared to white women despite recent advancements in management of the disease. We examined racial differences in clinical and tumor characteristics, treatment and survival in patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution, the James Cancer Hospital, and who were included in the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute Cancer Registry in Columbus OH. Statistical analyses included likelihood ratio chi-square tests for differences in proportions, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions to examine associations between race and overall and progression-free survival probabilities. AA women made up 10.2% (469 of 4593) the sample. Average time to onset of treatment after diagnosis was almost two times longer in AA women compared to white women (62.0 days vs 35.5 days, p  triple negative and late stage breast cancer, and were less likely to receive surgery, especially mastectomy and reconstruction following mastectomy. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, grade, and surgery), overall survival probability was significantly associated with race (HR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.72). These findings highlight the need for efforts focused on screening and receipt of prompt treatment among AA women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  10. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-03-13

    Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote

  11. Multiple measures of physical activity, dietary habits and weight status in African American and Hispanic or Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P habits depending on measure used.

  12. Barriers to early presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer among African women living in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Akuoko, Cynthia Pomaa; Armah, Ernestina; Sarpong, Theresa; Quansah, Dan Yedu; Amankwaa, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) has been described as the leading cause of cancer deaths among women especially in the developing world including sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Delayed presentation and late diagnosis at health facilities are parts of the contributing factors of high BC mortality in Africa. This review aimed to appraise the contributing factors to delayed breast cancer presentation and diagnosis among SSA women. Methods Five databases encompassing medical and social sciences were systematically searched using predefined search terms linked with breast cancer presentation and diagnosis and sub Saharan Africa. Reference lists of relevant papers were also hand searched. Quality of quantitative and qualitative articles were assessed using the National Institute of Health (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality appraisal checklist. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the qualitative studies to integrate findings. Results Fourteen (14) quantitative studies, two (2) qualitative studies and one (1) mixed method study merited inclusion for analysis. This review identified low knowledge of breast cancer among SSA women. This review also found lack of awareness of early detection treatment, poor perception of BC, socio-cultural factors such as belief, traditions and fear as factors impacting African women’s health seeking behavior in relation to breast cancer. Conclusion Improving African women’s knowledge and understanding will improve behaviors related to breast cancer and facilitate early presentation and detection and enhance proper management and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:28192444

  13. The sexual double standard in African American adolescent women's sexual risk reduction socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasula, Amy M; Miller, Kim S; Wiener, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the sexual double standard (SDS) (in which males are afforded more freedom and power than females in heterosexual interactions) in African American mothers' sexual messages to sons and daughters. We used a convenience sample of 129 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, and their mothers who reported SDS attitudes. Qualitative analyses revealed gender differences based on an SDS in mothers' sexual risk reduction socialization. Mothers typically took a proactive approach with sons and a neutral or prohibitive approach with daughters. Findings provide directions for socially relevant programs for African American parents, schools, and communities.

  14. Incidence, mortality and receptor status of breast cancer in African Caribbean women: Data from the cancer registry of Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloumeaux, J; Gaumond, S; Bhakkan, B; Manip M'Ebobisse, Nsome; Lafrance, W; Lancelot, Pierre; Vacque, D; Negesse, Y; Diedhiou, A; Kadhel, P

    2017-04-01

    Geographical disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcomes are reported worldwide. Women of African descent show lower incidence, higher mortality rates and earlier age of onset. We analyzed data from the cancer registry of Guadeloupe for the period 2008-2013. We describe breast cancer characteristics by molecular subtype, as well as estimated observed and net survival. We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine associations between cancer subtypes and death rate, adjusted for variables of interest. Overall, 1275 cases were recorded with a mean age at diagnosis of 57(±14) years. World standardized incidence and mortality were respectively 71.9/100,000 and 14.1/100,000 person-years. Age-specific incidence rates were comparable to European and US populations below the age of 45, and higher in Guadeloupean women aged between 45 and 55 years. Overall, 65.1% of patients were hormone receptor (HR)+ and 20.1% were HR-. Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) accounted for 14% of all cases, and were more frequent in patients under 40 (21.6% vs. 13.4%, p=0.02). Five-year net survival was 84.9% [81.4-88.6]. It was higher for HR+/Her2+ and HR+/Her2- subtypes, and lower for HR-/Her2+ and TNBC patients. We found high age-specific incidence rates of breast cancer in women aged 45 to 55 years, which warrants further investigation in our population. However, this population of mainly African descent had good overall survival rates, and data according to subtypes are consistent with those reported internationally. These results may suggest that poorer survival in other African descent populations may not be an inherent feature of the disease but may be amenable to improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes

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    Elasy Tom A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.

  16. The African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) campaign in Georgia: quantifying community response to a CDC pilot campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ingrid J; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani; Berkowitz, Zahava; Zavahir, Yasmine

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate whether a culturally appropriate campaign using "Black radio" and print media increased awareness and utilization of local mammography screening services provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program among African American women. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design involving data collection during and after campaign implementation in two intervention sites in GA (Savannah with radio and print media and Macon with radio only) and one comparison site (Columbus, GA). We used descriptive statistics to compare mammography uptake for African American women during the initial months of the campaign (8/08-1/09) with the latter months (2/09-8/09) and a post-campaign (9/09-12/09) period in each of the study sites. Comparisons of monthly mammogram uptake between cities were performed with multinomial logistic regression. We assumed a p value campaign to the later period. However, the increase did not persist in the post-campaign period. Analysis comparing monthly mammogram uptake in Savannah and Macon with Columbus showed a significant increase in uptake from the first to the second period in Savannah only (OR 1.269, 95 % CI (1.005-1.602), p = 0.0449). Dissemination of health promotion messages via a culturally appropriate, multicomponent campaign using Black radio and print media was effective in increasing mammogram uptake in Savannah among low-income, African American women. Additional research is needed to quantify the relative contribution of campaign radio, print media, and community components to sustain increased mammography uptake.