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Sample records for african national defence

  1. The predictive validity of the selection battery used for junior leader training within the South African national defence force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Muller

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to determine the predictive validity of the test battery used for the selection of junior leaders in the South African National Defence Force. A sample of 96 respondents completed certain indices of the SPEEX-Battery as well as the Advanced Ravens Progressive Matrices test. The test results were compared with the course results. Using canonical correlation analysis, a highly significant relationship was found between the independent variables and the dependent variables (r = 0,787; p is less than 0,00005. The predictors with the highest loadings were cognitive ability, conceptualisation, reading comprehension, listening potential, physical stress, and mental stress. Opsomming Die hoofdoelwit van die studie was om die voorspellingsgeldigheid van die toetsbattery vir keuring van junior leiers in die Suid Afrikaanse Nasionale Weermag te evalueer. ’n Steekproef van 96 respondente het sekere indekse van die SPEEX-Battery asook die Advanced Ravens Progressive Matrices toets voltooi. Die toetsresultate is vervolgens vergelyk met die kursusuitslae. Die veranderlikes is aan kanoniese korrelasie-ontleding onderwerp wat ’n betekenisvolle verwantskap opgelewer het tussen die onafhanklike veranderlikes en die afhanklike veranderlikes (r = 0,787; p is kleiner as 0,00005. Die voorspellers met die hoogste ladings was kognitiewe vermoë, konseptualisering, leesbegrip, luisterpotensiaal, fisieke stres en psigiese stres.

  2. Being gay in the management echelon of the South African Department of Defence: a life history.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the absence of scientific knowledge of leadership behaviour among gays in the management echelon of the South African Department of Defence and provides some tangible knowledge in this regard. This valuable knowledge was obtained through an in-depth qualitative research design, namely a life story of one South African citizen, who is gay, male and white, and who held a senior management position in the Department of Defence (DOD) for a number of years. Themes and hypothes...

  3. The relevance of the individualism – collectivism (IC factor for the management of diversity in the South African national defence force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. J. Van Dyk

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of adherence of cultural groups to their stereotypical group orientations, i.e. White and Coloured officers tend to be more individualistic, whereas Black officers portray more collectivistic characteristics. Secondly, to determine if their cultural behavior and practices relate to their level of individual or collectivistic orientation. The Individualism- Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI of Matsumoto (1992 and a self-constructed questionnaire to measure cultural practices, were administered to 88 undergraduate officer students of the South African Military Academy. The results indicated that no significant differences existed in the Individualism-Collectivism factor between the three groups studied. Only five of the twenty cultural activities (stereotypically associated with Individualism and Collectivism correlated significantly with the Individualism- Collectivism factor. These findings, the implications thereof and suggestions for possible further research are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die vlak van betrokkenheid van kultuurgroepe tov hul stereotipiese groepsorientasies te bepaal, met ander woorde Blanke en Kleurling offisiere is meer individualisties, waar Swart offisiere meer kollektiwisties in hul kulturele aktiwiteite is. Tweedens, om te bepaal of hulle kulturele gedrag in verband staan met hul individualistiese of kollektiwistiese oriëntasie. Die "Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory" (ICIAI van Matsomoto (1992 en ’n tweede vraelys, opgestel deur die skrywers om kulturele aktiwiteite te meet, is afgeneem tov 88 voorgraadse offissierstudente van die Suid Afrikaanse Militêre Akademie. Die resultate het aangedui dat daar geen statisties beduidende verskille bestaan tov die individualistiese en kollektiwistiese faktor van die drie kultuurgroepe nie. Net vyf van die twintig kulturele aktiwiteite, getoets deur die

  4. Maritime defence and the South African Navy to the cancellation of the Simon's Town agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Potgieter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the maritime defence of South Africa was a colonial responsibility. First performed by the Dutch, the British took over the task after they wrestled the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch. The Cape was of supreme strategic value to Britain as the link with India and a great part of her empire. Therefore for more than a century and a half (from 1806 to the abrogation of the Simon's Town Agreement the Royal Navy had a constant presence in South African territorial waters. Furthermore when the first flickers of an indigenous maritime defence organisation appeared in South Africa it was British in character. The South African Division of the part-time Royal Naval Voluntary Reserve (RNVR came into being long before the country had a navy. The origin of the South African Navy dates back to 1922, when, the South African Naval Service was created with the arrival of three small ships from Britain. Unfortunately, the budget cuts during the Depression meant that these ships and their crews were paid off (in 1933-4 and only a skeleton staff remained. This was still the position at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. The Union of South Africa's declaration of war against Germany on 6 September 1939, meant that the country's utterly neglected Navy had to suddenly prepare for war. Ships had to be found, and as purpose-build warships were out of the question, ships from the country's fishing fleet and trade had to suffice. A small ocean-going navy was created for the defence of the Union's ports and coastline. Following an urgent request from the British Admiralty in November 1940, South Africa sent four anti-submarine vessels to join the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean. As the war progressed, more ships of the South African Naval Forces arrived in the Mediterranean. They were used for a variety of tasks, ranging from minesweeping to salvage work. South African ships and crews earned themselves quite a reputation, participating in most

  5. The mirror has two faces: dissociative identity disorder and the defence of pathological criminal incapacity--a South African criminal law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Dissociative identity disorder poses numerous medico legal issues whenever the insanity defence emerges. Within the context of the South African criminal law, the impact of dissociative identity disorder on criminal responsibility has only been addressed very briefly in one decided case. Various questions arise as to the impact that the distinctive diagnostic features of dissociative identity disorder could possibly have on the defence of pathological criminal incapacity, or better known as the insanity defence, within the ambit of the South African criminal law. In this contribution the author reflects on the mental disorder known as dissociative identity disorder or multiple personality disorder, against the backdrop of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. Reflections are also provided pertaining to the various medico legal issues at stake whenever this defence has to be adjudicated upon.

  6. THE SOUTH AFRICAN DEFENCE FORCE AND OPERATION HOOPER, SOUTHEAST ANGOLA, DECEMBER 1987 TO MARCH 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard JJ Oosthuizen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African Defence Force (SADF supported UNITA during Operation Modular (June to December 1987 to stop an extensive FAPLA offensive, known as Operation Saludando a Octubre (‘Salute October’. FAPLA and its Cuban–Russian allies intended to eliminate the ‘UNITA problem’ once and for all, and they set the conquest of Mavinga and Jamba as their first target. The SADF–UNITA alliance was, however, able to stop this advance during the Battle of the Lomba River (3 October 1987 successfully, and thereby achieved the first objective of Operation Modular. The remaining phases of Operation Modular (October to December 1987 were unsuccessfully aimed at the primary objective, namely to destroy the FAPLA brigades east of the Cuito River, or at least to force them west, across the Cuito River. The SADF–UNITA allies therefore agreed to continue military operations in the Sixth Military Region in an attempt to achieve this goal. After Operation Modular had formally come to an end early in December 1987, the planning of follow-up Operation Hooper was continued in all earnest. This article focuses on the claim of General Jannie Geldenhuys, head of the SADF (1985–1990, that Operation Hooper was an unqualified success and also on his controversial claim that Operation Hooper entered its last phase with successful attacks by the UNITA–SADF forces on 13 January, and 14 and 25 February 1988. Only the offensive/battle of 14 February 1988 was a success, however, and the SADF–UNITA alliance was unable to destroy the FAPLA brigades east of the Cuito River or to force them across the river at least. Thus, once again, not all the objectives pursued after Operation Modular could be achieved. Within a period of approximately two weeks, two unsuccessful attacks were launched against Tumpo – each time from the same direction or line of approach. The FAPLA forces were very well entrenched and equipped, and they furthermore dominated the air. In contrast

  7. A concise history of the South African Defence Force (1912-1987

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    W.A. Dorning

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the SA Defence Force celebrates its 75th anniversary, it can look back with pride at a truly remarkable history. Established just two years after Union, the fledging force was to be severely tested within the first two years of its existence to a degree perhaps unparalleled in the history of modern armies. Just over a year after its formation, when it still existed more on paper than in fact, the Union Defence Force (UDF was called upon to suppress a violent industrial strike on the Reef. Having passed its first test with flying colours, the UDF was confronted a few months later by the far more serious crises of internal rebellion and World War. Once again, however, the young organization proved equal to the occasion, and by the end of the Great War the UDF had developed into a battle-hardened, professional force respected the world over for its prowess, courage and endurance in the field.

  8. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of African Americans is a story of... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...

  9. When ideals face reality: shaping the future of the South African Defence Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in the SADC Force Intervention Brigade in DR Congo and the strengthened training mission in the Central African Republic that ended up becoming involved in a battle with the SELEKA rebel movement in 2013. What lessons has the SANDF learned from these operations and how have they influenced South Africa’s view...

  10. The South African Defence Review (2012 and Private Military / Security Companies (PMSCs: Heralding a Shift from Prohibition to Regulation?

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    Laurence Juma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibility of South Africa enacting a new law regulating private military/security companies (PMSCs beyond the Prohibition of Mercenary Activities and Regulation of Certain Activities in Country of Armed Conflict Act of 2006. It argues that such a possibility arises from the policy direction expressed in the Defence Review of 2012, and the recent developments at the international level, which indicate a shift towards accommodation of PMSCs as legitimate players in the security sector. The article surveys the current state of national and international law relating to PMSCs and illustrates how the emerging shift from prohibition to regulation has affirmed the need for legislative intervention in this field. It concludes that since the future is on the side of regulation and not prohibition, legislation that furthers the policy agenda envisioned by the Defence Review 2012 may be the best tool to unlock the inhibitions of the past and create a viable climate for reframing the debate on domestic law governing private militarism in South Africa.

  11. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., there is no progress.'' Progress in America has not come easily, but has resulted from the...

  12. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In America, we share a dream that lies at the heart... Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...

  13. The Development and Validation of a Human Systems Integration (HSI) Program for the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The Development and Validation of a Human Systems Integration (HSI) Program for the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) Mike Greenley ... Greenley , Andrea Scipione, Jeremy Brooks and Alice Salway CAE Professional Services (Canada) Limited (Formerly Greenley & Associates Incorporated...IHS et à appuyer la mise en œuvre d’un programme officiel et amélioré d’IHS au MDN du Canada. Greenley & Associates Incorporated ix Table of

  14. The South African National Accelerator Centre and its research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    An overview of the South African National Accelerator Centre and its research activities is given with emphasis on medium energy nuclear physics and nuclear data measurements for medical use. Also presented is a preliminary result of {sup 40}Ca(p,p`x) spectrum measurement for 392 MeV which has been carried out at RCNP, Osaka University, under the South Africa-Japan collaborative programme. (author)

  15. A Comparison of the National Defence Education in China and Russia%中俄普通高校国防教育比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚

    2012-01-01

    俄罗斯在普通高校国防教育的法律保障、机构设置、教育内容和形式以及人才培养等方面都取得了一定的成效。借鉴俄罗斯的经验对提升我国全民国防意识和国防素质将具有重要意义。%Russia has achieved a lot in national defence education as regards the legal guarantee, organization set- up, contents and form of education, and training of personnel in colleges and universities. Learning from the experience of Russia can be of great significance to improving the national defence awareness of the Chinese people and national defeuce quality.

  16. 3 CFR 8345 - Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National African American History Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... African American History Month, 2009 8345 Proclamation 8345 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009 Proc. 8345 National African American History Month, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The history of African Americans is unique and...

  17. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons; Foersvarets forskningsanstalt och planerna paa svenska kaernvapen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, Thomas [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue

  18. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  19. Tourists' perceptions on whether South African national parks are environmentally friendly

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of tourists to South African national parks raises concern about the effect these tourists have on the environment. This article aims to investigate how SANParks manage environmentally friendly South African national parks in order to reduce the impact of tourism on the environment. To examine these concerns, a survey was conducted to measure tourists’ perceptions of the environmental impacts of tourism in these parks. A web-based survey was carried out via the official ...

  20. The re-introduction of springbok Antidorcas marsupialis into South African National Parks – A documentation

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    G. de Graaff

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction and establishment of springbok populations in four South African National Parks are discussed. Springbok have failed to establish themselves in the Addo Elephant National Park but are thriving in the Mountain Zebra, Golden Gate Highlands and Bontebok National Parks, although the latter Park is extralimital to their original range.

  1. THE SOUTH AFRICAN ARMED FORCES AND THEIR LINK WITH THE UNITED KINGDOM AND COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS 1910-1961

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    R. Dale

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Point of Departure: The Military Transfer Concept A cursory examination of the literature now available on the South African Defence Force would suggest that such literature contains an embarrassment of riches. A more careful scrutiny, however, suggests that. in terms of nominal measurement. it can be grouped into fairly discrete categories covering the first (1880-1881 and second (1899-1902 Anglo-Boer Wars, World Wars I and II, the Korean conflict. and the growth of the South African Defence Force as a natural complement to the world isolation engendered by the pursuit of the policy of apartheid. The last category is more appropriately considered as part of the civil-military and foreign policy history of the Republic of South Africa because of the severance of the Commonwealth tie in 1961 and the declaration of the arms embargo against the Republic in 1963.

  2. 国防科技奖励对技术创新的激励作用分析%Motivation of National Defence Science and Technology Award on Technology Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雪霞; 石春生; 李靖

    2012-01-01

    National defence science and technology award was an important system in the field of national defence technology innovation. And it brought positive motivation to national defence technology innovation. By reviewing its origin and analyzing its essence, the paper put forward the motivation frame of national defence science and technology award on technology innovation, and then analyzed the motivation mechanism. It pointed out that national defence science and technology award played an important role in advancing the national defence technology innovation through inspiring power, stabilizing team, introducing competition and cultivating body.%国防科技奖励是国防技术创新领域中的重要制度形式,它的建立对国防技术创新活动产生了积极的激励作用.回顾国防科技奖励的起源,分析其本质,提出国防科技奖励对国防技术创新的激励作用框架,深入剖析其激励作用机理,指出正是通过不断地激发国防技术创新动力、稳定国防技术创新团队、引入国防技术创新竞争和培育国防技术创新主体等方式,国防科技奖励制度发挥了促进国防技术创新又好又快地发展的作用.

  3. 'Police boys' and poachers: Africans, wildlife protection and national parks, the Transvaal 1902 to 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Carruthers

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration on pure scientific research in the Kruger National Park has resulted in a neglect of a humanistic approach to nature conservation issues. The lack of human and political dimensions in important scientific contributions are serious short-comings in the light of present politico-environmental concerns. The impact of race and class on wildlife protection needs to be integrated. Scientifically sound but culturally chauvinistic protectionist strategies have been imposed upon disadvantaged African communities unable to articulate or formulate alternatives. African participation has usually either been ignored or relegated to patronizing and oversimplified accounts of Africans in the roles of 'native rangers' or 'poachers'. This police-poacher view is countered by an over-simplified African perception of national parks as being of benefit only to elitist white recreation. These divergent perceptions have important implications for the future of nature protection in South Africa.

  4. China’s Expanding African Relations: Implications for U.S National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    AFRICOM United States Africa Command ANC African National Congress BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, and China CCP Chinese Communist Party DRC Democratic...increasing from $9 billion annually in 2000 to $62 billion in 2008.15 Of Brazil, Russia, India, and China (or BRIC countries), China is leading a... BRIC countries and African economies, singling out Chinese economic interactions appears more suspect. Many states feature a heavy state role in their

  5. Behavioral responses of gorillas to habituation in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.; Cipolletta, C.; Brunsting, A.M.H.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2004-01-01

    We monitored the impact of habituation for tourism through changes in gorillas' behavior during the habituation process at Bai Hokou (Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic) from August 1996 to December 1999. From August 1998 onwards we focused on one gorilla group: the Munye. During t

  6. Gender Gaps in Political Participation across Sub-Saharan African Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A substantial literature has studied gender differences in political participation in Western industrialized democracies, but little is known about such gaps in sub-Saharan African nations. Using 2005 Afrobarometer data, this paper presents a systematic investigation of the gender gap in political participation across 18 sub-Saharan African…

  7. The National Museum of African American History and Culture: The Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Lonnie G., III

    2017-01-01

    One challenge many museums cite is unintentional exclusion. There is too much power and respect that museums hold to be exclusive--intentionally or unintentionally. From the outset, the National Museum of African American History and Culture has been a place for everyone. Inclusion is built in its mission and vision. This article discusses how…

  8. EDA and EU defence procurement integration

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The chapter reflects upon the ten years since the establishment of the European Defence Agency (EDA) and analyses its role in the process of European integration in the area of defence procurement. The chapter examines the various initiatives undertaken so far by the EDA in the process of Europeanisation of a policy area that has been linked to core functions of the state and for that reason, based upon a decision making process carried out primarily at national level. Contrary to received wi...

  9. National Museum of Dentistry exhibition: the future is now! African Americans in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummett, Clifton O

    2003-09-01

    Inspired by recently published NDA II: The Story of America's Second National Dental Association and sponsored jointly by the National Dental Association Foundation and the Colgate-Palmolive Company, an historical exhibit on dentistry in the African-American community was one of the celebrations for the Golden Anniversary of the American Academy of the History of Dentistry. This exhibit premiered on Sept. 27, 2002 in the National Museum of Dentistry located on the medical/dental campus of the University of Maryland in Baltimore. The Museum recently became an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution. Contents of the exhibit were photographs, charts, artifacts, memorabilia, etc. These materials presented an overview of African-American activities in dental education, research, patient care, general practice, dental specialities, military service, and public health. Also included were inter-racial relationships, socioeconomic developments, and participation in civil rights endeavors that played a major role in changing out-dated accepted customs. The exhibit's purpose was to celebrate dentistry's ministrations as a health professional among African Americans in particular and the nation at large over the past two centuries. Respect for and progress of black dentists paralleled that of black physicians who were instrumental in including dentist and pharmacists as equal members in the National Medical Association since the latter's inception in 1895.

  10. Healthcare utilization of patients accessing an African national treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Robin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART in Africa will have significant resource implications arising from its impact on demand for healthcare services. Existing studies of healthcare utilization on HAART have been conducted in the developed world, where HAART is commenced when HIV illness is less advanced. Methods This paper describes healthcare utilization from program entry by treatment-naïve patients in a peri-urban settlement in South Africa. Treatment criteria included a CD4 cell count Results 212 patients were followed for a median of 490 days. Outpatient visits per 100 patient years of observation (PYO, excluding scheduled primary-care follow-up, fell from 596 immediately prior to ART to 334 in the first 48 weeks on therapy and 245 thereafter. Total inpatient time fell from 2,549 days per 100 PYO pre-ART to 476 in the first 48 weeks on therapy and 73 thereafter. This fall in healthcare utilization occurred at every level of care. The greatest causes of utilization were tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, HIV-related neoplasms and adverse reactions to stavudine. After 48 weeks on ART demand reverted to primarily non-HIV-related causes. Conclusion Utilization of both inpatient and outpatient hospital services fell significantly after commencement of ART for South African patients in the public sector, with inpatient demand falling fastest. Earlier initiation might reduce early on-ART utilization rates.

  11. Networks and network analysis for defence and security

    CERN Document Server

    Masys, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security discusses relevant theoretical frameworks and applications of network analysis in support of the defence and security domains. This book details real world applications of network analysis to support defence and security. Shocks to regional, national and global systems stemming from natural hazards, acts of armed violence, terrorism and serious and organized crime have significant defence and security implications. Today, nations face an uncertain and complex security landscape in which threats impact/target the physical, social, economic

  12. Diverse opportunities in defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    Working at the UK's defence laboratory gives Gareth Brown the ability to apply his physics and mathematics knowledge to real-world applications - and not necessarily in the ways you might expect. This article is Crown copyright

  13. In Pursuit of the African PhD: A Critical Survey of Emergent Policy Issues in Select Sub-Saharan African Nations, Ethiopia, Ghana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2016-01-01

    After decades of decline, African higher education is now arguably in a new era of revival. With the prevalence of knowledge economy discourse, national governments in Africa and their development partners have increasingly aligned higher education with poverty reduction plans and strategies. Research capacity has become a critical development…

  14. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo at Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, T C; Kriek, N P; Bengis, R G; Whyte, I J; Viljoen, P C; de Vos, V; Boyce, W M

    2001-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was first detected in Kruger National Park (KNP) in a single African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in 1990. In 1991/1992, 2,071 African buffalo were examined for BTB as part of a culling program that removed animals from all known herds in KNP. The prevalence of BTB in 1991/1992 was estimated to be 0%, 4.4% (+/-0.6%), and 27.1% (+/-1.4%), in the north, central, and south zones of KNP, respectively. In 1998, a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling method was used to estimate that the prevalence of BTB was 1.5% (+/-2.5%), 16% (+/-5.3%), and 38.2% (+/-6.3%), in the north, central, and south zones, respectively. This represented a significant increase in prevalence (P management strategies. The methodology and sample sizes used in 1998 are appropriate for future BTB monitoring in KNP.

  15. Comparative self-concept variances of school children in two English-speaking West African nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawiye, O; Alawiye, C Z; Thomas, J I

    1990-03-01

    This study examined the self-concepts of elementary school children in Grades 2, 4, 6, and 8, from two West African nations, Ghana and Gambia. Measures of self-concept in the areas of physical maturity, peer relations, academic success, and school adaptiveness were obtained from 195 Ghanaian and 156 Gambian students. The mean scores of the students were subjected to a series of three-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs). The independent variables were sex, grade level, and nationality. The overall analyses revealed grade level as the most potent variable in the self-concept development of both groups, whereas the sex variable indicated interaction with grade level only in Gambian children. The self-esteem of the children in both nations in the areas of physical maturity, peer relations, and academic success was relatively high and stable. Self-concept developmental patterns showed differences across grade levels in the four self-concept areas being tested.

  16. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  17. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy involv

  18. South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA: Solifugae (sun-spiders of the national parks and reserves of South Africa (Arachnida, Solifugae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA inventories are underway to determine the diversity of the South African Arachnida fauna (Dippenaar- Schoeman & Craemer 2000. Several SANSA projects are in progress, including inventories of the arachnid faunas of protected areas. One such project is an inventory of the Solifugae (sun spiders from protected areas. Meaningful conservation can not take place if the species involved are not known.

  19. Viewpoint – Why Has the South African National Water Act Been so Difficult to Implement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Schreiner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The South African National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998 was hailed by the international water community as one of the most progressive pieces of water legislation in the world, and a major step forward in the translation of the concept of integrated water resources management (IWRM into legislation. It has been widely quoted and referred to, and a number of countries ranging from China to Zambia have used it as an example in the revision of their own water legislation. And yet, 15 years down the line, implementation of the act has been only partially successful. In a number of critical aspects, implementation has, in fact, been weak. This paper sets out some personal reflections on the challenges facing the implementation of this remarkable piece of legislation and on the failure to achieve the initial high ambitions within the South African water sector. Through this process, it may be that there are lessons for other countries and for South Africa itself as it continues to face the challenge of implementation of the National Water Act (NWA.

  20. On the defence notion

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfante, Anne

    2007-01-01

    'Trojan horses', 'logic bombs', 'armoured viruses' and 'cryptovirology' are terms recalling war gears. In fact, concepts of attack and defence drive the world of computer virology, which looks like a war universe in an information society. This war has several shapes, from invasions of a network by worms, to military and industrial espionage ...

  1. A strategic framework for biodiversity monitoring in South African National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie A. McGeoch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are under increasing threat from a range of external and internal pressures on biodiversity. With a primary mandate being the conservation of biodiversity, monitoring is an essential component of measuring the performance of protected areas. Here we present a framework for guiding the structure and development of a Biodiversity Monitoring System (BMS for South African National Parks (SANParks. Monitoring activities in the organisation are currently unevenly distributed across parks, taxa and key concerns: they do not address the full array of biodiversity objectives, and have largely evolved in the absence of a coherent, overarching framework. The requirement for biodiversity monitoring in national parks is clearly specified in national legislation and international policy, as well as by SANParks’ own adaptive management philosophy. Several approaches available for categorising the multitude of monitoring requirements were considered in the development of the BMS, and 10 Biodiversity Monitoring Programmes (BMPs were selected that provide broad coverage of higher-level biodiversity objectives of parks. A set of principles was adopted to guide the development of BMPs (currently underway, and data management, resource and capacity needs will be considered during their development. It is envisaged that the BMS will provide strategic direction for future investment in this core component of biodiversity conservation and management in SANParks. Conservation implications: Monitoring biodiversity in protected areas is essential to assessing their performance. Here we provide a coordinated framework for biodiversity monitoring in South African National Parks. The proposed biodiversity monitoring system addresses the broad range of park management plan derived biodiversity objectives.

  2. The South African National Vegetation Database: History, development, applications, problems and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie W. Powrie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has been recognised as one of the most interesting and important areas of the world from an ecological and evolutionary point of view. The establishment and development of the National Vegetation Database (NVD of South Africa enabled South Africa to contribute to environmental planning and conservation management in this floristically unique region. In this paper, we aim to provide an update on the development of the NVD since it was last described, near its inception, more than a decade ago. The NVD was developed using the Turboveg software environment, and currently comprises 46 697 vegetation plots (relevés sharing 11 690 plant taxa and containing 968 943 species occurrence records. The NVD was primarily founded to serve vegetation classification and mapping goals but soon became recognised as an important tool in conservation assessment and target setting. The NVD has directly helped produce the National Vegetation Map, National Forest Type Classification, South African National Biodiversity Assessment and Forest Type Conservation Assessment. With further development of the NVD and more consistent handling of the legacy data (old data sets, the current limitations regarding certain types of application of the data should be significantly reduced. However, the use of the current NVD in multidisciplinary research has certainly not been fully explored. With the availability of new pools of well-trained vegetation surveyors, the NVD will continue to be purpose driven and serve the needs of biological survey in pursuit of sustainable use of the vegetation and flora resources of the southern African subcontinent.

  3. The Effect of China’s Scramble for Resources and African Resource Nationalism on the Supply of Strategic Southern African Minerals: What Can the United States Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    seek to dominate the South African mining industry and minerals and metals markets. For Southern Africa, resource nationalism and demand from China...that major changes would be taking place in Namibia’s previously tranquil mining industry . In May 2011 the Namibian government acted, contrary to the...the mining industry , a disincentive for investors, and a source of continued decline for South Africa’s mining industry . The 2010/2011 Fraser

  4. 略论高校如何做好国防生思想政治教育工作%On Ideological and Political Education of National Defence Students in Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋薇薇; 朱思丞; 陈庆秋

    2012-01-01

    It is a significant and urgent task to do the ideological and political education of national defence students in u- niversities ,which should keep abreast of the times and profoundly understand the importance of it. And this ideological - political education should be put in the primary position for national defence students' training. Meanwhile, universities need identify the focus of education;innovate educational methods;enhance the pertinence and effectiveness of ideological and political education.%做好国防生的思想政治教育工作,是高校面临的一项重大而急迫的任务。高校要紧贴时代要求,充分认清思想政治教育的重要性,切实把思想政治教育工作放在国防生培养目标的首要位置,找准教育着力点,创新教育方式和方法,提升思想政治教育的针对性、有效性。

  5. Effects of chemical immobilization on survival of African buffalo in the Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, W.C.; Cross, P.C.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.; Ebinger, M.R.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Cameron, E.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Capturing, immobilizing, and fitting radiocollars are common practices in studies of large mammals, but success is based on the assumptions that captured animals are representative of the rest of the population and that the capture procedure has negligible effects. We estimated effects of chemical immobilization on mortality rates of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We used a Cox proportional hazards approach to test for differences in mortality among age, sex, and capture classes of repeatedly captured radiocollared buffalo. Capture variables did not improve model fit and the Cox regression did not indicate increased risk of death for captured individuals up to 90 days postcapture [exp (??) = 1.07]. Estimated confidence intervals, however, span from a halving to a doubling of the mortality rate (95% CI = 0.56-2.02). Therefore, capture did not influence survival of captured individuals using data on 875 captures over a 5-year period. Consequently, long-term research projects on African buffalo involving immobilization, such as associated with research on bovine tuberculosis, should result in minimal capture mortality, but monitoring of possible effects should continue.

  6. The Viability and Constitutionality of the South African National Register for Sex Offenders: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mollema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Section 42 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007 established a National Register for Sex Offenders where the particulars of all offenders guilty of sexual transgressions against children or mentally-ill persons have to be included, regardless of whether they were found guilty before or after the coming into force of the Act. Although the purpose of the Act clearly is to protect and promote the constitutional rights of victims and society in general, it is apparent that the register may infringe on the rights of sexual offenders. The inclusion of the personal details of sex offenders in a register without their permission and sometimes without their knowledge amounts to a violation amongst other rights of the right to privacy stipulated in section 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. In this article the constitutionality of the South African register will be examined by means of a comparative study with the United States and United Kingdom, where similar registers are already in place. This legislative assessment will also provide answers as to the viability of the South African register. It is argued that South Africa's sex offender registration system may not fulfil the function it was designed for because of misconceptions as well as serious implementation and administrative issues; and that alternative solutions may be more suitable in this regard.

  7. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  8. Applying adaptive management in resource use in South African National Parks: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Scheepers

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks has a history of formal and informal natural resource use that is characterised by polarised views on national conservation interests and benefits to communities. Current efforts aim to determine the sustainability of existing resource use in parks and to formalise these activities through the development of resource use protocols. The resource use policy of SANParks outlines principles for sustainable resource use, including greater involvement of local communities in management of protected areas and an adaptive management approach to determining sustainable use levels. This paper examines three case studies on plant use in national parks with regard to the development of criteria and indicators for monitoring resource use, and the role of thresholds of potential concern in measuring effectiveness of managing for sustainable use levels. Opportunities and challenges for resource use management are identified. Findings show that platforms for discussion and knowledge sharing, including research committees and community associations, are critical to building relationships, trust and a shared vision of sustainable resource use between stakeholders. However, additional capacity building is needed to enable local community structures to manage internal social conflicts and jealousy, and to participate fully in monitoring efforts. Long-term monitoring is essential for developing flexible harvest prescriptions for plant use, but this is a time-consuming and resource-intensive exercise. Flexible management strategies are difficult to implement and sometimes command-and-control measures are necessary to protect rare or endangered species. A holistic approach that considers resource use in national parks as a complement to broader community development initiatives offers a way forward.Conservation implications: There is no blueprint for the development of sustainable resource use systems and resource use is often

  9. The spread and maturation of strategic adaptive management within and beyond South African national parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Freitag

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management is embedded within social-ecological environments and requires decisions to be taken within this broad context, including those that pertain to protected areas. This realization has led to South African National Parks adopting a strategic adaptive management approach to decision making. Through narrative, we show why and how this practice has progressively spread and evolved both within the organization and beyond, over the past two decades. A number of catalytic events and synergies enabled a change from reactive tactical management approaches to more inclusive forward-looking approaches able to embrace system complexity and associated uncertainty and change. We show how this long period of innovation has lead to an increased appreciation for the heterogeneous social-ecological system, and for the importance of constructing relationships and colearning, such that organizational transformation has enabled more legitimate and effective operation within an expanding and diversifying constituency.

  10. Repatriation and translocation of ungulates into South African national parks: an assessment of past attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Novellie

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of 36 attempts to repatriate or translocate ungulates into South African national parks are examined. Habitat suitability appeared to be an important factor influencing the success rate. Of six cases in which individuals were translocated outside the range occupied by the species in historical times, only one succeeded. Of 10 cases where the park was within the historical range of the species but the habitat was rated as unsuitable (little or none of the required habitat present in the park only one succeeded. In contrast 17 out of 20 cases in which the habitat was classified as adequate resulted in success. The repatriation and translocation attempts were poorly documented and this hampered identification of the factors associated with success.

  11. The financial burden of national road infrastructure and the equity thereof: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Brits

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic activities in South Africa during the past decade have caused, inter alia, road traffic congestion to accelerate annually and road infrastructure to deteriorate rapidly. Motor vehicle sales, correlated with economic trends and the economic empowerment of citizens, have and still are increasing at a faster rate than the supply of necessary infrastructure. As such, congestion, especially in the Gauteng area, has reached unacceptable levels during peak hours, necessitating the upgrading and continual maintenance of these roads and other national roads. The financial burden of upgrading and maintaining road infrastructure is enormous and, although the South African government makes contributions, an income from the road infrastructure is necessary to sustain quality infrastructure. However, a road-user paying approach, especially the structure thereof, should be acceptable to society in terms of economic efficiency and various means of equity. This article reviews the relevance of a road-user paying approach as applied in South Africa.

  12. Musci austro-africani II. Bryophyte collections in southern Africa and southern African type specimens in the National Herbarium, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Magill

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of bryological collections and collectors in southern Africa introduces a catalogue of southern African type specimens housed in the National Herbarium, Pretoria. The type catalogue, arranged alphabetically by basionym, includes correct names, type status and label data.

  13. Abundance and structure of African baobab (Adansonia digitata) across different soil types in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashapa, C.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.; Kativu, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the abundance and structure of African baobab (Adansonia digitata) across soil group strata in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. The study was based on a stratified random sampling design composed of the following soil group substrates: (i) granophyres, (ii) malvernia, and

  14. Impact of African elephants on baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) population structure in northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupika, O.L.; Kativu, S.; Gandiwa, E.; Gumbie, A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) on population structure of baobab trees (Adansonia digitata L.) was assessed in northern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe. Baobabs were sampled in March 2008 and September 2012 using 11 randomly laid belt transects of variable len

  15. The Red Resources:a Vehicle for Cultivating the Consciousness of National Defence for Universities and Colleges Students%红色资源:培养大学生国防意识的载体选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡勇胜; 贺幸平

    2014-01-01

    Red resources is a quality education resources of socialization, an effective vehicle for cultivating the consciousness of national defence for universities and colleges students.To develop the consciousness of national defence for universities and colleges students of relying on red resources, should adhere to three principles,which are permeability and experience, combined with the system and the development, protection and utility of combining. It also implements the red culture of national defense into campus, creates a good atmosphere of the red cultural of defense, plays experience perception of red tourism effect, and constructs the security mechanism of the red culture of defense education.%红色资源是社会化的优质教育资源,是培养大学生国防意识的有效载体。依托红色资源培养大学生国防意识,应坚持“三结合”原则,即渗透性与体验式相结合、系统性与发展性相结合、保护性与效用性相结合。还要实施红色国防文化进校园工程,营造良好的红色国防文化氛围,发挥红色旅游的体验感知效力,构建红色国防文化教育保障机制。

  16. Towards adaptive fire management for biodiversity conservation: Experience in South African National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. van Wilgen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the experience gained in three South African national parks (Kruger, Table Mountain and Bontebok with regard to the adaptive management of fire for the conservation of biodiversity. In the Kruger National Park, adaptive approaches have evolved over the past 15 years, beginning initially as a form of ‘informed trial and error’, but progressing towards active adaptive management in which landscape-scale, experimental burning treatments are being applied in order to learn. In the process, significant advances in understanding regarding the role and management of fire have been made. Attempts have been made to transfer the approaches developed in Kruger National Park to the other two national parks. However, little progress has been made to date, both because of a failure to provide an agreed context for the introduction of adaptive approaches, and because (in the case of Bontebok National Park too little time has passed to be able to make an assessment. Fire management interventions, ultimately, will manifest themselves in terms of biodiversity outcomes, but definite links between fire interventions and biodiversity outcomes have yet to be made.Conservation implications: Significant challenges face the managers of fire-prone and fire adapted ecosystems, where the attainment of ecosystem goals may require approaches (like encouraging high-intensity fires at hot and dry times of the year that threaten societal goals related to safety. In addition, approaches to fire management have focused on encouraging particular fire patterns in the absence of a sound understanding of their ecological outcomes. Adaptive management offers a framework for addressing these issues, but will require higher levels of agreement, monitoring and assessment than have been the case to date.

  17. An informatics system to support knowledge management in the health sector--the South African National Health Knowledge Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, J A; Seebregts, C J; Makgoba, W M; Fouché, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the planning and development of a South African national health knowledge network. The methodology is in essence based on the principles of knowledge management and the drivers of a system of innovation. The knowledge network, SA HealthInfo, aims to provide a one-stop interactive forum/resource, for quality-controlled and evidence-based health research information, to a wide spectrum of users, at various levels of aggregation, with the necessary security arrangements and facilities for interaction among users to promote explicit (codified) and tacit knowledge flow. It will therefore stimulate the process of innovation within the South African health system.

  18. Nematodes of the small intestine of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William A; Skinner, John D; Boomker, Joop

    2013-05-16

    The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0-15 980). This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.

  19. The development of a tourism research framework by South African National Parks to inform management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Biggs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is critical source of financing for conservation in Africa. South African National Parks (SANParks raises in excess of 80% of their own funds through tourism revenue. SANParks has a culture of co-learning between scientists and conservation managers through a process known as strategic adaptive management (SAM. Despite the critical role that tourism plays in SANParks, it has, until recently, not been formally incorporated in the SAM process. Moreover, SANParks recently adopted a new responsible tourism policy to guide the development and management of tourism across all national parks. The new policy calls for tourism that supports biodiversity conservation, is environmentally efficient and socially responsible. In 2011, SANParks initiated a tourism research programme to support the incorporation of tourism in SAM and to provide enabling information for the implementation of the responsible tourism policy. This article summarised the development of the tourism research programme in SANParks and its key research themes. Conservation implications: An active tourism research programme that integrates science and management is necessary for tourism to play a stronger role in delivering outcomes for conservation, neighbouring communities and broader society.

  20. Provider Adherence to National Guidelines for Managing Hypertension in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Sessoms

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate provider adherence to national guidelines for the treatment of hypertension in African Americans. Design. A descriptive, preexperimental, quantitative method. Methods. Electronic medical records were reviewed and data were obtained from 62 charts. Clinical data collected included blood pressure readings, medications prescribed, laboratory studies, lifestyle modification, referral to hypertension specialist, and follow-up care. Findings. Overall provider adherence was 75%. Weight loss, sodium restriction, and physical activity recommendations were documented on 82.3% of patients. DASH diet and alcohol consumption were documented in 6.5% of participants. Follow-up was documented in 96.6% of the patients with controlled blood pressure and 9.1% in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure. Adherence in prescribing ACEIs in patients with a comorbidity of DM was documented in 70% of participants. Microalbumin levels were ordered in 15.2% of participants. Laboratory adherence prior to prescribing medications was documented in 0% of the patients and biannual routine labs were documented in 65% of participants. Conclusion. Provider adherence overall was moderate. Despite moderate provider adherence, BP outcomes and provider adherence were not related. Contributing factors that may explain this lack of correlation include patient barriers such as nonadherence to medication and lifestyle modification recommendations and lack of adequate follow-up. Further research is warranted.

  1. Transformational leadership in the South African public service after the April 2009 national elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasseh M. Mokgolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The implementation of transformational leadership in public services after national elections has been well recorded in other parts of the world. However, this is not the case in South Africa. Research purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine whether transformational leadership has a beneficial relationship with subordinate leadership acceptance, job performance and job satisfaction.Motivation for the study: Leadership is a critical issue that the public sector needs to address in order to survive and succeed in today’s unstable environment. According to Groenewald and Ashfield (2008, transformational leadership could reduce the effects of uncertainty and change that comes with new leaders and help employees to achieve their objectives.Research design, approach and method: The sample comprised 1050 full-time employees in the public sector based in head offices. The measuring instruments included the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, the Leadership Acceptance Scale (LAS, the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS and the Job Performance Survey (JPS.Main findings: Transformational leadership had a positive correlation with subordinate leadership acceptance, performance and job satisfaction.Practical/managerial implications: Managers can train public sector leaders to be transformational leaders because of the adverse effect lack of transformation can have on employees’ attitudes in areas like satisfaction, performance and commitment.Contribution/value-add: This study makes an important contribution to our understanding of transformational leadership processes and to how the public service can improve its practices in order to render quality service to South Africans.

  2. Identification of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from three African leguminous trees in Gorongosa National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. Woody legumes are well represented in tropical African forests but despite their ecological and socio-economic importance, they have been little studied for this symbiosis. In this study, we examined the identity and diversity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with Acacia xanthophloea, Faidherbia albida and Albizia versicolor in the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria in this region. 166 isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular identification. BOX-A1R PCR was used to discriminate different bacterial isolates and PCR-sequencing of 16S rDNA, and two housekeeping genes, glnII and recA, was used to identify the obtained bacteria. The gene nifH was also analyzed to assess the symbiotic capacity of the obtained bacteria. All isolates from F. albida and Al. versicolor belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus whereas isolates from Ac. xanthophloea clustered with Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Ensifer strains. Soil chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the soils occupied by the three studied species. Thus, we found a clear delimitation in the rhizobial communities and soils associated with Ac. xanthophloea, F. albida and Al. versicolor, and higher rhizobial diversity for Ac. xanthophloea than previously reported.

  3. THE PARADOX OF MIGRATION AND THE INTERESTS OF THE ATOMISTIC NATION-STATES: THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phazha Jimmy Ngandwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The "paradox of migration and the interests of the atomistic nation-states" interrogates the phenomenon of migration in general and in the Southern African Development Community in particular. The point of departure of the paper is the African Union and the Southern African Development Community’s legal framework on migration, as read with the national legal instruments of the different member states. Its focal point is the raison d’être of this phenomenon of migration and the corresponding approaches and attitudes of the nation-states within which migration takes place inter se. This includes the psycho-social impact of migration. Internationally as well as regionally, States are concerned with issues of sovereignty, the preservation of the welfare of the citizenry, ensuring social cohesion social, cultural and economic development including job creation, and fighting against transnational organised crime, including terrorism. The theme of the paper is that whereas migration should form the bedrock of regionalism and globalisation, the negative attitudes of the nation-states to migration are more often than not at variance with the objectives of regionalism and globalisation. The central question of the research is how states can discharge their duties and obligations vis-à-vis their nationals without perpetuating the bottlenecks to and the stigma that attaches to migration and thereby upsetting the international as well as regional integration objectives of the free movement of people. This is the issue that the paper is intended to explore. The main areas of concern are that the negative attitudes of the nation-states are manifested in the hostile treatment of migrants at all ports of entry, including illegal or ungazetted points of entry, within the nation-states in general, and in their labour markets in particular. This research therefore explores the paradoxical nature of the duties and responsibilities of states within the

  4. EU Defence Industry Integration between Spillover and High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    on an intergovernmental base. In the past 10 years, however, the defence industries of the major EU powers have instigated a move from cross national collaboration to cross national consolidation. Cross border mergers and acquisitions has been carried out and pressures for regulatory mainstreaming is mounting...

  5. Disparities in lipid management for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease: A national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter-Edwards Lori

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men

  6. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p negative interaction (p social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives.

  7. The relevance of the individualism – collectivism (IC) factor for the management of diversity in the South African national defence force

    OpenAIRE

    G.A.J. Van Dyk; de Kock, F. S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of adherence of cultural groups to their stereotypical group orientations, i.e. White and Coloured officers tend to be more individualistic, whereas Black officers portray more collectivistic characteristics. Secondly, to determine if their cultural behavior and practices relate to their level of individual or collectivistic orientation. The Individualism- Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) of Matsumoto (1992) and a self-co...

  8. Analysis of queries from nurses to the South African National HIV & TB Health Care Worker Hotline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annoesjka Maria Swart

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since 2008, the Medicines Information Centre (MIC has run the South African National HIV & TB Health Care Worker Hotline which provides free information on patient treatment to all healthcare workers in South Africa. With the introduction of nurse-initiated management of antiretroviral therapy (NIMART in the public sector, the need for easy access to HIV and tuberculosis (TB information has increased, especially among nurses. The hotline aims to provide this, most importantly to nurses in rural areas, where clinical staff often have little access to peer review.Objective. To describe the queries received from nurses by the hotline between 1 March and 31 May 2012 and identify problem areas and knowledge gaps where nurses may require further training.Methods. All queries received from nurses during the study period were analysed. An experienced information pharmacist reviewed all queries to identify knowledge gaps.Results. During the study period, the hotline received a total of 1 479 HIV- and TB-related queries from healthcare workers. Of these, 386 were received from nurses, of which 254 (66% were NIMART-trained. The most common query subtopic was initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART (20%, followed by adverse drug reactions (18%. The most common knowledge gap identified was the ability to interpret laboratory results before initiating ART (10%.Discussion. We conclude that the hotline is providing clinical help to an increasing number of nurses on the topic of treating HIV and TB throughout South Africa. In addition, queries directed to the hotline may assist in identifying knowledge gaps for the further training of nurses.

  9. ECONOMIC CHALLENGES FOR EUROPEAN DEFENCE

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    Maria CONSTANTINESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of a common European Union (EU defence is on the frontline of political and media discussions, in light of the recent evolutions in the security and defence environment. The main challenge in this respect is related to the realism and feasibility of moving beyond political declarations towards a more concrete implementation of a common defence policy, considering the numerous political, military and economic factors involved. The aim of this paper is to analyse the challenges faced by the concept of a common European defence from an economic point of view, considering the evolution of the defence expenditures in the EU member states, compared to the wider European and the global trend. Also, the paper will focus on the impact the economic crisis and the ensuing austerity measures had on the member states and on their cooperation in developing a common approach on defence, with a view on the ways ahead and recommendations on overcoming the difficult challenges in this respect.

  10. Nematodes of the small intestine of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

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    William A. Taylor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0–15 980. This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.

  11. In Defence of Pashukanism

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    R Koen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents an extended defence of the general theory of law formulated by the Bolshevik jurist, Evgeny Pashukanis, and published in his Law and Marxism: A General Theory in 1924. The general theory is a theory of the legal form. Although Pashukanis did not name his theory, it has become known as the commodity form theory of law because of its theorising the legal form as a homologue of the commodity form. However, despite having weighty Marxist and revolutionary Bolshevik credentials, the general theory has been subjected to sustained attack, especially from new left and neo-Marxist circles. This essay identifies and explicates six major objections to Pashukanism from its left critics. These are that the general theory is too abstract to comprehend the reality of legal relations; that it is infused with economic reductionism; that it derives the legal form wrongly from commodity exchange; that it classifies the legal form incorrectly as an attribute of capitalism only; that it lacks the generality required of a general theory of law; and that it is imbricated in the growth of anarchism and Stalinism. Following a brief exegetical exercise, the bulk of the essay is devoted to demonstrating in detail that each of the six objections to the general theory is without merit, and that none makes any serious incursion into its integrity as a theory of the legal form. The central submission of the essay is that the Pashukanist general theory of law is rooted in the first principles of classical Marxism and hence may lay claim legitimately to being the Marxist theory of law.

  12. The Machinery of Government Needs a Tune-Up: Lessons for the US National Security Council from the British Committee of Imperial Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Manske has a bachelor of social science degree in political science from Michigan State University, a master of science degree in aero- space...gistics––a required reading for Air War College students, as well as his SAASS thesis published as CADRE Paper No. 18, Un- manned Airlift—A Viable Option... Cybersecurity (NSC and HSC) 97 Appendix C President’s Special Review Board National Security Advisor Functions The Report of the President’s Special Review

  13. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  14. Standardization for Defence Procurement - European Handbook, recommendations Electromagnetic Environmental Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, F.B.J.; Malabiau, R.

    2006-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) would like to improve the competitiveness of the European Defence Industry. The large number of (national) standards, more than 10.000, is recognised by EC as a major constraint and cost driver [1]. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and more generally Electromagnetic E

  15. Missile defence : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.

    2012-01-01

    At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even in

  16. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendordt, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2008-01-01

    Surface vessels and submarines must be able to defend themselves against a torpedo attack. Self-defence can be approached as a modular concept. The first module involves 'Detection, Classification and Localisation (DCL)'. DCL triggers the second module: the 'evaluator'. This module starts the last m

  17. Antibodies Against Foot-and-mouth Disease (FMD) Virus in African Buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in Selected National Parks in Uganda (2001–2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Balinda, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    the presence of antibodies against FMDV serotypes in wildlife in Uganda, serological studies were performed on buffalo serum samples collected between 2001 and 2003. Thirty-eight samples from African buffalos collected from Lake Mburo, Kidepo Valley, Murchison Falls and Queen Elizabeth National Parks were...... immunosorbent assay (ELISAs). High titres of antibodies (≥1 : 160) against FMDV serotypes SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were identified. This study suggests that African buffalos in the different national parks in Uganda may play an important role in the epidemiology of SAT serotypes of FMDV....

  18. Eighth joint national committee (JNC-8 guidelines and the outpatient management of hypertension in the African-American population

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    Nicole Abel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a common medical disease, occurring in about one third of young adults and almost two thirds of individuals over the age of 60. With the release of the Eighth Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment (JNC-8 guidelines, there have been major changes in blood pressure management in the various subgroups. Aim: Optimal blood pressure management and markers of end-organ damage in African-American adult patients were compared between patients who were managed according to the JNC-8 hypertension management guidelines and those who were treated with other regimens. Materials and Methods: African-American patients aged 18 years or older with an established diagnosis of hypertension were included in the study who were followed up in our internal medicine clinic between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2103; the data on their systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings, heart rate, body mass index (BMI, age, gender, comorbidities, and medications were recorded. Patients were divided into four groups based on the antihypertensive therapy as follows - Group 1: Diuretic only; Group 2: Calcium channel blocker (CCB only; Group 3: Diuretic and CCB; Group 4: Other antihypertensive agent. Their blood pressure control, comorbidities, and associated target organ damage were analyzed. Results: In all 323 patients, blood pressures were optimally controlled. The majority of the patients (79.6% were treated with either a diuretic, a CCB, or both. Intergroup comparison analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic blood pressure, associated comorbidities, or frequency of target organ damage. Conclusion: Although diuretics or CCBs are recommended as first-line agents in African-American patients, we found no significant difference in the optimal control of blood pressure and frequency of end-organ damage compared to management with other agents.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

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    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  20. INTEROPERABILITY AND STANDARDISATION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Waal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The political changes in South Africa have extended its international obligations by actively involving it in the social wellbeing of troubled African states. Under the auspices of the United Nations, this role is manifested in peacekeeping operations and other standard international practices. The ability of African allied forces to train, exercise, and operate efficiently, effectively, and economically together depends on the interoperability of their operational procedures, doctrine, administration, materiel and technology. This implies that all parties must have the same interpretation of ‘interoperability’. In this study, a conceptual model that explains interoperability and standardisation in terms of a systems hierarchy and the systems engineering process is developed. The study also explores the level of understanding of interoperability in the South African Department of Defence in terms of the levels of standardisation and its relationship to the concepts of systems, systems hierarchy, and systems engineering.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die politieke veranderinge in Suid-Afrika het daartoe aanleiding gegee dat verdere internasionale verpligtinge die land opgelê is. Suid-Afrika, in samewerking met mede-Afrika lande en onder toesig van die Verenigde Nasies, moet deur middel van vredesoperasies by onstabiele Afrika lande betrokke raak. Die vermoë om gesamentlik aan vredesopleiding, vredesoefeninge en vredesoperasies op ‘n effektiewe, doeltreffende en ekonomiese wyse deel te neem, vereis dat daar versoenbaarheid tussen onderlinge operasionele prosedures, doktrine, administrasie, materieel en tegnologie is. Dit beteken dat alle partye eens omtrent die begrip ‘versoenbaarheid’ moet wees. In hierdie studie is ‘n konseptuele model wat versoenbaarheid en standaardisasie verduidelik in terme van die stelselhiërargie en die stelselingenieursweseproses ontwikkel. Hierdie studie het ook die vlak van begrip en

  1. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalema-Zikusoka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6 % of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever.

  2. Imprisoned by Empathy: Familial Incarceration and Psychological Distress among African American Men in the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony N; Bell, Mary Laske; Patterson, Evelyn J

    2016-06-01

    The stress process model predicts that current incarceration of a family member should damage the health status of the inmate's relatives. We address this prediction with data from the National Survey of American Life, focusing exclusively on African American men (n = 1,168). In survey-adjusted generalized linear models, we find that familial incarceration increases psychological distress, but its effect attenuates ostensibly after controlling for other chronic strains. Familial incarceration remains statistically insignificant with the introduction of mastery and family emotional support and their respective interactions with familial incarceration. However, a statistical interaction between familial incarceration and former incarceration reveals that levels of psychological distress are significantly higher among never-incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated but significantly lower among formerly incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated. We conclude that familial incarceration's influence on black men's mental health status may be more complex than extant theory predicts.

  3. Nation building and the ‘struggle for Afrikaans’ under the new South African ‘rainbow’

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    F. Jansen van Rensburg

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the geographical, technological and economic aspects of the South African nation have a reasonably stable basis, the socio-cultural aspect is not only contested, but has since 1994 led to new movements and public debates regarding the recognition of the position of some categories/minorities and their rights in the newly-created democratic dispensation. It would not be correct to assume that all these ‘new’ movements and voices are of a centrifugal nature and therefore indicative of potentially separatist tendencies. Whereas most of the evolution and history of ‘Afrikaans’ stemmed from its proponents’ opposition to the imposition of English and its imperialist backing, the current debate is about Afrikaans being displaced and relegated to a lowly position by an Englishspeaking black-majority government. Surveying the nature and context of this public debate on the ‘position of Afrikaans’ will broaden the understanding of contemporary ‘nation building’ in South Africa. Again, social scientists could endeavour to comprehend culture ‘in the making’ as created by some of the ‘imaginative’ Afrikaans-speaking participants and the implications of this discourse for nation building and competition.

  4. Integrating association data and disease dynamics: an illustration using African Buffalo in Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Bowers, Justin A.; Hay, Craig T.; Hofmeyr, Markus; Getz, Wayne M.

    2004-01-01

    Recognition is a prerequisite for non-random association amongst individuals. We explore how non-random association patterns (i.e. who spends time with whom) affect disease dynamics. We estimated the amount of time individuals spent together per month using radio-tracking data from African buffalo and incorporated these data into a dynamic social network model. The dynamic nature of the network has a strong influence on simulated disease dynamics particularly for diseases with shorter infectious periods. Cluster analyses of the association data demonstrated that buffalo herds were not as well defined as previously thought. Associations were more tightly clustered in 2002 than 2003, perhaps due to drier conditions in 2003. As a result, diseases may spread faster during drought conditions due to increased population mixing. Association data are often collected but this is the first use of empirical data in a network disease model in a wildlife population.

  5. Clinical demodicosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Julie; Bengis, Roy G; Reilly, Brian K; Cross, Paul C

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between prevalence and severity of clinical signs of Demodex cafferi infection in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and other factors such as age, sex, pregnancy status, and concomitant infections with bovine tuberculosis (BTB), Rift Valley fever (RVF), and brucellosis (BA). Approximately half of 203 buffalo examined in this study had clinical signs of demodicosis (cutaneous nodules); younger age classes had the highest prevalence and severity of lesions (chi(2)=21.4, df=6, P=0.0015). Nodules were generally limited to the head and neck region, but in severe cases were present over the entire animal. We found no significant association between clinical severity of the Demodex infection and gender, pregnancy status, or infection with BTB, RVF, or BA.

  6. The psychiatric defence and international criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, John

    2007-01-01

    Following the development of the International Criminal Court (ICC) the mental state of the perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes will become a more important issue in regard to defence and mitigating factors. This article examines how the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in particular has dealt with the mental illness defence to date, and how its judgements can serve as guidance for the ICC as it becomes the major international court of the future. The absence of a mental health defence in the Statutes of the ICTY and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has led to a reliance on the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the two tribunals. There are major difficulties in using the mental health defence as it is defined in the Statutes of the ICC because of a requirement for the destruction of mental capacity as a valid defence. Fitness to plead and the defence of intoxication are also examined.

  7. Social Science Research Projects in South African National Parks: Introductory Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Odendal

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of human scientific research within conservation areas is assessed. Issues of importance to the National Parks Board are mentioned in order to stimulate interest and subsequent discussion. An overview of some of the social scientific projects presently undertaken in national parks (traditional and contractual are presented. This includes the assessment of real needs and demands of visitors to the national parks. A viability study identified important concepts while the important role played by perception in environmental evaluation is stressed. A multi-disciplinary research approach and active participation by all parties concerned in deciding the future of natural areas is advocated.

  8. SELF-DEFENCE IN SPECIAL SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamya-Diana HĂRĂTĂU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the reality of practical cases and in certain special situations, self-defence may present some complex forms consisting either in accidental amplification of the issue in fact when self-defence is claimed, or in the correlation in fact of self-defence to other cases which remove the criminal nature of act1. For these reasons, we decided to analyse few of such special situations.

  9. A Stronger CSDP: Deepening Defence Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Anne; Drent, Margriet; Landman, Lennart; Zandee, Dick

    2016-01-01

    The role of parliaments is a neglected factor in the development of European defence cooperation. This is clearly in need of rectification as parliaments have a crucial role in making deeper defence cooperation a success. This Clingendael report reflects the main topics of discussion at the high-level Netherlands EU Presidency Seminar on Defence, held on 14 and 15 March 2016. In most of the EU member states, the elected representatives decide about planning, procurement, the deployment of tro...

  10. Notes on the occurrence of rodents in South African National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Graaff

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available The object of a national park is mentioned and it is emphasized that considerable ecological data are available for the larger mammals. The important role that smaller mammals (especially rodents play in such areas is of importance for conservation and management policies. The physical features of existing national parks are tabulated, followed by a resume of genera and species which occur. Of the 35 genera and 63 species occurring in South Africa and South West Africa, some 17 genera (48,5 per cent and 24 species (38,0 per cent do not occur in any national park. A brief outline is given of technical data which have to be amassed in order to assess the importance of rodents in ecosystems of national parks.

  11. Using the Cultural Dimension and Accounting Value Classification Frameworks to Investigate Cultural Diversity in a Multi-National South African-Based Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stander

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The developing South African economy provides good business opportunities for global companies. Despite the popularity of mergers and acquisitions as a way to expand into a developing economy, many such business transaction fail to create sustainable organisations due to issues pertaining to national and corporate cross-cultural issues. This study investigated the potential impact of national cultural differences pertinent to the acquisition of a South African-based resource company by a French-based international group. It was evident that there were cultural differences in the manner which certain attitudes and actions were expressed within the workplace, which have led to some conflict that hampered the optimum functioning of the accounting-related functions within the company. By using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions andGray’s accounting value classification frameworks within this case study, the organization’s management was provided with insights into how national cultural orientation affects their functioning.

  12. Use of ministers for a serious personal problem among African Americans: findings from the national survey of American life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, Linda M; Mattis, Jacqueline S; Woodward, Amanda Toler; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Neighbors, Harold W; Grayman, Nyasha A

    2011-01-01

    This study examined use of ministers for assistance with a serious personal problem within a nationally representative sample of African Americans (National Survey of American Life-2001-2003). Different perspectives on the use of ministers-social stratification, religious socialization, and problem-oriented approach-were proposed and tested using logistic regression analyses with demographic, religious involvement, and problem type factors as predictors. Study findings supported religious socialization and problem-oriented explanations indicating that persons who are heavily invested in religious pursuits and organizations (i.e., women, frequent attenders) are more likely than their counterparts to use ministerial assistance. Contrary to expectations from the social stratification perspective, positive income and education effects indicated that higher status individuals were more likely to report use of ministers. Finally, problems involving bereavement are especially suited for assistance from ministers owing to their inherent nature (e.g., questions of ultimate meaning) and the extensive array of ministerial support and church resources that are available to address the issue.

  13. Littoral Infrared Ship Self Defence Technology Studies (Autodefense cotiere infrarouge des navires etudes technologiques)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Modeling Radiometry Ship signature control Surveillance 14. Abstract Task Group Number 51 (RTG-51/SET-088), titled “Littoral Infrared Ship...Centre Renaissancelaan 30, 1000 Bruxelles Armaments Department ITALIE 9-11, Drumul Taberei Street CANADA Centro Gestione Conoscenza Sector 6...Distribučné a Defence R&D Canada informačné stredisko STO Department of National Defence ITALY Demänová 393 305 Rideau Street, 9th Floor Centro Gestione

  14. THE HARBOUR DEFENCE MOTOR LAUNCHES

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    W.H. Rice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the handiest small craft to emerge from the Second World War was the 72 fet Harbour Defence Motor Launch. It's purpose was to patrol harbours and their approaches and to guard against attack by swimmers or underwater vehicles such as 'chariots' or even submarines. For this task the craft was fitted with a small ASDIC outfit and carried eight depth charges. Surface armament comprised a three-pounder gun on the foredeck, twin Lewis guns on the bridge and a 20 mm Oerlikon aft.

  15. South African Acari. V. Some mites of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena K.P. Smith Meyer

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available A check list of phytophagous and predaceous mites collected from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park is given. Data on the habitat and distribution of the 12 known species are presented. The following 10 species are described for the first time: Typhlodromus eremicus, Bryobia orycustodia, B. birivularis, B. deserticola, Aplonobia plinthi, Neopetrobia burchelliae, N. convolvuli, N. lerichei, Aegyptobia odontipilis and Abrolophus spiculosus.

  16. South African Acari. IV. Some Mites of the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ueckermann

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Mites collected in the Addo Elephant National Park from 1968 to 1986 are given in a check list. Comments are made on the habitats and distribution of the 36 known species. The following species are described and illustrated: Tenuipalpus robustae Meyer, spec. nov., Tydeus schotiae Ueckermann spec. nov., Paralorryia grewiae Ueckermann, spec. nov. and Pronematulus pteroni Ueckermann, spec. nov.

  17. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  18. The Parliamentary Dimension of Defence Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; Drent, Margriet; Landman, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Europe’s unprecedented security challenges call for a step change in the EU’s approach to security and defence. This Clingendael report reflects the main topics of discussion at the high-level Netherlands EU Presidency Seminar on Defence held on 20 and 21 January 2016. The new EU Global Strategy on

  19. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc Tribun

  20. A Stronger CSDP: Deepening Defence Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; Drent, Margriet; Landman, Lennart; Zandee, Dick

    2016-01-01

    The role of parliaments is a neglected factor in the development of European defence cooperation. This is clearly in need of rectification as parliaments have a crucial role in making deeper defence cooperation a success. This Clingendael report reflects the main topics of discussion at the high-lev

  1. A DECADE OF AFRICAN UNION AND EUROPEAN UNION TRANS-REGIONAL SECURITY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Segell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy ninesecurity missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security andDefence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions thatEuropean states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategydesigned to link the African Union and the European Union in a process of transregionalismdefined as a unique organisational infrastructure (joint secretariat forresearch, policy planning, preparation and coordination of meetings andimplementation of decisions. The rationale being that security and its associatedpeace and stability are the basis for sustainable development in other areas. Thisarticle follows the development of the trans-regionalism detailing the securitymissions.

  2. Abundance and Structure of African Baobab (Adansonia digitata across Different Soil Types in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Mashapa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the abundance and structure of African baobab (Adansonia digitata across soil group strata in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. The study was based on a stratified random sampling design composed of the following soil group substrates: (i granophyres, (ii malvernia, and (iii rhyolite. Belt transects of 0.3×0.1 km were randomly laid across soil group. Baobab abundance and population structure were determined from the density and size class distribution, respectively. There were significant differences in plant height and plant density across Gonarezhou soil groups. Study sites on granophyres derived soil group indicated viable abundance and recruitment of baobab population. Whereas the study highlighted a concern over the unbalanced size structure distribution of baobab population on malvernia derived soil group, our results indicated that baobabs are in danger of extirpation on malvernia derived soil group. Baobab community in Gonarezhou tends to occur more densely along environmental gradient of soil group type as influenced by the underlying geological soil substrate of granophyres. Malvernia derived soil group is likely less ideal for baobab recruitment.

  3. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n = 15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1 vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p < 0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention.

  4. South African National Survey of Arachnida: A checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of the Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve, Limpopo province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Foord, Stefan H.; Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman; Rudy Jocqué; Charles R. Haddad; Robin Lyle; Peter Webb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA) is to document the Arachnida fauna of South Africa. One of the focus areas of SANSA is to survey protected areas to obtain species-specific information, and species distribution patterns for Red Data assessments. Here, we provide the first checklist of the spider species of Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve (LNR) in the Limpopo province of South Africa collected during five surveys between 2009 and 2016 using methods targeting both ...

  5. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities.

  6. OPV strains circulation in HIV infected infants after National Immunisation Days in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menard Didier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans are the only host of polioviruses, thus the prospects of global polio eradication look reasonable. However, individuals with immunodeficiencies were shown to excrete vaccine derived poliovirus for long periods of time which led to reluctance to prolong the vaccination campaign for fear of this end result. Therefore, we aimed to assess the duration of excretion of poliovirus after the 2001 National Immunization Days according to Human immunodeficiency virus status. Findings Fifty three children were enrolled. Sequential stool samples were collected in between National Immunisation Days rounds and then every month during one year. Children were classified into 2 groups: no immunodepression (n = 38, immunodepression (n = 15 according to CD4+ lymphocytes cells count. Thirteen poliovirus strains were isolated from 11 children: 5 Human immunodeficiency virus positive and 6 Human immunodeficiency virus negative. None of the children excreted poliovirus for more than 4 weeks. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that all strains were of Sabin origin including a unique Polio Sabine Vaccine types 2 and 3 (S2/S3 recombinant. Conclusions From these findings we assume that Human immunodeficiency virus positive children are not a high risk population for long term poliovirus excretion. More powerful studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  7. Psychological empowerment in the South African military: The generalisability of Menon's Scale

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    Sanjay T Menon

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Menon Scale for Psychological Empowerment, developed in the United States and Canada and tested in Australia and Greece, in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF. The 2231 participants in the study represented the gender and racial distribution of the military population. The South African data initially yielded a two-factor structure. A forced three-factor structure rendered acceptable alpha coefficients, but did not resemble the theoretically expected factors. The forced factor analyses were repeated for Africans, Asians and Coloureds, and Whites separately. Results for the first two groups kept the original structure, whereas the factor structure for the white participants resembled the theoretically hypothesised factors. The forced three-factor structures rendered very high internal consistencies for the total scale, but one factor for both the African and the Asian and Coloured groups showed unsatisfactory reliability, suggesting a single underlying empowerment factor. This was confirmed by high correlations between subscales. Menon’s model seemingly fits the South African data slightly better for the white participants than for their non-white counterparts. The scale thus needs to be revised for the different cultural groups.

  8. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  9. Entre incompréhension et intérêt national Entre incomprensión e interés nacional : una historia de lass relaciones franco-españolas en materia de defensa y seguridad desde 1945 Between incomprehension and national interest : an history of French-Spanish relations about defence and security from 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Morizur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article retrace près de soixante ans de relations entre la France et l’Espagne en matière de sécurité et de défense. On démontrera que deux logiques se superposent et expliquent la versatilité de ces relations. Au-delà de politiques de puissance qui ont pu achopper sur des intérêts nationaux divergents, les relations franco-espagnoles en matière de sécurité et de défense ont souvent été marquées par une profonde incompréhension.Este artículo pretende abordar las relaciones tumultuosas entre Francia y España en materia de defensa y seguridad. Se demostrará que dos lógicas se superponen y explican la versatilidad de estas relaciones. Más allá de políticas de potencia que pudieron tropezar con discrepancias de interés nacional, las relaciones franco-españolas están marcadas por una incomprensión profunda.This article aims at tracing sixty years of stormy relations between France and Spain in matter of defence and security. Throughout the study, we shall emphasize a double movement which characterizes those relations, namely divergent power politics that could lead to different national interests, and a profound incomprehension.

  10. Platelets: at the nexus of antimicrobial defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Platelets have traditionally been viewed as fragmentary mediators of coagulation. However, recent molecular and cellular evidence suggests that they have multiple roles in host defence against infection. From first-responders that detect pathogens and rapidly deploy host-defence peptides, to beacons that recruit and enhance leukocyte functions in the context of infection, to liaisons that facilitate the T cell-B cell crosstalk that is required in adaptive immunity, platelets represent a nexus at the intersection of haemostasis and antimicrobial host defence. In this Review, I consider recent insights into the antimicrobial roles of platelets, which are mediated both directly and indirectly to integrate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens.

  11. THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY IN TRANSITION: PART 1 – FROM STRATEGY FORMULATION TO STRATEGY FORMATION

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    Gerhard M Louw

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By 2013, sufficient evidence had become publicly available to confirm what defence analysts had been suspecting for a while now: the military effectiveness of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF is deficient. This article proposes that this condition is due to strategic failure, brought about by the dynamic interaction between the preferred strategic management model of the organisation and its acquired strategic culture(s. The study on which this article reports, further suggests that a design school strategic management model best explains the method towards the SANDF’s current condition of organisational entropy, but that its root cause actually lies in a dichotomous strategic culture. In combination, these two variables conspired to diminish the defence force’s responsiveness to its operational context, resulting in the formation of inappropriate strategy that prevented the SANDF from achieving military effectiveness. While the authors consider the article to be hypothesis generating, it also has an exploratory dimension and paves the way for a validational study at a later stage. Part 1 therefore argues towards a strategic management model that could explain the SANDF’s strategy formulation process, its method of ensuring that strategic outcomes correlate with strategic intent, and ultimately its weakness in accounting for the external environment in realised strategy. This first part mainly employs inductive reasoning and draws its conclusions from an eclectic literary review that included business studies and dynamic systems theory.

  12. Contraception use and pregnancy among 15–24 year old South African women: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Sophie

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent reproductive health has not continued to receive the attention it deserves since the start of the HIV epidemic. In South Africa, high numbers of adolescent women report pregnancies that are unwanted and yet few have accessed available termination of pregnancy services. Enabling contraception use is vital for meeting the goals of HIV prevention. Methods A nationally representative survey of South African 15–24 year olds was undertaken. Participants completed a questionnaire on sexual behaviour and provided an oral fluid sample for HIV testing. Analysis of the data was restricted to women (n = 6217, particularly those who reported being sexual active in the last 12 months (n = 3618 and was conducted using svy methods in the program STATA 8.0 to take account of sampling methods. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with contraceptive use. Results Two thirds of all women reported having ever been sexually active and among these 87% were sexually active in the past 12 months. Among women who reported currently being sexually active, 52.2% reported using contraceptives. There was evidence of association between contraceptive use and being employed or a student (vs unemployed; fewer sex partners; type of last sex partner; having talked to last partner about condom use and having ever been pregnant. Conclusion Specific emphasis must be placed on encouraging young women to use contraceptive methods that offer protection against pregnancy and STIs/HIV. Our consistent finding of a relationship between discussing condom use with partners and condom use indicates the importance of involvement of male partners in women's contraceptive decisions.

  13. An outbreak of encephalomyocarditis-virus infection in free-ranging African elephants in the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, D G; Raath, J P; Braack, L E; Keet, D F; Gerdes, G H; Barnard, B J; Kriek, N P; Jardine, J; Swanepoel, R

    1995-06-01

    A cluster of four deaths in late December 1993, marked the onset of an outbreak of disease of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa, which has an estimated population of 7,500 elephants. Mortalities peaked in January 1994, with 32 deaths, and then declined steadily to reach pre-outbreak levels by September, but sporadic losses continued until November. During the outbreak altogether 64 elephants died, of which 53 (83%) were adult bulls. Archival records revealed that, in addition to the usual losses from known causes such as poaching and intraspecific fighting, sporadic deaths from unexplained causes had, in fact, occurred in widely scattered locations from at least 1987 onwards, and from that time until the perceived outbreak of disease there had been 48 such deaths involving 33 (69%) adult bulls. Carcases had frequently become decomposed or had been scavenged by the time they were found, but seven of eight elephants examined early in 1994 had lesions of cardiac failure suggestive of encephalomyocarditis (EMC)-virus infection, and the virus was isolated from the heart muscles of three fresh carcases. The results of tests for neutralizing antibody on 362 elephant sera collected for unrelated purposes from 1984 onwards and kept frozen, indicated that the virus had been present in the KNP since at least 1987. Antibody prevalences of 62 of 116 (53%) 18 of 139 (13%) and seven of 33 (21%) were found in elephants in three different regions of the KNP in 1993 and 1994. Studies had been conducted on myomorph rodents in the KNP for unrelated purposes since 1984, and trapping attempts were increased during the perceived outbreak of disease in elephants. There was a striking temporal correlation between the occurrence of a population explosion (as evidenced by markedly increased catch rates per trap-night) and a surge in prevalence of antibody to EM virus in rodents, and the occurrence of the outbreak of disease in elephants.

  14. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

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    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  15. Surgical treatment of an umbilical hernia in a free-ranging sub-adult African elephant in Samburu National Reserve, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijele D

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Domnic Mijele, Michael Njoroge, Titus Kaitho Veterinary Services Department, Species Conservation and Management Division, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: A 10-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana at Samburu National Reserve in Northern Kenya, weighing approximately 1,600 kg, presented with an umbilical hernia in October 2013. Umbilical herniorrhaphy was carried out under field conditions. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using etorphine hydrochloride for 3 hours during the surgery. This case report details both the surgical and anesthetic procedure carried out to correct the hernia, and the eventual successful recovery of the elephant from anesthesia. However, the elephant died weeks after the surgery and a postmortem could not reveal the cause of death because predators had scavenged the carcass. The challenges of the surgical procedure and outcome including possible causes of death are highlighted in this report. Keywords: African elephant, general anesthesia, etorphine hydrochloride, local anesthesia Lignocaine + adrenaline, umbilical herniorrhaphy

  16. The Harbour Defence IKC2 Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Choon Kiat, Tan Defence Science and Technolgy Agency 1 Depot Road #22-01 DefenceTechnology Tower A Singapore 109679 Phone : +65 63732338 Fax...Command Post (Desktop) Mobile Units (PDA) Radar 1 Web Service Radar 2 Web Service Radar 1 Tracks Msg Radar 2 Tracks Msg Web Service Abstraction...was found to be adequate for the mobile forces, providing a relatively constant throughput of 8 kbps throughout the base, though minor service

  17. Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement Jonathan Barnes KPMG Corporate Finance Report Documentation Page Report Date...25SEP2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) 25SEP2001 - 27SEP2001 Title and Subtitle Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence...unclassified Classification of Abstract unclassified Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 6 kpmg Aim Provide an appreciation of: n Public Private Partnerships

  18. Biotechnology in defence (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazar Mathew

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology, in its present perspective, encompasses activities, such as recombination of genes; cloning, or making genetically identical copies of a living thing; and splicing of genes from DNA of one organism into the genome of unrelated species, to create new, self-reproducing forms of life. The vast potential of biotechnology is being increasingly realised, and efforts are in progress to harness it for improving quality and quantity of bio-weapons, The bio-weapons, as such, are highly attractive because of their non-detection by routine security systems, ease of access, low production cost and easy transportation, A wide range of genetically manipulated organisms and their by-products are considered to have an added advantage, because these genetically manipulated biologics not only accentuate the existing properties of bio-weapons, but also could be made target-specific. Biotechnology, if used prudently, can play a significant role to counter such threats of biologics, viz., by producing (i bio-armoury comprising powerful antibiotics, antisera toxoids and vaccines to neutralise and eliminate a wide range of diseases, and (ii bio-sensors for rapid detection, identification and neutralisation of biological warfare agents. This article elucidates some facets of biological warfare, legal protective strategies emphasised through international consultation, cooperation and adherence to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and discusses how biotechnology could be effectively used to strengthen countries' defence and combat the threat of biological warfare.

  19. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite.

  20. UK photonics in defence and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, C.; Tooley, I.; Wilson, A.

    2008-10-01

    The UK is globally recognised as strong in Photonics. However its Photonics sector is fragmented and the size and sectors of interest have not previously been established. The UK government has instigated the formation of the Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network (PKTN) to bring the Photonics community together. The UK features in Defence & Security; Communications; Measurement; Medical Technology; Lighting; Solar Energy; Information Technology and Flat Panels. This expertise is scattered through out the UK in geographic areas each with a breadth of Photonic interests. The PKTN has mapped the UK capability in all Photonics sectors. This paper will present the capability of the Companies, Research Institutions and Infrastructure making up the Defence & Security Photonics scene in the UK. Large Defence companies in the UK are well known throughout the world. However, there are a large number of SMEs, which may not be as well known in the supply chain. These are being actively encouraged by the UK MoD to engage with the Defence & Security Market and shall be discussed here. The presentation will reference a number of organisations which help to fund and network the community, such as the Defence Technology Centres. In addition the Roadmap for Defence & Security in the UK, produced for the UK Photonics Strategy (July 2006) by the Scottish Optoelectronics Association will be described and the plans in taking it forward under the PKTN will be revealed.

  1. Exploring sexual practices of South African soldiers to determine their vulnerability to the human immune-deficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela De Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Although HIV occurs in all social groups in South African society, certain populations are more vulnerable to HIV through risky behaviour patterns. Of relevance to the present study are the high risk situations that deployed soldiers are exposed to. Three issues indicated the necessity for a study of this kind to be conducted; (a the statistics pointing to a higher incidence of HIV infections among military personnel than among the general population, (b military personnel’s unique vulnerability profile, and (c the South African National Defence Force’s (SANDF increasing participation in international peacekeeping missions. The knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV/AIDS of deployed soldiers were analysed. Results indicated that soldiers were taking sexual risks, although they had high levels of knowledge and had healthy attitudes concerning HIV/AIDS.

  2. Measurement of concentrations of Faecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites in free-ranging African Elephants within the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozua J. Viljoen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past several years, non-invasive monitoring of steroid metabolites in faeces of elephants has become an increasingly popular technique to generate more information about the causal relationship between hormones and behaviour in both living elephant species. This is important knowledge which can be used to optimise local conservation and wildlife management by finding new strategies for better elephant population management and control. In this context, however, information about an actual involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during assumable stressful events is still limited, especially for wildlife populations. One difficulty in discovering such information is often the lack of reliable data for hormone baseline levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine baseline concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites that could be expected within age classes and between seasons in African elephants (Loxodonta africana in the Kruger National Park (KNP . A total of 374 faecal samples were collected from randomly located family herds in the southern KNP between May 2002 and August 2005. The samples were analysed for immunoreactive concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites using a validated enzyme immunoassay for 3α,11oxo-cortisol metabolites(3α,11oxo-CM. All samples were grouped according to the estimated age class of the subject using a field method based on bolus diameter, and regarding the ecological season collected. No significant differences in faecal 3α,11oxo-CM concentrations were found across age classes (H3 = 7.54; p = 0.057, but the mean 3α,11oxo-CM concentration of samples collected in the dry season (n = 196 was significantly higher than in the wet season (n = 178 (u = 15206.50; p = 0.032, which indicates a possible physiological stress situation due to a decline in food quantity and quality. The information generated in this study represents a reliable data set for baseline

  3. Rates and Correlates of Undetermined Deaths among African Americans: Results from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National…

  4. First-Year Students' Perceptions of Extended National Diploma Programmes: The Case of a Comprehensive South African University (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavunga, George; Cachalia, Fahmida

    2014-01-01

    This study compared how the cohort of extended diploma students enrolled at a comprehensive South African university in 2012 perceived the programmes for which they were enrolled at the beginning of their first year and towards the end of the year. Data were gathered using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews involving students enrolled…

  5. Chromosome analysis in the Kruger National Park: Mitotic and meiotic studies in the African elephant loxodonta africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wallace

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available The present report is published because of the paucity of publication on the mitotic chromosomes of the African elephant Loxodonta africana, and because it is the fisrt study in which the meiotic chromosomes of the species are described.

  6. Service to Science and Service to Defence : Moseley in the Light of the Centenary Year of his Landmark Publications in Defence of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Mukherjee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three words ‘Moseley, Soldier & Science’ in which the last two are so deeply associated with the name of the English scientist Moseley that these have become virtually synonyms of Moseley in the context of remembrance of the professional contribution and character of the unique soldier-scientist Moseley because these two words are very special for him in the sense that they often are essential to understand the personality of iconic Moseley. His keen interest in the service of Science as researcher and on the other hand, his involvement in the Defence services as soldier is really unique example of personification of total commitment to the cause of defence of his country and his deep dedication for the cause of unfolding the scientific truth towards building up a way forward to enrich human history. Moseley’s dual personalities as a scientist and as a soldier rest on the framework of Science & Defence in which the ideas and appeal of Science is universal whereas the ideals of a soldier in Defence is purely national and personal; and that was manifested in his attitude and approach - so intimate and so intense that it would not be inappropriate to say that ‘Service to Science’ and ‘Service to Defence’ for this real world, as Moseley exemplified were in a way virtually two sides of the same coin. Thus, Moseley is truly a composite personality which can be understood from his passion for Science as essentially meant for global cause but his zeal as soldier for Defence was pristine and core to his heart. In fact, often such deeply motivated men contribute for creation of history of this real composite world.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(4, pp.343-345, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4873

  7. Jamali lauds PAEC contribution to scientific development defence needs of country

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali has appreciated role of Pakistan Atomic Energy Council (PAEC) for its contribution to the scientific development and defence needs of the country. He directed that all resources and energy be devoted to the development of human resource and infrastructure for socio-economic uplift of the nation" (1 page).

  8. On Cuneo's Defence of The Parity Premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J.E. Rutten

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In his book 'The Normative Web' Terence Cuneo provides a core argument for a paradigmatic instance of moral realism. At the heart of this instance lies the ontological thesis that there are irreducible moral facts. The parity premise is the first and main premise of Cuneo's core argument. It claims that 'if moral facts do not exist, then epistemic facts do not exist'. In this paper I first introduce and explain Cuneo's core argument. Subsequently I present and interpret his defence of the parity premise. It will be shown that Cuneo's defence, although intriguing, is not adequate and should therefore be refuted.

  9. Swedish Defence Acquisition Transformation - A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    innovation in product-service management. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. Kraljic, P. (1983). Purchasing must become supply management. Harvard Business Review, 61...FMLOG, the Swedish Defence Logistics Organisation (DLO), with the DPA. In the new business model, the DPA will assume responsibility for defence equipment...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 ( Rev . 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ã= dê~Çì

  10. The Union Defence Force Between the Two World Wars, 1919-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was ill prepared for the Second World War. Her war potential was limited and Hitler is reputed to have laughed when the South African declaration came on 6 September 1939. The Permanent and Active Citizen Forces were under strength: the first comprised only 350 officers and some five thousand men. There were a further 122 000 men in the Commandos, of whom only 18 000 were reasonably equipped, and, being rurally based and overwhelmingly Afrikaans, many of these men did not support the war effort. Furthermore, training and training facilities were inadequate, there was a shortage of uniforms and equipment and, like the rest of the British Commonwealth, much of the doctrine had not kept pace with technological developments. This predicament developed over the preceding twenty years. The mechanisation of ground forces and the application of new technology for war contrasted sharply with developments in Europe. Although South Africa had the industrial capacity for the development of armour and mechanised forces, arguments based upon the nature of potential enemy forces, poor infrastructure and terrain inaccessibility combined with government policy and financial stringency resulted in nothing being done. Southern Africa, the focus of South African defence policy, was also thought to be unfavourable for mechanised warfare. Inadequate roads and multifarious geographic features concentrated energy on the development of the air arm for operations in Africa and a system of coastal defences to repel a sea assault, as well as a mix of British and Boer-type infantry supported by field artillery. As a result, an expeditionary force had to be prepared from scratch and the first South Africans to serve in the Second World War only left the country in July 1940. Yet the close relationship between the projected role of the Union Defence Force (UDF and the low priority given to force maintenance and weapons acquisition has been perceived by few

  11. Philosophy of Education: Becoming Less Western, More African?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Posing the question "How diverse is philosophy of education in the West?" this paper responds to two recent defences of African philosophy of education which endorse its communitarianism and oppose individualism in Western philosophy of education. After outlining Thaddeus Metz's argument that Western philosophy of education should become…

  12. AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF SOUTH AFRICAN ARTILLERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been said that 'Necessity is the mother of invention' and there can be few countries, if any, where this is more true than in South Africa.In the late 1930's, prior to World War II, the South African Artillery was severely restricted due to its lack of mobility. The inventiveness shown in tackling this probelm is surely not a thing of the past and the possiblity of adapting South African artillery to current South african needs in warfare should not be overlooked. The South African Defence Force is not able to purchase armament in a free and open market place and the costs of developing new artillery are prohibitive in a country of South Africa's size. it will be argued that it is necessary and possible, in the short term, to take what is currently available and adapt this to South Africa's needs.

  13. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...... foreign policy establishment and industrial-military complexes reluctant to cede control over a vital technology and production base - particular to neighbouring countries which in a not to distant past were rivals rather then partners. The latter will be linked to recent work on the nature and impacts...

  14. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results showed...... in a defence for the offence to take advantage of....

  15. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differin

  16. Closing the loop: towards strategic defence management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Spiegeleire; P. van Hooft; C. Culpepper; R. Willems

    2009-01-01

    How do defence-organisations (or organisations with comparable profiles) of other countries map out policy goals and how are policy goals related to activities and capabilities and the required financial means, and finally how does the feedback loop on the performance in all these areas take place?

  17. Quality Management System for Defence Aeronautical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Indian defence aeronautical industry, while becoming a global business, demands a largeeffort to monitor quality management system (QMS and to ensure quality of aeronauticalproducts. An effort is being made to look for an effective QMS for aeronautical industry in India,which will also meet the requirements of the regulatory authority.The essential features of an effective QMS are described and compared with the presentlyavailable QMS standards for defence aeronautical industry such as QCSR: 2002 (DGAQA, India,Def Stan (MOD, UK, ISO, AQAPs (NATO and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE aerospacestandards (AS. Evolution, relevance and review of the existing standards, to meet the requirementsof the industry as well as regulatory authority, have been made to bring out the special featuresand differences. The study leads to the most acceptable standard of SAE-AS-9100 (Rev B.With suitable modifications to include regulatory requirement of assistance for governmentquality assurance in the standard, when complied with, it will fully meet the QMS requirementsof the Indian defence aeronautical supply organisations as well as the requirements of theregulatory authority. Minor reorientation of the regulatory functions and inclusion of the QMSin the defence aeronautical supply orders are also suggested.

  18. Genetics of insect resistance to plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K.M.C.A.

    2014-01-01

      Plants are chemically defended against insect herbivory in various ways. They produce a broad range of secondary metabolites that may be toxic or deterrent to insects. Specialist insects, however, are often capable of overcoming these defences. The yellow striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta nem

  19. Reliability analysis of flood defence systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, H.M.G.M.; Lassing, B.L.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Waarts, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years an advanced program for the reliability analysis of flood defence systems has been under development. This paper describes the global data requirements for the application and the setup of the models. The analysis generates the probability of system failure and the contribution of ea

  20. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independen

  1. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  2. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  3. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  4. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  5. Pareto Efficient Solutions of Attack-Defence Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as proba......Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes...... on a new and general formalism for attack-defence trees....

  6. Rumen ciliates in the African (Cape) buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A; Reininghaus, Björn

    2014-07-31

    Samples of rumen contents were obtained from 10 African (Cape) buffalo living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park in South Africa. Total number of ciliate protozoa per animal ranged from 3.15 to 23.25 x 103. Forty three different species and forms were observed, of which 35 are a new host record. The total number of species and forms per animal varied from 10 to 17. Eudiplodinium maggii occurred in all 10 animals, followed by Dasytricha ruminantium in nine animals. Diplodinium posterovesiculatum, Eudiplodinium magnodentatum and Ostracodinium mammosum were present in seven animals with all other species and forms occurring in five or less animals. 

  7. A survey of the apes in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic: A comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nest group density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almasi, A.; Blom, A.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Kpanou, J.B.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of apes was carried out between October 1996 and May 1997 in the Dzanga sector of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic (CAR), to estimate gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) densities. The density estimates were based on nest counts. The st

  8. Mental Health,Perceived Stress and Coping Style of National Defence Students in Xinjiang under Stability Maintenance Situation%维稳形式下新疆高校国防生心理健康与觉察压力及应对方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏宗义; 林鸿斌; 冉兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore mental health of national defence students and its related factors in Xinjiang under the situation of stability maintenance.Methods:A total of 222 national defence students were investigated with Symptom Checklist 90 ( SCL-90 ) , Perceived Stress Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire.Results:①For perceived stress and coping style of national defence students,there were significant differences in grade,gender and disaster experience( P<0.05);mental health score of national defence students was significantly lower than students norm ( t =-2.14,-2.10,-2.82,-2.49,-2.30,-2.91,-2.71,-2.34;P<0.05)except obsessive symptoms and paranoid.②Foresee was positively correlative with obsessive symptoms,interpersonal sensitivity and depression(P<0.05);Control feeling and over load were negatively correlative with somatization,depression,anxiety,hostility,panic,psychoti-cism and average of SCL-90 ( P <0.01 );positive coping was negatively correlative with the mental health score except interpersonal sensitivity ( P <0.05 ) .③Foresee, over load and positive coping style had direct effect on mental health(Path coefficient:0.20,-0.22 and 0.17),Control feeling had indirect effect of 0.044 on mental health.Conclusion:Perceived stress and positive coping style may be two im-portant factors that affect mental health,positive coping style may have an intermediary role between con-trol feeling and mental health.%目的:探讨维稳形势下新疆高校国防生心理健康状况及相关因素。方法:采用SCL-90症状自评量表、觉察压力量表( PSS-C)和简易应对方式问卷( SCSQ)进行测验。结果:①维稳形势下,国防生觉察压力、应对方式在年级、性别和灾难经历上具有显著差异(P<0.01),SCL-90得分与大学生常模相比,除强迫症状和偏执外,其余各因子分和SCL-90总均分显著低于大学生常模( t =-2.14,-2.10,-2.82,-2.49,-2.30,-2

  9. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  10. Teologie kroniek/Theology Chronicle: The Politics of Salvation: Values, Ideology and the South African National Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jansen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The South African experience offers dramatic examples of how the curriculum remains a lightning rod for the values contestation in divided societies. Despite its overwhelming election mandate, the ruling party found that changing the curriculum required the consent of powerful and less powerful sections of society - whose opposition extended across racial lines. This essay reports on research into attempts� by the post- apartheid state to introduce values explicitly into the school curriculum, and how communities - mobilised� primarily on the common front of religious values - combined to decelerate if not reverse radical curriculum reforms. The most important finding from this work is that underestimating the power of faith-based communities is likely to undermine curriculum reforms that touch on matters of values, conscience and religious commitment.

  11. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L. C. Van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  12. 'Deliberative Supranationalism' – A Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Joerges

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is essentially a translation of a comment in German (Joerges 2000 on a series of articles in which Rainer Schmalz-Bruns (1998, 1999a, 1999b developed a concept of legitimate governance beyond the constitutional state, which he called ”deliberative supra-nationalism” and contrasted with what Jürgen Neyer and the present author had suggested under the same title (Joerges/Neyer 1997. Our querelles allemandes were not specifically Teutonic: while Schmalz-Bruns presented his approach as a systematic elaboration of the theories of deliberative democracy, based, in particular, on recent contributions by Joshua Cohen, Michael Dorf and Charles Sabel (Cohen/Sabel, 1997; Dorf/Sabel 1998, Jürgen Neyer and I had offered an interpretation of institutional innovations and decision-making practices as observed in the European market-building project. This discussion has had precursors and follow-ups in various contexts, among both lawyers and political scientists. This essay should hence be understood as contribution to an ongoing debate.

  13. Evaluating the status of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus through tourist-based photographic surveys in the Kruger National Park [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnewick, Kelly; Ferreira, Sam M; Grange, Sophie; Watermeyer, Jessica; Maputla, Nakedi; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T

    2014-01-01

    The Kruger National Park is a stronghold for African wild dog Lycaon pictus and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in South Africa. Tourist photographic surveys have been used to evaluate the minimum number of wild dogs and cheetahs alive over the last two decades. Photographic-based capture-recapture techniques for open populations were used on data collected during a survey done in 2008/9. Models were run for the park as a whole and per region (northern, central, southern). A total of 412 (329-495; SE 41.95) cheetahs and 151 (144-157; SE 3.21) wild dogs occur in the Kruger National Park. Cheetah capture probabilities were affected by time (number of entries) and sex, whereas wild dog capture probabilities were affected by the region of the park. When plotting the number of new individuals identified against the number of entries received, the addition of new wild dogs to the survey reached an asymptote at 210 entries, but cheetahs did not reach an asymptote. The cheetah population of Kruger appears to be acceptable, while the wild dog population size and density are of concern. The effectiveness of tourist-based surveys for estimating population sizes through capture-recapture analyses is shown.

  14. Evaluating the status of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus through tourist-based photographic surveys in the Kruger National Park [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Marnewick

    Full Text Available The Kruger National Park is a stronghold for African wild dog Lycaon pictus and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in South Africa. Tourist photographic surveys have been used to evaluate the minimum number of wild dogs and cheetahs alive over the last two decades. Photographic-based capture-recapture techniques for open populations were used on data collected during a survey done in 2008/9. Models were run for the park as a whole and per region (northern, central, southern. A total of 412 (329-495; SE 41.95 cheetahs and 151 (144-157; SE 3.21 wild dogs occur in the Kruger National Park. Cheetah capture probabilities were affected by time (number of entries and sex, whereas wild dog capture probabilities were affected by the region of the park. When plotting the number of new individuals identified against the number of entries received, the addition of new wild dogs to the survey reached an asymptote at 210 entries, but cheetahs did not reach an asymptote. The cheetah population of Kruger appears to be acceptable, while the wild dog population size and density are of concern. The effectiveness of tourist-based surveys for estimating population sizes through capture-recapture analyses is shown.

  15. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    Attack-defence trees are a powerful technique for formally evaluating attack-defence scenarios. They represent in an intuitive, graphical way the interaction between an attacker and a defender who compete in order to achieve conflicting objectives. We propose a novel framework for the formal...... analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions and allows explicit dependencies in the strategies adopted by attackers and defenders. We adopt a game-theoretic approach, translating attack......-defence trees to two-player stochastic games, and then employ probabilistic model checking techniques to formally analyse these models. This provides a means to both verify formally specified security properties of the attack-defence scenarios and, dually, to synthesise strategies for attackers or defenders...

  16. Modeling the Distribution of African Savanna Elephants in Kruger National Park: AN Application of Multi-Scale GLOBELAND30 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Hays, B.; Fayrer-Hosken, R.; Presotto, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ability of remote sensing to represent ecologically relevant features at multiple spatial scales makes it a powerful tool for studying wildlife distributions. Species of varying sizes perceive and interact with their environment at differing scales; therefore, it is important to consider the role of spatial resolution of remotely sensed data in the creation of distribution models. The release of the Globeland30 land cover classification in 2014, with its 30 m resolution, presents the opportunity to do precisely that. We created a series of Maximum Entropy distribution models for African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) using Globeland30 data analyzed at varying resolutions. We compared these with similarly re-sampled models created from the European Space Agency's Global Land Cover Map (Globcover). These data, in combination with GIS layers of topography and distance to roads, human activity, and water, as well as elephant GPS collar data, were used with MaxEnt software to produce the final distribution models. The AUC (Area Under the Curve) scores indicated that the models created from 600 m data performed better than other spatial resolutions and that the Globeland30 models generally performed better than the Globcover models. Additionally, elevation and distance to rivers seemed to be the most important variables in our models. Our results demonstrate that Globeland30 is a valid alternative to the well-established Globcover for creating wildlife distribution models. It may even be superior for applications which require higher spatial resolution and less nuanced classifications.

  17. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  18. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  19. Habitat association of amphibians in East African bush- and grassland: an example from Meru National Park, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasonga, D.V.; Bakele, A.; Lötters, S.; Balakrishnan, M.

    2006-01-01

    The amphibian diversity in different vegetation communities was investigated in Meru National Park (Kenya), using transect sampling, drift-fences, pitfalls and opportunistic collection. Acacia wooded grassland had highest amphibian diversity (H' = 2.071, D = 6.74), Acacia-Commiphora bushland ranked

  20. Formal Education: A Catalyst to Nation Building. A Case Study of Nigeria. African Theological Studies. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimaka, Anthony Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    The smallest and most remote villages in the developing countries are affected by the rapid and seemingly irresistible trend towards globalization. The limitless availability of information however necessitates education to stand out as the key factor for human and national development. But which conditions must be met by societies for education…

  1. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differing substantially. Here, we describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species. Furthermore, we discuss emerging data suggesting that both the innate and adaptive immune systems display memory characteristics after encountering Candida species.

  2. Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Richard O.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Eichenseer, Herb; Peiffer, Michelle; Ervin, Gary; Murphy, J. Brad; Felton, Gary W.

    2002-04-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, we investigate here whether specific salivary components from the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea might be responsible for this suppression. We find that the enzyme glucose oxidase counteracts the production of nicotine induced by the caterpillar feeding on the plant.

  3. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa.

  4. New drug regimens for HIV in pregnancy and a national strategic plan to manage HIV: A South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngene, Nnabuike C; Moodley, Jagidesa

    2015-10-01

    In South Africa, new drug regimens (WHO treatment Option B) used to manage HIV infection in pregnancy and the national strategic plan on HIV have resulted in improved health outcomes. Among these outcomes are reductions in the following: mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV to 2.4%; maternal deaths attributable to HIV; and adverse reactions due to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The present article describes these new drug regimens and the national strategic HIV management plan, as well as their challenges and the implications of improved health outcomes. Such outcomes imply that further decreases in MTCT of HIV, and HIV attributable maternal deaths are possible if potential challenges are addressed and treatment option B+ offered. A confidential enquiry into each case of MTCT is advocated to reduce vertical transmission rates to zero levels.

  5. Narcissism, defence and the positive transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, C

    1982-01-01

    Questions concerning the positive transference and its therapeutic use have been raised by the psychology of the self. By drawing upon Freud, Abraham and Sharpe, an attempt is made to test whether classical structural, dynamic and developmental theories still provide an adequate theoretical framework for understanding the vicissitudes of the positive transference in patients with significant narcissistic psychopathology. I propose the concept of a narcissistic mechanism of defence which, relying upon the convertibility of object libido into narcissistic libido (and the reverse), utilizes the substitution of activities and inanimate objects for persons in order to compensate for narcissistic injuries and to carry out unconscious aggression motivated by the same injuries. The case of Mrs M reveals that narcissistic transference phenomena, while requiring specific therapeutic interpretation, nevertheless are intrinsically related developmentally to object libidinal conflicts. The patient's narcissistic injuries were found to be intrinsically related to stage specific traumata at the oral, anal and phallic stages. Thus while the narcissistic aspects of these traumata had to be treated therapeutically in their own right, they could not have been successfully treated without the concurrent or sequential treatment of the object libidinal conflicts connected with them. Finally, it is argued that the hypothesis of a narcissistic defence mechanism supported by the hypothesis of pre-oedipal narcissistic projective and introjective identifications with narcissistically divinized or demonized parents within the framework of classical theory can account for the clinical phenomena of narcissistic neuroses.

  6. Study of environmental management systems on defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oglanis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective and sustainable environmental performance of a business is a result of various factors and most important the integrated outcome of the environmental management. Likewise, the integration of environmental protection into the armed forces functions has also gain interest for the military sector internationally. Therefore, the environmental management system (EMS is recognized as one of the most widely used tools. This study provides a review on environmental management issues related to the military activities and their assessment globally. The multitasking characteristics of the defence sector result in the need for the eco-friendly related issues to be directed in a holistic and integrated way, with the help of a certified environmental management system. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO itself and NATO countries, like USA, UK, Canada, Holland, Denmark, Czech Republic, Greece, as well as non-NATO countries like Sweden and Australia have an environmental management system structure in place to assist military environmental management and studies reveal that the armed forces could anticipate positive outcomes from environmental management system. A case-by-case approach, of the above, is examined and based on the results, appropriate recommendations are presented, which may contribute to the environmental management system considerations as the most important tool for effective management framework and most importantly to evaluate its effectiveness as a structure for the defence sector’s activities.

  7. A DIVERSE SOCIETY, A REPRESENTATIVE MILITARY? THE COMPLEXITY OF MANAGING DIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Heinecken

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available After providing a brief background as to why issues of diversity managementwithin armed forces have become important internationally, this article outlines thediversity challenges facing the South African National Defence Force (SANDF.The first part of the article describes how the racial, language/ethnic and genderprofile of the SANDF has changed since 1994 and the tensions this has evoked. Thesecond part provides a brief conceptual framework against which diversitymanagement in the SANDF can be interpreted, whereafter the various diversitymanagement programmes instituted over the years to cultivate a respect for diversityare outlined. It is argued that the predominant emphasis on ‘workplace diversity’ atthe cost of ‘valuing diversity’ has meant that existing stereotypes and tensionswithin the ranks have remained, with dire consequences not only for thecohesiveness and effectiveness of the SANDF, but also for civil-military relations.

  8. Longitudinal assessment of micronutrient intake among African-American and white girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, Sandra G.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Franko, Debra L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Barton, Bruce A.; Schreiber, George B.; Schmidt, Marcia; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Low intakes of micronutrients among adolescents may be linked to long-term health risks, especially in African-American girls. This report describes intake of key micronutrients relative to the Dietary Reference Intakes in a sample of African-American and white girls. Design Longitudinal a

  9. Resolving defence mechanisms: A perspective based on dissipative structure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Ben-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Theories and classifications of defence mechanisms are not unified. This study addresses the psychological system as a dissipative structure which exchanges information with the external and internal world. When using defence mechanisms, the cognitive-affective schema of an individual could remain stable and ordered by excluding psychological entropy, obtaining psychological negentropy or by dissipating the energy of self-presentation. From this perspective, defences can be classified into three basic types: isolation, compensation and self-dissipation. However, not every kind of defence mechanisms can actually help the individual. Non-adaptive defences are just functioning as an effective strategy in the short run but can be a harmful approach in the long run, while adaptive defences could instead help the individual as a long-term mechanism. Thus, we would like to suggest that it is more useful for the individual to use more adaptive defence mechanisms and seek out social or interpersonal support when undergoing psychic difficulties. As this model of defences is theoretical at present, we therefore aim to support and enrich this viewpoint with empirical evidence.

  10. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results show...

  11. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    , one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  12. An Annotated Bibliography of Defence, Disarmament, and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    of United States Defence Spending on Employment and Output, International Labour Review , Vol 124 (6), November-Decem- ber 1985, pp 677-697. Examines...BALL, N. Converting the Workforce: Defence Industry Conversion in the Industrialised Countries, International Labour Review , Vol 125 (4), July-August

  13. Commonwealth Defence Science Organisation (CDSO Food Study Group (FSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Watts

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The Food Study Group (FSG under Commonwealth Defence Science Organisation was established in 1962 to review major items of Defence research programmes and exchange scientific information in the commonwealth countries. This paper gives an insight into the set-up, terms of reference, membership and the way research programmes are conceived and dealt with.

  14. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-09-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  15. Some Methods for Scenario Analysis in Defence Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenarios are an important tool in the strategic planning process, and are increasingly used in both the Defence and business world. This paper...illustrated with small examples. We also demonstrate a single, flexible approach to combining these methods using a typical Defence strategic planning problem

  16. Costs and benefits of hormone-regulated plant defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, I.A.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Van Wees, S.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants activate defence responses to protect themselves against microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects. However, induction of defences comes at a price, as the associated allocation costs, auto-toxicity costs and ecological costs form fitness penalties. Upon pathogen or insect attack, resources

  17. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1999-10-01

    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.

  18. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  19. Raise your defence: a baseline for security

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    It is an unfair imbalance: the (computer) security of a system/service is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain of protection. This provides attackers with an incredible advantage: they can choose when to attack, where and with which means. The defence side is permanently under pressure: they must defend at all times all assets against all eventualities. For computer security, this means that every computer system, every account, every web site and every service must be properly protected --- always.   In particular, at CERN, those services visible to the Internet are permanently probed. Web sites and servers are permanently scanned by adversaries for vulnerabilities; attackers repeatedly try to guess user passwords on our remote access gateways like LXPLUS or CERNTS; computing services, e.g. for Grid computing, are analysed again and again by malicious attackers for weaknesses which can be exploited. Thanks to the vigilance of the corresponding system and service experts, these atta...

  20. Fungi Encountered on Footwear and Defence Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sharma

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of mycoflora on footwears and defence articles from Agra city was made. In all 38 fungi belonging to different genera were recorded. Out of these, 17 fungal species were isolated for the first on these articles. A new variety i.e., Aspergillus sydowii var. agraii Sharma and Sharma was also created. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Drechslera, Alternaria, Fusarium and Trichoderma were found to be dominant in all the cases. Maximum species were recorded from gents footwear and books ankle in comparison to ladies footwear. All these fungi were grouped as (i active (15 isolates, (iimoderate (15 isolates and (iii slow leather deteriogens (8 isolates on the basis of screening.

  1. Department of National Defence's use of thermography for facilities maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittson, John E.

    1990-03-01

    Since the late seventies DND through the Director General Works has been actively encouraging the use of thermography as an efficient and effective technique for supporting preventive maintenance quality assurance and energy conservation programs at Canadian Forces Bases (CFBs). This paper will provide an overview of DND''s experiences in the utilization of thermography for facilities maintenance applications. 1. HISTORICAL MILESTONES The following are milestones of DND''s use of thermography: a. Purchase of Infrared Equipment In 1976/77 DND purchased five AGA 750 Infrared Thermovision Systems which were distributed to commands. In 1980/81/82 six AGA liOs five AGA TPT8Os two AGA 782s and one AGA 720 were acquired. Finally DND also purchased seven AGEMA 870 systems during 1987/88. b. First and Second Interdepartaental Building Thermography Courses In 1978 and 1980 DND hosted two building thermography courses that were conducted by Public Works Canada. c. CE Thermographer Specialist Training Courses DND developed a training standard in 1983 for Construction Engineering (CE) Thermographer qualification which included all CE applications of thermography. The first annual inhouse training course was conducted at CFB Borden Ontario in 1984. These are now being conducted at the CFB Chilliwack Detachment in Vernon British Columbia. 2 . MARKETING FACILITIES MAINTENANCE IR Of paramount importance for successfully developing DND appreciation for thermography was providing familiarization training to CE staff at commands and bases. These threeday presentations emphasized motivational factors conducting thermographic surveys and utilizing infrared data of roofs electrical/mechanical systems heating plants steam distribution and building enclosures. These factors consisted mainly of the following objectives: a. preventive maintenance by locating deficiencies to be repaired b. quality assurance by verification of workmanship materials and design c. energy conservation by locating heat loss areas 2 / SPIE Vol. 1313 Thermosense XII (1990)

  2. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  3. Shaping the Environmental Attitude of Military Geography Students at the South African Military Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hennie A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Globally there is a growing environmental awareness among all segments of society, but research on the effect of environmental education in shaping the attitude of military students is lacking. Tertiary environmental education to officers of the South African Department of Defence is seated in the Department of Military Geography at the South…

  4. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Crego, Begoña; Arteaga, Pedro; Ueber, Alexandra; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Santos, Rui; Molis, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food), but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and compensatory

  5. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Martínez-Crego

    Full Text Available Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food, but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and

  6. A Cost-Effectiveness Tool to Guide the Prioritization of Interventions for Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease Control in African Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinga, Solomon J.; Mayosi, Bongani; Babigumira, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prevalence and mortality rates remain especially high in many parts of Africa. While effective prevention and treatment exist, coverage rates of the various interventions are low. Little is known about the comparative cost-effectiveness of different RHD interventions in limited resource settings. We developed an economic evaluation tool to assist ministries of health in allocating resources and planning RHD control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed a Markov model of the natural history of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and RHD, taking transition probabilities and intervention effectiveness data from previously published studies and expert opinion. Our model estimates the incremental cost-effectiveness of scaling up coverage of primary prevention (PP), secondary prevention (SP) and heart valve surgery (VS) interventions for RHD. We take a healthcare system perspective on costs and measure outcomes as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), discounting both at 3%. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses are also built into the modeling tool. We illustrate the use of this model in a hypothetical low-income African country, drawing on available disease burden and cost data. We found that, in our hypothetical country, PP would be cost saving and SP would be very cost-effective. International referral for VS (e.g., to a country like India that has existing surgical capacity) would be cost-effective, but building in-country VS services would not be cost-effective at typical low-income country thresholds. Conclusions/Significance Our cost-effectiveness analysis tool is designed to inform priorities for ARF/RHD control programs in Africa at the national or subnational level. In contrast to previous literature, our preliminary findings suggest PP could be the most efficient and cheapest approach in poor countries. We provide our model for public use in the form of a Supplementary File. Our research has

  7. An Ecological Paradox: The African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus Is Not Attracted to Water Points When Water Is Scarce in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndaimani

    Full Text Available In dry biomes, spatio-temporal variation in surface water resource stocks is pervasive, with unknown effects on the ranging behaviour of large predators. This study assessed the effect of spatial variation in surface water resources on the ranging behaviour of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. We analyzed data for 1992 (dry year with 20 water points and 2000 (wet year with 30 water points against presence-only data for five packs of L. pictus in a part of Hwange National Park and adjacent smallholder communal farming areas in western Zimbabwe. Modelling the potential habitat for L. pictus using Maxent with distance from water points (Dw and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI as predictor variables was successful for 2000 (AUC = 0.793 but not successful for 1992 (AUC = 0.423, with L. pictus probability of occurrence near water points being more for year 2000 than for year 1992. The predicted L. pictus range was wider in 1992 (~13888.1 km2 than in 2000 (~958.4 km2 (Test of Proportions, χ2 = 124.52, df = 1, P = 0.00. Using the 2nd order Multitype Nearest Neighbour Distance Function (Gcross, we also observed significant attraction between L. pictus and water points within only ~1km radius for 1992 but up to ~8km radius for 2000. Our study reinforced the notion that surface water resources attract wild dogs in the savannahs but paradoxically less so when water resources are scarce. In particular, our study furthers current understanding of the effects of changing water availability regimes on the endangered L. pictus, providing evidence that the endangered predator's home range encroaches into potential ecological traps (i.e., smallholder communal farming areas when water resources are scarce.

  8. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain.

  9. Wild and Domestic Pig Interactions at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the Potential Association with African Swine Fever Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukielka, Esther A.; Jori, Ferran; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Chenais, Erika; Masembe, Charles; Chavernac, David; Ståhl, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Bushpigs (BPs) (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (WHs) (Phacochoerus africanus), which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs (DPs), facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between BP, WH, and DP, and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n = 233) and participatory rural appraisals (n = 11) were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and DP interactions, non-linear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses) was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices) and farmer reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs (WPs) and DP were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6%) of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4%) farmers declared exposing their DP to raw hunting leftovers of WPs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a WH burrow less than 3 km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and DP in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and DPs. PMID:27148545

  10. Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbo, Shamsudeen; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-10-16

    Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease are transboundary viral diseases endemic in Africa and some parts of the Middle East, but with increasing potential for global emergence. Wild ruminants, such as the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), are thought to play a role in the epidemiology of these diseases. This study sought to expand the understanding of the role of buffalo in the maintenance of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) by determining seroprevalence to these viruses during an inter-epidemic period. Buffaloes from the Kruger National Park (n = 138) and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (n = 110) in South Africa were sampled and tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralising antibodies against LSDV and RVFV using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the serum neutralisation test (SNT). The I-ELISA for LSDV and RVFV detected IgG antibodies in 70 of 248 (28.2%) and 15 of 248 (6.1%) buffaloes, respectively. Using the SNT, LSDV and RVFV neutralising antibodies were found in 5 of 66 (7.6%) and 12 of 57 (21.1%), respectively, of samples tested. The RVFV I-ELISA and SNT results correlated well with previously reported results. Of the 12 SNT RVFV-positive sera, three (25.0%) had very high SNT titres of 1:640. Neutralising antibody titres of more than 1:80 were found in 80.0% of the positive sera tested. The LSDV SNT results did not correlate with results obtained by the I-ELISA and neutralising antibody titres detected were low, with the highest (1:20) recorded in only two buffaloes, whilst 11 buffaloes (4.4%) had evidence of co-infection with both viruses. Results obtained in this study complement other reports suggesting a role for buffaloes in the epidemiology of these diseases during inter-epidemic periods.

  11. Wild and Domestic Pig Interactions at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the Potential Association with African Swine Fever Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukielka, Esther A; Jori, Ferran; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Chenais, Erika; Masembe, Charles; Chavernac, David; Ståhl, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Bushpigs (BPs) (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (WHs) (Phacochoerus africanus), which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs (DPs), facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between BP, WH, and DP, and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n = 233) and participatory rural appraisals (n = 11) were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and DP interactions, non-linear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses) was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices) and farmer reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs (WPs) and DP were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6%) of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4%) farmers declared exposing their DP to raw hunting leftovers of WPs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a WH burrow less than 3 km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and DP in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and DPs.

  12. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-11-09

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  13. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  14. PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY: A STRATEGY FOR THE SA DEFENCE FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eberlein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the SA Defence Force (SADF has been bombarded with a variety of methods and approaches to the improvement of productivity, financial savings and, most recently, for quality of work life or quality assurance. Various approaches have included the concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM, Quality Circles (and variants in the guise of Triads and others, Methodology, Unit Management Systems, Cost Control Systems, Deterministic Productivity Accounting and the Iike. There have been many benefits to be found in these various approaches, each of which concentrates on certain aspects of productivity. That there have been great achievements in productivity in the SADF is a matter of record, a record which is reflected in a National Award for Productivity, a smaller more efficient SADF, and a reputation for submitting more recommendations for improvements than other departments in the Public Service. At a more personal level though, the writer has gained the impression that no or very little attempt has been made to integrate selected aspects of these approaches into an overall "productivity” strategy acceptable to the SADF. That there is a need for such an overall strategy is clear from the sentiments expressed recently by the members of the SADF's Productivity Co-ordination Committee when attempting to indicate the way ahead to even greater productivity in the SADF (Meeting, January 1991. In this paper a strategy for the improvement of productivity and the quality of work life which is acceptable to the SADF is proposed.

  15. Chemical antipredator defence is linked to higher extinction risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Many attributes of species may be linked to contemporary extinction risk, though some such traits remain untested despite suggestions that they may be important. Here, I test whether a trait associated with higher background extinction rates, chemical antipredator defence, is also associated with current extinction risk, using amphibians as a model system—a group facing global population declines. I find that chemically defended species are approximately 60% more likely to be threatened than species without chemical defence, although the severity of the contemporary extinction risk may not relate to chemical defence. The results confirm that background and contemporary extinction rates can be predicted from the same traits, at least in certain cases. This suggests that associations between extinction risk and phenotypic traits can be temporally stable over long periods. The results also provide novel insights into the relevance of antipredator defences for species subject to conservation concerns. PMID:28018657

  16. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik;

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists...

  17. Cellular Metals and Ceramics for Defence Applications (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol A. Gokhale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Among cellular metals, aluminium foams are the most commonly produced, and provide a unique combination of properties such as: very low density, high energy absorption under static and dynamic compressions, blast amelioration, sound absorption, and flame resistance. Applications in automotive and defence sectors have been reported. Foams based on high melting point metals such as nickel and its alloys are also under active development throughout the world for applications requiring corrosion and oxidation resistance coupled with high temperature strength and relatively high thermal conductivity. Ceramic foams were developed elsewhere in the world primarily for biomedical applications, but are also suitable for defence applications for high temperature insulation. These cellular materials will provide new materials options to designers of aerospace, transport, and other defence systems.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(6, pp.567-575, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.640

  18. 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sillitti, Alberto; Succi, Giancarlo; Messina, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents high-quality original contributions on new software engineering models, approaches, methods, and tools and their evaluation in the context of defence and security applications. In addition, important business and economic aspects are discussed, with a particular focus on cost/benefit analysis, new business models, organizational evolution, and business intelligence systems. The contents are based on presentations delivered at SEDA 2015, the 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, which was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2015. This conference series represents a targeted response to the growing need for research that reports and debates the practical implications of software engineering within the defence environment and also for software performance evaluation in real settings through controlled experiments as well as case and field studies. The book will appeal to all with an interest in modeling, managing, and implementing defence-related software devel...

  19. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    which guarantee or optimise some quantitative property, such as the probability of a successful attack, the expected cost incurred, or some multi-objective trade-off between the two. We implement our approach, building upon the PRISM-games model checker, and apply it to a case study of an RFID goods...... analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions and allows explicit dependencies in the strategies adopted by attackers and defenders. We adopt a game-theoretic approach, translating attack......-defence trees to two-player stochastic games, and then employ probabilistic model checking techniques to formally analyse these models. This provides a means to both verify formally specified security properties of the attack-defence scenarios and, dually, to synthesise strategies for attackers or defenders...

  20. Method of defence of solder surface from oxidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmashev Sh. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Compositions are developed for defence of fusion solder from oxidization on the basis of mixture of glycerin, urea and powders of refractory oxides, carbides (Al2O3, TiO2, SIC, graphite. The offered compositions can be used for defence of fusion of solder from oxidization in the process of soludering and tinning of explorers, and also electric conclusions of elements of radio electronic apparatus by the method of immersion in stationary baths.

  1. A Review of Enterprise Architecture Use in Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Architecture. A review was undertaken to gain insight into the perceived value that various Stakeholders within Defence were realising from the use...perceived value that various Stakeholders within Defence were realising from the use of enterprise architectures to assist with the realisation of the...of enterprise architectures to assist with the realisation of the integrated networked force. The report distils lesson learned over this period

  2. Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.331-339, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2756

  3. Crohn's disease-Defect in innate defence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Gersemann; Jan Wehkamp; Klaus Fellermann; Eduard Friedrich Stange

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease may prinicipally involve the whole gastrointestinal tract. Most commonly, the inflammation occurs in the small intestine and/or in the colon with stable disease location over the years. The pathogenesis of both disease phenotypes is complex, the likely primary defect lies in the innate rather than adaptive immunity, particularly in the chemical antimicrobial barrier of the mucosa Crohn's ileitis is associated with a reduced expression of the Wnt signalling pathway transcription factor T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) ,which is regulating Paneth cell differentiation. As a result, the alpha-defensins and principal Paneth cell products HD5 and HD6 are deficiently expressed in ileal disease, independent of current inflammation. In contrast, Crohn's colitis is typically associated with an impaired induction of the beta-defensins HBD2 and HBD3 caused by fewer gene copy numbers in the gene locus of the beta-defensins on chromosome 8. This ileal and colonic defect in innate defence mediated by a deficiency of the protective alpha- and betadefensins may enable the luminal microbes to invade the mucosa and trigger the inflammation. A better understanding of the exact molecular mechanisms behind ileal and colonic Crohn's disease may give rise to new therapeutic strategies based on a stimulation of the protective innate immune system.(C)2008 The WJG Press. All fights reserved.

  4. African America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Brown, Gloria

    1994-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of quality materials by and about African Americans in the areas of poetry, music, folklore, women, picture books, history/collective biography, authors, and professional materials. Activities are suggested in each area for Black History Month. (LRW)

  5. SECURITY AND DEFENCE SOURCES FOR THE ARMED FORCES OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan SOPÓCI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some aspects of security and defence sources for the armed forces of the Slovak Republic. It compares the possibilities of several NATO states in terms of their Gross National Product (GNP and their expenses for the armed forces. The article refers to the negative impingement of expenses reduction on the position of the SR and the Slovak armed forces developed with its NATO and EU partners. It also focuses on the possibilities to obtain funding sources for the development of armed forces from special NATO programmes.

  6. Innate immune defences in the human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rodney W

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.

  7. Between history, amnesia and selective memory: The South African armed forces, a century’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2012 has a double significance for this year sees the centenary of the founding of the African National Congress (8 January and of the creation of the Union Defence Forces (1 July, two organisations that have for much of the twentieth century shared a contested history. Yet, in a remarkable bouleversement, South Africa has come through this difficult past and, over the past two decades, a new South African society has been recreated following an interesting period of adjustment following the end of the Cold War and the growth of democracy in the developing world. These changes have necessarily affected her armed forces and the roles defined for them. Some commentators, particularly in the years immediately following 1994, asserted that military power had lost all of its vaunted, Cold-War importance in a new postmodern environment. Others still, recognising future challenges, argued that South Africa, beset with far-reaching socio-economic crises, could no longer afford the burden of military forces. Most scholars agree now that these perspectives were short-sighted and that, while the risk of major conflict has receded, the events of 9/11, and its consequences, demonstrate that the continental and international landscapes are less certain, less stable and less predictable, than that for which many had hoped. Clearly, South African interests are intertwined inextricably in regional and global affairs and if she is to protect these interests and ensure her security, she must maintain credible military force capable of meeting an array of contingencies. It was with this in mind that the strategic arms deal, since the subject of much debate, was passed by parliament:[i] the promise of a full technological transformation, to accompany the human transformation, offered. [i] J Sylvester & A Seegers. “South Africa’s Strategic Arms Package: A Critical Analysis”. Scientia Militaria 36/1. 2008. 52-77.

  8. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  9. Interpreting the impact of flood forecasts by combining policy analysis studies and flood defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood forecasting is necessary to save lives and reduce damages. Reducing damages is important to save livelihoods and to reduce the recovery time. Flood alerts should contain expected time of the event, location and extent of the event. A flood alert is not only one message but part of a rehearsed flow of information using multiple canals. First people have to accept the fact that there might be a threat and what the threat is about. People need a reference to understand the situation and be aware of possible measures they can take to assure their own safety and reduce damages. Information to the general public has to be consistent with the information used by emergency services and has to be very clear about consequences and context of possible measures (as shelter in place or preventive evacuation. Emergency services should monitor how the public is responding to adapt their communication en operation during a crisis. Flood warnings and emergency services are often coordinated by different government organisations. This is an extra handicap for having consistent information out on time for people to use. In an information based society, where everyone has twitter, email and a camera, public organisations may have to trust the public more and send out the correct information as it comes in. In the Netherlands Rijkswaterstaat, the National Water Authority and the National Public Works Department, is responsible for or involved in forecasting in case of floods, policy studies on flood risk, policy studies on maintenance, assessment and design of flood defences, elaborating rules and regulations for flood defences, advice on crisis management to the national government and for maintaining the main infrastructure in the Netherlands (high ways and water ways. The Water Management Center in the Netherlands (WMCN has developed a number of models to provide flood forecasts. WMCN is run for and by all managers of flood defences and is hosted by

  10. African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Histol. 1977;375:53- 70. 42. Poltera AA, Owor R, Cox JN. Pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. A post - mortem survey of...nodular lesions , including anthrax or tick bite associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. The chancre is followed by a hemolymphatic stage, dur- ing...electrocardiograph- ic changes and, at times, terminal cardiac insufficiency.41 Pulmonary lesions specifically related to trypanosomiasis are not

  11. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  12. THE SOUTH AFRICAN NAVY AND ITS PREDECESSORS, 1910–2010: A CENTURY OF INTERACTION WITH COMMONWEALTH NAVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wessels

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the history of the South African Navy (SAN and itspredecessors is reviewed, as well as the interaction with other Commonwealthnavies during the years 1910 to 2010. Although the Union Defence Forces wereestablished in 1912, the Union only acquired its first naval force in 1922, when theSouth African Naval Service (SANS was formed. In the meantime, the country’snaval defence was conducted by the Royal Navy (RN. During World War I, 164members of the South African Division of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserveserved in the RN. The SANS’s three small ships were withdrawn from service in1933 to 1934, and when World War II broke out, the country’s naval forces had tobe built up from scratch – but soon played an important role in patrolling the Capesea route (and also saw action in the Mediterranean. After the war, South Africa’snaval forces were rationalised, but – in the context of the Cold War and the Sovietthreat to the Cape sea route – the SAN then gradually grew in size and importance,albeit that it was (and today still is small in comparison to major Commonwealthnavies. In 1957, the SAN acquired the RN’s Simon’s Town Naval Base. Manyexercises were held with the RN and other navies, but gradually South Africabecame more isolated internationally because of the National Party government’sracially-based policy of apartheid. In due course, this impacted negatively on the SAN and its interaction with other navies. In 1975, the Simon’s Town Agreementwas abrogated and in 1977, the United Nations imposed a mandatory arms embargoagainst South Africa. In the meantime, the Republic of South Africa (RSA becameembroiled in the Namibian War of Independence (1966–1989 – a war that spilledover into Angola. The SAN played a small, albeit important, role in the war, but theconflict affected the navy negatively. The advent of the truly democratic RSA in1994 opened new opportunities for the SAN, and since then, the SAN

  13. The contribution of King II report in the fight against corruption in the South African public sector with special reference to national departments / William Moraka Makgabo

    OpenAIRE

    Makgabo, William Moraka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of the King II Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa in the fight against fraud and corruption in the South African public sector. Four areas of good corporate governance as recommended by the King II Report, i.e. internal audit, risk management, audit committee, and ethics (fraud prevention) have been identified for the purpose of this study. Corruption is a significant problem both in major and develop...

  14. Pan-Africanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Diaz Guevara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This essaic-article goes against established conventions that there is anything ethno-cultural (and hence national about the so-called African tribes. Drawing largely from the culture history of precolonial/prepolitical Africans—that is, the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians (Azanians—the author has demonstrated vividly that far from being distinct ethno-culture national communities, the so-called tribes of African states are better considered subculture groups, whose regional culture practices erstwhile paid tribute to their nation’s main culture center in Karnak. For example, using the culture symbols and practices of some local groups and linking them to the predynastic and dynastic Pharaonic periods, I argued that there is compelling evidence against qualifying Africa’s tribes as distinct ethno-culture national entities. In genuine culture context, I stressed that the Ritual of Resurrection and its twin culture process of the mummification of deceased indigenous Pharaohs tend to suggest that the object of the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians national culture was life (in its eternal manifestation and then resurrection later, and that there are recurring (culturally sanctioned ethical examples among the culture custodians of these subculture groups that generally pay tribute to the overarching culture norm. Furthermore, the fact that the Ritual of Resurrection began in the Delta region and ended at the Sources of the Nile, where the spirit of the deceased indigenous Pharaohs was introduced into the spiritual world of their ancestors, contradicts conventional perceptions that ancient Egypt was a distinct national community isolated from precolonial/prepolitical Africa/Azania.

  15. Infection biology and defence responses in sorghum against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied...... decreases in formation of appressoria as well as accumulation of H2O2, HRGPs and phytoalexins. Concomitant with these inducible responses, fungal growth was stopped during or just after penetration in genotypes SC146 and SC326. High levels of H2O2 accumulating at late infection stages (5 days after...

  16. East African ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  17. Antiretroviral therapy in the Malawi defence force: access, treatment outcomes and impact on mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred C Banda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS affects all sectors of the population and the defence forces are not exempt. A national survey was conducted in all public and private sectors in Malawi that provide antiretroviral therapy (ART to determine the uptake of ART by army personnel, their outcomes while on treatment, and the impact of ART on mortality in the Malawi Defence Force. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort analysis was carried out, collecting data on access and retention on treatment from all 103 public and 38 private sector ART clinics in Malawi, using standardised patient master cards and clinic registers. Observations were censored on December 31(st 2006. Independent data on mortality trends in army personnel from all causes between 2002 and 2006 were available from army records. By December 31(st 2006, there were 85,168 patients ever started on ART in both public and private sectors, of whom 547 (0.7% were army personnel. Of these, 22% started ART in WHO clinical stage 1 or 2 with a CD4-lymphocyte count of defence forces and large companies in the region.

  18. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  19. Exploiting Modelling and Simulation in Support of Cyber Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Boltjes, B.; Croom-Jonson, S.; Jonat, F.; Çankaya, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly evolving environment of Cyber threats against the NATO Alliance has necessitated a renewed focus on the development of Cyber Defence policy and capabilities. The NATO Modelling and Simulation Group is looking for ways to leverage Modelling and Simulation experience in research, analysis

  20. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species.

  1. The plant proteolytic machinery and its role in defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der R.A.L.; Jones, J.D.G.

    2004-01-01

    The diverse roles of plant proteases in defence responses that are triggered by pathogens or pests are becoming clearer. Some proteases, such as papain in latex, execute the attack on the invading organism. Other proteases seem to be part of a signalling cascade, as indicated by protease inhibitor s

  2. Briefing: Lessons learned from failures of flood defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    Failure of flood defences during extreme events can lead to enormous damage and loss of life. This paper presents lessons learned from investigations of flood events over recent years, including the 2005 flooding in New Orleans, USA, caused by hurricane Katrina. Based on these findings, new developm

  3. Gastropod skeletal defences: land, freshwater, and sea compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a primary agency of natural selection affecting the evolution of skeletal form in gastropods. The nature of antipredatory defence depends on how predators attack their prey as well as on the types and quantities of resources that are available to the potential victims. Here I review the

  4. From Territorial Defence to Expeditionary Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe; Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2016-01-01

    After the Cold War the Danish Armed Forces moved away from its traditional role of territorial defense of Danish soil and towards a role as a globally deployable expeditionary force, imbedded with UK and/or US forces. This shift in national strategy amplified the requirements of the young officer......’ ability to think and act strategically in international missions. This article discusses to what extent this has been reflected in the education of the young officers....

  5. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and of a nearly chronic nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member-states announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015....... The readiness is to be tested at a continental field exercise, Amani Africa 11 to take place in South Africa October 2015. (Defence Web, 2015) The article will start by mapping out the security dynamics and architecture in East Africa, including its membership circles and priorities. The article...

  6. CHIRAC'S GAULLISM - WHY FRANCE HAS BECOME THE DRIVING FORCE BEHIND THE EFFORT TO BUILD AN AUTONOMOUS EUROPEAN DEFENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel H. Van Herpen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses Chirac’s European defence policy and how it fits into the Gaullist tradition. He starts by sketching the original Gaullism of General De Gaulle which is based on four pillars: a national industrial policy, an independent foreign policy, the possession of a French nuclear deterrent and the ambition to build an independent European defence. His efforts in the last realm, however, are blocked by the US and its European NATO allies. In the Non-Gaullist Interregnum between 1974-1995 President Giscard d’Estaing jeopardised the Gaullist legacy, but President François Mitterrand became – against all expectations – a ‘Socialist Gaullist’ and it was he who realised one of De Gaulle’s objectives by creating the Eurocorps. His successor, Jacques Chirac has conducted a highly volatile European policy. The author distinguishes no less than six different and often contradictory phases in Chirac’s European defence policy. Despite the failures, some successes, however, have been booked, especially after the Saint-Malo Summit with Tony Blair. But much will depend in the coming years on how Chirac will succeed his balancing act between the EU-25, the French-German tandem and the ‘Big Three’.

  7. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  8. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Sonic Defences in Bombycoidea Caterpillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Veronica L.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Yack, Jayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Caterpillars have long been used as models for studying animal defence. Their impressive armour, including flamboyant warning colours, poisonous spines, irritating sprays, and mimicry of plant parts, snakes and bird droppings, has been extensively documented. But research has mainly focused on visual and chemical displays. Here we show that some caterpillars also exhibit sonic displays. During simulated attacks, 45% of 38 genera and 33% of 61 species of silk and hawkmoth caterpillars (Bombycoidea) produced sounds. Sonic caterpillars are found in many distantly-related groups of Bombycoidea, and have evolved four distinct sound types- clicks, chirps, whistles and vocalizations. We propose that different sounds convey different messages, with some designed to warn of a chemical defence and others, to startle predators. This research underscores the importance of exploring acoustic communication in juvenile insects, and provides a model system to explore how different signals have evolved to frighten, warn or even trick predators. PMID:27510510

  10. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Miljkovic

    Full Text Available Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2 triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be

  11. Distributed Computing and its Scope in Defence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. George

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed computing is one of the paradigms in the world of information technology. Middleware is the essential tool for implementing distributed computing for overtaking theheterogeneity of platform and language. DRDO’s intranet, DRONA, has the potential of hosting distributed applications across the network. This paper deals with the essentials of distributed computing, architecture of DRONA network, and the scope of distributed computing in Defence applications. It also suggests a few possible applications of distributed computing.

  12. Anosognosia as motivated unawareness: the 'defence' hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Solms, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia has seen a century of almost continuous research, yet a definitive understanding of its mechanism remains elusive. Essentially, anosognosic patients hold quasi-delusional beliefs about their paralysed limbs, in spite of all the contrary evidence, repeated questioning, and logical argument. We review a range of findings suggesting that emotion and motivation play an important role in anosognosia. We conclude that anosognosia involves (amongst other things) a process of psychological defence. This conclusion stems from a wide variety of clinical and experimental investigations, including data on implicit awareness of deficit, fluctuations in awareness over time, and dramatic effects upon awareness of psychological interventions such as psychotherapy, reframing of the emotional consequences of the paralysis, and first versus third person perspectival manipulations. In addition, we review and refute the (eight) arguments historically raised against the 'defence' hypothesis, including the claim that a defence-based account cannot explain the lateralised nature of the disorder. We argue that damage to a well-established right-lateralised emotion regulation system, with links to psychological processes that appear to underpin allocentric spatial cognition, plays a key role in anosognosia (at least in some patients). We conclude with a discussion of implications for clinical practice.

  13. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  14. Radio Frequency Microelectromechanical Systems in Defence and Aerospace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.K. Sastry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For all onboard systems applications, it is important to have very low-loss characteristics and low power consumption coupled with size reduction. The controls and instrumentation in defence and aerospace continually calls for newer technologies and developments. One such technology showing remarkable potential over the years is radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS which have already made their presence felt prominently by offering replacement in radar and communication systems with high quality factors and precise tunability. The RF MEMS components have emerged as potential candidates for defence and aerospace applications. The core theme of this paper is to drive home the fact that the limitations faced by the current RF devices can be overcome by the flexibility and better device performance characteristics of RF MEMS components, which ultimately propagate the device level benefits to the final system to attain the unprecedented levels of performance.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(6, pp.568-567, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1561

  15. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  16. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  17. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  18. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  19. Abundance, distribution and status of African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in dry savanna woodlands in southern Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, E.; Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Zinhiva, H.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance, distribution and status of baobabs (Adansonia digitata L.) in three land categories namely, (i) plains, (ii) riverine and rocky outcrops, and (iii) development areas, in southern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe, were determined. Baobabs were sampled between April an

  20. 3 CFR - Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur Presidential Documents Other... the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in...

  1. Costs and benefits of chemical defence in the Red Alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that the production of chemical defences is costly in terrestrial vascular plants. However, these studies do not necessarily reflect the costs of defence production in macroalgae, due to structural and functional differences between vascular plants and macroalgae. Using a specific culturing technique, we experimentally manipulated the defence production in the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera to examine if the defence is costly in terms of growth. Furthermore, we tested if the defence provides fitness benefits by reducing harmful bacterial colonisation of the alga. Costly defences should provide benefits to the producer in order to be maintained in natural populations, but such benefits through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation have rarely been documented in macroalgae. We found that algae with experimentally impaired defence production, but with an externally controlled epibacterial load, grew significantly better than algae with normal defence production. We also found that undefended algae exposed to a natural epibacterial load experienced a substantial reduction in growth and a 6-fold increase in cell bleaching, compared to controls. Thus, this study provides experimental evidence that chemical defence production in macroalgae is costly, but that the cost is outweighed by fitness benefits provided through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation.

  2. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swadhin Swain; Nidhi Singh; Ashis Kumar Nandi

    2015-03-01

    A sustainable balance between defence and growth is essential for optimal fitness under pathogen stress. Plants activate immune response at the cost of normal metabolic requirements. Thus, plants that constitutively activate defence are deprived of growth. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1 (cdd1) is an exception. The cdd1 mutant is constitutive for salicylic acid accumulation, signalling, and defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, without having much impact on growth. Thus, cdd1 offers an ideal genetic background to identify novel regulators of plant defence. Here we report the differential gene expression profile between cdd1 and wild-type plants as obtained by microarray hybridization. Expression of several defence-related genes also supports constitutive activation of defence in cdd1. We screened T-DNA insertion mutant lines of selected genes, for resistance against virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Through bacterial resistance, callose deposition and pathogenesis-associated expression analyses, we identified four novel regulators of plant defence. Resistance levels in the mutants suggest that At2g19810 and [rom] At5g05790 are positive regulators, whereas At1g61370 and At3g42790 are negative regulators of plant defence against bacterial pathogens.

  3. Freshwater nematodes of the genera Thornenema and Mesodorylaimus from the Kruger National Park with a diagnostic species compendium for South African species of the genus Mesodorylaimus (Nematoda: Dorylaimida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete descriptions are given of Mesodorylaimus potus Heyns, 1963, a new record for the Kruger National Park and M. aegypticus (Andrassy, 1958 recorded here for the first time from South Africa. Additional information and new distribution records are given for Mesodorylaimus sp. cf paralitoralis (Basson & Heyns, 1974 and Thornenema haldum (Thome, 1939. A compendium is also presented for the 17 recognized Mesodorylaimus species from South Africa.

  4. How Strong Is Europeanisation, Really? The Danish Defence Administration and the Opt-Out from the European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2011-01-01

    The article questions how strong Europeanisation is as an explanation of administrative changes in EU member states. Denmark has an opt-out from the European cooperation on defence, and, therefore, its defence administration represents a critical or a less likely case to test the Europeanisation...... thesis. The article shows that in spite of the opt-out, the administrative structures and the policy processes in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) have adapted to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP). Surprisingly, the administrative...

  5. 欧盟《国防指令》及中国针对欧盟装备采购的准备工作%EU Defence Directive:Content and Impl ied Preparatory Work to Be Done for Defence Procurement from EU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王加为; 侯莉萍

    2016-01-01

    The Defence Directive is a directive disciplining all the Member States in defence pro-curement,which has been transferred to the national law of all the Member States by 2013.For a bet-ter perception of EU defence procurement policy,and to get ready in future defence procurement from EU,the weak points of China’s research into EU law of defence procurement are listed and the con-tent of Defence Directive is discussed in five aspects,namely coverage,procurement procedures,se-curity of supply and information,offsets and subcontracts,and finally,review and remedies.It is ar-gued that China should,as well as of personnel cultivation,reinforce the study of EU laws of public procurement and defence procurement,including the EU position of offsets in military trade,review and remedies,and competitive dialogue,to take a vantage point in the defence procurement from EU.%《国防指令》是欧盟成员国进行国防采购时必须遵守的指令,各成员国已于2013年全部实现《国防指令》向国内法的转变。为更好地了解欧盟国防采购政策并在未来对欧盟装备采购中做好准备工作,针对目前我国对欧盟国防采购研究的不足,对欧盟《国防指令》的内容按适用范围、采购方式、供货与信息安全、抵消贸易与分包、复议与救济的顺序进行了分析。指出为了做好未来对欧盟装备采购工作,应当加强对欧盟公共采购制度和军事采购制度的研究,如欧盟在军事贸易中对抵消贸易的态度、复议和救济制度和竞争性对话等,并有针对性地做好人才培养工作。

  6. Reconciliation: The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s contribution to dealing with the past, reconciling and building the nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available International experience has shown that addressing past human rights violations is a necessary step in the process of reconciliation and nation building. How was post-apartheid, democratic South Africa to deal with its past human rights violations? Would it go the way of retribution in order to settle the scores of the past? Would it go the way of blanket amnesty in the name of political expediency and ignore the fate of its victims?   The Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation, Act 34 of 1995, which established the TRC envisaged that national unity and reconciliation could be promoted by determining the extent, and the fate and whereabouts of the victims, of such human rights violations; giving opportunity for story-telling; recommending reparations and measures to prevent future violations; and by providing a full report. In order to do so the Commission had the power to grant amnesty to those making such disclosures.  This article, while not uncritical of the Commission, is generally positive about its contribution both in attempting to deal with the past, and in building a democratic, human rights and restorative justice culture based on the rule of law. It examines the definitions of reconciliation that emerged during the Commission in the light of a Christian definition where reconciliation is seen to be between God, others and self, and involves integration with the human community. This integration involves taking responsibility for the past, confession and repentance, forgiving and being forgiven, making restitution where possible, ongoing transformation in the present and hope for the future.

  7. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  8. Photosynthesis, photorespiration, and light signalling in defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Neukermans, Jenny; Li, Shengchun; Aro, Eva-Mari; Noctor, Graham

    2012-02-01

    Visible light is the basic energetic driver of plant biomass production through photosynthesis. The constantly fluctuating availability of light and other environmental factors means that the photosynthetic apparatus must be able to operate in a dynamic fashion appropriate to the prevailing conditions. Dynamic regulation is achieved through an array of homeostatic control mechanisms that both respond to and influence cellular energy and reductant status. In addition, light availability and quality are continuously monitored by plants through photoreceptors. Outside the laboratory growth room, it is within the context of complex changes in energy and signalling status that plants must regulate pathways to deal with biotic challenges, and this can be influenced by changes in the highly energetic photosynthetic pathways and in the turnover of the photosynthetic machinery. Because of this, defence responses are neither simple nor easily predictable, but rather conditioned by the nutritional and signalling status of the plant cell. This review discusses recent data and emerging concepts of how recognized defence pathways interact with and are influenced by light-dependent processes. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential roles of the chloroplast, photorespiration, and photoreceptor-associated pathways in regulating the outcome of interactions between plants and pathogenic organisms.

  9. Mutualistic ants as an indirect defence against leaf pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Mutualistic ants are commonly considered as an efficient indirect defence against herbivores. Nevertheless, their indirect protective role against plant pathogens has been scarcely investigated. We compared the protective role against pathogens of two different ant partners, a mutualistic and a parasitic ant, on the host plant Acacia hindsii (Fabaceae). The epiphytic bacterial community on leaves was evaluated in the presence and absence of both ant partners by cultivation and by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pathogen-inflicted leaf damage, epiphytic bacterial abundance (colony-forming units) and number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher in plants inhabited by parasitic ants than in plants inhabited by mutualistic ants. Unifrac unweighted and weighted principal component analyses showed that the bacterial community composition on leaves changed significantly when mutualistic ants were removed from plants or when plants were inhabited by parasitic ants. Direct mechanisms provided by ant-associated bacteria would contribute to the protective role against pathogens. The results suggest that the indirect defence of mutualistic ants also covers the protection from bacterial plant pathogens. Our findings highlight the importance of considering bacterial partners in ant-plant defensive mutualisms, which can contribute significantly to ant-mediated protection from plant pathogens.

  10. Manic Defences in Contemporary Society. The Psychocultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko; Jakovljevic, Miro; Marcinko, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the impact of contemporary culture on the individual's personality. We used the "psychocultural" approach whose key feature is the amalgamation of theories and methods belonging to psychodynamic and psychosocial studies, as well as those used in the field of media and cultural studies. The idea of a potentially therapeutic effect of culture (therapy culture) can already been seen in Freud's and Lacan's texts, and it is often used in critical analyses of contemporary corporate culture, which is more or less developed in some parts of the world. In their criticisms, many contemporary authors emphasize that modern societies have a tendency towards the weakening of basic commitment, or lack thereof, to a social equivalent of Winnicott's concept of environmental provisions as an inalienable democratic right essential for human emotional and mental progress or emotional well-being. The article describes frequent resorting to the so-called manic defences that defensively distort, deny and obscure the awareness that a human being is not the omnipotent source of life, but instead depends on other human beings, and often tries to compensate for loss through various activities. The article describes excessive shopping as an activity that often serves as an attempt to find what was lost, i.e. to fill an emotional void. This solution (resorting to manic defences) is encouraged by contemporary culture, especially through promotional material (e.g. advertising). The main theses of this article are supported by quotations and data from world literature.

  11. Converting old shore protection structures into softer defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzini, Enzo

    2010-05-01

    Beach erosion has been affecting several developed countries since the middle of 19th century, which led to the construction of many different protection structures. These frequently proved to be ineffective locally, while being negative for downdrift coastal segments. In addition, such defence structures modified the coastal morphology, often transforming a sandy beach into a rocky coast. Softer shore protection projects have been developed in the past years, mostly accompanied by beach nourishment that uses quarried material or shelf sediments. This proved to be efficient in defending the beach, without negative fallouts on unprotected sectors. These techniques can be easily applied to beaches where no "archeaostructures" had been realized before. On the other hand, difficulties arise when such "old style" structures are to be replaced with softer techniques, since traditional hard defences usually cause such changes to beach profile that innovative ones become "too soft". Due to profile deepening in front of reflective structures, wave shoaling is reduced and energy dissipation concentrated in a narrow beach band. Restoring a milder profile needs a large amount of sediments and fine sands are not stable under those conditions. The new challenge for coastal engineers, coastal geomorphologists and coastal planners is managing the transition from old archaeostructures to new soft shore protection techniques. This process requires years of progressive adaptation - an unsuitable timing for politicians who demand fast results to be sold during the next elections. In Italy, along the Tuscany coast, where more than two kilometres of breakwaters protect each kilometre of coast, such a process has been initiated after a long phase of stakeholder participation in order to overcome public scepticism towards "invisible" defences. Detached breakwaters were lowered below sea level at Follonica and Marina di Pisa, while the number of groins is to be reduced at Marina di Massa

  12. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  13. Are bacteriophage defence and virulence two sides of the same coin in Campylobacter jejuni?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); P. van Baarlen (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to h

  14. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Client-Oriented Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to cr

  15. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Executive Leaflet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to cr

  16. Intraspecific variation in a generalist herbivore accounts for differential induction and impact of host plant defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, M.R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and herbivores are thought to be engaged in a coevolutionary arms race: rising frequencies of plants with anti-herbivore defences exert pressure on herbivores to resist or circumvent these defences and vice versa. Owing to its frequency-dependent character, the arms race hypothesis predicts t

  17. NRT/PTR transporters are essential for translocation of glucosinolate defence compounds to seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Burow, Meike;

    2012-01-01

    In plants, transport processes are important for the reallocation of defence compounds to protect tissues of high value, as demonstrated in the plant model Arabidopsis, in which the major defence compounds, glucosinolates, are translocated to seeds on maturation. The molecular basis for long-dist...

  18. Estimating the ROI for Recruitment Marketing and Advertising Expenditure for the Australian Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    OF RECRUITMENT MARKETING AND ADVERTISING EXPENDITURE FOR THE AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE by Christopher D. Kitchin March 2012 Thesis...ROI for Recruitment Marketing and Advertising Expenditure for the Australian Defence Force 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher D. Kitchin... advertising expenditure was found to have no effect on enlistments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Marketing and Advertising Expenditure, Recruitment 15

  19. Inhibition of lipoxygenase affects induction of both direct and indirect plant defences against herbivorous insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Broekhoven, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Posthumus, M.A.; Müller, M.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant defences influence the behaviour of insects associated with the plant. For biting–chewing herbivores the octadecanoid signal-transduction pathway has been suggested to play a key role in induced plant defence. To test this hypothesis in our plant—herbivore—parasitoid tritroph

  20. Genetic dissection of basal defence responsiveness in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, S.; Hulten, M. van; Martin, J.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Wees, S.C.M. van; Ton, J.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance involves a multitude of pathogen- and herbivore-inducible defence mechanisms, ranging from localized callose deposition to systemic defence gene induction by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). In this study, we have explored and dissected genetic variation in the responsive

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Defence Mechanisms Used in Psychotherapy by Adults Who Have Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D. W.; Beail, N.

    2010-01-01

    Problem: A significant concept in psychodynamic theory and practice is that of defence mechanisms. The identifications of defences is a key task of the therapist and these are then used in the formulation and form part of the therapist's interventions. Case studies of psychotherapy with adults who have intellectual disabilities (IDs) suggest that…

  2. Plant defence against nematodes is not mediated by changes in the soil microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurst, S.; Beersum, van S.; Wagenaar, R.; Bakx-Schotman, J.M.T.; Drigo, B.; Janzik, I.; Lanoue, A.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Indirect plant defence, the recruitment of antagonists of herbivores, is well-known above the ground. In spite of various soil microorganisms acting as antagonists to root herbivores, it is still largely unknown whether plants can promote antagonistic microorganisms as an indirect defence mechani

  3. To Gain the Academic Capital: The Conflict and Solution in the Dissertation Proposal Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningning, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Doctor candidates get the academic identity and academic capital in his field by the thesis writing. The dissertation proposal defence hold on the public field promotes the state of academic and legalizes the discipline of the academic community. During the dissertation proposal defence, doctor candidates may face three conflicts. The first is…

  4. Computational intelligence methods for the efficient reliability analysis of complex flood defence structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingston, Greer B.; Rajabalinejad, Mohammadreza; Gouldby, Ben P.; Gelder, van Pieter H.A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    With the continual rise of sea levels and deterioration of flood defence structures over time, it is no longer appropriate to define a design level of flood protection, but rather, it is necessary to estimate the reliability of flood defences under varying and uncertain conditions. For complex geote

  5. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...

  6. Physiological Research of Defence Interest in India Part I : Studies in High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Ramaswamy

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Our troops have to operate under a variety of adverse environments including hypoxic, dry cold/wet cold conditions of high altitudes, hot dry/humid conditions in the plains, high noise levels from machinery, engines in ships and aircraft, gunfire, etc. Professor DS Kothari, the first Scientific Adviser, Ministry of Defence, could foresee as early as the late forties that it was only a scientific understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms that would lead to solutions which would ensure the optimal operational efficiency of men under such trying environments. He sowed the seeds of defence physiology as a major discipline in the then Defence Science Organisation, which developed into the Defence Research and Development organisation. As a result, there have been outstanding contributions by the defence physiologists as well in the direct applications of their work in optimizing the operational efficiency of our defence personnel. This paper reviews the wide spectrum of problems relevant to defence physiology studied over the last four decades, the significant findings, and their practical applications. Part I reviews in detail work on the most pressing problem in our current geopolitical context, viz. high altitude physiology. Part II discusses studies on thermal stress, bioclimatology, noise exposure hazards, physical work capacity, effects of ageing on physical and mental capacities, and toxicology. In addition, the contributions of defence scientists towards the rationalisation of service ration scales, and resource development efforts are dealt with.

  7. Are bacteriophage defence and virulence two sides of the same coin in Campylobacter jejuni?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to have evolved

  8. Induced defences alter the strength and direction of natural selection on reproductive traits in common milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K A; Cory, K A; Johnson, M T J

    2017-01-30

    Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the ecological processes that generate plant reproductive diversity. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive antiherbivore defences can alter natural selection on reproductive traits, but it is unclear whether induced defences will have the same effect and whether reduced foliar damage in defended plants is the cause of this pattern. In a factorial field experiment using common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., we induced plant defences using jasmonic acid (JA) and imposed foliar damage using scissors. We found that JA-induced plants experienced selection for more inflorescences that were smaller in size (fewer flowers), whereas control plants only experienced a trend towards selection for larger inflorescences (more flowers); all effects were independent of foliar damage. Our results demonstrate that induced defences can alter both the strength and direction of selection on reproductive traits, and suggest that antiherbivore defences may promote the evolution of plant reproductive diversity.

  9. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  10. Differential phenotypic and genetic expression of defence compounds in a plant-herbivore interaction along elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana L; Suchan, Tomasz; Pellissier, Loïc; Rasmann, Sergio; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Alvarez, Nadir

    2016-09-01

    Elevation gradients impose large differences in abiotic and biotic conditions over short distances, in turn, likely driving differences in gene expression more than would genetic variation per se, as natural selection and drift are less likely to fix alleles at such a narrow spatial scale. As elevation increases, the pressure exerted on plants by herbivores and on arthropod herbivores by predators decreases, and organisms spanning the elevation gradient are thus expected to show lower levels of defence at high elevation. The alternative hypothesis, based on the optimal defence theory, is that defence allocation should be higher in low-resource habitats such as those at high elevation, due to higher costs associated with tissue replacement. In this study, we analyse variation with elevation in (i) defence compound content in the plant Lotus corniculatus and (ii) gene expression associated with defence against predators in the specific phytophagous moth, Zygaena filipendulae. Both species produce cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) such as lotaustralin and linamarin as defence mechanisms, with the moth, in addition, being able to sequester CNglcs from its host plant. Specifically, we tested the assumption that the defence-associated phenotype in plants and the gene expression in the insect herbivore should covary between low- and high-elevation environments. We found that L. corniculatus accumulated more CNglcs at high elevation, a result in agreement with the optimal defence theory. By contrast, we found that the levels of expression in the defence genes of Z. filipendulae larvae were not related to the CNglc content of their host plant. Overall, expression levels were not correlated with elevation either, with the exception of the UGT33A1 gene, which showed a marginally significant trend towards higher expression at high elevation when using a simple statistical framework. These results suggest that the defence phenotype of plants against herbivores, and subsequent

  11. Differential phenotypic and genetic expression of defence compounds in a plant–herbivore interaction along elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana L.; Suchan, Tomasz; Pellissier, Loïc; Rasmann, Sergio; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

    2016-01-01

    Elevation gradients impose large differences in abiotic and biotic conditions over short distances, in turn, likely driving differences in gene expression more than would genetic variation per se, as natural selection and drift are less likely to fix alleles at such a narrow spatial scale. As elevation increases, the pressure exerted on plants by herbivores and on arthropod herbivores by predators decreases, and organisms spanning the elevation gradient are thus expected to show lower levels of defence at high elevation. The alternative hypothesis, based on the optimal defence theory, is that defence allocation should be higher in low-resource habitats such as those at high elevation, due to higher costs associated with tissue replacement. In this study, we analyse variation with elevation in (i) defence compound content in the plant Lotus corniculatus and (ii) gene expression associated with defence against predators in the specific phytophagous moth, Zygaena filipendulae. Both species produce cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) such as lotaustralin and linamarin as defence mechanisms, with the moth, in addition, being able to sequester CNglcs from its host plant. Specifically, we tested the assumption that the defence-associated phenotype in plants and the gene expression in the insect herbivore should covary between low- and high-elevation environments. We found that L. corniculatus accumulated more CNglcs at high elevation, a result in agreement with the optimal defence theory. By contrast, we found that the levels of expression in the defence genes of Z. filipendulae larvae were not related to the CNglc content of their host plant. Overall, expression levels were not correlated with elevation either, with the exception of the UGT33A1 gene, which showed a marginally significant trend towards higher expression at high elevation when using a simple statistical framework. These results suggest that the defence phenotype of plants against herbivores, and subsequent

  12. Manganese, nickel and strontium bioaccumulation in the tissues of the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus from the Olifants River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Avenant-Oldewage

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The gills, liver, muscle and skin were collected from Clarias gariepinus, during four surveys (February, May, June and November in 1994 from two sites on the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park. With the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, metal concentrations of manganese, nickel and strontium bioaccumulated in these tissues were determined. This information was then used to differentiate between the concentrations found at the two locations and between the four survey periods. The con- centration of the metals were found to be highest in the gills, followed by the liver. This suggests the gills to be the primary uptake tissue for these metals following their intimate blood-water contact. The concentration of manganese and strontium, with particular reference to the gills, showed highest bioaccumulation at Mamba. Very little differences in the nickel concentrations were found at both Mamba and Balule. Water bioconcentration factors for manganese and nickel were much higher than that noted for sediment, suggesting a much lower bioavailability of these metals from the sediment. On the other hand, sediment bioconcentration factors for strontium were generally higher than that for water, which could imply higher bioavailability and concentration from the sediment.

  13. The gamma-interferon test: its usefulness in a bovine tuberculosis survey in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, D G; Michel, Anita L; De Klerk, Lin-Mari; Bengis, R G

    2002-09-01

    A survey to determine the bovine tuberculosis status of buffalo herds north of the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park was conducted, using a new diagnostic approach. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection was accomplished using the gamma-interferon assay technique in 608 adult buffaloes out of a total of 29 discreet herds. The animals were immobilized in groups of 10-15, bled, individually marked and then revived and released on site. As soon as test results were available (after 26-36 h), the same buffalo herd was relocated by tracking the frequency of a radio-collar previously fitted to one adult cow per group during the initial operation. Bovine reactors were identified, darted and euthanased from the helicopter. Necropsy and culture findings of all culled buffaloes showed excellent correlation with the results of the ante-mortem gamma-interferon test. The survey revealed that over and above the two positive herds that had been identified during a previous survey carried out in 1996, there were three additional, but previously unidentified, infected herds in the region north of the Olifants River.

  14. The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobon, Begoña; Hassan, Hisham Y; Laayouni, Hafid; Luisi, Pierre; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Wijmenga, Cisca; Tahir, Hanan; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a strategic region to study human genetic diversity due to the presence of ethnically, linguistically, and geographically diverse populations. Here, we provide new insight into the genetic history of populations living in the Sudanese region of East Africa by analysing nine ethnic groups belonging to three African linguistic families: Niger-Kordofanian, Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic. A total of 500 individuals were genotyped for 200,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Principal component analysis, clustering analysis using ADMIXTURE, FST statistics, and the three-population test were used to investigate the underlying genetic structure and ancestry of the different ethno-linguistic groups. Our analyses revealed a genetic component for Sudanese Nilo-Saharan speaking groups (Darfurians and part of Nuba populations) related to Nilotes of South Sudan, but not to other Sudanese populations or other sub-Saharan populations. Populations inhabiting the North of the region showed close genetic affinities with North Africa, with a component that could be remnant of North Africans before the migrations of Arabs from Arabia. In addition, we found very low genetic distances between populations in genes important for anti-malarial and anti-bacterial host defence, suggesting similar selective pressures on these genes and stressing the importance of considering functional pathways to understand the evolutionary history of populations.

  15. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  16. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and…

  17. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  18. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  19. Understanding the Role of Bureaucracy in the European Security and Defence Policy: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP in 1999 has led to the creation of a whole range of bureaucratic bodies in Brussels and the national capitals. These bodies support the crisis management operations of the European Union. This review article presents the state of the art of academic research on the role of bureaucracy in this recent policy area. It argues that the growing institutional complexity and the constant interaction between actors at the national and European level require scholars to go beyond the dominant approaches of International Relations. Using insights from comparative politics, public administration and multi-level governance, this article considers four important questions: who these civil servants are, why they matter, how they interact, and how they are controlled politically and democratically.

  20. Defence Industrial Policies and Their Impact on Acquisition Outcomes: A Comparative Analysis of the United Kingdom and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the JORN configuration items had passed the critical design review stage (ANAO, 1996: xiv). This and other evidence that Telstra lacked the skills...prompted by increasing pressure on defence budgets; consolidation of the UK defence industry; “ globalisation ” of UK defence companies & threat of exit

  1. Wild and domestic pig interactions at the wildlife-livestock interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the potential association with African Swine Fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eKukielka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus and warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus, which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs, facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between bushpig, warthog and domestic pig and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n=233 and participatory rural appraisals (n=11 were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and domestic pig interactions, nonlinear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices and farmer reported ASF outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs and domestic pig were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6 % of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4% farmers declared exposing their domestic pig to raw hunting leftovers of wild pigs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a warthog burrow less than 3km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and domestic pig in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and

  2. Current radiography and tomography applications at Necsa and an envisaged upgrade towards a proposed South African national centre for radiography and tomography (SANCRAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radebe, M.J.; De Beer, F.C. [Necsa - South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Limited, P. O.Box 582, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    An upgrade of the current Radiography and Tomography Research facilities is envisaged to enhance the group's support for Necsa's mission to undertake and support nuclear research and utilize penetrating radiation for the benefit of mankind. It is envisage that the SANCRAT will host neutron-, X-ray- and gamma ray penetrating radiation imaging infrastructures that can be utilized by researchers from industry as well as post graduate students from higher educational institutions. Modelling for the upgrade to a multifunctional neutron radiography and tomography facility has been underway. Upgrade plans and implementation has also begun for a 250 kV X-ray radiography set-up, that will exist independent from the neutron facility. Future expansion entails catering for a micro-focus X-ray -, and gamma ray radiography and tomography facilities. The current facilities available consist of one infrastructure facility based on two sources of penetrating radiation, i.e. SAFARI-1 research nuclear reactor as thermal neutron source and a 100 kV X-ray generator. This facility, which hosts the only operational neutron tomography R and D facility in the Southern Hemisphere and in Africa, are being extensively utilized by post graduate students and industry. The facility sees application in a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines, amongst which is nuclear, geosciences, palaeontology, civil, mechanical, chemical, etc. This paper focus on case studies engaged at the current radiography and tomography facilities over the past 2 years as well as describing the envisaged upgrade initiatives to a fully equipped national centre. (authors)

  3. Mother-son incest as a defence against psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K M; Bossi, J

    1993-09-01

    In the following, a case of mother-adult son incest is described and explained from a psychoanalytical viewpoint. Two theories are put forward: (a) Mother-son incest may occur as a defence against psychosis, and (b) the incest represents an unconscious search for triangulation, a process in which external authorities (such as, for example, a court of law) may function as surrogates for persons who have been missed in the pre-oedipal past. It is therefore possible to understand mother-son incest symbolically as an indicator of pre-oedipal needs of the son and of the mother's longing for the absent partner. The incest is, however, not only a cry for help; it is also to be regarded as an attempt to solve the problem for both people involved. Looked at in this way, new ways of understanding and new possibilities for therapy emerge.

  4. Target Detection: Remote Sensing Techniques for Defence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Chaudhuri

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous development in remote sensing technology in the recent past has opened up new challenges in defence applications. On important area of such applications is in target detection. This paper describes both classical and newly developed approaches to detect the targets by using remotely-sensed digital images. The classical approach includes statistical classification methods and image processing techniques. The new approach deals with a relatively new sensor technology, namely, synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems and fast developing tools, like neural networks and multisource data integration for analysis and interpretation. With SAR images, it is possible to detect targets or features of a target that is otherwise not possible. Neural networks and multisource data integration tools also have a great potential in analysing and interpreting remote sensing data for target detection.

  5. The Prevalence of Perceived Discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean…

  6. Brood parasitism selects for no defence in a cuckoo host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Oliver

    2011-09-22

    In coevolutionary arms races, like between cuckoos and their hosts, it is easy to understand why the host is under selection favouring anti-parasitism behaviour, such as egg rejection, which can lead to parasites evolving remarkable adaptations to 'trick' their host, such as mimetic eggs. But what about cases where the cuckoo egg is not mimetic and where the host does not act against it? Classically, such apparently non-adaptive behaviour is put down to evolutionary lag: given enough time, egg mimicry and parasite avoidance strategies will evolve. An alternative is that absence of egg mimicry and of anti-parasite behaviour is stable. Such stability is at first sight highly paradoxical. I show, using both field and experimental data to parametrize a simulation model, that the absence of defence behaviour by Cape bulbuls (Pycnonotus capensis) against parasitic eggs of the Jacobin cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) is optimal behaviour. The cuckoo has evolved massive eggs (double the size of bulbul eggs) with thick shells, making it very hard or impossible for the host to eject the cuckoo egg. The host could still avoid brood parasitism by nest desertion. However, higher predation and parasitism risks later in the season makes desertion more costly than accepting the cuckoo egg, a strategy aided by the fact that many cuckoo eggs are incorrectly timed, so do not hatch in time and hence do not reduce host fitness to zero. Selection will therefore prevent the continuation of any coevolutionary arms race. Non-mimetic eggs and absence of defence strategies against cuckoo eggs will be the stable, if at first sight paradoxical, result.

  7. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalila El Ati

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379. Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg/height(m(2 and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR; models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural, age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy. RESULTS: BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2 versus men (25.3(0.1, P<0.0001 as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR = 3.8[3.1-7.4], P<0.0001 and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3-4.8], P<0.0001. Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7] than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5] areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6], than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]. They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3] or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]. Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. CONCLUSION: The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in

  8. Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongepier, Evelien; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Job, Sylwester; Foitzik, Susanne

    2014-09-22

    Host defences become increasingly costly as parasites breach successive lines of defence. Because selection favours hosts that successfully resist parasitism at the lowest possible cost, escalating coevolutionary arms races are likely to drive host defence portfolios towards ever more expensive strategies. We investigated the interplay between host defence portfolios and social parasite pressure by comparing 17 populations of two Temnothorax ant species. When successful, collective aggression not only prevents parasitation but also spares host colonies the cost of searching for and moving to a new nest site. However, once parasites breach the host's nest defence, host colonies should resort to flight as the more beneficial resistance strategy. We show that under low parasite pressure, host colonies more likely responded to an intruding Protomognathus americanus slavemaker with collective aggression, which prevented the slavemaker from escaping and potentially recruiting nest-mates. However, as parasite pressure increased, ant colonies of both host species became more likely to flee rather than to fight. We conclude that host defence portfolios shift consistently with social parasite pressure, which is in accordance with the degeneration of frontline defences and the evolution of subsequent anti-parasite strategies often invoked in hosts of brood parasites.

  9. Independent Effects of a Herbivore’s Bacterial Symbionts on Its Performance and Induced Plant Defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Heike; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Lamers, Mart M.; Wybouw, Nicky; Groot, Astrid T.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant’s response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant’s defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance. We assessed the bacterial communities of two strains of the common mite pest Tetranychus urticae. We found that these strains harboured distinct symbiotic bacteria and removed these using antibiotics. Subsequently, we tested to which extent mites with and without symbiotic bacteria induce plant defences in terms of phytohormone accumulation and defence gene expression, and assessed mite oviposition and survival as a measure for plant resistance. We observed that the absence/presence of these bacteria altered distinct plant defence parameters and affected mite performance but we did not find indications for a causal link between the two. We argue that although bacteria-related effects on host-induced plant defences may occur, these do not necessarily affect plant resistance concomitantly. PMID:28106771

  10. Metabolomic Assessment of Induced and Activated Chemical Defence in the Invasive Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Göran M.; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  11. Metabolomic assessment of induced and activated chemical defence in the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible

  12. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  13. African Otter Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reed-Smith

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Otter Network website and social media network, apublic Otter Awareness facebook page, encouraging online reporting of otter sightings, conducting otter awareness surveys, and emphasising the need for communication with the public, other members of the network and other professionals. information not shared or documented is information LOST. A Second African Otter Workshop should be held in 2017 elsewhere in Africa to encourage attendance from a wider range of countries.

  14. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  15. African Science Leaders Focus on Key Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-08-01

    While dozens of African presidents were in Washington, D. C., in early August to meet with U.S. president Barack Obama during the first U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit, African science ministers and science academy officials held their own gathering at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to focus on challenges and opportunities related to environmental protection, climate change, development, health, poverty, technology, and other issues.

  16. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog . Alternate Language URL National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) Page Content Improving the ... kidney disease. Minorities Are at Higher Risk for Kidney Disease. If you are African American, Hispanic, or ...

  17. Intraclonal variation in defence substances and palatability: a study on Carex and lemmings

    OpenAIRE

    Bråthen, KA; Agrell, Jep; Berteaux, D.; Jonsdottir, IS

    2004-01-01

    Clonal sedges consist of integrated ramets at different development stages. Many of these sedges are important food for herbivores, yet differences in herbivore preferences and defence allocation between ramet development stages have not previously been evaluated. In this study we investigated intraclonal ramet variation in level of plant defence and nutrient compounds and intraclonal ramet preferences by lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) in field samples of a rhizomatous sedge (Carex stans). P...

  18. UK Defence Acquisition Process for NEC: Transaction Governance within an Integrated Project Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-22

    a PhD candidate in his second year at MBS, researching UK defence acquisition applying a transaction cost approach. Ermias Kebede Centre for...Williamson’s (1975,1985) work on transaction cost economics (TCE) as a model of understanding managers’ behaviour in an economic environment...modernisation programme is a gradual change in the structure of the defence sector. In the governance level section, we use a transaction cost approach

  19. Collaboration with East African security organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.

    2012-01-01

    African Community) and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) have broader perceptions of the concept. According to EAC, security also concerns matters such as policy reform, legislation, education and infrastructure. IGAD considers food security and environmental and economic issues as part......When it comes to understanding the concept of security and the way fragile security situations should be solved, the difference is big. While EASF – the East African Standby Force – is a regular military force with a rather traditional, military perception of the concept of security, EAC (East...... of the concept. At the same time the three organisations represent different constellations of member nations and thus different national interests, and locally they have different legitimacy and political strength. Thus, when choosing collaboration partners for a security project it is not simply a question...

  20. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration on the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . Will it therefore ever be able to transform itself into an effective security management regime, with the ability to handle the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and nearly chronic in nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member states...... announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015. Their readiness was tested in the continental field exercise, Amani Africa II, that took place in South Africa in October-November 2015 (Defence Web, 2015) The exercise successfully tested both...

  1. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper comparesthe technology and capability of deuterium fluoride (DF and chemical-oxygen-iodine laser (COIL in effectively performing the role of a shipborne CIWS altainst sea-skimming missiles. Out of these twolasers, it is argued that DF laser wo.uld be more effective a,s a shipborne weapon for defence against sea-skimmin,g cruise missiles. Besides the high energy laser as the primary (killing laser, othersub-systems required in the complete weapon system would be: A beacon laser to sense phase distor'ions in the primary laser, adaptive optics to compensate the atmospheric distortions, beam-directing optics, illuminating lasers, IRST sensors, surveillance and tracking radars, interfacing system, etc.

  2. Peer-to-Peer Enclaves for Improving Network Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Archer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.

  3. Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology for Defence and Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Appa Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot isostatic pressing (HIP technology has been established for the development of AISI-304 stainless steel and nickel base superalloy Inconel 718 integral turbine rotors, for liquid propulsion engine of Prithvi missile, and cryoengine of geostationary satellite launch vehicle (GSLV, respectively. Before making the full size rotors, the structure – property relationships in hot isostatic pressed (HIPed 304 stainless steel and superalloy 718 were established. The HIPed steel and superalloy have shown near 100 per cent theoretical density, homogeneous, and fine grained microstructure. Their mechanical properties were found to be in agreement with those specified for the integral turbine rotors and hence, development of full size near net shaped integral turbine rotors was undertaken. The HIPed steel rotors subjected to the static engine tests have shown a satisfactory performance, and therefore a large number of rotors could be produced to fulfill the requirement of target labs. The HIP technology for the integral turbine rotors was found to be cost effective (about 50 per cent over the conventional fabrication method which involves forging, machining, and welding of blades to the disk. The processing, structure, and properties of the HIPed 304 stainless steel and superalloy 718 in relation to the performance of integral turbine rotors for missile and space vehicle applications are discussed in this paper.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.73-80, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.372

  4. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  5. Competition induces allelopathy but suppresses growth and anti-herbivore defence in a chemically rich seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasher, Douglas B; Hay, Mark E

    2014-02-22

    Many seaweeds and terrestrial plants induce chemical defences in response to herbivory, but whether they induce chemical defences against competitors (allelopathy) remains poorly understood. We evaluated whether two tropical seaweeds induce allelopathy in response to competition with a reef-building coral. We also assessed the effects of competition on seaweed growth and seaweed chemical defence against herbivores. Following 8 days of competition with the coral Porites cylindrica, the chemically rich seaweed Galaxaura filamentosa induced increased allelochemicals and became nearly twice as damaging to the coral. However, it also experienced significantly reduced growth and increased palatability to herbivores (because of reduced chemical defences). Under the same conditions, the seaweed Sargassum polycystum did not induce allelopathy and did not experience a change in growth or palatability. This is the first demonstration of induced allelopathy in a seaweed, or of competitors reducing seaweed chemical defences against herbivores. Our results suggest that the chemical ecology of coral-seaweed-herbivore interactions can be complex and nuanced, highlighting the need to incorporate greater ecological complexity into the study of chemical defence.

  6. National inventory of radioactive wastes; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.). 16 refs.

  7. African literature to-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sulzer

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Being interested in African literature one seems to swim from the very beginning in a terminological maelstrom. What is African literature? Is it literature written by any African author in any language? That would mean approaching the question from a purely racial basis. It would imply the art of demonstrating that any piece of such literature could infallibly be recognised as African, a thing which, as far as I know has never been done. Or is African literature strictly bound to traditional African culture?

  8. Under the Sun or in the Shade? Jua Kali in African Countries. National Policy Definition in Technical and Vocational Education: Beyond the Formal Sector. A Subregional Seminar for Eastern and Southern African Countries (Nairobi, Kenya, September 15-19, 1997). International project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is a comprehensive report a subregional seminar for eastern and southern African countries on the Jua Kali movement. (Jua Kali, "hot sun" in Swahili, refers to the informal or nonformal sector of the economy.) Section 1 explains the role of the International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC) in the…

  9. African Voices and Activists at the WSF in Nairobi: The Uncertain Ways of Transnational African Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transnational social movement studies have long neglected the way activists from the South, and particularly from Africa, have participated in World Social Forum processes. Alterglobal activists have also been accused of neglecting or dominating southern voices. The organization of the WSF in Nairobi was seen as an opportunity to make African voices be heard. This examines how Africans activists participated in Nairobi, and the complex relationship they have to northern and other southern (such as Asia and Latin America activists. The African alterglobal movement is seen as a space of tensions (i.e. between South Africans and the rest of the continent, between French and English speaking Africa, or between NGOs and more radical organizations reflected in national mobilizations. Our team of 23 French and 12 Kenyan scholars made collective ethnographic observations in more than a hundred workshops and conducted 150 biographical interviews of African activists in order to examine how: Africa was referred to in the WSF; activists financed their trip to Nairobi; and Afrocentric, anti-imperialist, and anticolonial arguments have been used.

  10. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  11. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  12. System Choice for Data Processing, Analysis and Applications in Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Rajan

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of a suitable system for image data processing, analysis and applications in Defence is governed by users' requirements during peace time and prehostility/hostility period. The users need timely information and image products for decision-making. The product specifications in terms of their scale, geometrical accuracy, information content, and turnaround time among other things are crucial for the design of systems. The systems are not complete without efficient software for information extraction and analysis and for aiding decision-making process. Usually, the base data is from high resolution remote sensing systems, both airborne and spaceborne, and also from conventional sources, like topomap and other intelligence gathering mechanisms. The database thus evolved is basic and vital for a decision support system. The sensors providing input to the database creation could be airborne high resolution camera systems, high resolution synthetic aperture radar systems and thermal imaging systems operating from a stand-off range of 50 to 100 km, or from high resolution spaceborne panchromatic optical and synthetic aperture radar imagery. High resolution stereo data from airborne and spaceborne sensors are also increasingly needed for image interpretation and analysis. The digital elevation data is another important information, derived from either existing topographic maps or high resolution space stereo imagery. The system also should cater to a large information archival/retrieval system and data dissimination system for the users spread far and wide. This may call for to and fro traffic between central operational system and units spread over different locations, preferably, through high speed satellite communication channels. Finally, the total system should have reliability, data security, adequate redundancy, user-friendliness and be efficient enough to provide timely information transfer for the decision makers. This paper discusses

  13. Eales′ disease: Oxidant stress and weak antioxidant defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eales′ disease (ED is an idiopathic retinal periphlebitis characterized by capillary non-perfusion and neovascularization. In addition to the existing system, a new staging system has been proposed by Saxena et al . Immunological, molecular biological and biochemical studies have indicated the role of human leucocyte antigen, retinal S antigen autoimmunity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, free radical damage and possibly hyperhomocysteinemia in its etiopathogenesis, which appears multifactorial. Oxidant stress has been shown by increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid oxidation in the vitreous, erythrocytes, platelets, and monocytes. A decrease in vitamins E and C both in active and healed vasculitis, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase showed a weakened antioxidant defence. Epiretinal membrane from patients of ED who underwent surgery showed, by immunolocalization, presence of carboxy methyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product formed by glycoxidation and is involved in angiogenesis. OH· free radical accumulation in monocytes has been directly shown by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Free radical damage to DNA and of protein was shown by the accumulation of 8 hydroxy 2 deoxyguanosine (in leucocytes and nitrotyrosine (in monocytes, respectively. Nitrosative stress was shown by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in monocytes in which levels of iron and copper were increased while those of zinc decreased. A novel 88 kDa protein was found in serum and vitreous in inflammatory condition and had antioxidant function. Platelet fluidity was also affected. Oral, methotrexate in low dosage (12.5 mg/week for 12 weeks as well as oral vitamin E (400 IU and C (500 mg daily for 8 weeks are reported to have beneficial effects.

  14. Neisseria meningitidis, pathogenetic mechanisms to overcome the human immune defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Panatto, D

    2012-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is hosted only by humans and colonizes the nasopharynx; it survives in the human body by reaching an equilibrium with its exclusive host. Indeed, while cases of invasive disease are rare, the number of asymptomatic Neisseria meningitides carriers is far higher. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current knowledge of survival strategies of Neisseria meningitides against the human immune defences. Neisseria meningitidis possesses a variety of adaptive characteristics which enable it to avoid being killed by the immune system, such as the capsule, the lipopolysaccharide, groups of proteins that block the action of the antimicrobial proteins (AMP), proteins that inhibit the complement system, and components that prevent both the maturation and the perfect functioning of phagocytes. The main means of adhesion of Neisseria meningitides to the host cells are Pili, constituted by several proteins of whom the most important is Pilin E. Opacity-associated proteins (Opa) and (Opc) are two proteins that make an important contribution to the process of adhesion to the cell. Porins A and B contribute to neisserial adhesion and penetration into the cells, and also inhibit the complement system. Factor H binding protein (fhbp) binds factor H, allowing the bacteria to survive in the blood. Neisserial adhesin A (NadA) is a minor adhesin that is expressed by 50% of the pathogenic strains. NadA is known to be involved in cell adhesion and invasion and in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Neisserial heparin binding antigen (NHBA) binds heparin, thus increasing the resistance of the bacterium in the serum.

  15. A putative viral defence mechanism in archaeal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidun Lillestøl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusters of regularly spaced direct repeats, separated by unconserved spacer sequences, are ubiquitous in archaeal chromosomes and occur in some plasmids. Some clusters constitute around 1% of chromosomal DNA. Similarly structured clusters, generally smaller, also occur in some bacterial chromosomes. Although early studies implicated these clusters in segregation/partition functions, recent evidence suggests that the spacer sequences derive from extrachromosomal elements, and, primarily, viruses. This has led to the proposal that the clusters provide a defence against viral propagation in cells, and that both the mode of inhibition of viral propagation and the mechanism of adding spacer-repeat units to clusters, are dependent on RNAs transcribed from the clusters. Moreover, the putative inhibitory apparatus (piRNA-based may be evolutionarily related to the interference RNA systems (siRNA and miRNA, which are common in eukarya. Here, we analyze all the current data on archaeal repeat clusters and provide some new insights into their diverse structures, transcriptional properties and mode of structural development. The results are consistent with larger cluster transcripts being processed at the centers of the repeat sequences and being further trimmed by exonucleases to yield a dominant, intracellular RNA species, which corresponds approximately to the size of a spacer. Furthermore, analysis of the extensive clusters of Sulfolobus solfataricus strains P1 and P2B provides support for the presence of a flanking sequence adjoining a cluster being a prerequisite for the incorporation of new spacer-repeat units, which occurs between the flanking sequence and the cluster. An archaeal database summarizing the data will be maintained at http://dac.molbio.ku.dk/dbs/SRSR/.

  16. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  17. Constitutive immune defences correlate with life-history variables in tropical birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K A; Wikelski, M; Robinson, W D; Robinson, T R; Klasing, K C

    2008-03-01

    1. It has been suggested that immune defences are shaped by life history and ecology, but few general patterns have been described across species. We hypothesized that 'fast' life-history traits (e.g. short development times, large clutch sizes) would be associated with developmentally inexpensive immune defences, minimizing the resource demands of young animals' immune systems during periods of rapid growth. Conversely, 'slow' life histories should be associated with well developed antibody-mediated defences, which are developmentally costly. 2. We therefore predicted that 'fast-living' species would exhibit higher levels of complement proteins, a component of non-specific innate defence, but lower levels of constitutive ('natural') antibodies. Additionally, we predicted that constitutive immune defences in general would be higher in species with ecological characteristics that might increase exposure to pathogens, such as open nests, omnivorous diets, gregariousness, and closed forested habitat. 3. Across 70 Neotropical bird species, we found a strongly positive relationship between incubation period and natural antibody levels in adult birds, suggesting that longer developmental times might allow the production of a more diverse and/or more reactive adaptive immune system. Complement activity was positively, although weakly, correlated with clutch size, providing some support for the hypothesis that faster-living species rely more on innate defences, such as complement. Unexpectedly, solitary species had higher natural antibody titres than species that frequently join flocks. 4. Our results suggest that, despite probably widespread differences in the intensity and diversity of pathogen exposure, species-level variation in constitutive immune defences is understandable within the context of life-history theory.

  18. Coordinating UAV information for executing national security-oriented collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenor, Anthony W.; Allard, Yannick; Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.; Demers, Hugues; Radulescu, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being used by numerous nations for defence-related missions. In some cases, the UAV is considered a cost-effective means to acquire data such as imagery over a location or object. Considering Canada's geographic expanse, UAVs are also being suggested as a potential platform for use in surveillance of remote areas, such as northern Canada. However, such activities are typically associated with security as opposed to defence. The use of a defence platform for security activities introduces the issue of information exchange between the defence and security communities and their software applications. This paper explores the flow of information from the system used by the UAVs employed by the Royal Canadian Navy. Multiple computers are setup, each with the information system used by the UAVs, including appropriate communication between the systems. Simulated data that may be expected from a typical maritime UAV mission is then fed into the information system. The information structures common to the Canadian security community are then used to store and transfer the simulated data. The resulting data flow from the defence-oriented UAV system to the security-oriented information structure is then displayed using an open source geospatial application. Use of the information structures and applications relevant to the security community avoids the distribution restrictions often associated with defence-specific applications.

  19. Variation in Pseudonocardia antibiotic defence helps govern parasite-induced morbidity in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Michael; Cafaro, Matías J.; Erhardt, Daniel P.; Little, Ainslie E. F.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Tebbets, Brad; Klein, Bruce S.; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Host–parasite associations are potentially shaped by evolutionary reciprocal selection dynamics, in which parasites evolve to overcome host defences and hosts are selected to counteract these through the evolution of new defences. This is expected to result in variation in parasite-defence interactions, and the evolution of resistant parasites causing increased virulence. Fungus-growing ants maintain antibiotic-producing Pseudonocardia (Actinobacteria) that aid in protection against specializ...

  20. Uncovering Ultrastructural Defences in Daphnia magna – An Interdisciplinary Approach to Assess the Predator-Induced Fortification of the Carapace

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: ...

  1. English as an African Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  2. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  3. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  4. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  5. Progesterone modulates aggression in sex-role reversed female African black coucals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Wittenzellner, Andrea; Schwabl, Ingrid; Makomba, Musa

    2008-05-07

    Testosterone is assumed to be the key hormone related to resource-defence aggression. While this role has been confirmed mostly in the context of reproduction in male vertebrates, the effect of testosterone on the expression of resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates is not so well established. Furthermore, laboratory work suggests that progesterone inhibits aggressive behaviour in females. In this study, we investigated the hormonal changes underlying territorial aggression in free-living female African black coucals, Centropus grillii (Aves; Cuculidae). Females of this sex-role reversed polyandrous bird species should be particularly prone to be affected by testosterone because they aggressively defend territories similar to males of other species. We show, however, that territorial aggression in female black coucals is modulated by progesterone. After aggressive territorial challenges female black coucals expressed lower levels of progesterone than unchallenged territorial females and females without territories, suggesting that progesterone may suppress territorial aggression and is downregulated during aggressive encounters. Indeed, females treated with physiological concentrations of progesterone were less aggressive than females with placebo implants. This is one of the first demonstrations of a corresponding hormone-behaviour interaction under challenged and experimental conditions in free-living females. We anticipate that our observation in a sex-role reversed species may provide a more general mechanism, by which progesterone--in interaction with testosterone--may regulate resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates.

  6. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  7. Modelling the South African fruit export infrastructure: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of work performed as part of the fruit logistics infrastructure project commissioned by the South African Deciduous Fruit Producers’ Trust and coordinated by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, as described in [Van Dyk FE & Maspero E, 2004, An analysis of the South African fruit logistics infrastructure, ORiON, 20(1, pp. 55–72]. After a brief introduction to the problem, two models (a single-commodity graph theoretic model and a multi-commodity mathematical programming model are derived for determining the maximal weekly flow or throughput of fresh fruit through the South African national export infrastructure. These models are solved for two extreme seasonal export scenarios and the solutions show that no export infrastructure expansion is required in the near future - observed bottlenecks are not fundamental to the infrastructure and its capacities, but are rather due to sub-optimal management and utilisation of the existing infrastructure.

  8. Institutionalised cooperation and policy convergence in European defence: lessons from the relations between France, Germany and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier; Pannier, Alice

    2014-01-01

    international forums, their defence budgets, the structure of their armed forces and their willingness to use force. Second, we study each of the bilateral relations between the three states to qualitatively analyse their degree of institutionalisation and the convergence of their defence policies. This article......What are the prospects for trilateral concord among Britain, France and Germany in terms of defence policies? Would more institutionalised links among them lead to more convergence of their defence policies? To answer these interrogations, this article investigates the relation between policy...

  9. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  10. Developmental Processes in African American Families: An Application of McLoyd's Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with McLoyd's model of African American children's development, we examined the linkages among family income, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, parenting, and children's outcomes in early and middle childhood, using a sample of 591 African American children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Income…

  11. Ideological Alchemy: The Transmutation of South African Didactics (and Fundamental Pedagogics) into "Apartheid Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonge, George D.

    2008-01-01

    In his response to Kruger, Le Grange claims that: (1) the South African discourse of fundamental pedagogics was closely allied with Christian National Education and functioned as a powerful educational doctrine in the service of the South African policy of apartheid education; (2) fundamental pedagogics bracketed political discourse; (3) the…

  12. Teachers' Exodus in South African Schools: A Smoke with Burning Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadi, Mutendwahothe Walter

    2008-01-01

    African teachers in general and South Africans in particular face tremendous challenges, several of which are curriculum related. These challenges manifest themselves at various levels and in various areas, that is, from national level to within the classroom. There are various role players who may make a contribution towards overcoming these…

  13. Inequality in MINUSMA: African Soldiers are in the Firing Line in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Peter; Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Haugegaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    African and European soldiers in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) work under very different conditions regarding levels of training, equipment, general support from their governments and the fact that African troops are deployed in the most dangerous areas. The UN should ...

  14. Impact of Mathematics and Physics on the Success of South African Engineering Technology Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wyk, Ben; Hofman, W.A.H.; Louw, I.

    2015-01-01

    The general conclusion arrived at in the literature is that the South African National Senior Certificate (NSC) is not a reliable predictor of academic success at traditional universities. By sharing research undertaken at a South African University of Technology (UoT) on the impact of individual co

  15. "New Sport" in the street: self-defence, security and space in belle epoque Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundschuh, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Near the turn of the twentieth century, traditional self-defence methods (for example, jiu-jitsu) were revamped into a more accessible and practical set of techniques and tactics for everyday use in urban public space. Framed as a "new sport" with broad public utility, early urban self-defence developed against the backdrop of heightening fears of violent crime and a burgeoning politics of security, as well as tensions provoked by the increasingly common appearance of unchaperoned, middle-class women in public. Self-defence masters pitched their innovations in an inclusive rhetoric, always with separate lessons for men and women and their respective spaces of risk. This article places modern self-defence practices in tension with historical transformations in the urban landscape, arguing that urban self-defence posited a certain subjective relation to the city that tapped simultaneously into the desire for empowerment, fantasies of criminal danger and a law-and-order tone that shaded into urban vigilantism.

  16. A herbivorous mite down-regulates plant defence and produces web to exclude competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Renato A; Lemos, Felipe; Dias, Cleide R; Kikuchi, Wagner T; Rodrigues, Jean C P; Pallini, Angelo; Sabelis, Maurice W; Janssen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Herbivores may interact with each other through resource competition, but also through their impact on plant defence. We recently found that the spider mite Tetranychus evansi down-regulates plant defences in tomato plants, resulting in higher rates of oviposition and population growth on previously attacked than on unattacked leaves. The danger of such down-regulation is that attacked plants could become a more profitable resource for heterospecific competitors, such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Indeed, T. urticae had an almost 2-fold higher rate of oviposition on leaf discs on which T. evansi had fed previously. In contrast, induction of direct plant defences by T. urticae resulted in decreased oviposition by T. evansi. Hence, both herbivores affect each other through induced plant responses. However, when populations of T. evansi and T. urticae competed on the same plants, populations of the latter invariably went extinct, whereas T. evansi was not significantly affected by the presence of its competitor. This suggests that T. evansi can somehow prevent its competitor from benefiting from the down-regulated plant defence, perhaps by covering it with a profuse web. Indeed, we found that T. urticae had difficulties reaching the leaf surface to feed when the leaf was covered with web produced by T. evansi. Furthermore, T. evansi produced more web when exposed to damage or other cues associated with T. urticae. We suggest that the silken web produced by T. evansi serves to prevent competitors from profiting from down-regulated plant defences.

  17. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  18. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogeng'o Julius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  19. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  20. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  1. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  2. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  3. Bacterial Colonization and the Development of Intestinal Defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ning Shi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, intestinal defences develop during gestation and, at full term, have the capacity to respond in an appropriate manner to infectious agents and foreign antigens. Before an active protective response can occur, however, the gut must first be exposed to colonizing bacteria. Colonization with diverse intestinal microbes is necessary for the development of important gut defenses such as the synthesis and secretion of polymeric immunoglobulin A and the generation of a balanced T helper (Th cell response. Insights into normal immune physiological development of the gut have been made by studying the germ-free animal and intestinal defenses. These studies have provided insights into the physiology of immune responses. Two important immunological functions are the secretion of polymeric immunoglobulin A to protect the intestinal surface against harmful stimuli and inhibition of the systemic response to commensal bacteria and food proteins (eg, oral tolerance to prevent chronic inflammation. Neither function exists in the germ-free state, but rapidly develops after conventionalization (colonization of the germ-free animal. In the present review, the importance of bacterial colonization on the appearance of normal mucosal immune function and to the clinical consequences of inadequate colonization to the development of disease will be discussed. For example, excessive Th2 activity can lead to atopy, whereas Th1 predominance is found in conditions such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis and Crohn's disease. With the eradication of infectious diseases in developed countries in the past three decades, the incidence of atopic and autoimmune diseases has increased. This epidemiological observation has been explained by the 'hygiene hypothesis', which suggests that a reduction in microbial burden by public health measures has contributed to an immunological imbalance in the intestine. A family of pattern recognition receptors (Toll-like receptors on gut

  4. Comparative Assessment of Soil Quality at the Defence Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder K. Brar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to adjudge the soil quality of two sites at the defence establishments in India. Various soil samples were collected from the surface and up to 20 cm depth (subsurface as per apportioned gridding method. These samples were subjected to air drying for 15 days and were characterised for various parameters. The soil is clayey and loamy with granular blocky structure on both the sites.  The pH ranged from 7.1 to 7.72 0.1 for site I and from 5.5 to 8.0 f 0.1 for site 11; salinity and bulk density ranged from 0.1 per cent to 8 per cent and from 1.2 glcm3 to 1.5 g/cm3, respectively and soil moisture was about 0.4 f 1 per cent for both the sites. Similarly, total Kjeldahl nitrogen ranged from 1100 mg kg-' to 1900 mg kg-' for site I and 1700 mg kg-' to 9000 mg kg ' for site I1 and total organic carbon ranged from 18 mg g-' to 75 mg g ' for both the sites. A good correlation between nitrate concentration and various explosive process activities has been observed which gives substantial evidence in terms of contamination of the soil. High performance liquid chromatography analysis, which shows varied concentrations of RDX-HMX, NB, DNB, DNT, and TNT in the respective ranges 0.003-2.300 rng g-1, 0.002-0.350 mg g~1, 0.002-0.550 mg g-1, 0.004-0.041 mg g-1 and 0.010- 0.050 mg g-1 for site 1 and 0.002 - 0.013 mg g-1, 0.005 - 0.350 mg g-1, 0.003 - 0.080 mg g-1, 0.001- 0.100 mg g-1, 0.0001- 0.044 mg g ~a1n d 6*10-6- 0.080 mg g-1 for sites I1 has also indicated the contamination of soil by nitro-organics. These results serve as a valuable database for an ongoing project on the development of phytoremediation technology to detoxify such sites.

  5. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  6. State Aid as a Defence for Public Authorities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    of consistent interpretation, which it considered could provide various solutions for the national court to draw all the necessary consequences of the possible breach of the duty to notify State aid. In the alternative, the CJEU considered the principle of effectiveness and found that due to the fundamental...... principle of State aid control, the national court’s broad interpretation of the principle of res judicata could not be retained. The judgment cements the specific limitation on national principles of res judicata in a State aid context and tropicalises the issue of how breach of State aid law by public...

  7. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  8. Operationalising United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 within the Australian Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    community power structure , and lead to an increase in sexual and gender-based violence . In East Timor one in four women reported sexual violence during the...humanitarian interventions on gender-based violence . International Review of the Red Cross, 96, 485-501. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-GD-0909 UNCLASSIFIED 2 2...and the structures within which they act. Constructivists maintain that the acts of individuals affect the structures of international relations, and

  9. National security policy and defence structures' development programme of Armenia / Arthur Aghabekyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aghabekyan, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Armeenia rahvuslikust julgeolekupoliitikast ja kaitsestruktuuride arengust 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  10. The National Defence Council : the lack of the elements of crime does not abrogate moral responsibility

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Presidendi kokkukutsutud riigikaitse nõukogu asus üksmeelsele seisukohale, et aastatel 2004ئ2006 toimunud sõjaväeluure ohvitseride ebaseaduslik jälitustegevus ja meelsusvalve on demokraatlikus ühiskonnas lubamatu ja ohtlik

  11. National security policy and plans for development of defence structures / Kakha Katsitadze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katsitadze, Kakha

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne Gruusia rahvusliku julgeolekupoliitika kontseptsioonist ja sõjaväe ülesehituse strateegiast

  12. Expert Assessment of Stigmergy: A Report for the Department of National Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Inspiration for optimization from social insect behaviour. Nature, 406:39-42, July 2000. [13] Eric Bonabeau, Sylvain Guerin, Dominique Snyers, Pascale Kuntz...February 2002. [107] Vitorino Ramos, Fernando Muge, and Pedro Pina . Self-organized data and image retrieval as a consequence of inter-dynamic synergistic

  13. Anti-social networking: crowdsourcing and the cyber defence of national critical infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W

    2014-01-01

    We identify four roles that social networking plays in the 'attribution problem', which obscures whether or not cyber-attacks were state-sponsored. First, social networks motivate individuals to participate in Distributed Denial of Service attacks by providing malware and identifying potential targets. Second, attackers use an individual's social network to focus attacks, through spear phishing. Recipients are more likely to open infected attachments when they come from a trusted source. Third, social networking infrastructures create disposable architectures to coordinate attacks through command and control servers. The ubiquitous nature of these architectures makes it difficult to determine who owns and operates the servers. Finally, governments recruit anti-social criminal networks to launch attacks on third-party infrastructures using botnets. The closing sections identify a roadmap to increase resilience against the 'dark side' of social networking.

  14. Improvement interventions: To what extent are they manifestations of social defences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremias J. de Klerk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The statistical record of change and improvement interventions to deliver on expectations is notoriously poor. Yet, new interventions are started constantly.Research purpose: The aim is to provide an explanation to the lure behind interventions and to contribute to building a theory on plausible systems psychodynamic drivers and mechanisms of recurrent change interventions.Motivation for the study: This study provides insights into social defences in ways that did not receive much attention previously; specifically how defence mechanisms act as drivers for new change and improvement interventions.Research design, approach and method: A literature study, consisting of a literature review and a phenomenological analysis. The study was conducted from the systems psychodynamic approach.Main findings: Improvement interventions often represent defences that serve to contain anxieties or maintain fantasies. Four specific themes emerged: interventions defend the perception of being in control, they maintain the fantasy that one is busy with worthy actions to overcome challenges, they are defences against boredom or contain anxieties about incompetence, and they maintain the fantasy of being heroic leaders.Practical/managerial implications: The findings can assist leaders to understand their own defences in order to avoid embarking on non-essential interventions. This can free up much time, energy and effort to spend on other priorities, assisting organisations to achieve better results.Contribution/value-add: The study refutes the notion that improvement interventions are always rational coping mechanisms and highlights the role of improvement interventions as defences to reduce anxiety, even though they may contribute little to organisational survival in real terms.

  15. Growth and reproductive costs of larval defence in the aposematic lepidopteran Pieris brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Andrew D; Delf, Jon; Ruxton, Graeme D; Speed, Michael P

    2011-03-01

    1. Utilization of plant secondary compounds for antipredator defence is common in immature herbivorous insects. Such defences may incur a cost to the animal, either in terms of survival, growth rate or in the reproductive success. 2. A common defence in lepidopterans is the regurgitation of semi-digested material containing the defensive compounds of the food plant, a defence which has led to gut specialization in this order. Regurgitation is often swift in response to cuticular stimulation and deters predators from consuming or parasitizing the larva. The loss of food and other gut material seems likely to impact on fitness, but evidence is lacking. 3. Here, we raised larvae of the common crop pest Pieris brassicae on commercial cabbage leaves, simulated predator attacks throughout the larval period, and measured life-history responses. 4. We found that the probability of survival to pupation decreased with increasing frequency of attacks, but this was because of regurgitation rather than the stimulation itself. There was a growth cost to the defence such that the more regurgitant that individuals produced over the growth period, the smaller they were at pupation. 5. The number of mature eggs in adult females was positively related to pupal mass, but this relationship was only found when individuals were not subjected to a high frequency of predator simulation. This suggests that there might be cryptic fitness costs to common defensive responses that are paid despite apparent growth rate being maintained. 6. Our results demonstrate a clear life-history cost of an antipredator defence in a model pest species and show that under certain conditions, such as high predation threat, the expected relationship between female body size and potential fecundity can be disrupted.

  16. The role of educational technology in the development of the human resources of the SA Defence Force for the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eberlein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "Just as education holds the key to the future in the new South Africa, so educational technology holds the key to the future in the SA Defence Force." In the last few months it has become increasingly obvious that momentous changes are occurring in South Africa. From all sides of the political spectrum, political figures are making announcements and pronouncements about a "new South Africa" and the conditions which will need to be met in order to realise that ideal. While many of the changes are occurring outside the sphere of influence of the SA Defence Force (SADF, nonetheless it is being and will be affected by those changes. One has only to think of the effects of the implementation of United Nations Resolution 435 on the role and structure of the SADF; the change in the National Service system; the release of Mr Nelson Mandela; the ongoing re-organisation to provide for these and the changes necessary to provide for the year 2000 and beyond to realise the magnitude of the effects of those changes on the SADF.

  17. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 14, Number 2, Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Australian DEFENCESCIENCE BRIEFS DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research Extended range for Joint Direct Attack Munition Missile Approach...for ADF frontline aircraft DSTO and the Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding...and ANSTO Executive Director Mr Ian Smith signed the agreement in Sydney on 29 August. DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research

  18. Host defence peptides: antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity and potential applications for tackling antibiotic-resistant infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The rapidly increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant infections and the alarmingly low rate of discovery of conventional antibiotics create an urgent need for alternative strategies to treat bacterial infections. Host defence peptides are short cationic molecules produced by the immune systems of most multicellular organisms; they are a class of compounds being actively researched. In this review, we provide an overview of the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of natural host defence peptides, and discuss strategies for creating artificial derivatives with improved biological and pharmacological properties, issues of microbial resistance, and challenges associated with their adaptation for clinical use.

  19. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  20. Degradation of the plant defence hormone salicylic acid by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Franziska; Ajami-Rashidi, Ziba; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kahmann, Regine; Djamei, Armin

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant defence hormone which plays an important role in local and systemic defence responses against biotrophic pathogens like the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Here we identified Shy1, a cytoplasmic U. maydis salicylate hydroxylase which has orthologues in the closely related smuts Ustilago hordei and Sporisorium reilianum. shy1 is transcriptionally induced during the biotrophic stages of development but not required for virulence during seedling infection. Shy1 activity is needed for growth on plates with SA as a sole carbon source. The trigger for shy1 transcriptional induction is SA, suggesting the possibility of a SA sensing mechanism in this fungus.

  1. A retrospective of America's second National Dental Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummett, Clifton O; Dummett, Lois D

    2003-01-01

    This article describes one hundred and fifty years of history concerning organized dentistry among African Americans. African Americans were welcomed in the National Negro Medical Association of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists (NMA) as early as 1895 and later created a dental professional group, the Interstate Dental Association, in the mid-Atlantic states. The "second" National Dental Association, a national-wide African American association was created in 1932. African Americans earned full membership in the American Dental Association in 1964. This article traces these developments against the background of changing American society and concludes by mentioning some of the recent accomplishments and collaborative relationships of the current NDA.

  2. Final Report: African Power/Energy and Environmental Development Plan, July 1, 1994 - August 21, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, John M.

    1999-08-21

    In 1994 AEF signed a Cooperative Agreement with DOE to address a program called the African Power /Energy and Environmental Development Plan. The Program initially addressed five area: (1) Historical Black Colleges and Universities Energy/Environmental Program; (2) The Department of Energy and United States Private Industry Africa Program; (3) The Annual United States Energy Study Tour; (4) South African Training Program, and (5) South African Environmental Program. The programs were implemented in conjunction with DOE, institutions, agencies and the private sector support in the USA and within African nations. AEF has worked with government and technical representatives from 13 African nations and expanded the program to address sponsorship of South African students in Historical Black Colleges and Universities, supporting DOE trade missions through participation and planning, and giving presentations in the U.S., and Africa regarding business opportunities in the African energy sector. The programs implemented have also opened doors for the US private sector to seek business opportunities in Africa and for African nations to gain exposure to US products and services.

  3. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several ty...

  4. Down-regulation of plant defence in a resident spider mite species and its effect upon con- and heterospecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Diogo P; Janssen, Arne; Dias, Teresa; Cruz, Cristina; Magalhães, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous spider mites occurring on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cope with plant defences in various manners: the invasive Tetranychus evansi reduces defences below constitutive levels, whereas several strains of T. urticae induce such defences and others suppress them. In the Mediterranean region, these two species co-occur on tomato plants with T. ludeni, another closely related spider mite species. Unravelling how this third mite species affects plant defences is thus fundamental to understanding the outcome of herbivore interactions in this system. To test the effect of T. ludeni on tomato plant defences, we measured (1) the activity of proteinase inhibitors, indicating the induction of plant defences, in those plants, and (2) mite performance on plants previously infested with each mite species. We show that the performance of T. evansi and T. ludeni on plants previously infested with T. ludeni or T. evansi was better than on clean plants, indicating that these two mite species down-regulate plant defences. We also show that plants attacked by these mite species had lower activity of proteinase inhibitors than clean plants, whereas herbivory by T. urticae increased the activity of these proteins and resulted in reduced spider mite performance. This study thus shows that the property of down-regulation of plant defences below constitutive levels also occurs in T. ludeni.

  5. Classical sociology and cosmopolitanism: a critical defence of the social.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S

    2006-03-01

    It is frequently argued that classical sociology, if not sociology as a whole, cannot provide any significant insight into globalization, primarily because its assumptions about the nation-state, national cultures and national societies are no longer relevant to a global world. Sociology cannot consequently contribute to a normative debate about cosmopolitanism, which invites us to consider loyalties and identities that reach beyond the nation-state. My argument considers four principal topics. First, I defend the classical legacy by arguing that classical sociology involved the study of 'the social' not national societies. This argument is illustration by reference to Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons. Secondly, Durkheim specifically developed the notion of a cosmopolitan sociology to challenge the nationalist assumptions of his day. Thirdly, I attempt to develop a critical version of Max Weber's verstehende soziologie to consider the conditions for critical recognition theory in sociology as a necessary precondition of cosmopolitanism. Finally, I consider the limitations of some contemporary versions of global sociology in the example of 'flexible citizenship' to provide an empirical case study of the limitations of globalization processes and 'sociology beyond society'. While many institutions have become global, some cannot make this transition. Hence, we should consider the limitations on as well as the opportunities for cosmopolitan sociology.

  6. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing......The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states......, just as they have very different strengths. Hence, any account of the AU and the RECs can only provide a ‘snapshot’ of the organisation at any given time, one which may soon become outdated. In contrast with regional and sub-regional organisations in the North, those in Africa are facing an additional...

  7. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  8. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  9. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections of South African Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of outcomes-based education in South Africa placed many challenges on the transformation of science classrooms. The 2009 National Education Evaluation and Development Unit (NEEDU) Report concluded that South African rural and township schools are largely dysfunctional. This article examined some of the reasons for the…

  10. Appropriate Management in an African Culture: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duze, Chinelo O.

    2012-01-01

    Following continued search for reasons on the inability of African nations to realize appreciable economic development through education, the researcher investigated the influence of cultural environment on management in industry. Because input/output measures of productivity are not easily measured in education, the industry was used, hoping that…

  11. Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-15

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of "Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe.".  Created: 10/15/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2015.

  12. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  13. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  14. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  15. First Announcement and Call for Papers SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FLOOD DEFENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Beijing, Sep. 10-13, 2002 Organized by: Tsinghua University of China & International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation (IRTCES)Sponsored by: National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Kassel University of Germany Chinese Hydraulic Engineering Society (CHES) German-Sino Unsteady Sediment Transport (GESINOS) http://vww.irtces.org http://www. Tsinghua.edu.cn INTRODUCTION In the past decade frequently occurring floods claimed thousands of lives and caused economic loss of billions of US dollars. Among them the Mississippi River flood in 1993, the Rhine River flood in 1995, the Yangtze River flood in 1998, the Haihe River flood in 1996, and the storm surges in Bangladesh in 1991 are the most devastating. It is evident that both the frequency and intensity of flooding are increasing. The Dirst International Symposium on Flood Defence in Sep. 2000, initiated by Profs. Toensmann and Koch,attracted more than 200 scientists and engineers gathering in Kassel University discussing the ever-increasing concerned problems and sharing experiences and strategies for flood defence. Many scientists suggested to continue the technical forum and the Tsinghua University (one of the top universities of China) and the International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation (IRTCES) are organizing the Second International Symposium on Flood Defence (ISFD'2002) scheduled on Sep. 10-13, 2002. The purpose of the conference is to review the state-of-the-art of the studies on flooding and engineering and non-engineering strategies. The symposium will focus on a better understanding laws of flooding and environmental problems involved, different perspectives evolved,climate change and its impact on extreme hydrological events, and reporting new approaches to the

  16. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...

  17. Differential contribution of transcription factors to Arabidopsis thaliana defence against Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSchweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to insect herbivory, Arabidopsis plants activate the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile, which binds to a complex consisting of the receptor COI1 and JAZ repressors. Upon proteasome-mediated JAZ degradation, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 become activated and this results in the expression of defence genes. Although the jasmonate (JA pathway is known to be essential for the massive transcriptional reprogramming that follows herbivory, there is however little information on other TFs that are required for defence against herbivores and whether they contribute significantly to JA-dependent defence gene expression. By transcriptome profiling, we identified 41 TFs that were induced in response to herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Among them, nine genes, including WRKY18, WRKY40, ANAC019, ANAC055, ZAT10, ZAT12, AZF2, ERF13, and RRTF1, were found to play a significant role in resistance to S. littoralis herbivory. However, compared to the triple mutant myc234 that is as sensitive as coi1-1 to herbivory, knockout lines of these nine TFs were only partially more sensitive to S. littoralis and showed only minor gene expression changes at the whole genome level. Data thus reveal that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are master regulators of Arabidopsis resistance to a generalist herbivore and identify new genes involved in insect defence.

  18. Dynamic Plant-Plant-Herbivore Interactions Govern Plant Growth-Defence Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Jorad; Evers, Jochem B.; Poelman, Erik H.

    2017-01-01

    Plants downregulate their defences against insect herbivores upon impending competition for light. This has long been considered a resource trade-off, but recent advances in plant physiology and ecology suggest this mechanism is more complex. Here we propose that to understand why plants regulate an

  19. In defence of constructive empiricism: Maxwell’s master argument and aberrant theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past years, in books and journals (this journal included), N. Maxwell launched a ferocious attack on B. C. van Fraassen’s view of science called Constructive Empiricism (CE). This attack has been totally ignored. Must we conclude from this silence that no defence is possible and that a fort

  20. In Vitro Activities against Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens of Synthetic Host Defence Propeptides Processed by Neutrophil Elastase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desgranges, Stephane

    2011-02-22

    The antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of a host defence peptide can be controlled by modification as a propeptide of reduced net charge which can be processed by neutrophil elastase, a serine protease involved in chronic airway inflammation and infections associated with cystic fibrosis.

  1. Artificial intelligence and finite element modelling for monitoring flood defence structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Kozionov, A.; Kusherbaeva, V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid approach to monitoring the stability of flood defence structures equipped with sensors. This approach combines the finite element modelling with the artificial intelligence for real-time signal processing and anomaly detection. This combined method has been developed for the Urba

  2. Adaptive molecular evolution of a defence gene in sexual but not functionally asexual evening primroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch-Green, E I; Myburg, H; Johnson, M T J

    2012-08-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction provides evolutionary advantages over asexual reproduction by reducing mutational load and increasing adaptive potential. Here, we test the latter prediction in the context of plant defences against pathogens because pathogens frequently reduce plant fitness and drive the evolution of plant defences. Specifically, we ask whether sexual evening primrose plant lineages (Onagraceae) have faster rates of adaptive molecular evolution and altered gene expression of a class I chitinase, a gene implicated in defence against pathogens, than functionally asexual evening primrose lineages. We found that the ratio of amino acid to silent substitutions (K(a) /K(s) = 0.19 vs. 0.11 for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively), the number of sites identified to be under positive selection (four vs. zero for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively) and the expression of chitinase were all higher in sexual than in asexual lineages. Our results are congruent with the conclusion that a loss of sexual recombination and segregation in the Onagraceae negatively affects adaptive structural and potentially regulatory evolution of a plant defence protein.

  3. Quorum-Sensing Blockade As A Strategy for Enhancing Host Defences Against Bacterial Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2007-01-01

    rise to a new 'drug target rush'. Recently, QS has been shown to be involved in the development of tolerance to various antimicrobial treatments and immune modulation. The regulation of virulence via QS confers a strategic advantage over host defences. Consequently, a drug capable of blocking QS...

  4. The emerging role of photorespiration and non-photorespiratory peroxisomal metabolism in pathogen defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørhagen, K; Laxa, M; Peterhänsel, C; Reumann, S

    2013-07-01

    Photorespiration represents one of the major highways of primary plant metabolism and is the most prominent example of metabolic cell organelle integration, since the pathway requires the concerted action of plastidial, peroxisomal, mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes and organellar transport proteins. Oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate by Rubisco leads to the formation of large amounts of 2-phosphoglycolate, which are recycled to 3-phosphoglycerate by the photorespiratory C2 cycle, concomitant with stoichiometric production rates of H2 O2 in peroxisomes. Apart from its significance for agricultural productivity, a secondary function of photorespiration in pathogen defence has emerged only recently. Here, we summarise literature data supporting the crosstalk between photorespiration and pathogen defence and perform a meta-expression analysis of photorespiratory genes during pathogen attack. Moreover, we screened Arabidopsis proteins newly predicted using machine learning methods to be targeted to peroxisomes, the central H2 O2 -producing organelle of photorespiration, for homologues of known pathogen defence proteins and analysed their expression during pathogen infection. The analyses further support the idea that photorespiration and non-photorespiratory peroxisomal metabolism play multi-faceted roles in pathogen defence beyond metabolism of reactive oxygen species.

  5. M-ficolin, an innate immune defence molecule, binds patterns of acetyl groups and activates complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pernille Dorthea; Thiel, Steffen; Larsen, Claus Bindslev;

    2005-01-01

    Ficolins play a role in the innate immune defence as pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition molecules. Three ficolins are found in humans: H-ficolin, L-ficolin and M-ficolin. L-ficolin and H-ficolin circulate in blood in complexes with mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases...

  6. From inducible defences to population dynamics: modelling refuge use and life history changes in Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Matthijs; Flik, B.J.G.; Vijverberg, J.; Ringelberg, J.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relative importance of a behavioural defence (refuge use through diel vertical migration) and a life history change (a reduced size at first reproduction) that are used by daphnids to decrease the risk of predation by visually hunting fish. We used an individual based model of a

  7. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods

  8. Host-plant defence against Striga spp.: reconsidering the role of tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, J.; Bastiaans, L.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic weeds of the genus Striga cause high yield losses in cereal crops across Africa. Host-plant defence against Striga spp. can be an effective control strategy. It ideally consists of resistance, to reduce infection, complemented with tolerance, to mitigate the effects of infection. As resist

  9. Effects of beta-1,3-glucan from Septoria tritici on structural defence responses in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, N.P.; Jensen, J.D.; Knudsen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase and structural defence responses were studied in leaves of wheat either resistant or susceptible to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Septoria tritici. Resistance was associated with an early accumulation of beta...

  10. Behavioural flexibility of the chemical defence in the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Machacek, Zora; Ruther, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Many insects use chemical defence mechanisms to defend themselves against predators. However, defensive secretions are costly to produce and should thus only be used in cases of real danger. This would require that insects are able to discriminate between predators to adjust their chemical defence. Here, we show that females of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma adjust the intensity of their chemical defence to differently sized predators. If attacked by Myrmica ants, the females always released their defensive secretion, which consists mainly of (-)-iridomyrmecin. However, if attacked by smaller Cardiocondyla ants, most females did not release any defensive spray, irrespective of the duration of the ant's aggression. When in contact with non-aggressive Nasonia wasps, the females of L. heterotoma did not release any defensive secretion. Our data show that females of L. heterotoma are able to discriminate between two predators and suggest that a predator of a certain size or strength is necessary to trigger the chemical defence mechanism of L. heterotoma.

  11. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Wagenaar, R.; Poelman, E.H.; Kruidhof, H.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an 'indirect defence'. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been rar

  12. Male Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) Nest Defence Correlates with Female Ornament Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d-old nest...

  13. Anti-predator defence and the complexity-stability relationship of food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondoh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism for maintaining complex food webs has been a central issue in ecology because theory often predicts that complexity (higher the species richness, more the interactions) destabilizes food webs. Although it has been proposed that prey anti-predator defence may affect the stability of pre

  14. The effect of inbreeding on defence against multiple enemies in Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Bedoy, R; Núñez-Farfán, J

    2011-03-01

    The ability of plants to respond to natural enemies might depend on the availability of genetic variation for the optimal phenotypic expression of defence. Selfing can affect the distribution of genetic variability of plant fitness, resistance and tolerance to herbivores and pathogens. The hypothesis of inbreeding depression influencing plant defence predicts that inbreeding would reduce resistance and tolerance to damage by natural enemies relative to outcrossing. In a field experiment entailing experimentally produced inbred and outcrossed progenies, we assessed the effects of one generation of selfing on Datura stramonium resistance and tolerance to three types of natural enemies, herbivores, weevils and a virus. We also examined the effect of damage on relative growth rate (RGR), flower, fruit, and seed production in inbred and outcrossed plants. Inbreeding significantly reduced plant defence to natural enemies with an increase of 4% in herbivore damage and 8% in viral infection. These results indicate inbreeding depression in total resistance. Herbivory increased 10% inbreeding depression in seed number, but viral damage caused inbred and outcrossed plants to have similar seed production. Inbreeding and outcrossing effects on fitness components were highly variable among families, implying that different types or numbers of recessive deleterious alleles segregate following inbreeding in D. stramonium. Although inbreeding did not equally alter all the interactions, our findings indicate that inbreeding reduced plant defence to herbivores and pathogens in D. stramonium.

  15. Fit-for-Purpose Visualisation of Architecture to Support Defence Capability Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    has included software support for naval tactical systems, intelligence analysis, and research into systems of systems and architecture practice ...UNCLASSIFIED Fit-for-Purpose Visualisation of Architecture to support Defence Capability Decision-Making Kevin O’Shea, Peter Pong and...architecture development approach to capture capability development information with an emphasis on developing a fit-for-purpose visualisation to

  16. The defence architecture of the superficial cells of the oral mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Asikainen; T.J. Ruotsalainen; J.J.W. Mikkonen; A. Koistinen; C. ten Bruggenkate; A.M. Kullaa

    2012-01-01

    The oral epithelium together with the saliva and its components forms a complex structure which is the first line of defence in the oral cavity. The surface of superficial cells of the oral epithelium contains ridge-like folds, microplicae (MPL), which are typical of the surfaces of areas covered wi

  17. Redox regulation and antioxidative defence in Arabidopsis leaves viewed from a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormuth, Dennis; Heiber, Isabelle; Shaikali, Jehad; Kandlbinder, Andrea; Baier, Margarete; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2007-04-30

    Redox regulation is a central control element in cell metabolism. It is employed to adjust photosynthesis and the antioxidant defence system of leaves to the prevailing environment. During recent years progress has been made in describing the redox-dependent alterations in metabolism, the thiol/disulfide proteome, the redox-dependent and cross-talking signalling pathways and the target genes of redox regulation. Some transcription factors have been identified as proteins that perform thiol/disulfide transitions linked to the redox-regulation of specific plant promoters. In addition first mathematical models have been designed to simulate antioxidant defence and predict its response. Taken together, a profound experimental data set has been generated which allows to approach a systems biology type of understanding of antioxidant defence in photosynthesising cells in the near future. Since oxidative stress is likely to limit plant growth under stress, such a systematic understanding of antioxidant defence will help to define novel targets for breeding stress-tolerant plants.

  18. A non canonical subtilase attenuates the transcriptional activation of defence responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Irene; Buscaill, Pierre; Audran, Corinne; Pouzet, Cécile; Jauneau, Alain; Rivas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Proteases play crucial physiological functions in all organisms by controlling the lifetime of proteins. Here, we identified an atypical protease of the subtilase family [SBT5.2(b)] that attenuates the transcriptional activation of plant defence independently of its protease activity. The SBT5.2 gene produces two distinct transcripts encoding a canonical secreted subtilase [SBT5.2(a)] and an intracellular protein [SBT5.2(b)]. Concomitant to SBT5.2(a) downregulation, SBT5.2(b) expression is induced after bacterial inoculation. SBT5.2(b) localizes to endosomes where it interacts with and retains the defence-related transcription factor MYB30. Nuclear exclusion of MYB30 results in its reduced transcriptional activation and, thus, suppressed resistance. sbt5.2 mutants, with abolished SBT5.2(a) and SBT5.2(b) expression, display enhanced defence that is suppressed in a myb30 mutant background. Moreover, overexpression of SBT5.2(b), but not SBT5.2(a), in sbt5.2 plants reverts the phenotypes displayed by sbt5.2 mutants. Overall, we uncover a regulatory mode of the transcriptional activation of defence responses previously undescribed in eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19755.001 PMID:27685353

  19. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant–microbe–insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. 2. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore at

  20. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant-microbe-insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore attack b

  1. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wahbie

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness.

  2. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Narayan

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences and (ii analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become

  3. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost

  4. National Pavilion Days Display Brilliant Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2010-01-01

    @@ South Africa--Rise of a Modern Economy-Ke Nako! South Africa celebrates its National Pavilion Day on August 9 with an evening gala dedicated to South African women and their contributions to freedom.

  5. A herbivorous mite down-regulates plant defence and produces web to exclude competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A Sarmento

    Full Text Available Herbivores may interact with each other through resource competition, but also through their impact on plant defence. We recently found that the spider mite Tetranychus evansi down-regulates plant defences in tomato plants, resulting in higher rates of oviposition and population growth on previously attacked than on unattacked leaves. The danger of such down-regulation is that attacked plants could become a more profitable resource for heterospecific competitors, such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Indeed, T. urticae had an almost 2-fold higher rate of oviposition on leaf discs on which T. evansi had fed previously. In contrast, induction of direct plant defences by T. urticae resulted in decreased oviposition by T. evansi. Hence, both herbivores affect each other through induced plant responses. However, when populations of T. evansi and T. urticae competed on the same plants, populations of the latter invariably went extinct, whereas T. evansi was not significantly affected by the presence of its competitor. This suggests that T. evansi can somehow prevent its competitor from benefiting from the down-regulated plant defence, perhaps by covering it with a profuse web. Indeed, we found that T. urticae had difficulties reaching the leaf surface to feed when the leaf was covered with web produced by T. evansi. Furthermore, T. evansi produced more web when exposed to damage or other cues associated with T. urticae. We suggest that the silken web produced by T. evansi serves to prevent competitors from profiting from down-regulated plant defences.

  6. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to

  7. PM2.5, oxidant defence and cardiorespiratory health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott A; Godri-Pollitt, Krystal; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2013-05-04

    Airborne fine particle mass concentrations (PM2.5) are used for ambient air quality management worldwide based in part on known cardiorespiratory health effects. While oxidative stress is generally thought to be an important mechanism in determining these effects, relatively few studies have specifically examined how oxidant defence may impact susceptibility to particulate air pollution. Here we review studies that explore the impact of polymorphisms in anti-oxidant related genes or anti-oxidant supplementation on PM2.5-induced cardiorespiratory outcomes in an effort to summarize existing evidence related to oxidative stress defence and the health effects of PM2.5. Recent studies of PM-oxidative burden were also examined. In total, nine studies were identified and reviewed and existing evidence generally suggests that oxidant defence may modify the impact of PM2.5 exposure on various health outcomes, particularly heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic function) which was the most common outcome examined in the studies reviewed. Few studies examined interactions between PM2.5 and oxidant defence for respiratory outcomes, and in general studies focused primarily on acute health effects. Therefore, further evaluation of the potential modifying role of oxidant defence in PM2.5-induced health effects is required, particularly for chronic outcomes. Similarly, while an exposure metric that captures the ability of PM2.5 to cause oxidative stress may offer advantages over traditional mass concentration measurements, little epidemiological evidence is currently available to evaluate the potential benefits of such an approach. Therefore, further evaluation is required to determine how this metric may be incorporated in ambient air quality management.

  8. Influence of Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae on the defence activity of Radix lagotis (Lymnaeidae Haemocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Skála

    Full Text Available Radix lagotis is an intermediate snail host of the nasal bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti. Changes in defence responses in infected snails that might be related to host-parasite compatibility are not known. This study therefore aimed to characterize R. lagotis haemocyte defence mechanisms and determine the extent to which they are modulated by T. regenti. Histological observations of R. lagotis infected with T. regenti revealed that early phases of infection were accompanied by haemocyte accumulation around the developing larvae 2-36 h post exposure (p.e. to the parasite. At later time points, 44-92 h p.e., no haemocytes were observed around T. regenti. Additionally, microtubular aggregates likely corresponding to phagocytosed ciliary plates of T. regenti miracidia were observed within haemocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. When the infection was in the patent phase, haemocyte phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly reduced in infected R. lagotis when compared to uninfected counterparts, whereas haemocyte abundance increased in infected snails. At a molecular level, protein kinase C (PKC and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK were found to play an important role in regulating these defence reactions in R. lagotis. Moreover, haemocytes from snails with patent infection displayed lower PKC and ERK activity in cell adhesion assays when compared to those from uninfected snails, which may therefore be related to the reduced defence activities of these cells. These data provide the first integrated insight into the immunobiology of R. lagotis and demonstrate modulation of haemocyte-mediated responses in patent T. regenti infected snails. Given that immunomodulation occurs during patency, interference of snail-host defence by T. regenti might be important for the sustained production and/or release of infective cercariae.

  9. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy......-- as an institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  10. Security Policy in the European Union and the United States through the issue of their Defence Expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Theodore Metaxas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to clarify how the level of defence expenditures affected security poli-cy in the post-World War II Europe and the United States till the present day. We first analyze theoretically the issue of a nation’s power through its defence outlays. We then proceed to the examination of how security policy was formulated during Cold War and afterwards for both Europe and the United States through their defence ex-penditures. By comparing European to United States defence budgets ceilings we found that the European military capabilities are undermined by the low level of the defence budget which is provided by the European Union member states as a whole, as well as by the lack of homogeneity in military means. By contrast, we noticed that the historically large US defence expenditures were one of the major reasons for the US global hegemony during Cold war and afterwards. We also examine the implica-tions that defence expenditures have on military industry, macroeconomic perfor-mance and geopolitics and the correlation that arises among them.

  11. Security vs. Nations: a lost battle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    “Know the enemy” is one of the basic recommendations of the ancient Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu (544–496 BC). In the cyber-world, the usual suspects are not only script kiddies, criminals and hacktivists, but also nation states.   Companies worldwide have prepared their defences to fight off the first three. Likewise, CERN, despite its wish for academic freedom, is constantly considering how best to prevent successful attacks. But when nation states are the antagonists, defence is impossible (unless you have plenty of money). Today, the most popular computing services in the western hemisphere are run from the US. We already know that the US and the UK are tapping into Facebook, Google, Yahoo and others (see our Bulletin article on “Prison or “Prism”? Your data in custody”). But what about one level down? Nowadays, IT hardware (routers, laptops, smartphones, etc.) is built in China. How can we be sure that these ...

  12. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey...

  13. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  14. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  15. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    In light of recent enthusiasm over the African private sector, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on successful African enterprises and proposes an analytical framework for understanding African firm success. Overall, it is argued that we need to develop an understanding...... of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...

  16. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided soci...

  17. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods: A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided so...

  18. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  19. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L

    2012-12-01

    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  20. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  1. Creating a Pipeline for African American Computing Science Faculty: An Innovative Faculty/Research Mentoring Program Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, LaVar J.; Gilbert, Juan E.; Escobar, Barbara; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans represent 1.3% of all computing sciences faculty in PhD-granting departments, underscoring the severe underrepresentation of Black/African American tenure-track faculty in computing (CRA, 2012). The Future Faculty/Research Scientist Mentoring (FFRM) program, funded by the National Science Foundation, was found to be an effective…

  2. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Carey F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and

  3. Ethical Dilemmas In Management: An African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolaji Joachim Abiodun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern workplace is composed of people with diverse backgrounds in terms of nationality, culture, religion, age, education and socioeconomic status. Each of these people enters the work with different values, goals, and perceptions of acceptable behaviours. The diverse background creates ethical challenges for individuals as well as managers. There are issues and decisions that are to be made by workers in the organization that have implications for their job security and salary, and success of the organization. Pressure may be on the workers to protect their own interests, sometimes at the risk of losing personal and corporate integrity. This paper attempts to evaluate ethical dilemmas and conflicts from an Africa perspective, bearing in mind different value systems between western and African nations.

  4. TERRORISM AS THE MAIN THREAT TO THE STATE DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. VERBITSKAYA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of terrorism as the main threat to the state defense. One of the main problems in combating this threat is lack of the uniformity in understanding and definition of terrorism on national and international level, what complicates the search of the means reducing this threat. In addition, because of possible use of armed forces against this threat, the absence of understanding of this term as the basis for introducing relevant legal regimes may lead to violation of human rights. The article presents definitions of terrorism from normative acts of foreign countries and sources of international law. It traces the historical development of the understanding of terrorism in different countries in terms of the evolution of the content of this term.

  5. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  6. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  7. The role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests...... while the SAT 2 isolates belonged to different lineages within the East African topotype X. Conclusions Consistent detection of high antibody titres in buffalos supports the view that African buffalos play an important role in the maintenance of FMDV infection within National Parks in Uganda. Both SAT 1...

  8. Ocean acidification disrupts induced defences in the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Ruth; Cleall-Harding, Polly; Rundle, Simon; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John

    2007-12-22

    Carbon dioxide-induced ocean acidification is predicted to have major implications for marine life, but the research focus to date has been on direct effects. We demonstrate that acidified seawater can have indirect biological effects by disrupting the capability of organisms to express induced defences, hence, increasing their vulnerability to predation. The intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea produced thicker shells in the presence of predation (crab) cues but this response was disrupted at low seawater pH. This response was accompanied by a marked depression in metabolic rate (hypometabolism) under the joint stress of high predation risk and reduced pH. However, snails in this treatment apparently compensated for a lack of morphological defence, by increasing their avoidance behaviour, which, in turn, could affect their interactions with other organisms. Together, these findings suggest that biological effects from ocean acidification may be complex and extend beyond simple direct effects.

  9. Seasonal variations in the antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation of the digestive gland of mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viarengo, A; Canesi, L; Pertica, M; Livingstone, D R

    1991-01-01

    1. The seasonal variations in the level of antioxidant compounds (glutathione (GSH), vitamin E, carotenoids) and in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), GSH-peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) in the digestive gland of mussels (Mytilus sp.) were evaluated. The lipid peroxidation process was also measured by determining the tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). 2. The physiological fluctuations of the antioxidant defence systems were inversely related to the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) in the tissue. The observed seasonal variations are presumably related to the changing metabolic status of the animals, itself dependent on such factors as gonad ripening and food availability. 3. In particular, the obtained data indicate that a reduction of the antioxidant defence systems, occurring during winter, could be directly responsible for an enhanced susceptibility of mussels tissues to oxidative stress, as indicated by the high MDA concentration observed in this period.

  10. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: interactions with organisms in the environment and cells of the immune defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersø, Mette Elena

    2008-01-01

    ; two quorum sensing signal molecules; the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal and N-3-oxododecanoyl L-homoserine lactone exhibit the ability to modulate activities of the immune defence in addition to functioning as quorum sensing mediators. The two signal molecules impair activities of immune cells crucial...... enzymes and components capable of impairing the hosts’ immunity. P. aeruginosa readily assumes the biofilm lifestyle which confers efficient protection against the activity of the host defence system. In addition, P. aeruginosa exhibit an inherent tolerance to many of the antibiotics most commonly used......, which emphasises the urgent need for development of novel strategies that will help us to defeat this pathogen. P. aeruginosa biofilm cells display a multicellular-like coordinated behaviour and control expression of virulence factors, elements involved in biofilm development and immunomodulating...

  11. A variant reference data set for the Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Samir M.; Harpur, Brock A.; Orsi, Ricardo O.; Zayed, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The Africanized honeybee (AHB) is a population of Apis mellifera found in the Americas. AHBs originated in 1956 in Rio Clara, Brazil where imported African A. m. scutellata escaped and hybridized with local populations of European A. mellifera. Africanized populations can now be found from Northern Argentina to the Southern United States. AHBs—often referred to as ‘Killer Bees’— are a major concern to the beekeeping industry as well as a model for the evolutionary genetics of colony defence. We performed high coverage pooled-resequencing of 360 diploid workers from 30 Brazilian AHB colonies using Illumina Hi-Seq (150 bp PE). This yielded a high density SNP data set with an average read depth at each site of 20.25 reads. With 3,606,720 SNPs and 155,336 SNPs within 11,365 genes, this data set is the largest genomic resource available for AHBs and will enable high-resolution studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and genetics of this successful biological invader, in addition to facilitating the development of SNP-based tools for identifying AHBs. PMID:27824336

  12. THE SECRET SOUTH AFRICAN PROJECT TEAM: BUILDING STRIKE CRAFT IN ISRAEL, 1975-79

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thean Potgieter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Though the history of the South African Navy (SAN only dates back to 1922, for most of its history it depended on Britain for warships. The British Royal Navy on the other hand had an unbroken involvement with maritime defence along the South African Coast and the protection of the Cape Sea Route from 1806 to 1975 (when the Simon’s Town Agreement was cancelled. However, political tension between South Africa’s apartheid government and Britain caused a break in this relationship, forcing the SAN to acquire warships from alternative sources.A number of South African efforts to acquire corvettes failed during the 1970s, leaving the strike craft project as the only major warship project of the SAN to succeed for close to three decades. This project had an overseas as well as a local building phase. As part of the overseas phase, a project team was dispatched to Israel in 1975 to oversee the building and commissioning into the SAN, of three strike craft. The project team consisted of the Armaments Board (AB, Armscor after 1977 team as well as the SAN project team. While the AB/Armscor had to oversee the building process, the SAN team had to prepare to take the vessels into service.

  13. A variant reference data set for the Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Samir M; Harpur, Brock A; Orsi, Ricardo O; Zayed, Amro

    2016-11-08

    The Africanized honeybee (AHB) is a population of Apis mellifera found in the Americas. AHBs originated in 1956 in Rio Clara, Brazil where imported African A. m. scutellata escaped and hybridized with local populations of European A. mellifera. Africanized populations can now be found from Northern Argentina to the Southern United States. AHBs-often referred to as 'Killer Bees'- are a major concern to the beekeeping industry as well as a model for the evolutionary genetics of colony defence. We performed high coverage pooled-resequencing of 360 diploid workers from 30 Brazilian AHB colonies using Illumina Hi-Seq (150 bp PE). This yielded a high density SNP data set with an average read depth at each site of 20.25 reads. With 3,606,720 SNPs and 155,336 SNPs within 11,365 genes, this data set is the largest genomic resource available for AHBs and will enable high-resolution studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and genetics of this successful biological invader, in addition to facilitating the development of SNP-based tools for identifying AHBs.

  14. Defence Science and Technology Strategy. Science and Technology for a Secure Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    is a driver for change in the st century. It contributes directly to the advancement of military capabilities. Science & Technolgy ... Defence...Reconnaissance Mobile Systems Weapon Systems Human Domain Physical Domain Information Domain Figure  – Areas of S&T Expertise   Governance Consistent with...Personnel Protection Complex Systems System Autonomy Protection of Assets Communications Networks Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Mobile

  15. Switching model with two habitats and a predator involving group defence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Qamar J A; Jaju, R P

    2015-01-01

    Switching model with one predator and two prey species is considered. The prey species have the ability of group defence. Therefore, the predator will be attracted towards that habitat where prey are less in number. The stability analysis is carried out for two equilibrium values. The theoretical results are compared with the numerical results for a set of values. The Hopf bifuracation analysis is done to support the stability results.

  16. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 78/79-1 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 78/79-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-07

    march (in English) (61) Effect of transcendental meditation on the degree of neuroticism as measured by the defence mechanism test (62) The...comparability studies of labour requirements in sawmill employment H7 Testing and job analysis (64) Prevalence of migraine and cluster headache in Swedish...men of 18 (in English) (65) Physical characteristic and allergic history in young men with migraine and other headaches (in English) (66) Outline of

  17. Defence Technology Strategy for the Demands of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Network Defence · intrusion detection systems. · sensors. · intrusion protection. · event analysis and integration. · reaction and response. · virus...partners. B5.22 The majority of CBRN agents will enter the body via the lungs (through inhalation of gases, vapours or aerosols) or the skin (by direct...contact with vapours or liquids). There is a need for drug delivery technologies that target the medical countermeasure to the appropriate site

  18. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defence-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie eDeslauriers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L. Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage and defence. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation, moderately (M-trees, 41 to 60% and heavily (H-trees, 61 to 80% defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem, carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch and defence components in needles (terpenoids compound from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defence. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defence components and to non-structural (NCS and structural (growth carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilisation for survival and growth following an outbreak.

  19. Epichloë Endophytes Alter Inducible Indirect Defences in Host Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D.; Gundel, Pedro E.; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë–grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation. PMID:24978701

  20. Deterrent activities in the crude lipophilic fractions of Antarctic benthic organisms: chemical defences against keystone predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Núñez-Pons

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Generalist predation constitutes a driving force for the evolution of chemical defences. In the Antarctic benthos, asteroids and omnivore amphipods are keystone opportunistic predators. Sessile organisms are therefore expected to develop defensive mechanisms mainly against such consumers. However, the different habits characterizing each predator may promote variable responses in prey. Feeding-deterrence experiments were performed with the circumpolar asteroid macropredator Odontaster validus to evaluate the presence of defences within the apolar lipophilic fraction of Antarctic invertebrates and macroalgae. A total of 51% of the extracts were repellent, yielding a proportion of 17 defended species out of the 31 assessed. These results are compared with a previous study in which the same fractions were offered to the abundant circum-Antarctic amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. Overall, less deterrence was reported towards asteroids (51% than against amphipods (80.8%, principally in sponge and algal extracts. Generalist amphipods, which establish casual host–prey sedentary associations with biosubstrata (preferentially sponges and macroalgae, may exert more localized predation pressure than sea stars on certain sessile prey, which would partly explain these results. The nutritional quality of prey may interact with feeding deterrents, whose production is presumed to be metabolically expensive. Although optimal defence theory posits that chemical defences are managed and distributed as to guarantee protection at the lowest cost, we found that only a few organisms localized feeding deterrents towards most exposed and/or valuable body regions. Lipophilic defensive metabolites are broadly produced in Antarctic communities to deter opportunistic predators, although several species combine different defensive traits.

  1. Provoking misunderstanding: a comment on Black's defence of value-free sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Martyn

    2014-09-01

    This paper is a response to a recent article dealing with the concept of value-free sociology by Donald Black. It argues that while a defence of Weber's position on the role of values in sociological research is necessary and important, what is offered by Black is counter-productive in important respects. This is because it encourages some of the misunderstandings that it is aimed at remedying and, even more importantly, offers a simplistic discussion of what are complex issues.

  2. Bacteria and derived products to strengthen defences and reduce risk of illness

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Yolanda; Palma, Giada de; Sánchez Sánchez, Esther; Medina, Marcela Susana

    2008-01-01

    [EN] This invention provides a new strain of the genus Bifidobacterium and the components of the cultivation supernatants thereof in the form of diverse preparations (functional and new foods, probiotics, symbiotics, supplements, nutraceuticals and drugs) destined to improve defences and reduce the risk of illness. The mechanisms of action thereof include: (i) regulation of intestinal glycosylation promoting that of healthy individuals, (ii) modulation of interactions between epithelial ce...

  3. THE RIGHT TO A DEFENCE IN THE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE OF THE YOUNG SPANISH DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Luis GOMEZ COLOMER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the designated topic for discussion is the technical right to a defence in Spain, I consider it opportune to give a brief overview of the current criminal procedural situation in my country. Spain is a young democracy of only 35 years in which sovereignty was returned to the people with the 1978 constitution, the moment that marked the beginning of a period during which we have enjoyed the full range of freedoms.

  4. Epichloë endophytes alter inducible indirect defences in host grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D; Gundel, Pedro E; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë-grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation.

  5. How do Criminal Defence Barristers Work with Psychological Distress throughout the Courtroom Process?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly , Lynsey

    2015-01-01

    Whilst a significant proportion of those coming through the Magistrates’ Court have mental health difficulties and associated social disadvantage and vulnerability, there would appear to insufficient resources to meet their needs. Eight criminal defence barristers, who received no professional training in mental health, were interviewed about their experience of working with these clients. Thematic analysis of data, from a critical realist epistemological position, generated two themes. “Work...

  6. The synthetic cationic lipid diC14 activates a sector of the Arabidopsis defence network requiring endogenous signalling components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiagno, Damián Alejandro; Lonez, Caroline; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Alvarez, María Elena

    2015-12-01

    Natural and synthetic elicitors have contributed significantly to the study of plant immunity. Pathogen-derived proteins and carbohydrates that bind to immune receptors, allow the fine dissection of certain defence pathways. Lipids of a different nature that act as defence elicitors, have also been studied, but their specific effects have been less well characterized, and their receptors have not been identified. In animal cells, nanoliposomes of the synthetic cationic lipid 3-tetradecylamino-tert-butyl-N-tetradecylpropionamidine (diC14) activate the TLR4-dependent immune cascade. Here, we have investigated whether this lipid induces Arabidopsis defence responses. At the local level, diC14 activated early and late defence gene markers (FRK1, WRKY29, ICS1 and PR1), acting in a dose-dependent manner. This lipid induced the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent, but not jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent, pathway and protected plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), but not Botrytis cinerea. diC14 was not toxic to plant or pathogen, and potentiated pathogen-induced callose deposition. At the systemic level, diC14 induced PR1 expression and conferred resistance against Pst. diC14-induced defence responses required the signalling protein EDS1, but not NDR1. Curiously, the lipid-induced defence gene expression was lower in the fls2/efr/cerk1 triple mutant, but still unchanged in the single mutants. The amidine headgroup and chain length were important for its activity. Given the robustness of the responses triggered by diC14, its specific action on a defence pathway and the requirement for well-known defence components, this synthetic lipid is emerging as a useful tool to investigate the initial events involved in plant innate immunity.

  7. Brain metastases of melanoma-mechanisms of attack on their defence system by engineered stem cells in the microenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This report gives a better emphasis on the role of targeted effectors (e.g. a combination of 5-FC with CD-NSPCs as compared to the application of NSPCs alone) and how such delivery of pro-drug activating enzymes and other tumor-killing substances may overcome melanocytic defence system, interact with and promote the host defence and immune response modulations not only in melanoma but, potentially, in other highly-metastatic cancers.

  8. Effect of defence response time during lunge in foil fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; Rojas, F Javier; Gutiérrez-Davila, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of stimulus change timing on reaction response time parameters, horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (CM) and precision during offensive actions in fencing. Twelve fencers from the Spanish National Foil Team were included in the study. Two 500 Hz force plates were used to register the horizontal component of the reaction force while a 3D video camera set at 250 Hz recorded the spatial position of 11 body markers and a projector connected to a programmed stopwatch projected a moving target (stimulus) on a screen. When the circle (target) appeared in the centre of the plastron, fencers had to execute a step-forward-lunge as fast as possible, trying to touch the circle with the tip of the foil. During the lunge, the position of the target could randomly shift or not to three different positions. The stimulus change was performed randomly at four different times with a progressive delay. The results show that target changes did not have any effect when they occurred at the beginning of the movement sequence. However, when the target change was delayed, reaction and movement times increased and the technical execution of the lunge changed, leading to more errors.

  9. Enterococcus faecalis zinc-responsive proteins mediate bacterial defence against zinc overload, lysozyme and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Marta C; Kok, Jan; Silva Lopes, Maria de Fátima

    2014-12-01

    Two Enterococcus faecalis genes encoding the P-type ATPase EF1400 and the putative SapB protein EF0759 were previously shown to be strongly upregulated in the presence of high concentrations of zinc. In the present work, we showed that a Zn(2+)-responsive DNA-binding motif (zim) is present in the promoter regions of these genes. Both proteins were further studied with respect to their involvement in zinc homeostasis and invasion of the host. EF0759 contributed to intramacrophage survival by an as-yet unknown mechanism(s). EF1400, here renamed ZntAEf, is an ATPase with specificity for zinc and plays a role in dealing with several host defences, i.e. zinc overload, oxidative stress and lysozyme; it provides E. faecalis cells with the ability to survive inside macrophages. As these three host defence mechanisms are important at several sites in the host, i.e. inside macrophages and in saliva, this work suggested that ZntAEf constitutes a crucial E. faecalis defence mechanism that is likely to contribute to the ability of this bacterium to endure life inside its host.

  10. Evolution of separate predation- and defence-evoked venoms in carnivorous cone snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutertre, Sébastien; Jin, Ai-Hua; Vetter, Irina; Hamilton, Brett; Sunagar, Kartik; Lavergne, Vincent; Dutertre, Valentin; Fry, Bryan G; Antunes, Agostinho; Venter, Deon J; Alewood, Paul F; Lewis, Richard J

    2014-03-24

    Venomous animals are thought to inject the same combination of toxins for both predation and defence, presumably exploiting conserved target pharmacology across prey and predators. Remarkably, cone snails can rapidly switch between distinct venoms in response to predatory or defensive stimuli. Here, we show that the defence-evoked venom of Conus geographus contains high levels of paralytic toxins that potently block neuromuscular receptors, consistent with its lethal effects on humans. In contrast, C. geographus predation-evoked venom contains prey-specific toxins mostly inactive at human targets. Predation- and defence-evoked venoms originate from the distal and proximal regions of the venom duct, respectively, explaining how different stimuli can generate two distinct venoms. A specialized defensive envenomation strategy is widely evolved across worm, mollusk and fish-hunting cone snails. We propose that defensive toxins, originally evolved in ancestral worm-hunting cone snails to protect against cephalopod and fish predation, have been repurposed in predatory venoms to facilitate diversification to fish and mollusk diets.

  11. Antioxidant defences in hydrated and desiccated states of the tardigrade Paramacrobiotus richtersi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela M; Negroni, Manuela; Altiero, Tiziana; Montorfano, Gigliola; Corsetto, Paola; Berselli, Patrizia; Berra, Bruno; Guidetti, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2010-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed in all aerobic organisms, potentially leading to oxidative damage of all biological molecules. A number of defence mechanisms have developed to protect the organism from attack by ROS. Desiccation tolerance is correlated with an increase in the antioxidant potential in several organisms, but the regulation of the antioxidant defence system is complex and its role in desiccation-tolerant organisms is not yet firmly established. To determine if anhydrobiotic tardigrades have an antioxidant defence system, capable of counteracting ROS, we compared the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, the fatty acid composition and Heat shock protein expression in two physiological states (desiccated vs. hydrated) of the tardigrade Paramacrobiotus richtersi. In hydrated tardigrades, superoxide dismutase and catalase show comparable activities, while in desiccated specimens the activity of superoxide dismutase increases. Both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione were induced by desiccation. The percentage of fatty acid composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances are higher in desiccated animals than in hydrated ones. Lastly, desiccated tardigrades did not differ significantly from the hydrated ones in the relative levels of Hsp70 and Hsp90. These results indicate that the possession of antioxidant metabolism could represent a crucial strategy to avoid damages during desiccation in anhydrobiotic tardigrades.

  12. ECONOMIC THINKING AS A SIGNIFICANT PREREQUISITE FOR THE EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT AND FUNCTIONING OF THE DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera FRIANOVÁ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to draw attention of readers to the importance of economic thinking in order to solve various current economic problems in the defence sector as well as to indicate how economic thinking and behaviour of the sector members, especially managers, can increase the overall efficiency of the Armed Forces activities or the efficiency of the defence sector activities. The author in the article defines the general economic principles (3E principles of resource management, highlights the problem of application of the efficiency principle in the public sector and also in terms of the Department of Defence of the Slovak Republic and suggests some possible ways to solve some of current economic issues. In this context the author of the article also points to the need to educate managers in the economic field. The article is the output of a research and development project undertaken at the Armed Forces Academy of General M. R. Štefánik in Liptovský Mikuláš, the Slovak Republic.

  13. Armed rollers: does nestling's vomit function as a defence against predators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deseada Parejo

    Full Text Available Chemical defences against predators are widespread in the animal kingdom although have been seldom reported in birds. Here, we investigate the possibility that the orange liquid that nestlings of an insectivorous bird, the Eurasian roller (Coracias garrulus, expel when scared at their nests acts as a chemical defence against predators. We studied the diet of nestling rollers and vomit origin, its chemical composition and deterrent effect on a mammal generalist predator. We also hypothesized that nestling rollers, as their main prey (i.e. grasshoppers do from plants, could sequester chemicals from their prey for their use. Grasshoppers, that also regurgitate when facing to a threat, store the harmful substances used by plants to defend themselves against herbivores. We found that nestling rollers only vomit after being grasped and moved. The production of vomit depended on food consumption and the vomit contained two deterrent chemicals (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids stored by grasshoppers and used by plants to diminish herbivory, suggesting that they originate from the rollers' prey. Finally, we showed for the first time that the oral secretion of a vertebrate had a deterrent effect on a model predator because vomit of nestling rollers made meat distasteful to dogs. These results support the idea that the vomit of nestling rollers is a chemical defence against predators.

  14. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  15. HVEM signalling at mucosal barriers provides host defence against pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Jr-Wen; Larange, Alexandre; Kim, Gisen; Vela, Jose Luis; Zahner, Sonja; Cheroutre, Hilde; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2012-08-09

    The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), a member of the tumour-necrosis factor receptor family, has diverse functions, augmenting or inhibiting the immune response. HVEM was recently reported as a colitis risk locus in patients, and in a mouse model of colitis we demonstrated an anti-inflammatory role for HVEM, but its mechanism of action in the mucosal immune system was unknown. Here we report an important role for epithelial HVEM in innate mucosal defence against pathogenic bacteria. HVEM enhances immune responses by NF-κB-inducing kinase-dependent Stat3 activation, which promotes the epithelial expression of genes important for immunity. During intestinal Citrobacter rodentium infection, a mouse model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection, Hvem−/− mice showed decreased Stat3 activation, impaired responses in the colon, higher bacterial burdens and increased mortality. We identified the immunoglobulin superfamily molecule CD160 (refs 7 and 8), expressed predominantly by innate-like intraepithelial lymphocytes, as the ligand engaging epithelial HVEM for host protection. Likewise, in pulmonary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, HVEM is also required for host defence. Our results pinpoint HVEM as an important orchestrator of mucosal immunity, integrating signals from innate lymphocytes to induce optimal epithelial Stat3 activation, which indicates that targeting HVEM with agonists could improve host defence.

  16. How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2011-12-07

    Arms races between avian brood parasites and their hosts often result in parasitic mimicry of host eggs, to evade rejection. Once egg mimicry has evolved, host defences could escalate in two ways: (i) hosts could improve their level of egg discrimination; and (ii) negative frequency-dependent selection could generate increased variation in egg appearance (polymorphism) among individuals. Proficiency in one defence might reduce selection on the other, while a combination of the two should enable successful rejection of parasitic eggs. We compared three highly variable host species of the Afrotropical cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis, using egg rejection experiments and modelling of avian colour and pattern vision. We show that each differed in their level of polymorphism, in the visual cues they used to reject foreign eggs, and in their degree of discrimination. The most polymorphic host had the crudest discrimination, whereas the least polymorphic was most discriminating. The third species, not currently parasitized, was intermediate for both defences. A model simulating parasitic laying and host rejection behaviour based on the field experiments showed that the two host strategies result in approximately the same fitness advantage to hosts. Thus, neither strategy is superior, but rather they reflect alternative potential evolutionary trajectories.

  17. Bio-inspired approaches to sensing for defence and security applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Peter D E; Kusterbeck, Anne; Hiltz, John A

    2008-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research in biotechnology and related scientific areas has increased tremendously over the past decade. This rapid pace, in conjunction with advances in microfabricated systems, computer hardware, bioengineering and the availability of low-powered miniature components, has now made it feasible to design bio-inspired materials, sensors and systems with tremendous potential for defence and security applications. To realize the full potential of biotechnology and bio-inspiration, there is a need to define specific requirements to meet the challenges of the changing world and its threats. One approach to assisting the defence and security communities in defining their requirements is through the use of a conceptual model. The distributed or intelligent autonomous sensing (DIAS) system is one such model. The DIAS model is not necessarily aimed at a single component, for instance a sensor, but can include a system, or even a system of systems in the same way that a single organism, a multi-cellular organism or group of organisms is configured. This paper provides an overview of the challenges to and opportunities for bio-inspired sensors and systems together with examples of how they are being implemented. Examples focus on both learning new things from biological organisms that have application to the defence and security forces and adapting known discoveries in biology and biochemistry for practical use by these communities.

  18. The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, TaU4 regulates wheat defence against the phytopathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millyard, Linda; Lee, Jack; Zhang, Cunjin; Yates, Gary; Sadanandom, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (Zymoseptoria tritici commonly known as Septoria), the causal agent of Septoria Leaf Blotch (STB), is considered one of the major threats to European wheat production. Previous studies have shown the importance of ubiquitination in plant defence against a multitude of pathogens. However the ubiquitination machinery in wheat is under studied, particularly E2 enzymes that have the ability to control the ubiquitination and thereby the fate of many different target proteins. In this study we identify an E2 enzyme, Triticum aestivum Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 4 (TaU4) that functions in wheat defence against Septoria. We demonstrate TaU4 to be a bona fide E2 enzyme through an E2 charging assay. TaU4 localises in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore potentially interacting with E3 ligases and substrate proteins in multiple compartments. Virus Induced Gene Silencing of TaU4 in wheat leaves resulted in delayed development of disease symptoms, reduced Septoria growth and reproduction. We conclude that TaU4 is a novel negative regulator of defence against Septoria. PMID:27759089

  19. Surfaces on African sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mack

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Leonard Kahan, Donna Page, and Pascal James Imperato (eds in collaboration with Charles Bordogna and Bolaji Campbell with an introduction by Patrick McNaughton, Surfaces: Color, Substances, and Ritual Applications on African Sculpture, Indiana University Press, 2009.The book reviewed here has potential interest to a wide range of readers, whether researchers and academics, museum, curators, conservators or connoisseurs. It examines the perception of surface as an aspect of the indigenous understanding of sculpted objects in sub-Saharan Africa, treating of questions of materials, patination, colouration and use. It includes both survey essays and case studies (on the Bamana of Mali and the Yoriuba of Nigeria in a compendium which has suggestive implications beyond the immediate field of the Africanists to whom it is principally addressed.

  20. Application Layer Intrusion Detection with Combination of Explicit-Rule-Based and Machine Learning Algorithms and Deployment in Cyber- Defence Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Saha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous works on network intrusion detection and prevention systems, but work on application layer intrusion detection and prevention is rare and not very mature. Intrusion detection and prevention at both network and application layers are important for cyber-security and enterprise system security. Since application layer intrusion is increasing day by day, it is imperative to give adequate attention to it and use state-of-the-art algorithms for effective detection and prevention. This paper talks about current state of application layer intrusion detection and prevention capabilities in commercial and open-source space and provides a path for evolution to more mature state that will address not only enterprise system security, but also national cyber-defence. Scalability and cost-effectiveness were important factors which shaped the proposed solution.

  1. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  2. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C; Chatters, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important demographic differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale [CES-D]), SPD (measured by the K6), and 12-month and lifetime MDD among African American men. Findings illuminate the heterogeneity within the African American male population. Findings also demonstrate the need for additional research focusing on within-group differences and a comprehensive research and mental health promotion agenda that recognizes the importance of improving access to education and employment and promoting healthy coping behaviors, while acknowledging the larger social context in which African American men live.

  3. The FDI African Strategy for Oral Health: addressing the specific needs of the continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hescot, Patrick; China, Emile; Bourgeois, Denis; Maina, Susan; Monteiro da Silva, Orlando; Luc Eiselé, Jean; Simpson, Christopher; Horn, Virginie

    2013-06-01

    The FDI World Dental Federation has defined a strategy for the development of oral health in Africa during the "African Summit" held in Cape Town, South Africa. The summit gathered presidents from 16 African National Dental Associations, FDI stakeholders, the World Health Organisation and government delegates. The outcomes of this summit were stated in a Declaration, defining the functional principles of the African strategy as three priorities: To establish and reinforce the credibility of NDAs To acquire and develop leadership and management skills Effective peer-to-peer exchange of information.

  4. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  5. To each its own: differential response of specialist and generalist herbivores to plant defence in willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Martin; Hrcek, Jan; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Novotny, Vojtech

    2015-07-01

    Plant-insect food webs tend to be dominated by interactions resulting from diffuse co-evolution between plants and multiple lineages of herbivores rather than by reciprocal co-evolution and co-cladogenesis. Plants therefore require defence strategies effective against a broad range of herbivore species. In one extreme, plants could develop a single universal defence effective against all herbivorous insects, or tailor-made strategies for each herbivore species. The evolution and ecology of plant defence has to be studied with entire insect assemblages, rather than small subsets of pairwise interactions. The present study examines whether specialists and generalists in three coexisting insect lineages, forming the leaf-chewing guild, respond uniformly to plant phylogeny, secondary metabolites, nutrient content and mechanical antiherbivore defences of their hosts, thus permitting universal plant defence strategies against specialized and generalist folivorous insects from various taxa. The extensive data on folivorous assemblages comprising three insect orders and 193 species are linked with plant phylogeny, secondary chemistry (salicylates, flavonoids and tannins), leaf morphological traits [specific leaf area (SLA) and trichome coverage], nutrient (C : N) content and growth form of eight willow (Salix) and one aspen (Populus) species growing in sympatry. Generalists responded to overall host plant chemistry and trichomes, whilst specialists responded to host plant phylogeny and secondary metabolites that are unique to willows and that are capable of being utilized as an antipredator protection. We did not find any significant impact of other plant traits, that is SLA, C : N ratio, flavonoids, tannins and growth form, on the composition of leaf-chewing communities. Our results show that the response to plant traits is differential among specialists and generalists. This finding constrains the ability of plants to develop defensive traits universally effective

  6. Skin shedding and tissue regeneration in African spiny mice (Acomys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ashley W; Kiama, Stephen G; Seifert, Megan G; Goheen, Jacob R; Palmer, Todd M; Maden, Malcolm

    2012-09-27

    Evolutionary modification has produced a spectrum of animal defence traits to escape predation, including the ability to autotomize body parts to elude capture. After autotomy, the missing part is either replaced through regeneration (for example, in urodeles, lizards, arthropods and crustaceans) or permanently lost (such as in mammals). Although most autotomy involves the loss of appendages (legs, chelipeds, antennae or tails, for example), skin autotomy can occur in certain taxa of scincid and gekkonid lizards. Here we report the first demonstration of skin autotomy in Mammalia (African spiny mice, Acomys). Mechanical testing showed a propensity for skin to tear under very low tension and the absence of a fracture plane. After skin loss, rapid wound contraction was followed by hair follicle regeneration in dorsal skin wounds. Notably, we found that regenerative capacity in Acomys was extended to ear holes, where the mice exhibited complete regeneration of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, dermis and cartilage. Salamanders capable of limb regeneration form a blastema (a mass of lineage-restricted progenitor cells) after limb loss, and our findings suggest that ear tissue regeneration in Acomys may proceed through the assembly of a similar structure. This study underscores the importance of investigating regenerative phenomena outside of conventional model organisms, and suggests that mammals may retain a higher capacity for regeneration than was previously believed. As re-emergent interest in regenerative medicine seeks to isolate molecular pathways controlling tissue regeneration in mammals, Acomys may prove useful in identifying mechanisms to promote regeneration in lieu of fibrosis and scarring.

  7. Africans’ Perception of the United States’ Post-9/11 Africa Policy and Africom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    United States and Croatia than Senegal and Ethiopia. Another difficulty is to isolate the anti- neocolonialism factor and set it aside, as this thesis...entwined. However, anti- neocolonialism should not be underestimated, as non-Africans often tend to do, for it is probably one of the most powerful driving...interference in internal affairs, to the sovereignty of the African nations, and the denunciation of neocolonialism . Beijing also remembers that the

  8. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  9. Effects of Greek Affiliation on African American Students' Engagement: Differences by College Racial Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Lori D.; Bridges, Brian K.; Flowers, Lamont A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a nationally representative sample of African American college students to examine the degree to which their affiliation with a Greek-letter organization contributed to engagement in effective educational practices by analyzing National Survey of Student Engagement data at historically Black colleges and universities and…

  10. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important…

  11. The Role of National Adult Education Centre in Curriculum Development in Somalia in Selected Government Primary Adult Schools of Mogadisho. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation, No. 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ismail F. S.

    A study of curriculum development in Somalia focused on the role of the National Adult Education Centre (NAEC) and involvement of teachers and inspectors. The sample consisted of 80 Mogadisho primary adult school teachers. Information sources were related literature, teacher questionnaires, and unstructured interviews with school inspectors,…

  12. The United Nations and Disarmament. An analysis of the Spanish positions in the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Cano

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1953 the Franco regime, internationally isolated, signed the Defence and Economic Assistance Treaties with the USA which allowed it to have access to the organs of the United Nations system. Logically, the implicit subordination in defence aspects brought about a complete misunderstanding of the disarmament issues.The democratic transition, which in the foreign and defence fields lasted until 1988, meant a change in the sense of greater participation through progressive incorporation in various western structures : the EC, NATO, WEU...In this new context, this study analyses the Spanish positions with respect to disarmament in the field of the United Nations, from both its own perspective and that of its adequacy with relation to the conduct of its allies.

  13. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  14. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Lesotho...... accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research Institute (APPRI...

  15. Construct validity and factor structure of the pittsburgh sleep quality index and epworth sleepiness scale in a multi-national study of African, South East Asian and South American college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizu Gelaye

    Full Text Available The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS are questionnaires used to assess sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness in clinical and population-based studies. The present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among young adults in four countries (Chile, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,481 undergraduate students. Students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. In each country, the construct validity and factorial structures of PSQI and ESS questionnaires were tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA.The largest component-total correlation coefficient for sleep quality as assessed using PSQI was noted in Chile (r = 0.71 while the smallest component-total correlation coefficient was noted for sleep medication use in Peru (r = 0.28. The largest component-total correlation coefficient for excessive daytime sleepiness as assessed using ESS was found for item 1 (sitting/reading in Chile (r = 0.65 while the lowest item-total correlation was observed for item 6 (sitting and talking to someone in Thailand (r = 0.35. Using both EFA and CFA a two-factor model was found for PSQI questionnaire in Chile, Ethiopia and Thailand while a three-factor model was found for Peru. For the ESS questionnaire, we noted two factors for all four countries.Overall, we documented cross-cultural comparability of sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness measures using the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among Asian, South American and African young adults. Although both the PSQI and ESS were originally developed as single-factor questionnaires, the results of our EFA and CFA revealed the multi- dimensionality of the scales suggesting limited usefulness of the global PSQI and ESS

  16. An African ethic for nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  17. Strategies of chemical anti-predator defences in leaf beetles: is sequestration of plant toxins less costly than de novo synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Elena L; Zverev, Vitali; Kruglova, Oksana Y; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of defensive traits is driven both by benefits gained from protection against enemies and by costs of defence production. We tested the hypothesis that specialisation of herbivores on toxic host plants, accompanied by the ability to acquire plant defensive compounds for herbivore defence, is favoured by the lower costs of sequestration compared to de novo synthesis of defensive compounds. We measured physiological costs of chemical defence as a reduction in larval performance in response to repeated removal of secretions (simulating predator attack) and compared these costs between five species synthesising defences de novo and three species sequestering salicylic glucosides (SGs) from their host plants. Experiments simulating low predator pressure revealed no physiological costs in terms of survival, weight and duration of development in any of study species. However, simulation of high predation caused reduction in relative growth rate in Chrysomela lapponica larvae producing autogenous defences more frequently, than in larvae sequestering SGs. Still meta-analysis of combined data showed no overall difference in costs of autogenous and sequestered defences. However, larvae synthesising their defences de novo demonstrated secretion-conserving behaviour, produced smaller amounts of secretions, replenished them at considerably lower rates and employed other types of defences (regurgitation, evasion) more frequently when compared to sequestering larvae. These latter results provide indirect evidence for biosynthetic constraints for amounts of defensive secretions produced de novo, resulting in low defence effectiveness. Lifting these constraints by sequestration may have driven some leaf beetle lineages toward sequestration of plant allelochemicals as the main defensive strategy.

  18. Analysis of pea HMG-I/Y expression suggests a role in defence gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Steven J; Choi, Jane J; Hadwiger, Lee A

    2003-07-01

    SUMMARY HMG-I/Y proteins are characterized by the presence of AT-hook motifs, DNA binding domains that recognize AT-rich tracts of DNA. By facilitating protein:protein and protein:DNA interactions in the vicinity of these AT-rich binding sites, HMG-I/Y positively or negatively regulates gene expression. Several pea defence gene promoters have AT-rich tracts of DNA that are potential targets for modulation via HMG-I/Y. In this study, a comparison of the expression of a pea defence gene (DRR206) mRNA relative to the expression of HMG-I/Y mRNA was monitored by Northern analysis following the inoculation of a fungal pathogen, Fusarium solani or treatment with chitosan and a F. solani DNase (Fsph DNase). In pea pod endocarp tissue, HMG-I/Y expression was observed at high levels in untreated tissue and at lower levels 6 h following inoculation or wounding of the tissue. Western blots with an antipea HMG-I/Y polyclonal antibody also revealed that pea HMG-I/Y is expressed at decreased levels 6 h following inoculation or elicitor treatment. HMG-I/Y extracted from pea caused alterations in the gel migration of radio-labelled AT-rich sequences from the pea DRR206 promoter, suggesting that similar interactions could exist in vivo. Agroinfiltration was utilized to express the pea HMG-I/Y gene in tobacco containing a chimeric gene fusion of a promoter from the PR gene, DRR206, and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Transient expression of pea HMG-I/Y led to a decrease in GUS reporter gene activity in the heterologous tobacco system. These data implicate pea HMG-I/Y abundance in the down-regulation of DRR206 gene expression, and possibly HMG-I/Y depletion in the expression of defence genes in pea.

  19. Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure causes antioxidant defence responses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Lais Mattos; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective and post-emergent herbicide that affects plant growth. Animal exposure to this herbicide can lead to adverse effects, such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and behavioural disorders. Drosophilids have been utilized previously as an effective tool in toxicological tests. In the present study, the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup [Original]) were investigated regarding oxidative stress, the antioxidant defence system and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies (of both genders) that were 1 to 3days old were exposed to different glyphosate concentrations (0.0mg/L=control, 1.0mg/L, 2.0mg/L, 5.0mg/L and 10.0mg/L) in the diet for 24h and 96h. After the exposure periods, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were quantified. In addition, the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (i.e., keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gclc, gclm, gss, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2) was evaluated via RT-PCR. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated only after the 96h exposure period. The results indicated that Roundup exposure leads to a reduction in ROS levels in flies exposed for 96h. ACAP levels and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system exhibited an increase from 24h, while LPO did not show any significant alterations in both exposure periods. AChE activity was not affected following Roundup exposure. Our data suggest that Roundup exposure causes an early activation of the antioxidant defence system in D. melanogaster, and this can prevent subsequent damage caused by ROS.

  20. Gastrointestinal-sparing effects of novel NSAIDs in rats with compromised mucosal defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Blackler

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most commonly used prescription and over-the-counter medications, but they often produce significant gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding, particularly in elderly patients and patients with certain co-morbidities. Novel anti-inflammatory drugs are seldom tested in animal models that mimic the high risk human users, leading to an underestimate of the true toxicity of the drugs. In the present study we examined the effects of two novel NSAIDs and two commonly used NSAIDs in models in which mucosal defence was expected to be impaired. Naproxen, celecoxib, ATB-346 (a hydrogen sulfide- and naproxen-releasing compound and NCX 429 (a nitric oxide- and naproxen-releasing compound were evaluated in healthy, arthritic, obese, and hypertensive rats and in rats of advanced age (19 months and rats co-administered low-dose aspirin and/or omeprazole. In all models except hypertension, greater gastric and/or intestinal damage was observed when naproxen was administered in these models than in healthy rats. Celecoxib-induced damage was significantly increased when co-administered with low-dose aspirin and/or omeprazole. In contrast, ATB-346 and NCX 429, when tested at doses that were as effective as naproxen and celecoxib in reducing inflammation and inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity, did not produce significant gastric or intestinal damage in any of the models. These results demonstrate that animal models of human co-morbidities display the same increased susceptibility to NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage as observed in humans. Moreover, two novel NSAIDs that release mediators of mucosal defence (hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide do not induce significant gastrointestinal damage in these models of impaired mucosal defence.

  1. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful.

  2. Dry up and survive: the role of antioxidant defences in anhydrobiotic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Rebecchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the evolution of life has turned oxygen into a vital chemical for aerobic organisms, this element can also have deleterious effects on living systems through the production of oxidative stress. This is a process resulting from an imbalance between the excessive production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and the limited action of antioxidant defences. It is a particularly harmful health risk factor, involved in the development of several chronic human pathologies and believed to play a major role in the ageing process. Consequently aerobic metabolism needs a stringent control of ROS. Water too is essential for life, but some organisms widespread throughout nature have the ability to survive complete desiccation by entering an anhydrobiotic state. The loss of water induces changes in metabolism, cell membrane organization, and molecular composition. In the anhydrobiotic state, high temperatures, high humidity, light exposure, and high oxygen partial pressure negatively affect organism survival and directly influence the time required to reactivate the metabolism after a period of desiccation. These abiotic factors induce damages that are accumulated in proportion to the time spent in the desiccated state, potentially leading to organism death. Oxidative stress seems to be one of the most deleterious damages due to water depletion, therefore anhydrobiosis also needs a stringent control of ROS production. Anhydrobiotic organisms seem to apply two main strategies to cope with the danger of oxygen toxicity, namely an increased efficiency of antioxidant defences and a metabolic control of both energy-production and energy-consuming processes. Experimental studies provide evidence that antioxidant defences such as ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g. peroxidases, catalases, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidases and other molecules (e.g. glutathione, carotenoids, vitamins C and E represent a key group of molecules required for desiccation

  3. Understanding plant defence responses against herbivore attacks: an essential first step towards the development of sustainable resistance against pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M Estrella; Martínez, Manuel; Cambra, Inés; Grbic, Vojislava; Diaz, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    Plant-herbivore relationships are complex interactions encompassing elaborate networks of molecules, signals and strategies used to overcome defences developed by each other. Herbivores use multiple feeding strategies to obtain nutrients from host plants. In turn, plants respond by triggering defence mechanisms to inhibit, block or modify the metabolism of the pest. As part of these defences, herbivore-challenged plants emit volatiles to attract natural enemies and warn neighbouring plants of the imminent threat. In response, herbivores develop a variety of strategies to suppress plant-induced protection. Our understanding of the plant-herbivore interphase is limited, although recent molecular approaches have revealed the participation of a battery of genes, proteins and volatile metabolites in attack-defence processes. This review describes the intricate and dynamic defence systems governing plant-herbivore interactions by examining the diverse strategies plants employ to deny phytophagous arthropods the ability to breach newly developed mechanisms of plant resistance. A cornerstone of this understanding is the use of transgenic tools to unravel the complex networks that control these interactions.

  4. An Overview of Seasonal Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence Parameters in Some Invertebrate and Vertebrate Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Bihari Nityananda Chainy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defence system, a highly conserved biochemical mechanism, protects organisms from harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS, a by-product of metabolism. Both invertebrates and vertebrates are unable to modify environmental physical factors such as photoperiod, temperature, salinity, humidity, oxygen content, and food availability as per their requirement. Therefore, they have evolved mechanisms to modulate their metabolic pathways to cope their physiology with changing environmental challenges for survival. Antioxidant defences are one of such biochemical mechanisms. At low concentration, ROS regulates several physiological processes, whereas at higher concentration they are toxic to organisms because they impair cellular functions by oxidizing biomolecules. Seasonal changes in antioxidant defences make species able to maintain their correct ROS titre to take various physiological functions such as hibernation, aestivation, migration, and reproduction against changing environmental physical parameters. In this paper, we have compiled information available in the literature on seasonal variation in antioxidant defence system in various species of invertebrates and vertebrates. The primary objective was to understand the relationship between varied biological phenomena seen in different animal species and conserved antioxidant defence system with respect to seasons.

  5. Quorum-sensing blockade as a strategy for enhancing host defences against bacterial pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2007-01-01

    -mediated killing or growth inhibition would be to attenuate the bacteria with respect to pathogenicity. The realization that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a number of other pathogens, controls much of their virulence arsenal by means of extracellular signal molecules in a process denoted quorum sensing (QS) gave...... is likely to increase the susceptibility of the infecting organism to host defences and its clearance from the host. The use of QS signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity, rather than bacterial growth, is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the emergence of multi...

  6. A Note on the Optimisation of a Defence System Against an Air Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Sangal

    1966-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining the optimum mix of the defence weapons and the deployment of the mix has been dealt by Leibowitz & Lieberman. But the assumptions there in make it of less practical utility. In this note, an attempt has been made for a more realistic model. The mathematical expressions for the "Measure of Effectiveness" has been modified and this, in turn, brings about a change in the pay-off function and the value of the game. A numerical example has also been worked out to illustrate the same.

  7. Identification and characterization of novel defence and PCD signalling components in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Wenjun

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens by activating a defence signalling network. The Arabidopsis double mutant syp121 syp122 is dwarfed and mimics a response as if it was attacked by pathogens. Using EMS as mutagen on syp121 syp122, a suppressor screen was performed. More than 200 partially...... a large protein with at least six domains with predicted functions, and mutations in five of these showed that they are important for the lesion mimic phenotype of syp121 syp122. Subcellular localization showed SSD6 to function on the ER. In the project, a split-GFP Gateway vector system was developed...

  8. Advances in AlGaInN laser diode technology for defence, security and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Suski, T.; Marona, L.; Boćkowski, M.; Leszczyński, M.; Wisnieski, P.; Czernecki, R.; Targowski, G.

    2016-10-01

    Laser diodes fabricated from the AlGaInN material system is an emerging technology for defence, security and sensing applications. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., 380nm, to the visible 530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well, giving rise to new and novel applications including displays and imaging systems, free-space and underwater telecommunications and the latest quantum technologies such as optical atomic clocks and atom interferometry.

  9. Defence and illustration of nuclear deterrence; Defense et illustration de la dissuasion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    After having shown that nuclear deterrence has been efficient since 1945 (nuclear weapons prevented from war, nuclear deterrence contributed to the reduction of risks related to proliferation), the author discusses the amorality and illegality of nuclear deterrence (its ethics can indeed be a matter of discussion, as well as issues like self-defence and international humanitarian law). On another hand, he shows that deterrence costs remain acceptable and that substitutes to nuclear deterrence are not credible. He concludes that deterrence is therefore still useful and legitimate

  10. 强制辩护制度探究%Research into the compulsory defence system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨群

    2012-01-01

    The defence right of the criminal proceeding is a basic right of the prosecuted.Whether the defence right is fully used not only concerns the right of the prosecuted,but also influences the justice and public credibility.At the present stag,the defence rate of criminal cases has gradually dropped year by year.The lack of defender results in imbanlance of power between the prosecutor and the defender,leading to the frequent infringement of the prosecuted' just right and the wrong cases.In order to improve the judgement of criminal cases,it is necessary to borrow the compulsory defence system to normalize the criminal proceeding for the sake of the protection of the prosecuted' basic right,which is of great significance for the development of our criminal law.%刑事诉讼中的辩护权是被追诉人的一项基本权利,辩护权行使的充分与否,不仅关涉被追诉人的切身利益,更影响着司法的公正性和公信力。现阶段我国刑事案件辩护率低且逐年下降,辩护人的缺席导致控辩力量对比失衡,控辩平等对抗近乎空谈,被告人的正当权益屡遭侵害,冤假错案时有发生。为突破这一困境,提高刑事案件审判水平,借鉴引入强制辩护制度尤为重要,通过强制辩护制度,制衡控方公权力行使,规范刑事诉讼活动,切实维护刑事被追诉人的基本权利,对我国刑事诉讼法的发展具有重要意义。

  11. Current strategies in the farm practices and post-harvest pesticidal defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Molinari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, people often talk about biologic agriculture and Integrated Production (IP, even if the real meaning of these terms is altered. In both cases, they deal with production methods characterized by a particular attention to the reduction of the environmental impact of all the farm practices used, especially for defence from adversities, being the element of major concern for environment and consumers’ health.Farm practice evolution, especially those about pest defence, is based on important conceptual change, accurate scientific analysis and organization of technical assistance, rationalization of agri-pharmaceutical product use is one of the main objective of Integrated Production Specifications (IPS. The quantitative reduction is the first objective, obtained by various means such as the use of efficient equipment and the qualitative selection based on the priority use of minor impact means, effectiveness being equal. At post-harvest, the anti-parasitary defence is undergoing deep changes in our country. Once, pesticides very toxic and persistent were used; however, in the last years the availability of active principles (a.p. usable on foodstuffs or in productive environments; for instance, methyl bromide use has been progressively reduced till its banishment because it is recognized to damage the ozone layer. Thus, on the whole we can talk about “integrated pest management” even for the post-harvest sector. However, substantial differences exist between agriculture and post-harvest, thus the integrated pest management in food production environment has to be designed in a different way. The fundamental element of this technique is to identify a tolerance threshold to pest attack but for the defence of food industries and stored foodstuffs is very difficult, if not impossible, to fix a limit to insect presence after which intervening is compulsory. Monitoring of pest attacks and the implementation of prevention practices is

  12. Cell Surface Receptor Theory of Disease Infectivity; Body's Defence and Normal Body Functioning in Living Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study of the pattern of Candida spp. infection of the human body and the mode and pattern of reaction of the human body to this infection showed that disease infectivity and self healing by plants followed the same procedures and patterns. Approach: A comparism of these procedures and patterns of natural self- healing of disease infection by the human body and plants/plant parts with the cutaneous Candida spp. killing and elimination procedures and patterns of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract, showed that cell surface receptors are the sites through which disease infects the body and also the sites at which the body is defended. They are also the sites where activities which result in normal body functioning are carried out. The mode and patterns of Cutaneous Candida infection in a human subject and its containment by the body was examined and photographed. The disease infection and self healing procedures and patterns of plants were also examined in comparism with those of their healthy counterparts and photographed. The findings from the observations on disease infectivity and natural body’s defence patterns and procedures of the plant parts studied and those of the human body in reaction to Candida spp. infection were compared with those of the Candida spp. killing procedures and patterns of aqueous and Arachis hypogeal oil extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf. Results: The findings of this study also showed that disease-infective organisms gain access to the body of a host through attachment to the cell surface receptors of that host which are placed linearly and are interconnected by channels. The results of the study also indicated that living organisms have a main endogenous substance that mediates both their body’s defence and their normal physiological functioning which is therefore the owner of the cell surface receptor. Other endogenous substances which participate in normal body functioning/body’s defence or in

  13. European cooperation in the field of security and defence. International Relation theories perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czaputowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various theoretical explanations of the European cooperation in the field of security and defence. According to realist explanations this cooperation was a response to external evolutions in the international system, i.e. changes in polarity and distribution of power. Liberals say that it was rather due to internal factors. Constructivists argue that it was a result of elites’ socialisation, while according to Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, it was caused by civil servants and military staff at the policy implementation level. The paper argues that external factors underlined by realists were decisive, i.e. America’s decreasing involvement in European security.

  14. Further analysis and evaluation of the results of the NATO common shield-DAT#7 experiment: defence against terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Jirousek, Matthias; Süß, Helmut

    2009-09-01

    The contactless control of persons and the remote surveillance of sensitive infrastructures are important tasks in order to provide the required security measures to protect the human population against the threads of international terrorism. Passive microwave imaging allows a daytime independent observation and examination of objects and persons under nearly all adverse ambient conditions without artificial exposure, hence fully avoiding health risks. The penetration capability of microwaves provides the detection of objects through atmospheric obstacles like bad weather, fog or dust, vapour and smoke, as well as through thin non-metallic materials and clothing. For the latter the detection of hidden objects like weapons, explosives, and contraband is possible by monitoring dielectric anomalies. The experiment "Common Shield" is part of a perennial investigation series leaded by the "Center for Transformation of the German armed forces (Bundeswehr)". In 2008 the protection of soldiers and facilities was experimentally investigated under the aspect of a networked operational leadership. In this context as well a harbour protection trial was carried out in August/September 2008 at the naval base Eckernfoerde in Germany. This trial was part of the NATO CNADs program of work for "Defence Against Terrorism (DAT)" starting in 2003, and Germany is the lead nation for item 7 on "Technology for Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance & Target Acquisition of Terrorists (ISRTA)". One main activity in the Eckernfoerde trial was the simulation of a military entrance control facility by a tent including various imaging and a chemical sensor suite in order to provide security for a military camp. Besides commercial optical and infrared cameras various passive millimeter-wave imagers have been used from different German research institutions. The DLR Microwaves and Radar Institute, Department for Reconnaissance and Security (HR-AS), provided an imaging radiometer scanner

  15. African horse sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  16. Transportation in African Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  17. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    to a national norm, comprised of students of all races, showed no significant differences. The attitudes that African American middle school students have toward science are influenced by science professionals (role models), their parents, and their teachers. This correlates directly with the high preference for Parent Motivated and Teacher Motivated learning style preferences.

  18. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  19. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  20. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…