Sample records for african horse sickness

  1. African horse sickness. (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher


    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  2. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses. (United States)

    Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J


    To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation.

  3. Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat

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    Sybrand J. van Sittert


    Full Text Available This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs. Histopathology revealed severe oedema and congestion of the lungs, hyaline degeneration of the myocardium and congestion of the liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry detected AHS-positive staining granules in the myocardium, whilst a real-time reverse transcription quantitative Polymerase chain reaction assay of tissue samples was strongly positive for African horse sickness virus nucleic acid. Other dogs on the property showed a 43%seroconversion rate to AHS.

  4. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa. (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J


    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  5. A review of African horse sickness and its implications for Ireland

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    Thompson Geoffrey M


    Full Text Available Abstract African horse sickness is an economically highly important non-contagious but infectious Orbivirus disease that is transmitted by various species of Culicoides midges. The equids most severely affected by the virus are horses, ponies, and European donkeys; mules are somewhat less susceptible, and African donkeys and zebra are refractory to the devastating consequences of infection. In recent years, Bluetongue virus, an Orbivirus similar to African horse sickness, which also utilises Culicoides spp. as its vector, has drastically increased its range into previously unaffected regions in northern Europe, utilising indigenous vector species, and causing widespread economic damage to the agricultural sector. Considering these events, the current review outlines the history of African horse sickness, including information concerning virus structure, transmission, viraemia, overwintering ability, and the potential implications that an outbreak would have for Ireland. While the current risk for the introduction of African horse sickness to Ireland is considered at worst ‘very low’, it is important to note that prior to the 2006 outbreak of Bluetongue in northern Europe, both diseases were considered to be of equal risk to the United Kingdom (‘medium-risk’. It is therefore likely that any outbreak of this disease would have serious socio-economic consequences for Ireland due to the high density of vulnerable equids and the prevalence of Culicoides species, potentially capable of vectoring the virus.

  6. Serological survey of African horse sickness in selected districts of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. (United States)

    Bitew, Molalegne; Andargie, Ashenafi; Bekele, Mihreteab; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas


    A cross-sectional serological survey was undertaken in selected districts of different agro-ecology of Jimma zone (Dedo, Yebu, Seka, Serbo, and Jimma town) from November 2009 to February 2010 to determine the seroprevalence of African horse sickness virus and associated risk factors of the disease. Two hundred seventy-four equids (189 horses, 43 mules, and 47 donkeys) with a history of non-vaccination for at least 2 years were selected randomly from the above areas. Sera samples were collected and assayed for the presence of specific antibody against African horse sickness virus using blocking ELISA. An overall seroprevalence of 89 (32.5%) was found and it was 24 (51.1%) for donkeys, 13 (30.2%) for mules, and 52(28.3%) for horses. Seroprevalence was significantly (X(2) = 11.05, P 0.05 and X(2) = 3.38, P > 0.05, respectively) associated with seroprevalence of AHSV. The present study showed that African horse sickness (AHS) is highly prevalent disease for the horses followed by mules and then donkeys in Jimma zone explained by lower seroconversion rate. Therefore, control strategy against AHS should target at high risk species of all age and sex in their locality in the initial stage for better containment of the disease.

  7. African horse sickness in The Gambia: circulation of a live-attenuated vaccine-derived strain. (United States)

    Oura, C A L; Ivens, P A S; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Bin-Tarif, A; Jallow, D B; Sailleau, C; Maan, S; Mertens, P C; Batten, C A


    African horse sickness virus serotype 9 (AHSV-9) has been known for some time to be circulating amongst equids in West Africa without causing any clinical disease in indigenous horse populations. Whether this is due to local breeds of horses being resistant to disease or whether the AHSV-9 strains circulating are avirulent is currently unknown. This study shows that the majority (96%) of horses and donkeys sampled across The Gambia were seropositive for AHS, despite most being unvaccinated and having no previous history of showing clinical signs of AHS. Most young horses (horses. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an AHSV-9 strain showing 100% identity to Seg-2 of the AHSV-9 reference strain, indicating that the virus circulating in The Gambia was highly likely to have been derived from a live-attenuated AHSV-9 vaccine strain.

  8. An African horse sickness virus serotype 4 recombinant canarypox virus vaccine elicits specific cell-mediated immune responses in horses. (United States)

    El Garch, H; Crafford, J E; Amouyal, P; Durand, P Y; Edlund Toulemonde, C; Lemaitre, L; Cozette, V; Guthrie, A; Minke, J M


    A recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing synthetic genes encoding outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 (ALVAC(®)-AHSV4) has been demonstrated to fully protect horses against homologous challenge with virulent field virus. Guthrie et al. (2009) detected weak and variable titres of neutralizing antibody (ranging from horses received two vaccinations twenty-eight days apart and three horses remained unvaccinated. The detection of VP2/VP5 specific IFN-γ responses was assessed by enzyme linked immune spot (ELISpot) assay and clearly demonstrated that all ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinated horses developed significant IFN-γ production compared to unvaccinated horses. More detailed immune responses obtained by flow cytometry demonstrated that ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinations induced immune cells, mainly CD8(+) T cells, able to recognize multiple T-epitopes through all VP2 and only the N-terminus sequence of VP5. Neither VP2 nor VP5 specific IFN-γ responses were detected in unvaccinated horses. Overall, our data demonstrated that an experimental recombinant canarypox based vaccine induced significant CMI specific for both VP2 and VP5 proteins of AHSV4.

  9. Validation of ELISA for the detection of African horse sickness virus antigens and antibodies. (United States)

    Rubio, C; Cubillo, M A; Hooghuis, H; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Diaz-Laviada, M; Plateau, E; Zientara, S; Crucière, C; Hamblin, C


    The mortality rate in susceptible populations of horses during an epizootic of African horse sickness (AHS) may be in excess of 90%. Rapid and reliable assays are therefore essential for the confirmation of clinical diagnoses and to enable control strategies to be implemented without undue delay. One of the major objectives of a recent European Union funded project was the validation of newly developed diagnostic assays which are rapid, sensitive, highly reproducible and inexpensive, for the detection of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) antigens and antibodies. The Laboratorio de Sanidad y Produccion Animal (LSPA) in Algete, Spain was charged with the responsibility of co-ordinating and supplying samples of viruses and antisera to the participating laboratories in Spain, France and the United Kingdom. The panels comprised 76 antigen samples for assay by indirect sandwich ELISAs and 53 serum samples for antibody detection by either indirect or competitive ELISAs. Results generated by ELISA for each laboratory were analysed in LSPA in terms of their relative sensitivities and specificities. There was a good agreement between the ELISAs used for either antigen or antibody detection. The participating groups agreed that any field sample giving a doubtful result would always be retested by ELISA and an alternative assay.

  10. Protective immunization of horses with a recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the outer capsid proteins of African horse sickness virus. (United States)

    Guthrie, Alan J; Quan, Melvyn; Lourens, Carina W; Audonnet, Jean-Christophe; Minke, Jules M; Yao, Jiansheng; He, Ling; Nordgren, Robert; Gardner, Ian A; Maclachlan, N James


    We describe the development and preliminary characterization of a recombinant canarypox virus vectored (ALVAC) vaccine for protective immunization of equids against African horse sickness virus (AHSV) infection. Horses (n=8) immunized with either of two concentrations of recombinant canarypox virus vector (ALVAC-AHSV) co-expressing synthetic genes encoding the outer capsid proteins (VP2 and VP5) of AHSV serotype 4 (AHSV-4) developed variable titres (horse immunized with a commercial recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine expressing the haemagglutinin genes of two equine influenza H3N8 viruses was seronegative to AHSV and following infection with virulent AHSV-4 developed pyrexia, thrombocytopenia and marked oedema of the supraorbital fossae typical of the "dikkop" or cardiac form of African horse sickness. AHSV was detected by virus isolation and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the blood of the control horse from 8 days onwards after challenge infection whereas AHSV was not detected at any time in the blood of the ALVAC-AHSV vaccinated horses. The control horse seroconverted to AHSV by 2 weeks after challenge infection as determined by both virus neutralization and ELISA assays, whereas six of eight of the ALVAC-AHSV vaccinated horses did not seroconvert by either assay following challenge infection with virulent AHSV-4. These data confirm that the ALVAC-AHSV vaccine will be useful for the protective immunization of equids against African horse sickness, and avoids many of the problems inherent to live-attenuated AHSV vaccines.

  11. A web-based survey of horse owners' perceptions and network analysis of horse movements relating to African horse sickness distribution in Namibia and South Africa. (United States)

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; van Hamburg, Huib


    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is the most lethal infectious non-contagious horse disease and has accordingly been declared notifiable by the World Organisation for Animal Health. AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and causes considerable losses to the equestrian industry. The effect of diseases in livestock on socio-economic factors is well researched, but the effect of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of a disease is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to assess Namibian and South African horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on AHS distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect information from horse owners in Namibia and South Africa. To that end 'Fluid survey' was used for survey development. The survey was launched on Facebook and the link shared to horse related focus groups in Namibia and South Africa. A total of 508 responses were collected during the survey period. Of the 417 completed questionnaires received, 22% were from Namibia and 78% from South Africa. The participants comprised of 71% social and 29% professional riders. The most popular precautionary measures used, in addition to vaccination, were chemical repellents (64%) and stabling of horses during dusk and dawn (59%). A network analysis was performed in Gephi 0.8.2.B to illustrate the movement of horses between countries and districts/provinces. Network analysis results indicate that areas with the highest movement of horses corresponded to the areas with a high occurrence of AHS. Although 93% of the participants were aware that AHS is a notifiable and controlled disease, the process and efficiency of reporting is mostly unknown. With this snapshot of horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on the distribution of AHS, it is clear that a more holistic approach is needed. To that end, all environmental and social factors must be taken into account in effective management strategies.

  12. Development of a Luminex-Based DIVA Assay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus in Horses. (United States)

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Nieto-Pelegrín, E; Beck, C; Rivera-Arroyo, B; Lecollinet, S; Sailleau, C; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M


    African horse sickness (AHS) is considered a fatal re-emergent vector-borne disease of horses. In the absence of any effective treatment for AHS, vaccination remains the most effective form of disease control. The new generation of vaccines, such as one based on purified, inactivated AHS virus (AHSV, serotype 4), which does not induce antibodies against non-structural protein 3 (NS3), enables the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA assays). As detecting AHS in AHSV-free countries may lead to restrictions on international animal movements and thereby cause significant economic damage, these DIVA assays are crucial for reducing movement restrictions. In this article, we describe a Luminex-based multiplex assay for DIVA diagnosis of AHS, and we validate it in a duplex format to detect antibodies against structural protein 7 (VP7) and NS3 in serum samples from horses vaccinated with inactivated AHSV4 vaccine or infected with a live virus of the same serotype. Results of the Luminex-based assay for detecting anti-NS3 antibodies showed good positive correlation with results from an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, the Luminex-based technique described here may allow multiplex DIVA antibody detection in a single sample in less than 2 h, and it may prove adaptable for the development of robust, multiplex serological assays.

  13. Immunogenicity of two adjuvant formulations of an inactivated African horse sickness vaccine in guinea-pigs and target animals

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    Gaetano Federico Ronchi


    Full Text Available Monovalent, inactivated and adjuvanted vaccines against African horse sickness, prepared with serotypes 5 and 9, were tested on guinea-pigs to select the formulation that offered the greatest immunity. The final formulation of the vaccines took into account the immune response in the guinea-pig and the inflammatory properties of two types of adjuvant previously tested on target animals. A pilot study was subsequently conducted on horses using a vaccine prepared with serotype 9. The vaccine stimulated neutralising antibodies from the first administration and, after the booster dose, 28 days later; high antibody levels were recorded for at least 10 months. The guinea-pig appears to be a useful laboratory model for the evaluation of the antigenic properties of African horse sickness vaccines.

  14. Risk of introducing African horse sickness virus into the Netherlands by international equine movements. (United States)

    de Vos, C J; Hoek, C A; Nodelijk, G


    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vector-borne viral disease of equines that is transmitted by Culicoides spp. and can have severe consequences for the horse industry in affected territories. A study was performed to assess the risk of introducing AHS virus (AHSV) into the Netherlands (P_AHS) by international equine movements. The goal of this study was to provide more insight into (a) the regions and equine species that contribute most to this risk, (b) the seasonal variation in this risk, and (c) the effectiveness of measures to prevent introduction of AHSV. Countries worldwide were grouped into three risk regions: (1) high risk, i.e., those countries in which the virus is presumed to circulate, (2) low risk, i.e., those countries that have experienced outbreaks of AHS in the past and/or where the main vector of AHS, Culicoides imicola, is present, and (3) very low risk, i.e., all other countries. A risk model was constructed estimating P_AHS taking into account the probability of release of AHSV in the Netherlands and the probability that local vectors will subsequently transmit the virus to local hosts. Model calculations indicated that P_AHS is very low with a median value of 5.1×10(-4)/year. The risk is highest in July and August, while equine movements in the period October till March pose a negligible risk. High and low risk regions contribute most to P_AHS with 31% and 53%, respectively. Importations of donkeys and zebras constitute the highest risk of AHSV release from high risk regions, while international movements of competition horses constitute the highest risk of AHSV release from low and very low risk regions. Preventive measures currently applied reduce P_AHS by 46% if compared to a situation in which no preventive measures are applied. A prolonged and more effective quarantine period in high risk regions and more stringent import regulations for low risk regions could further reduce P_AHS. Large uncertainty was involved in estimating model input

  15. Inactivated and adjuvanted vaccine for the control of the African horse sickness virus serotype 9 infection: evaluation of efficacy in horses and guinea-pig model. (United States)

    Lelli, Rossella; Molini, Umberto; Ronchi, Gaetano Federico; Rossi, Emanuela; Franchi, Paola; Ulisse, Simonetta; Armillotta, Gisella; Capista, Sara; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Di Ventura, Mauro; Pini, Attilio


    African horse sickness (AHS) is a non-contagious viral disease of solipeds transmitted by Culicoides. The disease is endemic in most African countries. Past experience has shown that Italy is a country exposed to emerging infectious diseases endemic to Africa; an incursion of AHS virus together with the widespread presence of Culicoides vectors could be the cause of a serious epidemic emergency. A live attenuated vaccine containing seven of the nine viral serotypes, serotype 5 and 9 are excluded, is commercially available from Onderstepoort Biological Products. However, the use of live vaccines is a matter of endless disputes, and therefore inactivated or recombinant alternative products have been investigated over the years. Since research on AHS is hampered by the use of horses to evaluate vaccine potency, in a previous experiment serological response to serotypes 5 and 9 was assayed in guinea-pigs and horses. A durable and comparable serological response was observed in the two animal species. In the present study antibody response in horses and guinea-pigs, immunised with the inactivated-adjuvanted vaccine formulated with serotype 9, was tested over a period of 12 months. When immunity was challenged, horses were protected from infection and disease. Antibody response in horses and guinea-pigs compared favourably.

  16. Assembly of replication-incompetent African horse sickness virus particles: rational design of vaccines for all serotypes.


    Lulla, V.; Lulla, A; Wernike, K; Aebischer, A.; Beer, M.; Roy, P.


    UNLABELLED: African horse sickness virus (AHSV), an orbivirus in the Reoviridae family with nine different serotypes, causes devastating disease in equids. The virion particle is composed of seven proteins organized in three concentric layers, an outer layer made of VP2 and VP5, a middle layer made of VP7, and inner layer made of VP3 that encloses a replicase complex of VP1, VP4, and VP6 and a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments. In this study, we sought to develop highly efficacious ca...

  17. Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain. (United States)

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A; Newton, J Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L N


    Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species.

  18. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge. (United States)

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier


    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR -/-) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field.

  19. Assembly of Replication-Incompetent African Horse Sickness Virus Particles: Rational Design of Vaccines for All Serotypes (United States)

    Lulla, Valeria; Lulla, Aleksei; Wernike, Kerstin; Aebischer, Andrea; Beer, Martin


    ABSTRACT African horse sickness virus (AHSV), an orbivirus in the Reoviridae family with nine different serotypes, causes devastating disease in equids. The virion particle is composed of seven proteins organized in three concentric layers, an outer layer made of VP2 and VP5, a middle layer made of VP7, and inner layer made of VP3 that encloses a replicase complex of VP1, VP4, and VP6 and a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments. In this study, we sought to develop highly efficacious candidate vaccines against all AHSV serotypes, taking into account not only immunogenic and safety properties but also virus productivity and stability parameters, which are essential criteria for vaccine candidates. To achieve this goal, we first established a highly efficient reverse genetics (RG) system for AHSV serotype 1 (AHSV1) and, subsequently, a VP6-defective AHSV1 strain in combination with in trans complementation of VP6. This was then used to generate defective particles of all nine serotypes, which required the exchange of two to five RNA segments to achieve equivalent titers of particles. All reassortant-defective viruses could be amplified and propagated to high titers in cells complemented with VP6 but were totally incompetent in any other cells. Furthermore, these replication-incompetent AHSV particles were demonstrated to be highly protective against homologous virulent virus challenges in type I interferon receptor (IFNAR)-knockout mice. Thus, these defective viruses have the potential to be used for the development of safe and stable vaccine candidates. The RG system also provides a powerful tool for the study of the role of individual AHSV proteins in virus assembly, morphogenesis, and pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE African horse sickness virus is transmitted by biting midges and causes African horse sickness in equids, with mortality reaching up to 95% in naive horses. Therefore, the development of efficient vaccines is extremely important due to major economic

  20. Induction of antibody responses to African horse sickness virus (AHSV in ponies after vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA.

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    Rachael Chiam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African horse sickness virus (AHSV causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative approaches for AHSV vaccine development. We have carried out a pilot study to investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vaccines expressing VP2, VP7 or NS3 genes of AHSV to stimulate immune responses against AHSV antigens in the horse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VP2, VP7 and NS3 genes from AHSV-4/Madrid87 were cloned into the vaccinia transfer vector pSC11 and recombinant MVA viruses generated. Antigen expression or transcription of the AHSV genes from cells infected with the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Pairs of ponies were vaccinated with MVAVP2, MVAVP7 or MVANS3 and both MVA vector and AHSV antigen-specific antibody responses were analysed. Vaccination with MVAVP2 induced a strong AHSV neutralising antibody response (VN titre up to a value of 2. MVAVP7 also induced AHSV antigen-specific responses, detected by western blotting. NS3 specific antibody responses were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the immunogenicity of recombinant MVA vectored AHSV vaccines, in particular MVAVP2, and indicates that further work to investigate whether these vaccines would confer protection from lethal AHSV challenge in the horse is justifiable.

  1. Comparative Risk Analysis of Two Culicoides-Borne Diseases in Horses: Equine Encephalosis More Likely to Enter France than African Horse Sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faverjon, C.; Leblond, A.; Lecollinet, S.;


    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical...... and regional differences in virus entry probabilities were the same for both diseases. However, the probability of EE entry was much higher than the probability of AHS entry. Interestingly, the most likely entry route differed between AHS and EE: AHS has a higher probability to enter through an infected vector...... and EE has a higher probability to enter through an infectious host. Consequently, different effective protective measures were identified by ‘what-if’ scenarios for the two diseases. The implementation of vector protection on all animals (equine and bovine) coming from low-risk regions before...

  2. Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Venteo, A.;


    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological...... immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule...

  3. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

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    Gert J. Venter


    Full Text Available In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June–August. Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March to < 100 (July and August, no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level.

  4. Development of a Microsphere-based Immunoassay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus and Comparison with Other Diagnostic Techniques. (United States)

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Beck, C; Kukielka, D; Lecollinet, S; Blaise-Boisseau, S; Garnier, A; Rueda, P; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M


    African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease that causes high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible Equidae and therefore significant economic losses. More rapid, sensitive and specific assays are required by diagnostic laboratories to support effective surveillance programmes. A novel microsphere-based immunoassay (Luminex assay) in which beads are coated with recombinant AHS virus (AHSV) structural protein 7 (VP7) has been developed for serological detection of antibodies against VP7 of any AHSV serotype. The performance of this assay was compared with that of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and commercial lateral flow assay (LFA) on a large panel of serum samples from uninfected horses (n = 92), from a reference library of all AHSV serotypes (n = 9), on samples from horses experimentally infected with AHSV (n = 114), and on samples from West African horses suspected of having AHS (n = 85). The Luminex assay gave the same negative results as ELISA when used to test the samples from uninfected horses. Both assays detected antibodies to all nine AHSV serotypes. In contrast, the Luminex assay detected a higher rate of anti-VP7 positivity in the West African field samples than did ELISA or LFA. The Luminex assay detected anti-VP7 positivity in experimentally infected horses at 7 days post-infection, compared to 13 days for ELISA. This novel immunoassay provides a platform for developing multiplex assays, in which the presence of antibodies against multiple ASHV antigens can be detected simultaneously. This would be useful for serotyping or for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

  5. Research Progress in Development of Vaccines against African Horse Sickness%非洲马瘟疫苗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宇乾; 吴海燕


    African horse sickness (AHS) is a non-contagious, insect-borne disease of equids, caused by African horse sickness viruses. This disease is included in the single Office International des Epizooties list of notifiable terrestrial animal diseases, and at present, is enzootic in such areas as sub-Saharan Africa. AHS is mainly transmitted by Culicoides midges, which grow and reproduce in the endemic areas, being responsible for the epidemiological status of this disease. The live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines against AHS have been commercialized and been widely used. The new generation vaccines based on genetic engineering, such as subunit vaccines and viral vector vaccines, are being developed and will probably enter the vaccine marketplace in the future. In this review, we discussed the current status of vaccines against AHS in detail.%非洲马瘟(African horse sickness,AHS)由非洲马瘟病毒(African horse sickness virus,AHSV)感染马科动物而引起的一种非接触性传播的虫媒病毒病,为世界动物卫生组织法定报告的动物疫病,目前主要流行于亚撒哈拉非洲等地区.库蠓( Culicoides midges)是非洲马瘟的主要媒介昆虫,其在疫区的生长繁殖直接影响着该病的流行状况.非洲马瘟弱毒苗和灭活苗已经商品化并得到广泛地应用,新型基因工程疫苗,如亚单位疫苗、活病毒载体疫苗等,正在研发当中并有望将来进入疫苗市场,作者着重对ASH疫苗的研究现状进行了评述.

  6. Virus-specific CD8⁺ T-cells detected in PBMC from horses vaccinated against African horse sickness virus. (United States)

    Pretorius, Alri; Van Kleef, Mirinda; Van Wyngaardt, Wouter; Heath, Jeanette


    African horsesickness (AHS) is an infectious but noncontagious viral disease affecting all species of Equidae. The recall immune response of AHSV naïve horses immunised with an attenuated African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV4) was characterised using immune assays including ELISPOT, real-time PCR (qPCR) and flow cytometry. The recall immune response detected in PBMC isolated from three inoculated horses showed an upregulation of circulating B lymphocytes that correlated with elevated IL-4 mRNA expression indicative of humoral immunity, but reduced frequency of CD4⁺ cells. In addition to the expected antibody response, an increase in CD8⁺ cells was also detected. Although these CD8⁺ cells may be CTL, the role of these cells in immunity against AHSV still has to be determined.

  7. Ns1 is a key protein in the vaccine composition to protect Ifnar(-/- mice against infection with multiple serotypes of African horse sickness virus.

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    Francisco de la Poza

    Full Text Available African horse sickness virus (AHSV belongs to the genus Orbivirus. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA expressing VP2 and NS1 proteins from AHSV-4. IFNAR((-/- mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-NS1 from AHSV-4 in an heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of neutralizing antibodies specific of AHSV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific T cell responses against the virus. The vaccine elicited partial protection against an homologous AHSV-4 infection and induced cross-protection against the heterologous AHSV-9. Similarly, IFNAR((-/- mice vaccinated with an homologous prime-boost strategy with rMVA-VP2-NS1 from AHSV-4 developed neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against AHSV-4. Furthermore, the levels of immunity were very high since none of vaccinated animals presented viraemia when they were challenged against the homologous AHSV-4 and very low levels when they were challenged against the heterologous virus AHSV-9. These data suggest that the immunization with rMVA/rMVA was more efficient in protection against a virulent challenge with AHSV-4 and both strategies, DNA/rMVA and rMVA/rMVA, protected against the infection with AHSV-9. The inclusion of the protein NS1 in the vaccine formulations targeting AHSV generates promising multiserotype vaccines.

  8. Immunization of horses with a polyvalent live-attenuated African horse sickness vaccine: Serological response and disease occurrence under field conditions

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    Umberto Molini


    Our data confirm that vaccination with LAV is a useful tool to reduce the severity of the disease in endemic areas. However, clinical and sometimes fatal AHS can still affect young vaccinated horses, thus highlighting the necessity to better understand the immune response to AHSV and to dispose of more effective vaccines.

  9. Vaccination of mice with a modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the African horse sickness virus (AHSV) capsid protein VP2 induces virus neutralising antibodies that confer protection against AHSV upon passive immunisation. (United States)

    Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; de la Poza, Francisco; Gubbins, Simon; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement; Ortego, Javier; Castillo-Olivares, Javier


    In previous studies we showed that a recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 (MVA-VP2) induced virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR-/-) against challenge. We continued these studies and determined, in the IFNAR-/- mouse model, whether the antibody responses induced by MVA-VP2 vaccination play a key role in protection against AHSV. Thus, groups of mice were vaccinated with wild type MVA (MVA-wt) or MVA-VP2 and the antisera from these mice were used in a passive immunisation experiment. Donor antisera from (a) MVA-wt; (b) MVA-VP2 vaccinated; or (c) MVA-VP2 vaccinated and AHSV infected mice, were transferred to AHSV non-immune recipient mice. The recipients were challenged with virulent AHSV together with MVA-VP2 vaccinated and MVA-wt vaccinated control animals and the levels of protection against AHSV-4 were compared between all these groups. The results showed that following AHSV challenge, mice that were passively immunised with MVA-VP2 vaccinated antisera were highly protected against AHSV disease and had lower levels of viraemia than recipients of MVA-wt antisera. Our study indicates that MVA-VP2 vaccination induces a highly protective humoral immune response against AHSV.

  10. The continuing problem of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G E


    Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a neglected disease, and it continues to pose a major threat to 60 million people in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, the disease is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma and comes in two types: East African human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and the West African form caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. There is an early or hemolymphatic stage and a late or encephalitic stage, when the parasites cross the blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system. Two critical current issues are disease staging and drug therapy, especially for late-stage disease. Lumbar puncture to analyze cerebrospinal fluid will remain the only method of disease staging until reliable noninvasive methods are developed, but there is no widespread consensus as to what exactly defines biologically central nervous system disease or what specific cerebrospinal fluid findings should justify drug therapy for late-stage involvement. All four main drugs used for human African trypanosomiasis are toxic, and melarsoprol, the only drug that is effective for both types of central nervous system disease, is so toxic that it kills 5% of patients who receive it. Eflornithine, alone or combined with nifurtimox, is being used increasingly as first-line therapy for gambiense disease. There is a pressing need for an effective, safe oral drug for both stages of the disease, but this will require a significant increase in investment for new drug discovery from Western governments and the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. 非洲马瘟病毒VP7和NS2双重荧光RT-PCR检测技术的建立与应用%Development and Application of Duplex Real-time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of VP7 and NS2 of African Horse Sickness Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志强; 张鹤晓; 乔彩霞; 蒲静; 张伟; 谷强; 刘环; 张利峰; 马贵平


      Nucleic acid sequences of representative strains of different genotypes of African horse sickness viruses(AHSV)were aligned with the DNAMAN software. The two highly conservative NS2 and VP7 regions were then subjected to design primers and probes. The artificially synthesized nucleic acid fragments including amplification regions were used to prepare double strand RNA (dsRNA)by in vitro transcription in two directions(T7 and SP6). A duplex real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay was developed to detect and quantify AHSV by optimization of reaction conditions using prepared dsRNA. The developed assay was used to detect a set of extracted pathogen RNA/DNA including those of AHSV,Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis virus(EEEV and WEEV), equine arteritis virus(EAV),equine influenza virus subtype H3N8(EIV H3N8),Salmonella abortus equi,Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidimicus resulting in positive only for AHSV RNA,but negative for other virus nucleic acids,suggesting that the developed assay was specific and reliable. The detection limit of the real-time RT-PCR was 1.0×102copies per reaction,10 times more sensitive than that of the conventional RT–PCR based on gel electrophoresis. Also the double gene design could ensure the reliability, and efficiently reduce false negative results. By testing 248 clinical samples,it is confirmed that this assay was rapid,sensitive and repeatable,meeting the requirements for rapid diagnosis of AHSV.%  利用DNAMAN软件对非洲马瘟病毒不同基因型代表株的序列进行分析,选择其高度保守的VP7和NS2基因设计合成引物和探针。人工分别合成包含有扩增区域的VP7和NS2核苷酸片段进行双向(T7和SP6)体外转录制备双链RNA(dsRNA)。使用制备的dsRNA在对荧光定量RT-PCR的反应条件优化的基础上,建立了适用于非洲马瘟病毒检测的双重通用荧光定量RT-PCR检测技术。应用建立的方法对非洲马瘟病毒核酸,马流感病毒核酸

  12. Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter Ge


    Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is caused by infection with parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, transmitted by the tsetse fly. The disease has two forms, Trypanosoma brucei (T b) rhodesiense and T b gambiense; and is almost always fatal if untreated. Despite a recent reduction in the number of reported cases, patients with African trypanosomiasis continue to present major challenges to clinicians. Because treatment for CNS-stage disease can be very toxic, diagnostic staging to distinguish early-stage from late-stage disease when the CNS in invaded is crucial but remains problematic. Melarsoprol is the only available treatment for late-stage T b rhodesiense infection, but can be lethal to 5% of patients owing to post-treatment reactive encephalopathy. Eflornithine combined with nifurtimox is the first-line treatment for late-stage T b gambiense. New drugs are in the pipeline for treatment of CNS human African trypanosomiasis, giving rise to cautious optimism.

  13. ["African sickness" and the heart: the mystery of endomyocardial fibrosis]. (United States)

    Grimaldi, Antonio; Alfieri, Ottavio; Camici, Paolo G; La Canna, Giovanni; Zoppei, Gianna; Olivotto, Iacopo


    The epidemic of cardiovascular disease is a global phenomenon and the magnitude of its increase in incidence and prevalence in low-income countries has potentially major implications for those high-income countries that characterize the developed world. The "epidemiologic transition" provides a useful framework for understanding changes in the patterns of disease as a result of socioeconomic and demographic developments. According to the migratory flow, the burden of African immigrants in Italy is rising, and there is a need to re-assess the clinical management of anything but obsolete western cardiovascular disorders also delving into the rare tropical neglected diseases. Rheumatic fever and tropical cardiac diseases, such as endomyocardial fibrosis in Africa and Chagas disease in Latin America, require a human resource framework to direct into research and intervention programs. This review will focus upon endomyocardial fibrosis, by far the most common type of restrictive cardiomyopathy worldwide, still an unsolved puzzle from a pathophysiological point of view and in need of more attention from the international community of cardiologists. In this paper the data from the literature are implemented by our personal experience at the St. Raphael of St. Francis Hospital-Nsambya and the Ugandan Heart Institute of Kampala, the capital town of Uganda.

  14. Association of vectors and environmental conditions during the emergence of Peruvian horse sickness orbivirus and Yunnan orbivirus in northern Peru. (United States)

    Méndez-López, María R; Attoui, Houssam; Florin, David; Calisher, Charles H; Florian-Carrillo, J Christian; Montero, Stephanie


    Since 1983, cases of diseased donkeys and horses with symptoms similar to those produced by alphaviruses were identified in two departments in northern Peru; however serological testing ruled out the presence of those viruses and attempts to isolate an agent were also unproductive. In 1997, also in northern Peru, two new orbiviruses were discovered, each recognized as a causative agent of neurological diseases in livestock and domestic animals and, at the same time, mosquitoes were found to be infected with these viruses. Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) was isolated from pools of culicid mosquitoes, Aedes serratus and Psorophora ferox, and Yunnan virus (YUOV) was isolated from Aedes scapularis in the subtropical jungle (upper jungle) located on the slope between the east side of the Andes and the Amazonian basin in the Department of San Martín. Both viruses later were recovered from mosquitoes collected above the slope between the west side of the Andes and the coast (Department of Piura) in humid subtropical areas associated with the Piura River basin. In this region, PHSV was isolated from Anopheles albimanus and YUOV was isolated from Ae. scapularis. We discuss the ecology of vector mosquitoes during the outbreaks in the areas where these mosquitoes were found.

  15. Horses (United States)

    ... is Equal On the Back of a Horse Chickens in the City Diseases Cat-Scratch Disease E. ... the same bacterium that has become resistant some antibiotics. Horses carrying MRSA might not necessarily show clinical ...

  16. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

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    Solano Philippe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  17. Gene fusion analysis in the battle against the African endemic sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Trimpalis

    Full Text Available The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness in humans, which can be lethal if untreated. Most available pharmacological treatments for the disease have severe side-effects. The purpose of this analysis was to detect novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs, vital for the parasite, which could lead to the development of drugs against this disease to block the specific interactions. In this work, the Domain Fusion Analysis (Rosetta Stone method was used to identify novel PPIs, by comparing T. brucei to 19 organisms covering all major lineages of the tree of life. Overall, 49 possible protein-protein interactions were detected, and classified based on (a statistical significance (BLAST e-value, domain length etc., (b their involvement in crucial metabolic pathways, and (c their evolutionary history, particularly focusing on whether a protein pair is split in T. brucei and fused in the human host. We also evaluated fusion events including hypothetical proteins, and suggest a possible molecular function or involvement in a certain biological process. This work has produced valuable results which could be further studied through structural biology or other experimental approaches so as to validate the protein-protein interactions proposed here. The evolutionary analysis of the proteins involved showed that, gene fusion or gene fission events can happen in all organisms, while some protein domains are more prone to fusion and fission events and present complex evolutionary patterns.

  18. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda.

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    Nicola A Batchelor

    Full Text Available The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  19. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda. (United States)

    Batchelor, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Gething, Peter W; Picozzi, Kim; Fèvre, Eric M; Kakembo, Abbas S L; Welburn, Susan C


    The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  20. Exploring cultural beliefs about "that sickness": grandmothers' explanations of HIV in an urban South African context. (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Watermeyer, Jennifer


    The role of culture in community beliefs about HIV is important to understand, given poor adherence to treatment and the failure of prevention programs in some contexts. An exploration of such models may yield important insight into barriers to care, treatment-seeking paths, and intergenerational differences in cultural beliefs and practices. Our study aimed to understand South African grandmothers' traditional beliefs about HIV. Three focus groups were conducted with 15 grandmothers from different cultural backgrounds in an urban community. Results indicated a variety of cultural explanations for causes, treatments, and prevention strategies. The lack of coherence and fluidity in opinions in this group suggests ways in which grandmothers may have a bridging role in the clinic that may help to validate and alleviate uncertainty, harmonize the voices of medicine and the lifeworld, and provide greater insight into people's ideas about health and treatment seeking, also known as the healthworld.

  1. A literature review of economic evaluations for a neglected tropical disease: human African trypanosomiasis ("sleeping sickness"). (United States)

    Sutherland, C Simone; Yukich, Joshua; Goeree, Ron; Tediosi, Fabrizio


    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense. It is transmitted to humans via the tsetse fly. Approximately 70 million people worldwide were at risk of infection in 1995, and approximately 20,000 people across Africa are infected with HAT. The objective of this review was to identify existing economic evaluations in order to summarise cost-effective interventions to reduce, control, or eliminate the burden of HAT. The studies included in the review were compared and critically appraised in order to determine if there were existing standardised methods that could be used for economic evaluation of HAT interventions or if innovative methodological approaches are warranted. A search strategy was developed using keywords and was implemented in January 2014 in several databases. The search returned a total of 2,283 articles. After two levels of screening, a total of seven economic evaluations were included and underwent critical appraisal using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist 6: Economic Evaluations. Results from the existing studies focused on the cost-effectiveness of interventions for the control and reduction of disease transmission. Modelling was a common method to forecast long-term results, and publications focused on interventions by category, such as case detection, diagnostics, drug treatments, and vector control. Most interventions were considered cost-effective based on the thresholds described; however, the current treatment, nifurtomix-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT), has not been evaluated for cost-effectiveness, and considerations for cost-effective strategies for elimination have yet to be completed. Overall, the current evidence highlights the main components that play a role in control; however, economic evaluations of HAT elimination strategies are needed to assist national decision makers, stakeholders, and

  2. Functional CD1d and/or NKT cell invariant chain transcript in horse, pig, African elephant and guinea pig, but not in ruminants. (United States)

    Looringh van Beeck, Frank A; Reinink, Peter; Hermsen, Roel; Zajonc, Dirk M; Laven, Marielle J; Fun, Axel; Troskie, Milana; Schoemaker, Nico J; Morar, Darshana; Lenstra, Johannes A; Vervelde, Lonneke; Rutten, Victor P M G; van Eden, Willem; Van Rhijn, Ildiko


    CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells (NKT cells) have been well characterized in humans and mice, but it is unknown whether they are present in other species. Here we describe the invariant TCR alpha chain and the full length CD1d transcript of pig and horse. Molecular modeling predicts that porcine (po) invariant TCR alpha chain/poCD1d/alpha-GalCer and equine (eq) invariant TCR alpha chain/eqCD1d/alpha-GalCer form complexes that are highly homologous to the human complex. Since a prerequisite for the presence of NKT cells is the expression of CD1d protein, we performed searches for CD1D genes and CD1d transcripts in multiple species. Previously, cattle and guinea pig have been suggested to lack CD1D genes. The CD1D genes of European taurine cattle (Bos taurus) are known to be pseudogenes because of disrupting mutations in the start codon and in the donor splice site of the first intron. Here we show that the same mutations are found in six other ruminants: African buffalo, sheep, bushbuck, bongo, N'Dama cattle, and roe deer. In contrast, intact CD1d transcripts were found in guinea pig, African elephant, horse, rabbit, and pig. Despite the discovery of a highly homologous NKT/CD1d system in pig and horse, our data suggest that functional CD1D and CD1d-restricted NKT cells are not universally present in mammals.

  3. Serum sickness (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  4. Serum sickness-like illness associated with ciprofloxacin. (United States)

    Slama, T G


    Serum sickness is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction initially reported in children receiving horse serum. Drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and sulfonamides are now noted to be the most common etiologic agents of serum sickness-like reactions. This case report describes a serum sickness-like reaction temporally related to ciprofloxacin, a previously unreported adverse effect of this drug or any of the other quinolones.

  5. Acute mountain sickness (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  6. Development and evaluation of a SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay for evaluation of cytokine gene expression in horse. (United States)

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Kukielka, D; De las Heras, A I; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M


    Cytokine secretion is one of the main mechanisms by which the immune system is regulated in response to pathogens. Therefore, the measurement of cytokine expression is fundamental to characterizing the immune response to infections. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used to measure cytokine mRNA levels, but assay conditions should be properly evaluated before analyzing important equine infections through relative quantification of gene expression. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a set of RT-qPCR assays for a panel of the most common cytokines in horses involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Eight cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, IFNβ and IFNγ) and a housekeeping gene (β-actin) were detected and amplified with the same annealing temperature in a SYBR Green RT-qPCR assay of samples of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy horse and whole blood from a horse infected with African horse sickness virus. The method gave good efficiency for all genes tested, allowing quantification of relative expression levels. These SYBR Green RT-qPCR assays may be useful for examining cytokine gene expression in horses in response to exposure to economically important pathogens.

  7. Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa. (United States)

    Williams, June H; van Niekerk, Stephanie; Human, Stacey; van Wilpe, Erna; Venter, Marietjie


    Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of central nervous system (CNS) tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for African horse sickness (AHS), equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) and macrophage (MAC) 387 IHC.

  8. Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June H. Williams


    Full Text Available Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of central nervous system (CNS tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC for African horse sickness (AHS, equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1 and macrophage (MAC 387 IHC.

  9. Dizziness and Motion Sickness (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient ... vision or speech, or hearing loss. What is dizziness? Dizziness can be described in many ways, such ...

  10. Morning sickness (image) (United States)

    Morning sickness usually begins during the first month of pregnancy and continues until the 14th to 16th week. ... have nausea and vomiting through their entire pregnancy. Morning sickness is very common and does not hurt the ...

  11. Sport horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro

    on dressage and show-jumping, and pedigree information. Firstly, the effect of specialisation was studied on the connectedness between the subpopulations of dressage and show-jumping horses, using the pedigree information. Results indicated that relatedness between horses in the two subpopulations has been...... parameters of traits recorded in the two subpopulations. Traits recorded at studbook-entry inspection were defined as a dressage trait or a show-jumping trait according to the type of horse that received the inspection. Bivariate analyses were performed to estimate the genetic correlation between the two...... traits. Results indicated that the specialisation process has resulted in a difference in mean trait values between dressage and show-jumping horses. However, differences in heritabilities for traits defined as dressage or show-jumping did not differ significantly, and the genetic correlations between...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  13. Sick from Freedom: An Unusual Perspective on the Civil War and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Davis Elder


    Full Text Available Review of: Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction; Jim Downs; (2012. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 280 pages.

  14. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price...... responsiveness. High taxes provide an incentive to take more sick leave, as less after tax income is lost when taxes are high. The panel data, which is representative of the Swedish population, allow for extensive controls including unobserved individual characteristics. I find a substantial price elasticity...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  15. Got a Sick Fish? (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  16. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama


    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  17. [Serum sickness in diphtheria]. (United States)

    Vozianova, Zh I; Chepilko, K I


    As many as 2247 patients with different clinical forms of diphtheria were examined. Antidiphtheric serum (ADS) was administered in 1556 children, the dosage being determined by condition of the patient. Serum sickness developed at day 7 to 9 in 24 (1.5%); 10 patients were found to run a mild course, 14--moderately severe. 6 patients had allergic reactions: 3--to antibiotic (penicillin), urticaria type, 1--to pertussoid-tetanic anatoxin, 2 had pollinosis-type reaction. Thus, serum sickness has practical value, which fact requires a detailed allergic history together with skin tests to be performed before the administration of ADS.

  18. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten


    -employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude......In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...

  19. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest; S. Vandamme


    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sick

  20. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar


    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  1. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland. (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z


    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  2. Sick as a Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    当形容一个人病得很重时,英语中有这样的说法:Sick as a dog,为什么人们会用"狗"来表示"生病"的意思呢?原来,英语中dog一词有时含有贬义,比如:俚语going to the dogs,表示"糟糕透顶";dog in the manger,表示"犬占马槽、自私自利"的意思。

  3. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. Conclusions: To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens.




    Healing in African indigenous cultures is a corporate matter involving the totality of the person, family and community. Healing presupposes sickness; its practice is therefore interlocked with a people’s conception of sickness and diseases. In Africa, sickness is an attestation to the fact that an individual is out of tune with nature and the supernatural, which is represented by the various deities. The physical signs are therefore a part of the story and not the whole story. Similarly, the...

  5. Cinerama sickness and postural instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Ledegang, W.D.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Stins, J.F.


    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min af


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Nikulina


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate changes in hereditary burden of sick sinus syndrome (SSS in families of patients with SSS and assess heart rate variability (HRV in patients with SSS.Results. 33 families of patients with SSS were examined. Clinical study, ECG-Holter monitoring, atropine test, transesophageal left atrial stimulation, echocardiography, veloergometry were fulfilled in all probands and their relatives in 1990 and 2005-2006. Cardiorhythmography was done in patients with SSS only in 2005-2006.Results. Increase in hereditary burden with SSS from 31 to 35% is registered during 15 years. Significant growth of patients with SSS was observed among daughters (from 50 to 71%, nephews (from 33 to 50% and nieces (from 0 to 20%. HRV analysis shows prevalence of sympathetic system activity in patients with SSS.Conclusion. Growth of hereditary burden with SSS especially among female relatives is shown. HRV analysis can be used for SSS diagnostics.

  7. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten


    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more...... inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...

  8. Bacteriotherapy of acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, V.M.; Strel' nikov, V.A.; Ikonnikova, T.B.; Kissina, E.V.; Lyannaya, A.M.; Goncharova, G.I.; Pinegin, B.V.


    Acute sickness is associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; there is a radical decrease in number of microorganisms of lactic fermentation (bifidobacterium, lactobacillus) and an increase in E. coli proteus, enterococcus, and clostridium. Extensive use is made of live microorganisms in the treatment of various diseases associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; in the case of acute radiation sickness, yeast, colibacterin, and E. coli have been used. In a number of cases, such therapy increased survival and life expectancy of irradiated animals. In this study, microorganisms of lactic fermentation (lactobacillus, bifidobacterium) and colibacterin were used for treatment of acute radiation sickness.

  9. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders


    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Zeynab Hosseini; Alireza Raayat


    Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse se...

  10. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.


    Full Text Available In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses.

  11. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kung

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus, commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63% had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk

  12. The cost of sickness: on the effect of the duration of sick leave on post-sick leave earnings. (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald


    Studies analysing the effect of the duration of sick leave on subsequent labour market outcomes do not consider the potential endogenous relationship between duration and labour market outcomes. This paper deals with this shortcoming by using a consistent estimator attained through Instrumental Variables methods for estimating the effect of the duration of a sick leave spell on post-sick leave earnings. I use Danish administrative data and a major 2001 reform of the sick leave system as the instrument for duration. I find that the duration of a sick leave spell has both short and long term effects on post-sick leave earnings.

  13. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter


    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  14. Sick Leave and Subjective Health Complaints


    Tveito, Torill Helene


    The aims of this thesis were to identify risk factors for high levels of sick leave and investigate what – if anything – can be done to reduce sick leave. What is the role of “subjective health complaints”, coping, and psychosocial work factors in relation to sick leave, and to what extent do these factors and the sick leave relate to quality of life? Are there any interventions with a documented effect on sick leave in the literature? Is it possible to influence sick leave thr...

  15. Sick sinus syndrome: a review. (United States)

    Semelka, Michael; Gera, Jerome; Usman, Saif


    Sick sinus syndrome refers to a collection of disorders marked by the heart's inability to perform its pacemaking function. Predominantly affecting older adults, sick sinus syndrome comprises various arrhythmias, including bradyarrhythmias with or without accompanying tachyarrhythmias. At least 50 percent of patients with sick sinus syndrome develop alternating bradycardia and tachycardia, also known as tachy-brady syndrome. Sick sinus syndrome results from intrinsic causes, or may be exacerbated or mimicked by extrinsic factors. Intrinsic causes include degenerative fibrosis, ion channel dysfunction, and remodeling of the sinoatrial node. Extrinsic factors can be pharmacologic, metabolic, or autonomic. Signs and symptoms are often subtle early on and become more obvious as the disease progresses. They are commonly related to end-organ hypoperfusion. Cerebral hypoperfusion is most common, with syncope or near-fainting occurring in about one-half of patients. Diagnosis may be challenging, and is ultimately made by electrocardiographic identification of the arrhythmia in conjunction with the presence of symptoms. If electrocardiography does not yield a diagnosis, inpatient telemetry monitoring, outpatient Holter monitoring, event monitoring, or loop monitoring may be used. Electrophysiologic studies also may be used but are not routinely needed. Treatment of sick sinus syndrome includes removing extrinsic factors, when possible, and pacemaker placement. Pacemakers do not reduce mortality, but they can decrease symptoms and improve quality of life.

  16. The Last Horse Trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Horse trains used to be the chief means of transport in southwest China's mountainous areas, areas that were almost inaccessible because of the difficult terrain. They have largely disappeared as most such areas are already serviced by modern road systems. At binzhonluo, however, the last horse trains can still be found, their drivers being Nus, Lisus and Tibetans. As I discovered at country fairs, goods shipped in by horse trains from Tibetan are mostly butter tea, edible fungus and wild orchid plants, and goods shipped to Tibet include drinks, batteries, salt and instant noodles. For centuries,horse trains have traversed the Nujiang Canyon or the Tibetan-Yi Corridor which, to be accurate, should be called an economic and cultural corridor linking Tibet and the rest of China.

  17. Hoof Comfort for Horses (United States)


    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  18. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.


    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  19. Tsetse elimination: its interest and feasibility in the historical sleeping sickness focus of Loos islands, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagbadouno M.


    Full Text Available Guinea is the West African country which is currently the most prevalent for sleeping sickness. The littoral area is the region where most of the recent sleeping sickness cases have been described, especially the mangrove sleeping sickness foci of Dubreka and Boffa where Glossina palpalis gambiensis is the vector. Loos islands constitute a small archipelago 5 km apart from the capital, Conakry. Medical, animal, and entomological surveys were implemented in these islands in Oct-Nov 2006. No pathogenic trypanosomes were found in these surveys. The locally very high tsetse densities (up to more than 100 tsetse/trap/day linked to pig rearing, constitute a high potential risk for humans (taking into account populations movements with neighboring active sleeping sickness foci of the Guinea littoral, and the history of sleeping sickness on these islands, and for the economically important pig rearing, as well as a danger for tourism. This situation, associated to the possibility of elimination of these tsetse populations due to low possibility of reinvasion, led the National Control Program to launch a tsetse elimination project following an “area wide” strategy for the first time in West Africa, which participates in the global objective of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  20. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horses, even if they played on horseback. This indicates that horses were how important for Turks in the political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields. Horse was located in the center of the lives of Turks throughout history. Such that, robbing a horse conneted was capital offence as well as rebellion, treason, murder, adultery according to the criminal law of the former Turks. Horse still has not lost its importance in t he present Turkish regions, especially Central Asian geography. Horse is so important for Turkmens that horse figure has taken place in the state coat of arms of Turkmenistan and the last sunday in April is celebrated as a feast in Turkmenistan. Ahal - Teke which is most exclusive horse breed of the word is brought up in Turkmenistan. Horse has also an important place in the vocabulary. In this work, it would be determine horse’s important in social and cultural life of Turkmens as following both language and non - language indicators.

  1. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of importance in horses in southern Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha


    Full Text Available Well-known plant poisonings such as 'dunsiekte' (seneciosis and 'jaagsiekte' (crotalariosis of horses in southern Africa are briefly reviewed. Relatively unfamiliar mycotoxicoses such as stachybotryotoxicosis and perennial rye grass staggers and potentially occurring exotic intoxications such as equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia and ergot alkaloid poisoning are also discussed. This article is aimed at informing the southern African equine practitioner about probable poisonings that might occur locally in horses.

  2. The development of drugs for treatment of sleeping sickness: a historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar


    Full Text Available Abstract Only four drugs are available for the chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness; Suramin, pentamidine, melarsoprol and eflornithine. The history of the development of these drugs is well known and documented. suramin, pentamidine and melarsoprol were developed in the first half of the last century by the then recently established methods of medicinal chemistry. Eflornithine, originally developed in the 1970s as an anti-cancer drug, became a treatment of sleeping sickness largely by accident. This review summarises the developmental processes which led to these chemotherapies from the discovery of the first bioactive lead compounds to the identification of the final drugs.

  3. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule. (United States)


    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  4. Parenthood, gender and sickness absence. (United States)

    Mastekaasa, A


    It is well documented that women have generally higher morbidity rates than men. In line with this women are also more absent from work due to sickness. This paper considers one popular explanation of the morbidity difference in general and of the difference in sickness absence in particular, viz. that women to a greater extent than men are exposed to the 'double burden' of combining paid work with family obligations. We discuss theories of role overload and role conflict, which both assume that the combination of multiple roles may have negative health effects, as well theories of role enhancement, which assume positive health effects of multiple roles. Using two large Norwegian data sets, the relationship between the number of and the age of children on the one hand and sickness absence on the other is examined separately for men and women and for a number of theoretically interesting subpopulations of women defined in terms of marital status (also taking account of unmarried cohabitation), level of education, and working hours. Generally speaking the association between children and sickness absence is weak, particularly for married people of both genders. To the extent that married persons with children are more absent than married persons without children, this is largely due to respiratory conditions. The relationship between children and sickness absence is somewhat stronger for single, never married mothers, but not for single mothers who have been previously married or for women living in unmarried cohabitation. The findings thus provide little support for either role overload/conflict or role enhancement theories. The possibility that these effects are both present and counterbalancing each other or that they are confounded with uncontrolled selection effects can not, however, be ruled out.

  5. Breeding for trypanotolerance in African cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.


    Trypanosomosis, or sleeping sickness, is one of the most important livestock diseases in Africa. Some West African cattle breeds show a degree of resistance to a trypanosome infection: they are trypanotolerant. At the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya, an F2 experim

  6. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter


    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  7. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation? (United States)

    Visser, E Kathalijne; Van Reenen, Cornelis G; Blokhuis, Mari Zetterqvist; Morgan, E Karin M; Hassmén, Peter; Rundgren, T Margareta M; Blokhuis, Harry J


    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills, knowledge, and personality of the rider on one hand and the temperament, experience, and physical abilities of the horse on the other. A study with 16 riders and 16 warm-blood riding horses tested the effect of personality of riders and temperament of horses on cooperation between riders and horses. More emotionally reactive horses showed more evasive behavior during riding. Riders preferred to ride those horses who were assessed by the riders as being attentive to the rider's aid. The frequency of evasive behaviors during riding--as assessed by riders, in contrast to the assessments made by an external judge--influenced the cooperation between rider and horse. On average, a rider's personality did not affect the cooperation between rider and horse; however, it is suggested that a rider's personality does affect the cooperation with more emotionally reactive horses.

  8. Horse Allergy: Curly Horses Allow Horse Allergic Riders To Ride Again. (United States)

    Mitlehner, W; Mitlehner, H C; Niggemann, B


    To test the hypothesis that so called hypoallergenic horses (Curly horses) allow horse allergic riders to ride again, we investigated 40 horse allergic riders in a period of 37 months. Methods: We tested these patients (pts.) by skin prick test (SPT) with different non-curly and Curly horses and studied the riding hours and horse brushing by measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and Tiffeneau tests (FEV1) as well as peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) over 12 months. The results in 37/40 pts. showed no relevant reactions of the lower airways or nasal flow. Only in 3/40 patients an initial significant fall of FEV1 was observed, reversed by a single inhalation of salbutamol and not repeated despite further riding contact. In contrast to other allergic events (e. g. baker's asthma) a further and regular contact with these horses abolished the mild allergic reactions of the start period of contact. This may be due to hypoallergenic properties of these horses, whose test material produces weaker reactions in the SPT than that of normal horses. After a period of three years, a loss of reactivity to normal horses could be confirmed in some of the riders. Conclusion: The tested purebreed Curly horses may be a suitable alternative for horse allergic riders if the methodological precautions of this study are followed.

  9. Simulator sickness and its measurement with Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin P. Biernacki


    Full Text Available One of the most common methods for studying the simulator sickness issue is the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ (Kennedy et al., 1993. Despite the undoubted popularity of the SSQ, this questionnaire has not as yet been standardized and translated, which could allow us to use it in Poland for research purposes. The aim of our article is to introduce the SSQ to Polish readers, both researchers and practitioners. In the first part of this paper, the studies using the SSQ are discussed, whereas the second part consists of the description of the SSQ test procedure and the calculation method of sample results. Med Pr 2016;67(4:545–555

  10. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R


    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  11. Cantharidin toxicosis in horses. (United States)

    Schmitz, D G


    Cantharidin toxicosis in horses has become an increasing problem in certain regions of the United States. Toxicosis occurs when horses ingest alfalfa hay or products that are contaminated with "blister" beetles. Clinical signs may vary from depression to severe shock and death, depending upon the amount of toxin ingested. The most frequently observed signs include varying degrees of abdominal pain, anorexia, depression, and signs suggestive of oral irritation. Many horses make frequent attempts to void urine. Less commonly observed signs include synchronous diaphragmatic flutter and erosions of the oral mucosal surfaces. Clinical laboratory abnormalities suggestive of cantharidin toxicosis include persistent hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, development of hypoproteinemia, microscopic hematuria, and mild azotemia with inappropriate urine specific gravity. Chemical analysis for cantharidin is accomplished by evaluation of urine or stomach contents. Treatment of cantharidin toxicosis is symptomatic, but must include removal of toxin source. Gastrointestinal protectants, laxative, intravenous fluids, analgesics, diuretics, calcium gluconate, and magnesium are all included in the treatment regimen. Early and vigorous therapy is imperative if it is to be successful. In horses that remain alive for several days, persistence of elevated heart and respiratory rates and increasing serum creatine kinase concentration are associated with a deteriorating condition. Prevention is aimed at timely harvesting of alfalfa hay. Hay fields should be inspected for the presence of beetle clusters before harvesting. Involved areas of the field should not be harvested.

  12. Homegrown Olympic Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Potential equine Olympians prepare for 2008 "All the horses for the modern pentathlon at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will be made-in-China," said Zhang Bin, Deputy Director of the Competition Office of the Modern Pentathlon WorldCup Final, which was recently held in Beijing.

  13. Xenophon on Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik


    Full Text Available Based on Xenophon’s writings on horses, the paper begins with a partial account of his life prior to his decision to join Cyrus, and continues by outlining his attitude to horses, animals with whom he lived in close contact. Except for the period spent campaigning with Cyrus’ Greek mercenaries (401–400 BC, the life of Xenophon remains largely unknown, raising a number of still unanswered questions. While the final answers are probably going to remain obscure, it may be surmised – on the basis of his horse writings as well – that the author came from an affluent family. As an Athenian of substance, he would have been classified as a knight, and since the representatives of this class fought in the Athenian cavalry, it was this combat arm to which he would have belonged. There is no hard and fast evidence that he took an active part in the last years of the Peloponnesian War. However, his fairly detailed account of the Athenian developments following the peace treaty suggests that Xenophon remained in the city during the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, when many residents were obliged to leave, and, as a cavalry mem- ber, actively supported the regime to the end. In fact, Xenophon’s presentation of the contemporary events highlights the cavalry’s role to the extent that it appears to have played a crucial part in defending the city and regime. But despite the cavalry’s support of the Thirty, its members do not seem to have flocked out of Athens in the uncertain conditions which followed the fall of the Thirty and the restoration of democracy. Thus Xenophon’s decision to join Cyrus the Younger’s expedition may have been influenced not by his recent support of the Thirty alone, but also by reasons unknown today. While there is no solid proof of his closer association with horses prior to Cyrus’ expedition, Xenophon’s writing in the Anabasis leaves no doubt that he spent at least the greater part of the campaign on horseback. The

  14. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.


    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  15. Animal models in motion sickness research (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.


    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  16. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.


    Group housing of horses is not very widespread, despite obvious advantages for their development and mental well-being. One often expressed rationale for this is that horse owners are worried about the risk of injuries due to kicks, bites or being chased into obstacles. To address this concern, we...... developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... to categorize 1124 injuries in 478 horses. Most of these horses were allocated to groups to study the effect of group composition (i.e. same age or mixed, same gender or mixed, socially stable or unstable groups) on behaviour and injuries. The material included mainly riding and leisure purpose horses...



    Vlasta Mandić; Tatjana Tušek; Damir Alagić; Josip Ljubešić


    Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slau...

  18. The origin of ambling horses. (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne


    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date.

  19. Leptospirosis in horses. (United States)

    Verma, Ashutosh; Stevenson, Brian; Adler, Ben


    Leptospirosis in horses has been considered a relatively uncommon infection. However, recent data suggest that the infection is widespread, with the incidence and infecting serovars varying considerably in different geographical regions. The majority of infections remain asymptomatic. Clinical signs in equine leptospirosis resemble those seen in other animal species. However, leptospirosis as a cause of acute respiratory distress is becoming more frequently recognised. A particular feature of equine leptospirosis is post infection recurrent uveitis (moon blindness or periodic ophthalmia), which appears to be mediated by autoimmune mechanisms involving cross reactivity between ocular tissues and leptospiral membrane proteins. There are no leptospiral vaccines licensed for use in horses, with no prospect for any becoming available in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, prevention of equine leptospirosis must rely on good hygiene practices, minimisation of rodent contact, and vaccination of other species of production and companion animals.

  20. No Fools with Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    HORSES have been around China for a long time. The Mongols conquered China on horseback and ruled as the Yuan Dynasty for a century. The terracotta warriors in Xi'an, cavalrymen by their steeds, date from the pre-millennial Qin Dynasty. Tang Dynasty ceramics depic thorses and camels, and many generals of the Republic of China in the 1920s had a predilection for equestrian statues of themselves.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)


    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  2. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species. (United States)

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl


    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  3. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Blokhuis, M.Z.; Morgan, E.K.M.; Hassmen, P.; Rundgren, T.M.M.


    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills, kn


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernova


    Full Text Available Published data demonstrating genetic determination of sick sinus syndrome is presented. The definition of this pathology is presented; the main symptoms are described, as well as genes that influence the development of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome, their polymorphisms and role in disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  5. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.


    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods P

  6. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.


    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  7. Motion Sickness Induced by Optokinetic Drums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.


    Motion sickness is not only elicited by certain kinds of self-motion, but also by motion of a visual scene. In case of the latter, optokinetic drums are often used and a visual-vestibular conflict is assumed to cause the sickness. When the rotation axis is Earth vertical however, different studies s

  8. Horse sense: social status of horses (Equus caballus) affects their likelihood of copying other horses' behavior. (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Heinze, Jürgen


    Animals that live in stable social groups need to gather information on their own relative position in the group's social hierarchy, by either directly threatening or by challenging others, or indirectly and in a less perilous manner , by observing interactions among others. Indirect inference of dominance relationships has previously been reported from primates, rats, birds, and fish. Here, we show that domestic horses, Equus caballus, are similarly capable of social cognition. Taking advantage of a specific "following behavior" that horses show towards humans in a riding arena, we investigated whether bystander horses adjust their response to an experimenter according to the observed interaction and their own dominance relationship with the horse whose reaction to the experimenter they had observed before. Horses copied the "following behavior" towards an experimenter after watching a dominant horse following but did not follow after observing a subordinate horse or a horse from another social group doing so. The "following behavior," which horses show towards an experimenter, therefore appears to be affected by the demonstrator's behavior and social status relative to the observer.

  9. Girl Babies Make Mothers Sick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    已经或是将要做母亲的女性阅读此文一定兴味盎然。本文告诉我们: …women suffering from extreme morning sickness during the first three months of pregnancy are more likely to be carrying a daughter than a son. 这个结论不是凭空想象出来的,其调查的对象人数多达百万,令人吃惊: Askling and his team compared more than a million births in Sweden with records of women admitted to hospital for extreme morning sickness. 更令人吃惊的是,除了现代的调查之外,研究人员还引用了古希腊名医希波克拉底的观点: …female fetuses gave the mother a pale face, whereas a mother carrying a male fetus has a healthier tone(气色)to her skin.】

  10. Poor efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics in sport horse nematodes in Morocco in relation to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouiten H.


    Full Text Available Sport and leisure horses in Morocco are treated with several anthelmintics, organophosphates (dichlorvos, benzimidazoles (mostly thiabendazole or tetrahydropyrimidines (mostly pyrantel pamoate against nematodes. We studied three horse stables in Rabat, one in Meknes and one in Bouznika. Two of the Rabat and Bouznika stables had introduced a large number of horses from countries (Argentina or Europe where resistance to benzimidazoles is frequent, whereas the Meknes stud farm remained without foreign introduction. The number of treatments was not very frequent (twice a year in adult horses but the same anthelmintics were used repeatedly. No resistance to dichlorvos was detected whereas benzimidazole and pyrantel pamoate resistances were detected for the first time in African horses, outside South Africa.

  11. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova A.A.


    consistent with that of the genotypes of the above genes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients. The allelic variants of the above genes were not found to be associated with ompensated sick sinus syndrome. Conclusion. The genetic predictors of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome are heterozygous genotypes 44 GA and 4a/4b genes Cx 40 and NOS3 as well as homozygous genotypes in rare allele DD and GG genes ADRA2B and SCN5A. Polymorphic allelic variant 2161C > T (Arg721Trp of MYH6 gene was not revealed in the examined cohort of Krasnoyarsk population. The distribution of the genotypes of the investigated genes in latent sick sinus syndrome patients was found to be consistent with that of the genotypes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients.

  12. Septic arthritis in adult horses. (United States)

    Carstanjen, B; Boehart, S; Cislakova, M


    Septic arthritis in horses is a serious disease which can become life-threatening. In case the infection can be eliminated before irreversible joint damage occurs, complete recovery is possible. This article gives an overview of the literature concerning etiology, diagnosis and strategies of therapy in cases of septic arthritis in adult horses, with special reference to novel options of treatment.

  13. Two-Dice Horse Race (United States)

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David


    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  15. Archives, libraries and museums: containers often sick, sometimes seriously sick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nicolucci


    Full Text Available As far as the feeling of quietness and peace that they often convey, archives, museums and libraries also hide dangers that you may not imagine, either for visitors or especially for the members of the staff. Indeed the poor microclimatic conditions – often the consequences of materials and construction or building technologies that appear definitely obsolete – often arouse suspicion and worry among the staff. Wrong Thermo hygrometric parameters, the presence of volatile organic elements, mineral fibers, biocides, radon gas, aerial dispersive molecules, are among others some of the chemical physical polluters of major influence that may contribute to giving life to the so-called Sick Building Syndrome. But such spaces also bear biological polluters that can provoke pathologies of various types and importance, among which the feared Illness of Legionnaire. The presence of electromagnetic fields, but above all wrong lighting and wrong ergonomic working positions represent some risk factors for members of staff and visitors.

  16. Human African trypanosomiasis. (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon


    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  17. Trailer-loading of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Payana; Elmgreen, Katrine; Ladewig, Jan


    The traditional way to train horses is by the application of negative reinforcement (NR). In the past few years, however, the use of positive reinforcement (PR) has become more common. To evaluate the effectiveness and the possible stressor effect of the 2 training methods, 12 horses showing severe...... trailer-loading problems were selected and exposed to trailer-loading. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 methods. NR consisted of various degrees of pressure (lead rope pulling, whip tapping). Pressure was removed as soon as the horse complied. PR horses were exposed to clicker training...... and taught to follow a target into the trailer. Heart rate (HR) was recorded every 5 seconds and behavior denoting discomfort was observed using one-zero sampling with 10 seconds sampling intervals. Training was completed when the horse could enter the trailer upon a signal, or was terminated after a maximum...

  18. Clinical nutrition of adult horses. (United States)

    Ralston, S L


    Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old.

  19. A Dark Horse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    What s the meamng of a "dark horse "? It's soineone who wins while no one expects it. Han Xiaopeng became an Olympic "dark horse" by winning the gold medal in men's freest~ie aerial skiing ( 自由式滑雪空中技巧) in Turin, Italy. He made two almost perfect jumps for the highest score: Han had never won a world gold medal before, let alone (更不用说) in the Olympics!

  20. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model. (United States)

    Bowins, Brad


    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  1. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie


    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...

  2. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasquini


    Full Text Available The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994...

  3. The match between horse and rider


    Axel-Nilsson, Malin


    A successful relationship between horse and rider is a partnership based on compatibility and is often referred to as a good match. In the present thesis, ‘match’ includes the good interaction, interplay and cooperation between horse and rider as well as the related positive experience. A good horse-rider match is important for horse welfare, rider safety and good performance. The aim of this thesis was to investigate which parameters riders consider important for a good match, if horse tempe...

  4. N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors as new leads to treat sleeping sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frearson, Julie A.; Brand, Stephen; McElroy, Stuart P.; Cleghorn, Laura A.T.; Smid, Ondrej; Stojanovski, Laste; Price, Helen P.; Guther, M. Lucia S.; Torrie, Leah S.; Robinson, David A.; Hallyburton, Irene; Mpamhanga, Chidochangu P.; Brannigan, James A.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Hodgkinson, Michael; Hui, Raymond; Qiu, Wei; Raimi, Olawale G.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Brenk, Ruth; Gilbert, Ian H.; Read, Kevin D.; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Ferguson, Michael A.J.; Smith, Deborah F.; Wyatt, Paul G. (York); (Toronto); (Dundee)


    African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei spp., is responsible for {approx}30,000 deaths each year. Available treatments for this disease are poor, with unacceptable efficacy and safety profiles, particularly in the late stage of the disease when the parasite has infected the central nervous system. Here we report the validation of a molecular target and the discovery of associated lead compounds with the potential to address this lack of suitable treatments. Inhibition of this target - T. brucei N-myristoyltransferase - leads to rapid killing of trypanosomes both in vitro and in vivo and cures trypanosomiasis in mice. These high-affinity inhibitors bind into the peptide substrate pocket of the enzyme and inhibit protein N-myristoylation in trypanosomes. The compounds identified have promising pharmaceutical properties and represent an opportunity to develop oral drugs to treat this devastating disease. Our studies validate T. brucei N-myristoyltransferase as a promising therapeutic target for human African trypanosomiasis.

  5. We Remember… Elders' Memories and Perceptions of Sleeping Sickness Control Interventions in West Nile, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Kovacic


    Full Text Available The traditional role of African elders and their connection with the community make them important stakeholders in community-based disease control programmes. We explored elders' memories related to interventions against sleeping sickness to assess whether or not past interventions created any trauma which might hamper future control operations. Using a qualitative research framework, we conducted and analysed twenty-four in-depth interviews with Lugbara elders from north-western Uganda. Participants were selected from the villages inside and outside known historical sleeping sickness foci. Elders' memories ranged from examinations of lymph nodes conducted in colonial times to more recent active screening and treatment campaigns. Some negative memories dating from the 1990s were associated with diagnostic procedures, treatment duration and treatment side effects, and were combined with memories of negative impacts related to sleeping sickness epidemics particularly in HAT foci. More positive observations from the recent treatment campaigns were reported, especially improvements in treatment. Sleeping sickness interventions in our research area did not create any permanent traumatic memories, but memories remained flexible and open to change. This study however identified that details related to medical procedures can remain captured in a community's collective memory for decades. We recommend more emphasis on communication between disease control programme planners and communities using detailed and transparent information distribution, which is not one directional but rather a dialogue between both parties.

  6. Metals: In Sickness and in Health (United States)

    ... All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Metals: In Sickness and in Health By Stephanie Dutchen Posted February 1, 2012 ... only strengthens bones but also plays a role in muscle, nerve function and blood clotting. Sodium and ...

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H., III; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.


    Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility of decompression sickness (DCS).

  8. P6 acupressure reduces morning sickness. (United States)

    Dundee, J W; Sourial, F B; Ghaly, R G; Bell, P F


    A prospective study was designed to test the efficacy of pressure at the P6 (Neiguan) acupuncture point, in preventing morning sickness. Three groups of patients in early pregnancy recorded the severity and frequency of sickness over a period of 4 consecutive days following daily pressure at P6 point, pressure at a point near the right elbow and with no treatment. Troublesome sickness was significantly less in both the genuine (23/119) and dummy (41/112) pressure groups as compared with the control series (67/119). When the data are adversely 'weighted' to compensate for the lower incidence of fully completed returns in the active treatment groups, only the P6 group show a significant reduction in sickness. No side effects occurred in either group and while anticipation of benefit may offer a partial explanation for the findings, pressure at the Neiguan point appears to have a specific therapeutic effect.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome (United States)

    ... the structure of myosin, which can affect cardiac muscle contraction and increase the likelihood of developing an abnormal heartbeat. More commonly, sick sinus syndrome is caused by other ... such as muscular dystrophy, abnormal inflammation, or a shortage of oxygen ( ...

  10. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  11. African Literature


    Recek, Denis


    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  12. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  13. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  14. Postanesthetic Poliomyelomalacia in a Horse


    Zink, M. Christine


    A clinically normal horse was anesthetized preparatory to surgery in dorsal recumbency for removal of a retained testicle. After recovery from the anesthetic, the horse was weak in the hind legs, subsequently deteriorated and became unable to rise and died on the eighth day after surgery. On microscopic examination, extensive poliomalacia of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord was found. It is postulated that this lesion was a result of ischemic insult to the spinal cord during anesthesia and...

  15. 9 CFR 121.9 - Responsible official. (United States)


    ... assessment by the Attorney General; (2) Be familiar with the requirements of this part; (3) Have authority...: African horse sickness virus, African swine fever virus, avian influenza virus (highly...

  16. 9 CFR 121.5 - Exemptions for VS select agents and toxins. (United States)


    ... immediately reported by telephone, facsimile, or e-mail: African horse sickness virus, African swine fever... Administrator. The request for reconsideration must state all of the facts and reasons upon which the...

  17. European EVA decompression sickness risks (United States)

    Vogt, Lorenz; Wenzel, Jürgen; Skoog, A. I.; Luck, S.; Svensson, Bengt

    For the first manned flight of Hermes there will be a capability of performing EVA. The European EVA Space Suit will be an anthropomorphic system with an internal pressure of 500 hPa of pure oxygen. The pressure reduction from the Hermes cabin pressure of 1013 hPa will induce a risk for Decompression Sickness (DCS) for the EVA crewmember if no adequate protective procedures are implemented. Specific decompression procedures have to be developed. From a critical review of the literature and by using knowledge gained from research conducted in the past in the fields of diving and aerospace medicine safe protective procedures are proposed for the European EVA scenario. An R factor of 1.2 and a tissue half-time ( t1/2) of 360 minutes in a single-tissue model have been identified as appropriate operational values. On the basis of an acceptable risk level of approximately 1%, oxygen prebreathing times are proposed for (a) direct pressure reduction from 1013 hPa to a suit pressure of 500 hPa, and (b) staged decompression using a 700 hPa intermediate stage in the spacecraft cabin. In addition, factors which influence individual susceptibility to DCS are identified. Recommendations are also given in the areas of crew selection and medical monitoring requirements together with therapeutic measures that can be implemented in the Hermes scenario. A method for demonstration of the validity of proposed risks and procedures is proposed.

  18. Should I Get Screened for Sleeping Sickness? A Qualitative Study in Kasai Province, Democratic Republic of Congo


    Alain Mpanya; David Hendrickx; Mimy Vuna; Albert Kanyinda; Crispin Lumbala; Valéry Tshilombo; Patrick Mitashi; Oscar Luboya; Victor Kande; Marleen Boelaert; Pierre Lefèvre; Pascal Lutumba


    BACKGROUND: Control of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in the Democratic Republic of Congo is based on mass population active screening by mobile teams. Although generally considered a successful strategy, the community participation rates in these screening activities and ensuing treatment remain low in the Kasai-Oriental province. A better understanding of the reasons behind this observation is necessary to improve regional control activities. METHODS: Thirteen focus group...

  19. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum... (United States)


    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse industry organizations or associations that license Designated Qualified...

  20. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine (United States)

    White Plume, Jessica


    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  1. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  2. Wound care in horses. (United States)

    Caston, Stephanie S


    Care of equine wounds in the field can be a challenging endeavor. Many times, wound care is complicated by chronicity or by prior inappropriate care in addition to the great degree of tissue trauma that occurred when the horse was wounded. Recognizing involvement of synovial structures, loss of skin, and damage to bone are critical in the initial examination of wounds and will guide future care. Education of clients is also important in that preparing them for possible outcomes during healing may help improve compliance and proper treatment of wound. Owners and trainers often perform much of the daily care and monitoring of equine wounds and thus can greatly assist or impede the progress. Bandaging is important to management of equine wounds-especially on the limbs-and is sometimes overlooked because of its labor-intensive nature and the desire for a spray, ointment, or salve that will heal the wound. The practitioner that improves and utilizes his or her understanding of the wound-healing process in concert with his or her knowledge of local anatomy will be the one who is best equipped to care for wounds in ambulatory practice.

  3. Osteomyelitis in horses. (United States)

    Goodrich, Laurie R


    Much has been learned in the past decade about osteomyelitis. The inhibitory mechanisms of the "biofilm slime" layer that is formed by bacterial extracapsular exopolysaccharides and binds to bone, joints, and implants are now better understood than in the past. The surface colonization of bacteria that occurs within these biofilms is a biologic phenomenon that is somewhat unique to orthopedic infections. This survival strategy of bacteria is effective, and it is important for veterinarians who treat osteomyelitis to be aware of current diagnostic and therapeutic treatment modalities. The practitioner should be aware of the most common bacteria associated with osteomyelitis and the traditional treatments that are still used. Current therapeutic treatment modalities, such as antibiotic- impregnated polymethylmethacrylate, antibiotic-impregnated plaster of Paris, and regional perfusion, have become routine, however, and have been responsible for improving the prevention and outcome of osteomyelitis in the horse. It is the intent of this article to make equine veterinarians aware of current information as well as the future treatments of osteomyelitis.

  4. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.


    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  5. Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling. (United States)

    Bles, W


    Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Abramova


    Full Text Available 143 children and 376 of their family members were examined for the study of intrafamilial infection. The study revealed that in the families of the studied sickly children (SC 100% of mothers, 83,3% of fathers, 100% of siblings and 100% of nannies were infected. Herpes viruses: EBV (55,8%, CMV (50,8%, HHV VI (21,7% in combination with intracellular pathogens (Chlamydia and Mycoplasma were prevalent in the sickly children. Examination of the family members revealed presence of the same pathogens. Control group differed significantly and reliably from the group of sickly children. There were not many infected children, no acute forms of diseases; monoinfection predominated. 

  7. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.


    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of the ho

  8. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses. (United States)

    Wobeser, Bruce K


    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  9. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses. (United States)

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs


    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses.

  10. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome


    Chernova A.A.; Nikulina S.Yu.; Tret’yakova S.S.; Voyevoda M.I.; Maksimov V.N.; Chernov V.N.


    Aim. To study the association between polymorphic allelic variants of the alpha-2В-adrenoreceptor gene (ADRA2B), endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3), connexin protein gene 40 (Cx40), cardiac myosin heavy chain gene (MYH6), and voltage-gated sodium channels gene (SCN5A) and development of the idiopathic sick sinus syndrome. Methods. 14 probands with primary symptoms of sick sinus syndrome and their 110 relatives of the I–III degree kinship were examined. At the Berzon City Clinical H...

  11. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd


    a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  12. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness? (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  13. The effects on sick leave of changes in the sickness insurance system


    Henrekson, Magnus; Persson, Mats


    In order to get a more complete picture of how labor supply is affected by economic incentives, the effects on absenteeism and not just on contracted hours should be taken into account. In particular, the effects on absenteeism due to sick leave can be considerable. In this paper we examine whether the level of sick leave compensation affects sick leave behavior. Using time-series data for Sweden spanning a long period (1955-99) with numerous changes of the compensation level, we generally fi...

  14. Job satisfaction and sickness absence : a questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J.W.


    Background When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. Aim To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. Methods A sample of workers

  15. 5 CFR 630.401 - Granting sick leave. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting sick leave. 630.401 Section 630.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.401 Granting sick leave. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) through (e) of...

  16. 5 CFR 630.402 - Requesting sick leave. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting sick leave. 630.402 Section 630.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.402 Requesting sick leave. An employee must file an application—written, oral,...

  17. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd


    OBJECTIVES: To outline the principles underlying changes overtime in entitlement to sickness absence benefit in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish sickness benefit scheme during the past 30 years has been studied based on a comprehensive review of the Sickness Benefit Act from 1973, and all later...... amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic......'s policy is to some extent a return to the biopsychosocial approach in the sense that the citizen is not regarded a passive victim of disease but an active player in influencing own working capacity. Added to this is, however, a new element of much tighter control leaving less room for autonomy....

  18. Kleingrass-associated hepatotoxicosis in horses. (United States)

    Cornick, J L; Carter, G K; Bridges, C H


    Chronic hepatic disease was diagnosed in 6 horses with history of anorexia and weight loss. These horses consistently had abnormally high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, total and direct bilirubin and blood ammonia values, and sulfobromophthalein clearance times, whereas serum iditol dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were variable. In the 6 horses, histologic examination of the liver revealed lesions of chronic hepatitis with varying degrees of fibrosis. All 6 horses had ingested kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) for variable periods. Three healthy horses fed kleingrass hay for 90 days developed hepatic lesions and increases in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities similar to those in the 6 horses with chronic hepatitis. Characteristic hepatic lesions in both groups of horses included bridging hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, and hepatocellular regeneration.

  19. Serum sickness-like reaction with clarithromycin. (United States)

    Sohail, Muhammad Adnan; Nasir, Junaid; Ikram, Umaira; Genese, Thomas


    Serum sickness-like reaction is a rare immunological condition which may develop following exposure to certain drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, among many others. It is described classically as a type III hypersensitivity response to heterologous proteins. Its true mechanism is still unclear. We present a case of serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin, a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The patient had been taking this drug for 3 days when she experienced generalized body aches, rash, arthralgia, and shortness of breath, prompting presentation to the emergency department. Laboratory studies showed decreased C4 and total complement with a slightly elevated sedimentation rate. After exclusion of other possible causes, the diagnosis of serum sickness-like reaction was made. The patient responded well to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication, antihistamines, and a short, tapering dose of steroids. To our knowledge, serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin has never been reported previously. This case emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of such an adverse outcome to clarithromycin use.

  20. Do junior doctors take sick leave? (United States)

    Perkin, M R; Higton, A; Witcomb, M


    Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on overstretched health services. An audit of junior doctors' sick leave behaviour was undertaken in 1993 and again in 2001. The object was to ascertain the level of common infectious illness and to investigate whether junior doctors were remaining at work inappropriately. The doctors were asked if any factors had influenced their decision to take sick leave or not. Between the two audits several initiatives have been introduced to improve the working conditions of junior doctors, including the New Deal to reduce hours of work. Eighty one junior doctors in a large teaching hospital participated in 1993 and 110 in 2001. The number reporting an infectious illness in the previous six months was similar (61.7% in 1993, 68.2% in 2001). There had been a significant increase in the percentage of infectious illness episodes for which the doctors took sick leave (15.1% in 1993, 36.8% in 2001, p work (72% in 1993, 68% in 2001). Consultant pressure was cited by 26% (1993) and 20% (2001). Use of the staff occupational health unit was minimal, with none of the ill doctors contacting the department in 1993 and only three in 2001. Overall, despite the reduction in the number of infectious doctors not taking sick leave, the majority remained at work. Fundamental changes are needed if potentially infected doctors are not to present a risk of iatrogenic infection.

  1. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A


    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  2. The Negotiation of the Sick Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Roelsgaard Obling, Anne


    In encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), the negotiation of the sick role is a social process. In this process, GPs not only use traditional biomedical diagnostic tools but also rely on their own opinions and evaluations of a patient...

  3. Mapping sleeping sickness in Western Africa in a context of demographic transition and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchi G.


    Full Text Available Human population growth, climate change and economic development are causing major environmental modifications in Western Africa, which will have important repercussions on the epidemiology of sleeping sickness. A new initiative, the Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, aims at assembling and geo-referencing all epidemiological data derived from both active screening activities and passive surveillance. A geographic database enables to generate up-to-date disease maps at a range of scales and of unprecedented spatial accuracy. We present preliminary results for seven West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali and Togo and briefly discuss the relevance of the Atlas for future monitoring, control and research activities.

  4. 非洲马瘟病毒VP7基因的克隆及其在昆虫细胞中的表达%Cloning and Expression of VP7 Gene of African Horse Sickness Virus in Baculovirus Infected Insect Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富祥; 杨仕标; 艾军; 周晓黎; 赵文华; 王金萍


    The VP7 gene fragment was cloned to the vector pFastBacHTB. The recombinant plasmid pFastBacHTB-AHSV-VP7 was constructed and was identified by PCR and enzyme digestion and sequenced. Then the plasmid pFastHTB-AHSV-VP7 was transformed into DHlOBac complement cells. It was identified by antibiotics and PCR, it showed the recombinant plasmid pFastBacHTB-AHSV-VP7 was constructed. On this basis, transposition bacmid DNA was extracted to transfect Sf9 insect cells. After transfected 96 hours, baculovirus was harvested. Then the Western blotting showed that the recombinant VP7 was expressed in insecet cells. The recombinant VP7 protein had a good biological activity and was approximate 45 ku. It is a base to construct a ELISA kit to test AHSV antibody and to prepare monoclonal antibody.%为了获得具有天然活性的非洲马瘟病毒重组VP7蛋白,制备针对非洲马瘟VP7蛋白的单克隆抗体及建立快速抗体检测方法,本试验通过PCR扩增、胶回收纯化后经XbaⅠ和Hind Ⅲ特异性酶切,将VP7基因克隆于昆虫杆状病毒表达载体pFastBacHTB,经PCR、酶切、测序鉴定后,成功构建了携带VP7基因的重组质粒pFastBacHTB-AHSV-VP7.该重组质粒转化含有杆状病毒穿梭载体的DH10Bac感受态细胞,经抗生素、PCR筛选,获得转座的杆粒Bacmid-AHSV-VP7,并在脂质体介导下转染Sf9昆虫细胞,获得重组杆状病毒,再感染Sf9昆虫细胞,收获表达产物.表达产物经Western blotting分析表明,VP7重组蛋白得到表达,其分子质量大小约为45 ku,且具有良好的生物活性.

  5. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.


    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  6. Visual Disability and Horse Riding (United States)

    Brickell, Diana


    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  7. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick


    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  8. Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in 12 horses. (United States)

    Honnas, C M; Welch, R D; Ford, T S; Vacek, J R; Watkins, J P


    The medical records of 12 horses with septic arthritis of a distal interphalangeal joint were reviewed to determine clinical features and response to treatment. Sepsis was caused by trauma or an injection that resulted in an open or contaminated distal interphalangeal joint. All horses were severely lame. Treatment included broad-spectrum parenterally administered antimicrobial drugs (ten horses), percutaneous through-and-through joint lavage (eight horses), indwelling drains (three horses), immobilization of the limb in a cast (three horses), intraarticular injection of sodium hyaluronate (one horse), intraarticular injection of antimicrobial drugs (five horses), curettage of the distal phalanx (one horse), and cancellous bone grafting to promote fusion (one horse). Five horses were euthanatized. Ankylosis of the affected joint developed in five horses, four of which are pasture sound. Two horses treated medically are sound although one underwent subsequent palmar digital neurectomy for treatment of navicular syndrome.

  9. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program


    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min


    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Cl...

  10. Horse trading? EU-African Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs)


    Kohnert, Dirk


    EU- Africa Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) are on the brink. In July 2014 the Head of States of ECOWAS endorsed the negotiated compromise EPA after prolonged negotiations. However, last-minute objections of the heavy-weight Nigeria which wants to protect its infant industries as well as promising trade relations with new global players still could prevent the deal. Whether the ECOWAS EPA in its current form would really create a win-win situation for both partners as asserted by the E...

  11. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program. (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min


    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (priders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić


    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  13. Starry sky hepatic ultrasonographic pattern in horses. (United States)

    Carlson, Kelly L; Chaffin, M Keith; Corapi, Wayne V; Snowden, Karen F; Schmitz, David G


    The starry sky hepatic pattern is an unusual ultrasonographic appearance of equine liver characterized by numerous small, hyperechoic foci, some of which cast an acoustic shadow, distributed randomly throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Our objectives were to describe the signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathological findings, primary disease process, and ultrasonographic findings of horses with this ultrasonographic pattern, as well as determine the associated gross and histologic changes. The starry sky pattern was identified in 18 adult horses of mixed gender and breed. The horses had various clinical signs, with weight loss and anorexia reported most commonly. Liver size and parenchymal echogenicity were normal in most horses. The hyperechoic foci frequently caused acoustic shadowing. Biliary dilation was noted rarely. The ultrasonographic pattern was the result of numerous fibrosing hepatic granulomas in all horses evaluated histologically. γ-Glutamyltransferase was the most commonly elevated hepatic enzyme, though it was increased in fewer than half the horses. Fifteen horses had an additional disease that was identified as the apparent cause of clinical signs. Three horses had primary hepatic disease while 12 had diseases of other body systems. Therefore, the starry sky ultrasonographic pattern is likely incidental in most horses and not clinically significant. Improved recognition of this pattern and further investigation of affected horses may help refine the etiology and clinical significance of the granulomas.

  14. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F


    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life....... METHODS: The study was based on 1,952 female and 2,229 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by sickness incidence one year before and one year after the introduction of the qualifying day (sick-leave events/person days at risk). Information about explanatory factors was collected...... lifting at work more often showed an increase in incidence compared to men without heavy lifting, and the same tendency was found for women. CONCLUSION: The reduction in sickness incidence following the introduction of the qualifying day was fairly independent of different work-related and non-work...

  15. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ


    : To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...

  16. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum... (United States)


    ... penalties for infractions of the Horse Protection Act; Enhancing the reputation and integrity of the walking... regional economies; and Improving the value of the walking horse breeds. Under these circumstances,...

  17. Study on experimental motion sickness in children. (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Toriyabe, I; Takei, Y; Kanzaki, J


    To clarify the characteristics of motion sickness in children we investigated autonomic nervous symptoms and instability evoked by walking while wearing horizontally reversing goggles in 90 children aged 4 to 15 years. Kindergarten children had hardly any autonomic nervous symptoms except headache; however, they often fell, could not stand up or move, and exhibited a to-and-fro deviation gait. Although the frequency and severity of sickness gradually increased during growth, the severity of gait disorder became milder as age increased. On the basis of these findings it seems likely that functions which perceive disorder of spatial orientation and action are immature in young children, and once spatial orientation is impaired, instability becomes very severe, since inadequate control is not stopped by an alarm function against disorientation.

  18. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.


    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  19. [Genetic predictors of sick sinus node syndrome]. (United States)

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Tret'iakova, S S


    The article is devoted to the role of heredity in development of the sick sinus node syndrome (SSNS). We have examined 14 probands and 110 their relatives from families with idiopathic SSNS and established the role in development of hereditary SSNS of polymorphisms of the following genes: -2-adrenoreceptor, enzyme endothelial NO synthase, protein connexin 40, voltage dependent cardiac sodium channels, cardiac myosin heavy chains. We also revealed associations of clinical variants of idiopathic SSNS with genotypes of the studied genes.

  20. Sick sinus syndrome: a family study. (United States)

    Rogińska, Natalia; Bieganowska, Katarzyna


    A case of related individuals affected by sick sinus syndrome is presented in this study. The clinical and electrocardiographic signs of sinus node dysfunction and the most common causes of this disease are presented. Subsequently, the article includes descriptions of sinus node disease in three related children as well as details of the disease in their relatives. A literature review of the genetics of familial sinus node dysfunction concludes the study.

  1. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum... (United States)


    ... determine whether a horse's bones show signs of stress indicative of soring. ] Several commenters opposed... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum Penalties for Violations AGENCY: Animal...

  2. Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in miniature horses and quarter horses. (United States)

    Lee, C D; Maxwell, L K


    In most species, large variations in body size necessitate dose adjustments based on an allometric function of body weight. Despite the substantial disparity in body size between miniature horses and light-breed horses, there are no studies investigating appropriate dosing of any veterinary drug in miniature horses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miniature horses should receive a different dosage of flunixin meglumine than that used typically in light-breed horses. A standard dose of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously to eight horses of each breed, and three-compartmental analysis was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters between breed groups. The total body clearance of flunixin was 0.97 ± 0.30 mL/min/kg in miniature horses and 1.04 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg in quarter horses. There were no significant differences between miniature horses and quarter horses in total body clearance, the terminal elimination rate, area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state or the volume of the central compartment for flunixin (P > 0.05). Therefore, flunixin meglumine may be administered to miniature horses at the same dosage as is used in light-breed horses.

  3. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals. (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story…

  4. Copy number variation in the horse genome. (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G; Lear, Teri L; Adelson, David L; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje


    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  5. Childhood serum sickness: a case report. (United States)

    Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y


    Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in horses. (United States)

    Bousquet-Melou, A; Bernard, S; Schneider, M; Toutain, P L


    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic expected to be effective in the treatment of infections involving gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria in horses. In order to design a rational dosage regimen for the substance in horses, the pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin were investigated in 6 horses after i.v., subcutaneous and oral administration of a single dose of 2 mg/kg bwt and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) assessed for bacteria isolated from equine infectious pathologies. The clearance of marbofloxacin was mean +/- s.d. 0.25 +/- 0.05 l/kg/h and the terminal half-life 756 +/- 1.99 h. The marbofloxacin absolute bioavailabilities after subcutaneous and oral administration were 98 +/- 11% and 62 +/- 8%, respectively. The MIC required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0.027 microg/ml for enterobacteriaceae and 0.21 microg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus. The values of surrogate markers of antimicrobial efficacy (AUIC, Cmax/MIC ratio, time above MIC90) were calculated and the marbofloxacin concentration profiles simulated for repeated administrations. These data were used to determine rational dosage regimens for target bacteria. Considering the breakpoint values of efficacy indices for fluoroquinolones, a marbofloxacin dosage regimen of 2 mg/kg bwt/24 h by i.v., subcutaneous or oral routes was more appropriate for enterobacteriaceae than for S. aureus.

  7. Severe serum sickness reaction to oral and intramuscular penicillin. (United States)

    Clark, Brychan M; Kotti, George H; Shah, Anand D; Conger, Nicholas G


    Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immune complex deposition with subsequent complement activation, small-vessel vasculitis, and tissue inflammation. Although the overall incidence of serum sickness is declining because of decreased use of heterologous sera and improved vaccinations, rare sporadic cases of serum sickness from nonprotein drugs such as penicillins continue to occur. Drug-induced serum sickness is usually self-limited, with symptoms lasting only 1-2 weeks before resolving. We report an unusual case of a severe and prolonged serum sickness reaction that occurred after exposure to an intramuscular penicillin depot injection (probable relationship by Naranjo score) and discuss how pharmacokinetics may have played a role. Clinicians should be familiar with serum sickness reactions particularly as they relate to long-acting penicillin preparations. Accurate diagnosis in conjunction with cessation of drug exposure and prompt initiation of antiinflammatory treatment with corticosteroids can produce complete recovery

  8. Rizatriptan reduces vestibular-induced motion sickness in migraineurs. (United States)

    Furman, Joseph M; Marcus, Dawn A; Balaban, Carey D


    A previous pilot study suggested that rizatriptan reduces motion sickness induced by complex vestibular stimulation. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study we measured motion sickness in response to a complex vestibular stimulus following pretreatment with either rizatriptan or a placebo. Subjects included 25 migraineurs with or without migraine-related dizziness (23 females) aged 21-45 years (31.0 ± 7.8 years). Motion sickness was induced by off-vertical axis rotation in darkness, which stimulates both the semicircular canals and otolith organs of the vestibular apparatus. Results indicated that of the 15 subjects who experienced vestibular-induced motion sickness when pretreated with placebo, 13 showed a decrease in motion sickness following pretreatment with rizatriptan as compared to pretreatment with placebo (P rizatriptan, reduces vestibular-induced motion sickness by influencing serotonergic vestibular-autonomic projections.

  9. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women. (United States)

    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S


    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  10. Serum levels of eleven steroid hormones following motion sickness. (United States)

    Stalla, G K; Doerr, H G; Bidlingmaier, F; Sippel, W G; von Restorff, W


    In order to grade motion sickness objectively, the following 11 adrenal hormones were investigated in subjects with different motion sickness susceptibility: Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-OH-progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, androstendione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Motion sickness was induced by the coriolis effect on a rotary chair. Both severe kinetosis after short rotation time and mild motion sickness after 30 min of rotation occurred together with small hormonal changes. Androstendione and 11-deoxycortisol appear to be sensitive indicators of motion sickness if the rotation time is taken into consideration. A significant increase of all hormones except progesterone, cortisone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was observed when pronounced malaise had come after a long rotation stress (24.6 min). The changes in plasma aldosterone concentration appeared to correlate with time only. The present study demonstrates that hormonal analysis can be helpful in estimating the degree of motion sickness.

  11. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Gabriella


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11. Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype, whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype. It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeronke Olademo


    Full Text Available Healing in African indigenous cultures is a corporate matter involving the totality of the person, family and community. Healing presupposes sickness; its practice is therefore interlocked with a people’s conception of sickness and diseases. In Africa, sickness is an attestation to the fact that an individual is out of tune with nature and the supernatural, which is represented by the various deities. The physical signs are therefore a part of the story and not the whole story. Similarly, the Christian conception of disease and healing is intertwined with the individual’s relationship with the supernatural and the physical signs are but part of the story. Diagnosis and prescription for treatment and healing take into cognizance all these facts and this is where the healer comes in. The healer constitutes an integral part of the patient’s healing in Yoruba religion as well as in African Christianity. There are female and male healers in both religions but whereas these specialists are designated as healers/diviners/custodians of tradition in Yoruba religion, in African Christianity, they are known as prophetesses/prophets/deliverance ministers. This paper seeks to evaluate the position of the healer among the Yoruba of Nigeria. A second objective is to analyze contemporary postures on healing activities in Yoruba religion and Christianity and how women feature in these processes.

  13. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Leppälä


    Full Text Available Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  14. Retrospective analysis of exploratory laparotomies in 192 Andalusian horses and 276 horses of other breeds. (United States)

    Muñoz, E; Argüelles, D; Areste, L; Miguel, L San; Prades, M


    The medical records of 468 horses that underwent 490 exploratory laparotomies for the correction of gastrointestinal diseases were reviewed to search for differences between Andalusian horses and other breeds. The seasonal distribution of surgical colics and their outcome and complications were also investigated. Bivariant analysis was used to compare the horses' age, gender and breed with the type of surgery, the bowel affected and the type of colic, and all these variables were compared in relation to euthanasia during surgery, complications, short-term survival and seasonal distribution. A total of 405 horses survived the surgery and 329 were discharged from the hospital. Horses less than one year old had better short-term survival than older horses. Andalusian horses suffered more inguinal hernias than the other breeds and were more prone to suffer laminitis as a complication. Colic surgery and inguinal hernias were also more common in the summer.

  15. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses. (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne


    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  16. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken;


    ABSTRACT: Young horse results of conformation and gaits were studied for their heritability and genetic correlation to future dressage competition results, to assess their value as young horse indicator traits. The young horse gait- and conformation scores generally had higher heritabilities (0.......13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  17. Should I get screened for sleeping sickness? A qualitative study in Kasai province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mpanya


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of Congo is based on mass population active screening by mobile teams. Although generally considered a successful strategy, the community participation rates in these screening activities and ensuing treatment remain low in the Kasai-Oriental province. A better understanding of the reasons behind this observation is necessary to improve regional control activities. METHODS: Thirteen focus group discussions were held in five health zones of the Kasai-Oriental province to gain insights in the regional perceptions regarding sleeping sickness and the national control programme's activities. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sleeping sickness is well known among the population and is considered a serious and life-threatening disease. The disease is acknowledged to have severe implications for the individual (e.g., persistence of manic periods and trembling hands, even after treatment, at the family level (e.g., income loss, conflicts, separations and for communities (e.g., disruption of community life and activities. Several important barriers to screening and treatment were identified. Fear of drug toxicity, lack of confidentiality during screening procedures, financial barriers and a lack of communication between the mobile teams and local communities were described. Additionally, a number of regionally accepted prohibitions related to sleeping sickness treatment were described that were found to be a strong impediment to disease screening and treatment. These prohibitions, which do not seem to have a rational basis, have far-reaching socio-economic repercussions and severely restrict the participation in day-to-day life. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A mobile screening calendar more adapted to the local conditions with more respect for privacy, the use of less toxic drugs, and a better understanding of the origin as well as better communication about the prohibitions

  18. [West Nile virus infection: serological investigation among horses in France and in Africa]. (United States)

    Cabre, O; Durand, J P; Prangé, A; Gomez, J; Maurizi, L; Tolou, H; Davoust, B


    This study was carried out in 2003 to detected serological evidence of West Nile virus infection in 190 Army horses kept nearby French troops stationed in Southeast France and in Africa (Chad, Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal). Both IgG and IgM antibodies were searched for using an ELISA assay. Specifiity of IgG antibodies was determined by western blot and plaque reduction seroneutraization. Finding showed that 79% of the Army horses (n=96) tested in Africa presented specific IgG antibodies. All horses that were seropositive for IgG were seronegative for IgM. None of the Army horses (n=94) tested in the Southeast France were seropositive for West Nile virus. This study indicates that West Nile virus has circulated in all three African countries but not recently. It also underscores the value of western blotting as a rapid, specific confirmation technique that could eliminate the need to use plaque reduction seroneutralization.

  19. The importance of social relationships in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van


    Feral horses are social animals, which have to rely on survival strategies centered on the formation of cohesive social bonds within their bands. Many problems in the husbandry of social animals such as horses, are due to the fact that the limits of their adaptive abilities are exceeded. Evidence su

  20. Frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro E. Muñoz-Alonzo


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana (Chile and the association of these abnormal behaviors with age and sex of the animals. All resident endurance horses from 8 equestrian centres of the Región Metropolitana were studied (n=107. A description of classic stereotipies (crib-biting, weaving and box-walking was given to each horse keeper and then they were asked for this presence or absence, along the name, sex, age and breed, of every horse under their care. To analyze the data, horses were divided by age into 3 groups: 3 to 6 years (n=28, 7 to 9 years (n=42 and 10 to 18 years (n=37. Based on their sex, they were divided into 3 groups: stallions (n =11, geldings (n=64 and mares (n=32. Results are expressed as percentages. Fisher`s test with p < 0.05 was used for statistical analysis of the variables age and sex. A 12.2% of all horses presented stereotypies: crib -biting (0.9%, weaving (6.5% and box-walking (4.7%. No relationship was found between the presence of stereotypies and variables age and sex. This study evidence a high frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana, mostly weaving, and no found association between classic stereotypies and the variables age and sex of horses.

  1. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  2. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.


      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  3. Sick sinus syndrome secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Beton


    Full Text Available The effects of hypercalcemia on the heart and the resulting alternations of the electrocardiogram have been well established. However, there are only limited number of reports in the literature on primary hyperparathyroidism leading to clinically significant arrhythmias. We present a patient who was diagnosed with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome in the setting of moderate hyper-calcemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism in this case report. After the surgical opera-tion for primary hyperparathyroidism, serum calcium level returned to normal range and patient’s complaints and arrhytmic findings recovered. The patient was asymptomatic for the following 13 years.

  4. Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaki Tirados

    Full Text Available Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT.The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce G. fuscipes populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km2 field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km2. In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings.The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km2. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment, covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures. One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised.

  5. African America. (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Brown, Gloria


    Presents an annotated bibliography of quality materials by and about African Americans in the areas of poetry, music, folklore, women, picture books, history/collective biography, authors, and professional materials. Activities are suggested in each area for Black History Month. (LRW)

  6. Horses Hotel: Proust a Contrapelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bange


    Full Text Available Este trabalho articula uma crítica da peça Horses Hotel, dirigida por Alex Cassal e Clara Kutner e que esteve em cartaz no Oi Futuro do Flamengo, no Rio de Janeiro, de dezoito de abril a dois de junho de 2013. A partir de uma investigação do projeto estético disposto sobre o palco, percurso ao longo do qual convido Gustave Flaubert e Marcel Proust, discuto em que medida esse projeto constitui uma estética sintomática, cuja base está na defesa de uma arte pela sensação em si.

  7. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by...

  8. Study Confirms Demonstrator Horses Can Have Calming Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Leste-Lasserre, Christa


    Naive horses that watched an experienced demonstrator horse perform a scary task—crossing a tarp, in this study's case—were less spooked when it was their turn.......Naive horses that watched an experienced demonstrator horse perform a scary task—crossing a tarp, in this study's case—were less spooked when it was their turn....

  9. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  10. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  11. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  12. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  13. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  14. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  15. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  16. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  17. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  18. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.


    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect h

  19. A review of the human-horse realtionship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausberger, M.; Roche, H.; Henry, S.; Visser, E.K.


    Despite a long history of human¿horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers. Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency,

  20. Innovative use of an automated horse walker when breaking in young horses. (United States)

    Murphy, Jack


    There is an inherent element of risk associated with "backing" and riding the previously unbroken horse. If training proceeds too quickly, conflict behaviors may result from the simultaneous application of too many cues. Automated horse walkers (AHW) facilitate the exercising of several horses concurrently at walk or trot for warm-up, cool-down, fitness programs, and rehabilitation purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate if backing the horse within the AHW was an appropriate training method. Ten horses (3-year-olds) took part in this study. They began training within the AHW with a simple bridle and protective boots. A handler subsequently long-reined the horses within the AHW when they wore rollers, side reins, and a saddle. When considered appropriate, the handler went from jumping beside the horse to lying over the saddle to sitting astride the horse within the AHW. The horses habituated to this innovative approach quickly without evidence of conflict behavior. The handler rode the horses from the AHW after approximately 4 riding episodes of this innovative training system.

  1. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia. (United States)

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J


    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue.

  2. Short-term sick leave and future risk of sickness absence and unemployment - the impact of health status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hultin Hanna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In previous studies the authors have found sick leave to be a predictor of future sick leave, unemployment and disability pension. Although sick leave reflects underlying health problems, some studies have suggested that sick leave may have consequences beyond the consequences of the underlying illness. However, few studies have aimed at studying consequences of sick leave while adjusting for ill health. This study aims to explore whether short-term sick leave increases the risk of future long-term sick leave, disability pension, and unemployment. Furthermore, we aim to control for the potentially confounding effects of physical and mental health status. Methods Data were gathered from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC, restricted to 11,156 employed individuals (48.6% men aged 18–59, without long-term sick leave, disability pension or in-patient care the year before inclusion (2002. These were followed-up with regard to unemployment, long-term sick leave, and disability pension in 2006 and 2007. Odds ratios (OR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by logistic regression, controlling for six different measures of health status (limiting long-standing illness, self-rated health, mental health, somatic disease, musculoskeletal pain and in-patient care and socio-demographic factors. Results Results from the unadjusted analyses indicated increased risks of long-term sick leave (OR 2.00; CI 1.62-2.46 and short-term unemployment (OR 1.76; CI 1.35-2.29 for individuals exposed to more than one short-term sick-leave spell. There were no increased odds of long-term unemployment (OR 0.54; CI 0.28-1.04 or disability pension (OR 0.72; CI 0.42-1.24. After adjusting for the different measures of health status the odds ratio for short-term unemployment was not statistically significant (OR 1.29; CI 0.97-1.74. The odds ratios for the other outcomes slightly increased after adjustment for the used measures of

  3. Nuancing the relationship between motion sickness and postural stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.


    The most cited theory on motion sickness is the conflict theory by Reason and Brand (1975) [1], stating that motion sickness occurs due to a conflict between the senses and stored patterns of motion. In addition, there seems to be evidence for another theory stating that postural instability is a ne

  4. Recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bultmann, U.; Roelen, C.A.; Hoedeman, R.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.


    PURPOSE: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. This study examines the recurrence risk of sickness absence due to CMDs. METHODS: A cohort o

  5. Parametric hazard rate models for long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Petra C.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Groothoff, Johan W.


    In research on the time to onset of sickness absence and the duration of sickness absence episodes, Cox proportional hazard models are in common use. However, parametric models are to be preferred when time in itself is considered as independent variable. This study compares parametric hazard rate m

  6. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.


    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify thos

  7. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit. (United States)


    ... different leave systems under section 6308 of title 5, United States Code, 7 calendar days of sick leave are... leave system to which he or she can transfer only a part of his or her sick leave is entitled to a... employee returns to the leave system under which it was earned on or after December 2, 1994. (f)...

  8. 5 CFR 831.302 - Unused sick leave. (United States)


    ... annuity is increased by the days of unused sick leave to his credit under a formal leave system. (b) An...) A formal leave system is one which is provided by law or regulation or operates under written rules... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unused sick leave. 831.302 Section...

  9. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.


    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers duri

  10. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute


    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  11. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V;


    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  12. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.


    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  13. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.


    BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. OBJECTIVE: To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental dist

  14. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  15. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference. (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L


    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.

  16. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... weeks. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected from 1996 until 2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were...... calculated by Cox regression, using time of first episode of sickness absence as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Multiparity 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.45), overweight 1.13 (95% CI 1.08-1.18), obesity 1.23 (95% CI 1.15-1.31), ART 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20), and TTP >12 months 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13) were associated...

  17. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence. (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne


    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  18. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen


    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3......) the rate of return to work among sick listed individuals without a psychiatric disorder, who are registered on long-term sickness absence (LSA). Methods. A total of 2,414 incident individuals on LSA with a response rate of 46.4%, were identified for a two-phase study. The subsample of this study involved...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...

  19. Chronic methylmercurialism in a horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, A.A.; Roberts, M.C.; Costigan, P.


    Chronic methylmercurialism was produced in a horse given 10 g methylmercury chloride over 10 weeks. Neurological signs, particularly proprioceptive disturbances, were apparent by the final week of dosing and became more severe thereafter. An exudative dermatitis, a reluctance to move, weight loss, reduced appetite and dullness were among the earlier clinical signs, and renal changes characterized by a steadily increasing BUN and glucosuria were detected later. Pathological lesions were confined to the kidneys and the nervous system. There was mild neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellar cortex, axonal demyelination in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and extensive degeneration of ganglion cells in the dorsal root ganglia. The blood organic mercury level, which had plateaued in the second month, increased rapidly in the last weeks of dosing with a sharp rise terminally. This pattern was repeated for the much lower inorganic mercury levels except for a terminal decrease. The proportion of inorganic mercury was five times greater in the dorsal root ganglia than elsewhere in the CNS, although total mercury levels were similar. Highest tissue mercury levels were found in the liver and kidneys, over 50% being in the form of inorganic mercury. As dealkylation of the methylmercury appeared to be more efficient in the dorsal root ganglia and the kidneys, inorganic mercury derived therefrom may have been responsible for some of the clinical and pathological features of this intoxication in the horse. 21 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Whole blood selenium concentrations in endurance horses. (United States)

    Haggett, Emily; Magdesian, K Gary; Maas, John; Puschner, Birgit; Higgins, Jamie; Fiack, Ciara


    Exercise causes an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species, which can result in oxidant/antioxidant disequilibrium. Deficiency of antioxidants can further alter this balance in favor of pro-oxidation. Selenium (Se) is one of many antioxidant catalysts, as a component of the glutathione peroxidase enzymes. Soils and forages vary widely in Se concentration and a deficient diet can lead to sub-clinical or clinical deficiency in horses. Endurance horses are prone to oxidative stress during long periods of aerobic exercise and their performance could be affected by Se status. This study investigated the blood Se concentration in a group of endurance horses (n=56) residing and competing in California, a state containing several regions that tend to produce Se-deficient forages. The rate of Se deficiency in this group of horses was low, with only one horse being slightly below the reference range. Higher blood Se concentrations were not associated with improved performance in terms of ride time. There was no significant difference in Se concentration between horses that completed the ride and those that were disqualified, although blood Se concentrations were significantly higher in horses that received oral Se supplementation. An increase in blood Se concentration was observed following exercise and this warrants further study.

  1. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty


    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  2. Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding. (United States)

    Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin


    In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods.

  3. African-American Biography. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  4. Experimental infection of horses with Hendra virus/Australia/horse/2008/Redlands. (United States)

    Marsh, Glenn A; Haining, Jessica; Hancock, Timothy J; Robinson, Rachel; Foord, Adam J; Barr, Jennifer A; Riddell, Shane; Heine, Hans G; White, John R; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah


    Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Using the horse for sport activities needs a good training and an optimization ofphysical and psychical qualities, both contributing to achieve the wantedperformances. Physical effort impose to the horse in different competitions is a stresssituation, fact which induce an endocrine answer, materialised through increasingthe sanguine levels of some hormones and decreasing of others. The purpose of thisstudy was to verify if the training and the effort intensity is reflected in the sanguinecortisol behaviour in sport horses.

  6. The natural progression of Gambiense sleeping sickness: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Checchi

    Full Text Available Gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness is widely assumed to be 100% pathogenic and fatal. However, reports to the contrary exist, and human trypano-tolerance has been postulated. Furthermore, there is uncertainty about the actual duration of both stage 1 and stage 2 infection, particularly with respect to how long a patient remains infectious. Understanding such basic parameters of HAT infection is essential for optimising control strategies based on case detection. We considered the potential existence and relevance of human trypano-tolerance, and explored the duration of infectiousness, through a review of published evidence on the natural progression of gambiense HAT in the absence of treatment, and biological considerations. Published reports indicate that most gambiense HAT cases are fatal if untreated. Self-resolving and asymptomatic chronic infections probably constitute a minority if they do indeed exist. Chronic carriage, however, deserves further study, as it could seed renewed epidemics after control programmes cease.

  7. Gastritis, Enteritis, and Colitis in Horses. (United States)

    Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S


    The gastrointestinal system of horses is affected by a large variety of inflammatory infectious and noninfectious conditions. The most prevalent form of gastritis is associated with ulceration of the pars esophagea. Although the diagnostic techniques for alimentary diseases of horses have improved significantly over the past few years, difficulties still exist in establishing the causes of a significant number of enteric diseases in this species. This problem is compounded by several agents of enteric disease also being found in the intestine of clinically normal horses, which questions the validity of the mere detection of these agents in the intestine.

  8. African Trypanosomiasis (United States)


    Histol. 1977;375:53- 70. 42. Poltera AA, Owor R, Cox JN. Pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. A post - mortem survey of...nodular lesions , including anthrax or tick bite associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. The chancre is followed by a hemolymphatic stage, dur- ing...electrocardiograph- ic changes and, at times, terminal cardiac insufficiency.41 Pulmonary lesions specifically related to trypanosomiasis are not


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif


    Full Text Available Small industrial units are the seedbed on industrial development in underdeveloped economy for its less capital involvement and more employment generation capability. But this sector cannot contribute expectedly for infection to sickness that ultimately prevents the entrepreneurial bases of economy. Sickness can be occurred in the inception period, in operation and /or in macro environment.There are various techniques to prevent sickness and to make the treatment of occurred sickness. In this study, the researchers selected 13 sick units of BSCIC industrial units and collected the information regarding the causes, stages and measures to prevent sickness. It is found that 07 are born to sick due to improper capital budgeting, 06 are made sick for managerial problems and no units are bound to be sick for environmental problems.

  10. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise


    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... the subpopulations of JH and DH horses registered by KWPN. The subpopulations comprised 23,800 JH horses and 18,125 DH horses, born between 1995 and 2009. Genetic similarity (GS), genetic pool in common (GCx) based on the marginal genetic contribution of common ancestors and coefficient of relationship (r) between...

  11. Carbohydrate-Binding Non-Peptidic Pradimicins for the Treatment of Acute Sleeping Sickness in Murine Models (United States)

    Castillo-Acosta, Víctor M.; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M.; Reichardt, Niels C.; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan


    Current treatments available for African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are limited, with poor efficacy and unacceptable safety profiles. Here, we report a new approach to address treatment of this disease based on the use of compounds that bind to parasite surface glycans leading to rapid killing of trypanosomes. Pradimicin and its derivatives are non-peptidic carbohydrate-binding agents that adhere to the carbohydrate moiety of the parasite surface glycoproteins inducing parasite lysis in vitro. Notably, pradimicin S has good pharmaceutical properties and enables cure of an acute form of the disease in mice. By inducing resistance in vitro we have established that the composition of the sugars attached to the variant surface glycoproteins are critical to the mode of action of pradimicins and play an important role in infectivity. The compounds identified represent a novel approach to develop drugs to treat HAT. PMID:27662652

  12. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking. (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R


    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  14. "Children get sick all the time"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal; Bjertrup, Pia Juul; Samuelsen, Helle


    Background: In Burkina Faso, the government has implemented various health sector reforms in order to overcome financial and geographical barriers to citizens' access to primary healthcare throughout the country. Despite these efforts, morbidity and mortality rates among children remain high...... facilities. Focusing on mothers as the primary caregivers, we follow their pathways from the onset of symptoms through their various attempts of providing treatment for their sick children. The overall objective is to discuss the interconnectedness of various factors, inside and outside of the primary health...... care services. Due to their accumulated vulnerabilities, mothers shift pragmatically from one treatment to another. However, the sporadic nature of their treatment-seeking hinders them in obtaining long-term solutions and the result is recurrent child illnesses and relapses over long periods of time...

  15. The Person in a State of Sickness. (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán


    In this article, we discuss the ideas of Eric J. Cassell about the patient-professional relationship. We argue that his approach combines in an interesting way features from the literature on patient autonomy and paternalistic practices. We suggest that these seemingly paternalistic features of practicing medicine, which are widely either ignored or condemned in bioethical discussion, are of vital significance in medical practice. In the first sections of the article, we describe the main features of Cassell's understanding of the sick person and his version of personalized medicine. We pay particular attention to his notion of information control and compare his ideas about conversation with patients to Hans-Georg Gadamer's analysis of patient-professional dialogue. In the latter part of the article, we explore through a couple of examples the implications these ideas have for medical practice.

  16. How can molecular diagnostics contribute to the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis? (United States)

    Büscher, Philippe; Deborggraeve, Stijn


    A variety of molecular diagnostic tests for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) (sleeping sickness) has been developed. Some are effectively used for research and confirmation diagnosis in travel medicine, usually following non-standardized protocols. Others have become commercially available as diagnostic kits. WHO aims to eliminate HAT as a public health problem by the year 2020, and zero transmission by the year 2030. This article gives an overview of the recent progress in molecular diagnostics for sleeping sickness, including the most recent data on test performances. Also discussed is how molecular diagnostics can play an important role in the process toward the elimination of HAT.

  17. Sickness absence in Poland after socio-economic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Szubert


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the analysis was to determine the magnitude and causes of the sickness-related temporary incapacity for work in Poland, and to identify changes in sickness absence and its differences by the type of economic activity and region. Material and Methods: This analysis is based on the 2006-2012 data on sickness absence compiled from medical certificates of temporary incapacity for work and published by the Social Insurance Institution (Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych. The sickness absence is described in terms of the number of sick leave days relative to the number of the employed or insured people. Results: In 2012, the number of days of disability per one employed was 14.5 (12.1 men, 17.4 women, representing 3.98% of the time lost due to illness. The main causes of absence were: complications of pregnancy and mother's diseases during pregnancy (33% of the sick leave days in women, injury and poisoning (men: 24%; women: 8%, diseases of the musculoskeletal system (men: 17%; woman: 11%. The highest level of sickness absence was noted in the łódzkie, śląskie and warmińsko-mazurskie provinces (38-19% higher than nationwide and in the administrative and support sectors (22.2 days per 1 employee, when analyzed by sectors of the national economy. Conclusions: The high increase in sickness absence over the recent 7 years due to cancer, mental and muscloskeletal disorders may be an important risk factor for early assessment of permanent incapacity for work. Another major problem is female sickness absence due to pregnancy complications and mother's diseases during pregnancy. Med Pr 2014;65(1:73–84

  18. Immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin genes of the horse. (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina


    Antibodies of the horse were studied intensively by many notable immunologists throughout the past century until the early 1970's. After a large gap of interest in horse immunology, additional basic studies on horse immunoglobulin genes performed during the past 10 years have resulted in new insights into the equine humoral immune system. These include the characterization of the immunoglobulin lambda and kappa light chain genes, the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant (IGHC) gene regions, and initial studies regarding the heavy chain variable genes. Horses express predominately lambda light chains and seem to have a relatively restricted germline repertoire of both lambda and kappa chain variable genes. The IGHC region contains eleven constant heavy chain genes, seven of which are gamma heavy chain genes. It is suggested that all seven genes encoding IgG isotypes are expressed and have distinct functions in equine immune responses.

  19. Intra-articular morphine in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Casper

    Regardless of species, optimal pain management of animals subjected to various painful procedures is of outmost importance for several reasons, including animal welfare considerations, improved convalescence and improved final outcome. One way of improving pain management in horses is through...... and laboratory animals. Recent discovery of opioid receptors in the synovial membrane of horses has made it reasonable to expect IA morphine to be analgesic in horses too. Treatment with IA morphine after arthroscopic surgery, or for other painful joint diseases, might therefore be an important contribution...... to a multimodal analgesia protocol. Despite that no research has investigated this issue in horses so far, IA injection of morphine after arthroscopic surgery has become common practice in several veterinary university teaching hospitals in Europe and USA. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the analgesic...

  20. 5 CFR 630.403 - Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. (United States)


    ... leave. 630.403 Section 630.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. (a) An agency may grant sick leave only when the need for sick leave is supported by administratively...

  1. Miscellaneous neurologic or neuromuscular disorders in horses. (United States)

    Aleman, Monica


    NMD is an important cause of morbidity in horses. Signs of dysfunction could be variable depending on the specific area affected. NM disease can go unrecognized if a thorough evaluation is not performed in diseased horses. Electrodiagnostic testing is an area that has the potential to document and improve our understanding of NM disease yet is uncommonly performed. Keeping an open and observant mind will enhance our ability to search and find answers.

  2. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse. (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G


    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease.

  3. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis


    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  4. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness (United States)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.


    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  5. Motion Sickness: A Study of Its Effects on Human Physiology. (United States)


    SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D- 2 0 TO STEC TEo VN;FB 1 0 1988...ENG/87D-20 MOTION SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D-20 Approved for public...SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  6. Heart failure accompanied by sick euthyroid syndrome and exercise training. (United States)

    Psirropoulos, D; Lefkos, N; Boudonas, G; Efthimiadis, A; Vogas, V; Keskilidis, C; Tsapas, G


    Sick euthyroid syndrome is defined as the decrease of serum free triiodothyronine with normal free L-thyroxin and thyrotropin. Its appearance in patients with chronic heart failure is an indicator of severity. Exercise training through a wide variety of mechanisms reverses sick euthyroid syndrome (normalization of free triiodothyronine levels) and improves the ability to exercise. There is a connection during exercise among dyspnea, hyperventilation, fatigue, catecholamines, a decrease in the number and function of beta-blocker receptors, and elevation of serum free triiodothyronine. It is not known whether sick euthyroid syndrome contributes to the development of heart failure or is only an attendant syndrome.

  7. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;


    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator...... of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... the pseudo values method adjusted for age, occupation and unfavourable work factors. RESULTS: A frequent short-term and a mixed sick leave pattern increased the RR of being granted a disability pension; the RR was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.00-4.35) and 2.61 (95% CI: 1.33-5.12). Inversely, the long-term sick leave...

  8. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.


    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  9. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan


    Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...... the object to get to the food. TEST horses received as many 2 min exposures to each object as required to meet a habituation criterion. We recorded behavioural reactions to the object, latency to feed, total eating time, and heart rate (HR) during all exposures. There was no significant decrease in initial...

  10. [Ivory Coast uprising and returning Burkinabe immigrants: evaluation of the risk for reemergence of sleeping sickness in Burkina Faso]. (United States)

    Courtin, F; Jamonneau, V; Kambiré, R; Solano, P


    Following the sociopolitical unrest that occurred in Ivory Coast in 2002, 360,000 Burkinabe immigrants returned to Burkina Faso that was the epicenter of sleeping sickness last century and is now thought to be free of autochthonous transmission. The purpose of this study was to determine if the massive return of immigrants from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) endemic areas of Ivory Coast to areas in Burkina Faso where the vector (tsetse fly) is currently present could lead to re-emergence of the disease. Risk areas for re-emergence were identified taking into account the number of returning immigrants, history of the disease, and presence of tsetse flies. Based on these criteria, study was focused on two villages, i.e., Folonzo and Gbalara, located in southern Burkina Faso near the Ivory Coast border. Study in these two villages consisted of characterization of the population (repatriates or not, origin, ...) and medical surveys to assess the presence/absence of the disease. Departure of some returning immigrants from areas including sleeping sickness foci in Ivory Coast (e.g. center west) confirmed the potential risk of re-emergence of the disease. Although no case of sleeping sickness was diagnosed, several serologically positive people were identified and will be followed up. This study failed to demonstrate a clear-cut correlation between massive population movements due to war and reemergence of sleeping sickness. However, this study may have been timed too soon after the return of immigrants to detect reemergence of HAT that could require several years.

  11. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy. (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H


    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  12. Movements of the horse's mouth in relation to horse-rider kinematic variables. (United States)

    Eisersiö, M; Roepstorff, L; Weishaupt, M A; Egenvall, A


    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of horses to rein contact and the movement of the riders' hands through analysis of data from horses ridden at two different head and neck positions. It was hypothesised that the riders' hand movements and rein tension would generate behavioural responses from horses and that these responses would be more marked when horses were ridden 'on the bit' than when unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horse/rider combinations at sitting trot on a high speed treadmill. Kinematics were recorded using a 12-camera, infrared-based opto-electronic system. Three horses wore a rein tension meter. Behavioural registrations were made from video. Behavioural responses included lip movement, mouth movement, open mouth, change in ear position, head tilt and tail movement. Mouth movements were associated with the suspension phase of the trot. Head and neck position was non-significant in the final models, while rein tension and the distance between the rider's hand and the horse's mouth were related to mouth movements. Interactions between horses and riders are complex and highly variable.

  13. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare. (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M


    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  14. Heart rate variability after horse trekking in leading and following horses. (United States)

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Masaya; Irimajiri, Mami; Yamazaki, Atusi; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Hodate, Koichi


    Horse trekking (HT) is having a stroll on a horse along a walking trail in a forest, field, and/or sandy beach. Generally in HT, horses exercise in tandem line outside the riding facilities. Because the leading horse will be confronted with stressors in the forefront, we hypothesized that the leading horse shows higher stress responses than the following one. In order to verify the hypothesis, we compared short-term stress responses between each position in six horses. Exercise consisted of 15 min of ground riding and 45 min of HT with walking and trotting. Heart rate variability was analyzed for 5 min at 30, 60, and 90 min after the exercising period. There was no significant difference in heart rate during exercise between leading and following positions. The high frequency / low frequency power band of heart rate variability, an index of sympathetic nervous activity, after exercise, tended to be higher in the leading position than following one (P horse was in a higher stressed state than the following horse after HT.

  15. Neutrophil function in healthy aged horses and horses with pituitary dysfunction. (United States)

    McFarlane, Dianne; Hill, Kim; Anton, Jason


    Immunosuppression leading to opportunist bacterial infection is a well-recognized sequela of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). The mechanisms responsible for immune dysfunction in PPID however, are as of yet poorly characterized. Horses with PPID have high concentrations of hormones known to impact immune function including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and insulin. α-MSH and related melanocortins have been shown in rodents and people to impair neutrophil function by decreasing superoxide production (known as oxidative burst activity), migration and adhesion. The goal of this study was to determine if neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID and, if so, to determine if plasma α-MSH or insulin concentration correlated with the severity of neutrophil dysfunction. Specifically, neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst activity, chemotaxis and adhesion were assessed. Results of this study indicate that horses with PPID have reduced neutrophil function, characterized by decreased oxidative burst activity and adhesion. In addition, chemotaxis was greater in healthy aged horses than in young horses or aged horses with PPID. Plasma insulin: α-MSH ratio, but not individual hormone concentration was correlated to neutrophil oxidative burst activity. In summary, neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID, likely due to altered hormone concentrations and may contribute to increased risk of opportunistic infections. Whether regulation of hormone concentration profiles in horses with PPID using therapeutic intervention improves neutrophil function and reduces infections needs to be explored.

  16. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharid-induced sickness behavior by a dry extract from the roots of Pelargonium sidoides (EPs 7630) in mice. (United States)

    Nöldner, M; Schötz, K


    The host response to infections comprise the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1ss, TNF-alpha, IL-6) which induce symptoms of sickness behavior characterised by anorexia, depressed activity, listlessness or malaise. In laboratory animals, sickness behavior can be induced by the administration of cytokines itself or by cytokine-inducers such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the active fragment of endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria. Preparations from roots of Pelargonium sidoides have been traditionally used in South African folk medicine for the treatment of different diseases (e.g. diarrhea, dysmenorrhea, hepatic disorders and respiratory tract infections including tuberculosis). Today, aqueous ethanolic extracts of Pelargonium sidoides are marketed mainly for respiratory tract infections. We studied the effects of the extract EPs 7630 and different fractions separated by ultrafiltration in an animal model of sickness behavior. The results of this study demonstrate that the extract EPs 7630 and the high-molecular weight fraction (F3) alleviate the symptoms of sickness behavior.

  17. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.


    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  18. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P;


    BACKGROUND: Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. AIMS: To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...... high sickness absence and 29 psychosocial work elements were analysed, adjusting for relevant confounders. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, three elements had an independent statistically significant association with high sickness absence: no exposure to bullying (odds ratio (95...

  19. Diclectin for morning sickness: Long-term neurodevelopment. (United States)

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon


    Question A pregnant patient recently asked me whether using Diclectin for morning sickness might affect the development of her child. Answer Our recent large study does show such a trend, although the differences are not necessarily clinically significant.

  20. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny


    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  1. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations in serum and peritoneal fluid of healthy horses and horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads


    enrolled healthy reference horses and horses with colic. RIs were calculated, group concentrations were compared by Student's t-test, and Pearson's correlation for serum and PF concentrations were determined. RESULTS: In healthy horses (n = 62) the measurements for SAA were below the detection limit (0......) for SAA and Hp in serum and PF in healthy horses, (2) compare SAA and Hp concentrations between healthy horses and horses with colic, and (3) to assess the correlation between serum and PF concentrations. METHODS: Serum amyloid A and Hp concentrations were determined by automated assays in prospectively...

  2. A Study of Motion Sickness: Mathematical Modeling and Data Analysis (United States)


    levels of motion sick- ness experienced by a test subject during the course of an experiment (21:97; 25:59; 27:84). In 1987, Drylie, Fix, and Gaudreault cedures. Drylie and Gaudreault reported additional conclusions concerning motion sickness trends (11; 17). Fix developed a new equation for...and Gaudreault also noted low frequency EEG signals in the 0.1 Hz range (17:28). However, only one of their subjects had EEG signals with an amplitude

  3. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  4. A Model for the Analysis of Sick Leave in Sweden


    David Edgerton; Curt Wells


    This paper addresses the question of how to model individual behavior in the face of changes in the set of rules that govern the social welfare system in Sweden. To this end, the Swedish sickness insurance provides an excellent study object, since the system has often been changed during the past decade. The question of employee compensation for sick leave is one the more widely discussed aspects of Swedish social welfare legislation, and it is therefore of interest to examine how individuals...

  5. Is Physics Sick? [In Praise of Classical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassib, Hisham


    In this paper, it is argued that theoretical physics is more akin to an organism than to a rigid structure.It is in this sense that the epithet, "sick", applies to it. It is argued that classical physics is a model of a healthy science, and the degree of sickness of modern physics is measured accordingly. The malady is located in the relationship between mathematics and physical meaning in physical theory.

  6. Protection of horses from West Nile virus Lineage 2 challenge following immunization with a whole, inactivated WNV lineage 1 vaccine. (United States)

    Bowen, Richard A; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Syvrud, Kevin; Thomas, Anne; Meinert, Todd R; Ludlow, Deborah R; Cook, Corey; Salt, Jeremy; Ons, Ellen


    Over the last years West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 has spread from the African to the European continent. This study was conducted to demonstrate efficacy of an inactivated, lineage 1-based, WNV vaccine (Equip WNV) against intrathecal challenge of horses with a recent isolate of lineage 2 WNV. Twenty horses, sero-negative for WNV, were enrolled and were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: an unvaccinated control group (T01, n=10) and a group administered with Equip WNV (T02, n=10). Horses were vaccinated at Day 0 and 21 and were challenged at day 42 with WNV lineage 2, Nea Santa/Greece/2010. Personnel performing clinical observations were blinded to treatment allocation. Sixty percent of the controls had to be euthanized after challenge compared to none of the vaccinates. A significantly lower percentage of the vaccinated animals showed clinical disease (two different clinical observations present on the same day) on six different days of study and the percentage of days with clinical disease was significantly lower in the vaccinated group. A total of 80% of the non-vaccinated horses showed viremia while only one vaccinated animal was positive by virus isolation on a single occasion. Vaccinated animals started to develop antibodies against WNV lineage 2 from day 14 (2 weeks after the first vaccination) and at day 42 (the time of onset of immunity) they had all developed a strong antibody response. Histopathology scores for all unvaccinated animals ranged from mild to very severe in each of the tissues examined (cervical spinal cord, medulla and pons), whereas in vaccinated horses 8 of 10 animals had no lesions and 2 had minimal lesions in one tissue. In conclusion, Equip WNV significantly reduced the number of viremic horses, the duration and severity of clinical signs of disease and mortality following challenge with lineage 2 WNV.

  7. Drug resistance in African trypanosomiasis: the melarsoprol and pentamidine story. (United States)

    Baker, Nicola; de Koning, Harry P; Mäser, Pascal; Horn, David


    Melarsoprol and pentamidine represent the two main classes of drugs, the arsenicals and diamidines, historically used to treat the diseases caused by African trypanosomes: sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in livestock. Cross-resistance to these drugs was first observed over 60 years ago and remains the only example of cross-resistance among sleeping sickness therapies. A Trypanosoma brucei adenosine transporter is well known for its role in the uptake of both drugs. More recently, aquaglyceroporin 2 (AQP2) loss of function was linked to melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance. AQP2, a channel that appears to facilitate drug accumulation, may also be linked to clinical cases of resistance. Here, we review these findings and consider some new questions as well as future prospects for tackling the devastating diseases caused by these parasites.

  8. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Buzzacott


    Full Text Available In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model with strain, age, and weight. Decrease in grip score was significantly associated with observed decompression sickness (P=0.0036. The log odds ratio for decompression sickness = 1.40 (decrease in grip score. In rats with no decrease in mean grip score there was a 50% probability of decompression sickness (pDCS. This increased steadily with decreases in mean grip score. A decrease of 0.3 had a 60% pDCS, a decrease of 0.6 had a 70% pDCS, and a decrease of 2.1 had a 95% pDCS. The tilting board grip score is a reliable measure of the probability of decompression sickness.

  9. Simulating the elimination of sleeping sickness with an agent-based model (United States)

    Grébaut, Pascal; Girardin, Killian; Fédérico, Valentine; Bousquet, François


    Although Human African Trypanosomiasis is largely considered to be in the process of extinction today, the persistence of human and animal reservoirs, as well as the vector, necessitates a laborious elimination process. In this context, modeling could be an effective tool to evaluate the ability of different public health interventions to control the disease. Using the Cormas® system, we developed HATSim, an agent-based model capable of simulating the possible endemic evolutions of sleeping sickness and the ability of National Control Programs to eliminate the disease. This model takes into account the analysis of epidemiological, entomological, and ecological data from field studies conducted during the last decade, making it possible to predict the evolution of the disease within this area over a 5-year span. In this article, we first present HATSim according to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD) protocol that is classically used to describe agent-based models, then, in a second part, we present predictive results concerning the evolution of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the village of Lambi (Cameroon), in order to illustrate the interest of such a tool. Our results are consistent with what was observed in the field by the Cameroonian National Control Program (CNCP). Our simulations also revealed that regular screening can be sufficient, although vector control applied to all areas with human activities could be significantly more efficient. Our results indicate that the current model can already help decision-makers in planning the elimination of the disease in foci. PMID:28008825

  10. Simulating the elimination of sleeping sickness with an agent-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grébaut Pascal


    Full Text Available Although Human African Trypanosomiasis is largely considered to be in the process of extinction today, the persistence of human and animal reservoirs, as well as the vector, necessitates a laborious elimination process. In this context, modeling could be an effective tool to evaluate the ability of different public health interventions to control the disease. Using the Cormas® system, we developed HATSim, an agent-based model capable of simulating the possible endemic evolutions of sleeping sickness and the ability of National Control Programs to eliminate the disease. This model takes into account the analysis of epidemiological, entomological, and ecological data from field studies conducted during the last decade, making it possible to predict the evolution of the disease within this area over a 5-year span. In this article, we first present HATSim according to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD protocol that is classically used to describe agent-based models, then, in a second part, we present predictive results concerning the evolution of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the village of Lambi (Cameroon, in order to illustrate the interest of such a tool. Our results are consistent with what was observed in the field by the Cameroonian National Control Program (CNCP. Our simulations also revealed that regular screening can be sufficient, although vector control applied to all areas with human activities could be significantly more efficient. Our results indicate that the current model can already help decision-makers in planning the elimination of the disease in foci.

  11. The horse-human dyad: can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram? (United States)

    McGreevy, P D; Oddie, C; Burton, F L; McLean, A N


    This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human-horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse-horse interactions have a corresponding horse-human interaction - some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours sometimes become inappropriate because of their duration, consistency or context. One analogue is unlikely to hold true for all horse-human contexts, so when applying any model from horse-horse interactions to human-horse interactions, the limitations of the model may eclipse the intended outcome of the intervention. These limitations are especially likely when the horse is being ridden. Such analyses may help to determine the validity of extrapolating intra-specific interactions to the inter-specific setting, as is advocated by some popular horse-training methods, and highlight the subsequent limitations where humans play the role of the 'alpha mare' or leader in horse handling and training. This examination provides a constructive framework for further informed debate and empirical investigation of the critical features of successful intra-specific interactions.

  12. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B;


    AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...

  13. The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.


    A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was ri

  14. Acute mountain sickness: controversies and advances. (United States)

    Bartsch, Peter; Bailey, Damian M; Berger, Marc M; Knauth, Michael; Baumgartner, Ralf W


    This review discusses the impact of recent publications on pathophysiologic concepts and on practical aspects of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Magnetic resonance imaging studies do not provide evidence of total brain volume increase nor edema within the first 6 to 10 h of exposure to hypoxia despite symptoms of AMS. After 16 to 32 h at about 4500 m, brain volume increases by 0.8% to 2.7%, but morphological changes do not clearly correlate with symptoms of AMS, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure was unchanged from normoxic values in individuals with AMS. These data do not support the prevailing hypothesis that AMS is caused by cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Direct measurement of increased oxygen radicals in hypoxia and a first study reducing AMS when lowering oxygen radicals by antioxidants suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of AMS. Placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that theophylline significantly attenuates periodic breathing without improving arterial oxygen saturation during sleep. Its effects on AMS are marginal and clearly inferior to acetazolamide. A most recent large trial with Ginkgo biloba clearly showed that this drug does not prevent AMS in a low-risk setting in which acetazolamide in a low dose of 2 x 125 mg was effective. Therefore, acetazolamide remains the drug of choice for prevention and the recommended dose remains 2 x 250 mg daily until a lower dose has been tested in a high-risk setting and larger clinical trials with antioxidants have been performed.

  15. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness. (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L


    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  16. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette


    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first.......73-2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42-1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way. CONCLUSION: Our results support...

  17. Chronic Mountain Sickness-Phobrang Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Nath


    Full Text Available Clinical0 features of 27 cases of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS from the Himalayas are reported. They are compared with 75 native highlanders (NH. All CMS patients were immigrants to high altitude. Mean duration of stay at high altitude was seven years. Mean values for haematocrit and haemoglobin were 80% and 23 G% respectively for the CMS group and 40% and 17.9 G% respectively for the native highlande group. Mean QRS axis in the former was +118 and in the latter +76. Incidence and quantum of protienuria were significantly higher in the CMS group. Cardiac catheteri -sation studies done in eight CMS cases showed elevated Pulmonary Artery (PA pressures even after a mean of 14.2 days at sea level. The disease which has four diagnostic elements-hypoxemia and polycythemia, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular enlargement and nephropathy with dense proteinuria-is a variant of 'Monge's Disease' and a name CMS Phobrang Type is suggested, along with a new approach to clinical classification which may help in diagnosis before cor pulmonale sets in. Limited therapeutic trials conducted at highaltitude seem to indicate that yogic deep breathing exercises, low-dose aspirin and diamox may be beneficial in the prevention and therapy of CMS Phobrang Type at high  altitude.

  18. [Keeping of horses in circus and show businesses]. (United States)

    Pollmann, U


    The conditions under which horses are kept and the performance of acts in the circus ring may give rise to animal protection-relevant aspects for circus and show horses. A number of intolerable conditions under which horses are kept and procedures adopted for the work with circus and show horses are described. In addition, attention is drawn to monitoring methods capable of exposing the deplorable shortcomings of these businesses.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson


    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  20. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    Previous studies find that part-time sick-listing it is an effective instrument for reducing sick leave durations for employees with musculoskeletal disorders and for sick-listed employees in general. This paper provides new evidence by studying whether the Danish part-time sick leave programme...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick...... the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...

  1. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan (United States)

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.


    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  2. We know next to nothing about vitamin D in horses!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh


    Very few references on vitamin D in horses exist, but the limited research available suggests that the vitamin D physiology of horses may be very different from other species. Horses can obtain vitamin D both through endogenous synthesis in the skin during sunlight exposure and through dietary so...

  3. Learning performances in young horses using two different learning tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Barneveld, A.; Blokhuis, H.J.


    To achieve optimal performance in equine sports as well as in leisure not only the physical abilities of the horse should be considered, but also the horse's personality. Besides temperamental aspects, like emotionality, or the horse's reactivity towards humans in handling situations, the learning a

  4. 75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting (United States)


    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board) will be conducting a public workshop and meeting on the BLM's management of wild horses and burros. This will be a two day event. Monday, June 14, 2010, will...

  5. 76 FR 55107 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting (United States)


    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and..., free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public lands. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet...

  6. 76 FR 7231 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting (United States)


    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a meeting on matters pertaining to management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public lands. DATES: The Advisory...

  7. 78 FR 46599 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting (United States)


    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and..., 2013, Advisory Board meeting can be mailed to National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260,...

  8. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses (United States)

    Tahmoush, David


    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  9. Testosterone treatment diminishes sickness behavior in male songbirds. (United States)

    Ashley, Noah T; Hays, Quentin R; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C


    Males of many vertebrate species are typically more prone to disease and infection than female conspecifics, and this sexual difference is partially influenced by the immunosuppressive properties of testosterone (T) in males. T-induced immunosuppression has traditionally been viewed as a pleiotropic handicap, rather than an adaptation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that suppression of sickness behavior, or the symptoms of infection, may have adaptive value if sickness interferes with the expression of T-mediated behaviors important for male reproductive success. We conduct a classic hormone replacement experiment to examine if T suppresses sickness behavior in a seasonally-breeding songbird, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Triggered experimentally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sickness behavior includes decreased activity, anorexia, and weight loss. Gonadectomized (GDX) males that were treated with silastic implants filled with T exhibited suppression of behavioral and physiological responses to LPS compared to GDX and sham-GDX controls given empty implants. Sickness responses of control groups were statistically indistinguishable. T-implanted birds had significantly higher plasma T than control groups and levels were within the range associated with aggressive interactions during male-to-male contests. These findings imply that suppression of sickness behavior could occur when T is elevated to socially-modulated levels. Alternatively, it is possible that this suppressive effect is mediated through a stress-induced mechanism, as corticosterone levels were elevated in T-implanted subjects compared to controls. We propose that males wounded and infected during contests may gain a brief selective advantage by suppressing sickness responses that would otherwise impair competitive performance. The cost of immunosuppression would be manifested in males through an increased susceptibility to disease, which is presumably

  10. Horse mouth behaviour related to selected kinematic variables representing horse-rider interaction


    Eisersiö, Marie; Roepstorff, Lars; Weishaupt, MA; Egenvall, Agneta


    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the influence of rein contact and the movement of the rider’s hand on the horse’s behaviour, analysing data on horses ridden in two different head and neck positions. We hypothesized that the rider’s hand movements and rein tension generate behavioural responses from the horse, and more so when ridden on the bit compared to free and unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horses/riders in sitting trot on a high-speed treadmill...

  11. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun


    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  12. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic... (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation fees for space at quarantine... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.304...

  13. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola


    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  14. Mathematical models of human african trypanosomiasis epidemiology. (United States)

    Rock, Kat S; Stone, Chris M; Hastings, Ian M; Keeling, Matt J; Torr, Steve J; Chitnis, Nakul


    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma spp. and transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). HAT is usually fatal if untreated and transmission occurs in foci across sub-Saharan Africa. Mathematical modelling of HAT began in the 1980s with extensions of the Ross-Macdonald malaria model and has since consisted, with a few exceptions, of similar deterministic compartmental models. These models have captured the main features of HAT epidemiology and provided insight on the effectiveness of the two main control interventions (treatment of humans and tsetse fly control) in eliminating transmission. However, most existing models have overestimated prevalence of infection and ignored transient dynamics. There is a need for properly validated models, evolving with improved data collection, that can provide quantitative predictions to help guide control and elimination strategies for HAT.

  15. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving. (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver


    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  16. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness (United States)

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.


    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  17. Delayed recompression for decompression sickness: retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hadanny

    Full Text Available Most cases of decompression sickness (DCS occur soon after surfacing, with 98% within 24 hours. Recompression using hyperbaric chamber should be administrated as soon as feasible in order to decrease bubble size and avoid further tissue injury. Unfortunately, there may be a significant time delay from surfacing to recompression. The time beyond which hyperbaric treatment is non effective is unclear. The aims of the study were first to evaluate the effect of delayed hyperbaric treatment, initiated more than 48 h after surfacing for DCS and second, to evaluate the different treatment protocols.From January 2000 to February 2014, 76 divers had delayed hyperbaric treatment (≥48 h for DCS in the Sagol center for Hyperbaric medicine and Research, Assaf-Harofeh Medical Center, Israel. Data were collected from their medical records and compared to data of 128 patients treated earlier than 48 h after surfacing at the same hyperbaric institute.There was no significant difference, as to any of the baseline characteristics, between the delayed and early treatment groups. With respect to treatment results, at the delayed treatment divers, complete recovery was achieved in 76% of the divers, partial recovery in 17.1% and no improvement in 6.6%. Similar results were achieved when treatment started early, where 78% of the divers had complete recovery, 15.6% partial recovery and 6.2% no recovery. Delayed hyperbaric treatment using US Navy Table 6 protocol trended toward a better clinical outcome yet not statistically significant (OR=2.786, CI95%[0.896-8.66], p=0.07 compared to standard hyperbaric oxygen therapy of 90 minutes at 2 ATA, irrespective of the symptoms severity at presentation.Late recompression for DCS, 48 hours or more after surfacing, has clinical value and when applied can achieve complete recovery in 76% of the divers. It seems that the preferred hyperbaric treatment protocol should be based on US Navy Table 6.

  18. Decompression sickness ('the bends') in sea turtles. (United States)

    García-Párraga, D; Crespo-Picazo, J L; de Quirós, Y Bernaldo; Cervera, V; Martí-Bonmati, L; Díaz-Delgado, J; Arbelo, M; Moore, M J; Jepson, P D; Fernández, Antonio


    Decompression sickness (DCS), as clinically diagnosed by reversal of symptoms with recompression, has never been reported in aquatic breath-hold diving vertebrates despite the occurrence of tissue gas tensions sufficient for bubble formation and injury in terrestrial animals. Similarly to diving mammals, sea turtles manage gas exchange and decompression through anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations. In the former group, DCS-like lesions have been observed on necropsies following behavioral disturbance such as high-powered acoustic sources (e.g. active sonar) and in bycaught animals. In sea turtles, in spite of abundant literature on diving physiology and bycatch interference, this is the first report of DCS-like symptoms and lesions. We diagnosed a clinico-pathological condition consistent with DCS in 29 gas-embolized loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta from a sample of 67. Fifty-nine were recovered alive and 8 had recently died following bycatch in trawls and gillnets of local fisheries from the east coast of Spain. Gas embolization and distribution in vital organs were evaluated through conventional radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasound. Additionally, positive response following repressurization was clinically observed in 2 live affected turtles. Gas embolism was also observed postmortem in carcasses and tissues as described in cetaceans and human divers. Compositional gas analysis of intravascular bubbles was consistent with DCS. Definitive diagnosis of DCS in sea turtles opens a new era for research in sea turtle diving physiology, conservation, and bycatch impact mitigation, as well as for comparative studies in other air-breathing marine vertebrates and human divers.

  19. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis in 8 horses.


    Groom, L J; Gaughan, E M; Lillich, J D; Valentino, L W


    Arthrodesis was performed to treat septic arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of 8 horses. Records of the horses were reviewed to determine outcome and possible factors that influenced success or failure. All horses were female. Seven horses had 1 joint treated and 1 horse was treated for bilateral pelvic limb involvement. The duration of sepsis before surgery ranged from 1 to 66 days. Bone lysis and production was radiographically apparent in 7 horses before surgery. Six horses h...

  20. Staphylococcal septic arthritis in three horses. (United States)

    Rose, R J; Love, D N


    Three horses were diagnosed as having monarticular septic arthritis due to Staphylococcus aureus on the basis of culture of articular cartilage, synovial membrane and/or synovial fluid. The organisms were all well recognised human phage types and in two cases demonstrated beta-lactamase (penicillinase) activity. Details of case histories are presented and the bacteriological techniques and antibiotic management with cloxacillin, methicillin and penicillin discussed. Following treatment, sterile cultures of synovial fluid were achieved in all cases, but in two horses the infections resulted in degenerative articular changes. This necessitated arthrodesis of the fetlock joint in one case.

  1. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement. (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L


    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations.

  2. Common slavic *komońь "horse"


    Loma Aleksandar


    The Common Slavic name for horse *koń', with a probably older, yet geographically more limited variant *komoń', has so far no generally accepted etymology. Given the great importance of this animal in the prehistory and the early history of the Indo-European and other peoples of Eurasia, this sets a problem not only for linguists, but also for historians and archeologists. The PIE word for horse, *ekuos, attested among all other branches of IE linguistic family, originally must have been comm...

  3. Safety in the housing of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Checchi


    Full Text Available Safety within an equestrian facility is given also by the sizes of the places in which horses are lodged. The stalls are considered to be the basic modular element of breeding and hosting places, but in Italy there are no specific references about the most appropriate surface related both to different breeds and safety of the workers taking care of them. We sought to determine the size of individual spaces, based on the height at the withers of horses, and to formulate a specific forming and informing course for employees on the likely risks of contact which could generate traumatic events.

  4. Cutaneous pythiosis in horses from Brazil. (United States)

    Meireles, M C; Riet-Correa, F; Fischman, O; Zambrano, A F; Zambrano, M S; Ribeiro, G A


    Equine pythiosis was studied in five animals from two farms located in a swampy region of southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Granulomatous lesions exuding necrotic material and containing a central yellow and firm tissue core, the 'kunker', were observed on the top of the nose of one horse, on the abdomen of two horses and on the hind limbs of two other animals. Direct microscopic preparations, histopathological examination of lesion material, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the isolates confirmed the diagnosis of pythiosis. Surgical intervention of the inflammatory processes, intravenous potassium iodide and topical application of copper sulphate were used without success.

  5. Cardiac and Respiratory Disease in Aged Horses. (United States)

    Marr, Celia M


    Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids.

  6. Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries. (United States)

    Sudarshi, Darshan; Brown, Mike


    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease, acquired by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. In non-endemic countries HAT is rare, and therefore the diagnosis may be delayed leading to potentially fatal consequences. In this article the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined. Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas Gambiense HAT has a more chronic clinical course, in individuals from West or Central Africa.

  7. Heart Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  8. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses in South of Iran. (United States)

    Moraveji, M; Hosseini, M H; Amrabadi, O; Rahimian, A; Namazi, F; Namavari, M


    Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of Neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. The aim of the present study is to determine serological prevalence of Neospora infection in horses in Iran. Blood samples were obtained from 200 horses and tested for serum antibodies against Neospora spp. by the Neospora modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT). Antibodies were found in 64 (32%) horses being tested with titers of 1:80. This is the first serological survey for Neospora antibodies performed on horses in Iran.

  9. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness. (United States)

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M


    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  10. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness. (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko


    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS.

  11. Boots on horses: limb protection or hyperflexion training aids in the showjumping horse. (United States)

    Murphy, Jack


    Showjumping riders regularly employ various schooling strategies to control the horse's jump stride kinematics (JSK). Strategies include plyometric training regimes with fences of different heights and widths set at specific distances. Gymnastic grids teach the horse to jump cleanly. Rapping, once used almost routinely, is no longer in vogue. However, the use of performance enhancing (PE) boots on the distal hind limbs to alter equine JSK has become popular. There are two broad categories of PE boots: weighted and pressure. Some riders use so-called weighted boots on the horses' hind limbs during training and in competition to improve the jump stride. The application of so-called pressure boots may be little more than an adaptation of this technique. It appears that the PE boots induce hyperflexion of the hind limbs and incline the horse to jump fences cleanly. In the absence of scientific appraisal, it is unclear if such boots are acceptable and innovative training aids within equitation.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in horses with septic arthritis. (United States)

    Easley, Jeremiah T; Brokken, Matthew T; Zubrod, Chad J; Morton, Alison J; Garrett, Katherine S; Holmes, Shannon P


    Fourteen horses with septic arthritis underwent high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Septic arthritis was diagnosed based on results from historical and clinical findings, synovial fluid analyses and culture, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, arthroscopic, and histopathologic findings. MR findings included diffuse hyperintensity within bone and extracapsular tissue on fat-suppressed images in 14/14 horses (100%), joint effusion, synovial proliferation, and capsular thickening in 13/14 horses (93%), bone sclerosis in 11/14 horses (79%), and evidence of cartilage and subchondral bone damage in 8/14 horses (57%). Intravenous gadolinium was administered to five of the 14 horses and fibrin deposition was noted in all horses. Other findings after gadolinium administration included synovial enhancement in 4/5 (80%) horses, and bone enhancement in 1/5 (20%) horses. The MR findings of septic arthritis in horses were consistent with those reported in people. MRI may allow earlier and more accurate diagnosis of septic arthritis in horses as compared with other imaging modalities, especially when the clinical diagnosis is challenging. It also provides additional information not afforded by other methods that may influence and enhance treatment.

  13. Evolutionary constraints on equid domestication: Comparison of flight initiation distances of wild horses (Equus caballus ferus) and plains zebras (Equus quagga). (United States)

    Brubaker, Alexali S; Coss, Richard G


    Habituation to humans was an essential component of horse (Equus caballus ferus) domestication, with the nondomestication of zebras (Equus quagga) possibly reflecting an adaptive constraint on habituation. We present the human hunting hypothesis, arguing that ancestral humans hunted African animals, including zebras, long enough to promote a persistent wariness of humans, whereas a briefer period of hunting horses in Central Asia influenced by glacial cycles was unlikely to produce an equally persistent wariness. An alternative habituation to humans hypothesis, prompted by field observations, posits that zebras can habituate well to nonthreatening humans given sufficient exposure. If so, other factors must account for zebra nondomestication. To examine these hypotheses, we compared the flight initiation distances (FIDs) of wild horses in the United States and plains zebras in Africa to a human approaching on foot (N = 87). We compared the flight behavior of both species at sites with low and high exposure to humans (mean humans/acre = .004 and .209, respectively). Analyses revealed a significant interaction (p = .0001) between equid species and level of human exposure. The mean FIDs of horses (146 m) and zebras (105 m) with low human exposure did not differ appreciably (p = .412), but these distances were substantially longer (p human exposure that did differ significantly (p humans than horses do might reflect an adaptive response to historical hunting and partly explain their resistance to domestication.

  14. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland. (United States)

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W


    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  15. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen;


    Domestic horses are faced with social challenges throughout their lives due to limitations in social contact, space restrictions and frequent changes in social companionship. This is in contrast to natural conditions where horses live in relatively stable harem bands. Currently, little is known...... about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty......, to repeated regrouping. Compared to horses in Stable groups, more agonistic behaviour was shown by horses in Unstable groups (i.e. non-contact agonistic; F1,65 = 5.60, P = 0.02), whereas there was no treatment effect on other variables. The level of play behaviour appeared, however, to be more variable...

  16. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;


    if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline......BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...

  17. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars;


    absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...... between the psychosocial work environment and sickness absence were used to illustrate the results. RESULTS: Standard methods were found to underestimate true effect sizes by approximately one-tenth [method i] and one-third [method ii] and to have lower statistical power than frailty models. CONCLUSIONS...

  18. Acupressure therapy for morning sickness. A controlled clinical trial. (United States)

    Hyde, E


    A prospective, controlled clinical trial examined the efficacy of acupressure therapy for morning sickness, using a two group, random assignment, crossover design. Subjects in Group 1 (N = 8) used acupressure wristbands for five days, followed by five days without therapy. Subjects in Group 2 (N = 8) had no therapy for five days, followed by five days use of wristbands. The Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist and Sickness Impact Profile were used, and extent of nausea was assessed at baseline, day five, and day ten. Use of acupressure wristbands relieved morning sickness for 12 of 16 subjects (chi 2 = 5.31 with Yates' correction factor, df = 1, p less than .025). Acupressure therapy resulted in statistically significant (p less than .05) reductions in anxiety, depression, behavioral dysfunction, and nausea. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are presented.

  19. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per


    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...... examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7...

  20. A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition. (United States)

    Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A


    This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated.

  1. Depression and African Americans (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  2. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)


    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach. (orig.)

  3. It's Time to Get Another Horse (United States)

    Gonzalez, Josue


    In this article, the author comments on Peter Roos's article (this issue). The author sees a strong need to clarify whether the horse that is to be remounted is more and better English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs or the goal of promoting bilingual education as a positive practice in the nation's schools or something else altogether. If the…

  4. Nuclear Astrophysics with the Trojan Horse Method (United States)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.


    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents the indirect path to determine the bare nucleus astrophysical S(E) factor for reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. This is done by measuring the quasi free cross section of a suitable three body process. The basic features of the THM will be presented together with some applications to demonstrate its practical use.

  5. People and Horses: The Risks of Riding. (United States)

    DeBenedette, Valerie


    The article looks at risks and benefits of horseback riding. Several risks can be minimized if riders take lessons, check riding equipment before each ride, wear proper headgear and footgear, and respect the horse's size and will. Medical guidelines for equestrian sports could help reduce injuries. (SM)

  6. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method (United States)

    Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Pizzone, R. G.


    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach.

  7. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together (United States)

    Symington, Ashley


    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  8. Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence. (United States)

    Lane, Marvin

    This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

  9. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,


    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  10. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Haeger-Eugensson


    Full Text Available The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3. Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution.

  11. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F


    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  12. Towards the Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattioli Raffaele C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Updated, accurate and comprehensive information on the distribution of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also known as sleeping sickness, is critically important to plan and monitor control activities. We describe input data, methodology, preliminary results and future prospects of the HAT Atlas initiative, which will allow major improvements in the understanding of the spatial distribution of the disease. Methods Up-to-date as well as historical data collected by national sleeping sickness control programmes, non-governmental organizations and research institutes have been collated over many years by the HAT Control and Surveillance Programme of the World Health Organization. This body of information, unpublished for the most part, is now being screened, harmonized, and analysed by means of database management systems and geographical information systems (GIS. The number of new HAT cases and the number of people screened within a defined geographical entity were chosen as the key variables to map disease distribution in sub-Saharan Africa. Results At the time of writing, over 600 epidemiological reports and files from seventeen countries were collated and included in the data repository. The reports contain information on approximately 20,000 HAT cases, associated to over 7,000 different geographical entities. The oldest epidemiological records considered so far date back to 1985, the most recent having been gathered in 2008. Data from Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon from the year 2000 onwards were fully processed and the preliminary regional map of HAT distribution is presented. Conclusion The use of GIS tools and geo-referenced, village-level epidemiological data allow the production of maps that substantially improve on the spatial quality of previous cartographic products of similar scope. The significant differences between our preliminary outputs and earlier maps of HAT

  13. Certificated sickness absence in industrial employees threatened with redundancy. (United States)

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S


    The proposition that workers take less sick leave when threatened by redundancy was examined in a longitudinal, controlled study using information from case records in a general practice. The hypothesis was only partly supported--certificated sickness absence dropped only in employees under the age of 40. Workers fearing job loss reported more illness, and their periods of absence were significantly longer, especially for men and for workers who had previously consulted their general practitioner infrequently. This study provides further evidence that the fear of mass redundancy is stressful to workers so threatened and costly to a society experiencing rising unemployment.

  14. Morning sickness: a mechanism for protecting mother and embryo. (United States)

    Flaxman, S M; Sherman, P W


    Approximately two-thirds of women experience nausea or vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms are commonly known as morning sickness. Hook (1976) and Profet (1988) hypothesized that morning sickness protects the embryo by causing pregnant women to physically expel and subsequently avoid foods that contain teratogenic and abortifacient chemicals, especially toxic chemicals in strong-tasting vegetables, caffeinated beverages and alcohol. We examined this hypothesis by comprehensively reviewing the relevant medical, psychological and anthropological literature. In its support, (i) symptoms peak when embryonic organogenesis is most susceptible to chemical disruption (weeks 6-18), (ii) women who experience morning sickness are significantly less likely to miscarry than women who do not (9 of 9 studies), (iii) women who vomit suffer fewer miscarriages than those who experience nausea alone, and (iv) many pregnant women have aversions to alcoholic and nonalcoholic (mostly caffeinated) beverages and strong-tasting vegetables, especially during the first trimester. Surprisingly, however, the greatest aversions are to meats, fish, poultry, and eggs. A cross-cultural analysis using the Human Relations Area Files revealed 20 traditional societies in which morning sickness has been observed and seven in which it has never been observed. The latter were significantly less likely to have animal products as dietary staples and significantly more likely to have only plants (primarily corn) as staples than the 20 societies in which morning sickness occurred. Animal products may be dangerous to pregnant women and their embryos because they often contain parasites and pathogens, especially when stored at room temperatures in warm climates. Avoiding foodborne microorganisms is particularly important to pregnant women because they are immunosuppressed, presumably to reduce the chances of rejecting tissues of their own offspring (Haig 1993). As a result

  15. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.


    . The alteration at the muscle level at altitude is minor and so is the effect on the metabolism, although it is debated whether a possible reduction in blood lactate accumulation occurs during exercise at altitude. Transient acute mountain sickness (headache, anorexia, and nausea) is present in 10-30% of subjects...... ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...

  16. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives. (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert


    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  17. The determinants of sick leave durations of Dutch self-employed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierdijk, Laura; van Lomwel, Gijsbert; Peppelman, Wilko


    This paper analyzes sickness absenteeism among self-employed in the Netherlands. Using a unique data set provided by a large Dutch private insurance company, we assess the determinants of sick leave durations. Our study suggests that several risk factors affect the sick leave durations of self-emplo

  18. 5 CFR 630.405 - Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity. 630.405 Section 630.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.405 Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity....

  19. 5 CFR 630.406 - Records on the use of sick leave. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records on the use of sick leave. 630.406 Section 630.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.406 Records on the use of sick leave. An agency must maintain records...

  20. 5 CFR 630.404 - Use of sick leave during annual leave. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sick leave during annual leave. 630.404 Section 630.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.404 Use of sick leave during annual leave. Subject to §...

  1. Animal Diseases Caused by Orbiviruses, Algeria (United States)

    Madani, Hafsa; Casal, Jordi; Alba, Anna; Allepuz, Alberto; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Hafsi, Leila; Kount-Chareb, Houria; Bouayed-Chaouach, Nadera; Saadaoui, Hassiba


    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union. PMID:22172371

  2. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.


    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  3. Occupational rewards relate to sickness absence frequency but not duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.


    Work stress is an important problem that shifted sickness absence research to the psychosocial work environment at the expense of physical or chemical hazards. Most studies investigated the psychosocial work environment using the Demand-Control model. However, this model does not consider coping sty

  4. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.


    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency ra

  5. The role of work group in individual sickness absence behavior. (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimäki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi


    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey and data on sickness absence behavior were collected from the employers' records. The study population consisted of 19,306 Finnish municipal employees working in 1,847 groups (78% women). Multilevel Poisson regression modeling was applied. The direct effects of work group characteristics on sickness absence were mostly insignificant. In contrast, both of the social components of a work group had an indirect impact: The more tolerant the group absence norms (at both individual- and cross-level) and the lower the group cohesion (at the individual level), the more the absence behavior of an individual was influenced by his or her attitude toward work attendance. We conclude that work group moderates the extent to which individuals with a liberal attitude toward work attendance actually engage in sickness absence behavior.

  6. The association between commuter cycling and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Simons, M.; Garre, F.G.; Hildebrandt, V.H.


    Objective: To study the association between commuter cycling and all-cause sickness absence, and the possible dose-response relationship between absenteeism and the distance, frequency and speed of commuter cycling. Method: Cross-sectional data about cycling in 1236 Dutch employees were collected us

  7. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Faber (Elske)


    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are involve

  8. What bothers the sick-listed employee with severe MUPS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, R.; Blankenstein, A. H.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.


    Aims: The aim of this study was to explore what employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) experience as causes of distress with regard to employees with mild or no MUPS. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of a cross-sectional study in which 486 sick-listed emplo

  9. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N


    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  10. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS (United States)


    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  11. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses. (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic


    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses.

  12. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther


    Reasons for performing the study Inclusion of objective temperament tests at practical horse breeding evaluations is of increased interest. It has been debated whether such tests may involve human handling, since there may be considerable differences in horses' handling experience. Objectives...... of fearfulness. Known handlers may ‘mask’ behavioural responses of horses in fear tests and thus handling by a known handler during testing may not be appropriate for objective evaluation of fearfulness in a practical situation....... To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...

  13. An outbreak of equine influenza at a harness horse racetrack. (United States)

    Kemen, M J; Frank, R A; Babish, J B


    An outbreak of an influenza-like illness affected approximately 1/3 of the 1050 race horses stabled at a standardbred racetrack and resulted in a 3-day suspension of racing. A/Equi-2 influenza virus was isolated from 1 affected horse and 8 of 10 horses sampled seroconverted. Threshold protective levels of HI antibody against A/Equi-2 influenza virus were not demonstrated in unaffected horses. Resistance in unaffected horses was assumed to result from other factors following previous exposure. Few of the horses had been vaccinated against equine influenza. It was felt that an outbreak of this magnitude might have been prevented if a vaccination program had been followed.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Jill


    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses.

  15. Evaluation of an intravenous catheter for use in the horse. (United States)

    Gulick, B A; Meagher, D M


    A commercially available polyvinyl chloride intravenous catheter was studied in 9 horses for 3 to 10 days to evaluate the catheter's suitability for use in the horse, to develop a new insertion technique, and to establish a protocol for catheter care. Seven of the animals were clinically normal horses receiving parenteral nutrition; one was a horse with hypocalcemia receiving frequent intravenous injections of calcium gluconate, and one was a clinically normal horse receiving no infusions. The catheter dressings were changed every 48 hours, and an aspirate from the catheter and the catheter tip was cultured at the time of catheter removal. One catheter became infected following a break in the protocol. It was concluded that the polyvinyl catheter is suitable for use in the horse and that the proposed protocol for catheter insertion and maintenance may reduce the likelihood of complications such as catheter sepsis, thrombophlebitis, and embolism.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Show jumping is a competitive international event, and is one of the world's mostpopular equestrian sports. There are many determining factors involved in theobtained results of a horse-rider couple. Always trainers and riders want to improvejumping performance and ability in horses. As a result the schedules of training aredifferent from horse to horse, from the competition season to the winter season, froma team to another of course all these linked to the level of performance. Thus, in ourcountry, many horse-people have gained knowledge through years of experience andword of mouth, and not through scientific literature. This is where science meets theart, and it’s up to the rider to adapt himself. The purpose of this paper is to analyzeand compare some aspects of the training programs in eight riding locations. Foreach base was registered the specific training program, the afferent training arenas,paddocks, other equestrian facilities and hygiene horse conditions with individual observations.

  17. Behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Poulsen, Janne Møller; Luthersson, Nanna


    Only little is known about behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration, despite the high prevalence of this condition. Our objectives in the present study was to (i) describe the severity of gastric ulceration in horses, housed under relatively standardised conditions, and (ii......) to investigate whether horses with severe glandular gastric ulceration have increased baseline and response concentration of stress hormones and behave differently than control horses. We investigated stomachs of 96 horses at one stud, and compared an ulcer group (n = 30; with severe lesions in the glandular.......2% and non-glandular lesions in 40.6% of the horses. The amount of starch in the feed (P = 0.006) and paternal stallion (P = 0.031) influenced ulceration in the non-glandular region only; it should be noted that our study does not allow for separating hereditary from environmental influences, as offspring...

  18. Investigation of inflammatory markers in horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    Background The use of acute phase proteins as objective markers of underlying pathology may facilitate the decision-making regarding diagnosis, treatment and estimation of prognosis of colic horses in a referral hospital. Evaluation of acute phase proteins in both serum and peritoneal fluid...... of colic horses in a referral hospital have not been reported earlier. Objectives Evaluation of serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin in horses with colic. Methods Blood and PF samples were collected from 75 colic horses at admission to a referral hospital and from...... 19 healthy control horses. SAA and haptoglobin were measured in both serum and PF. Colic cases were classified according to diagnosis, treatment and outcome based on the clinical records. Protein concentrations were compared between groups with student´s t-test and ANOVA. Results Colic horses had...

  19. General practitioners' management of the long-term sick role. (United States)

    Higgins, Angela; Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter


    In this paper, we use qualitative research techniques to examine the role of general practitioners in the management of the long-term sickness absence. In order to uncover the perspectives of all the main agents affected by the actions of general practitioners, a case study approach focussing on one particular employment sector, the public health service, is adopted. The role of family physicians is viewed from the perspectives of health service managers, occupational health physicians, employees/patients, and general practitioners. Our argument is theoretically framed by Talcott Parsons's model of the medical contribution to the sick role, along with subsequent conceptualisations of the social role and position of physicians. Sixty one semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. There was a consensus among respondents that general practitioners put far more weight on the preferences and needs of their patients than they did on the requirements of employing organisations. This was explained by respondents in terms of the propinquity and longevity of relationships between doctors and their patients, and by the ideology of holistic care and patient advocacy that general practitioners viewed as providing the foundations of their approach to patients. The approach of general practitioners was viewed negatively by managers and occupational health physicians, and more positively by general practitioners and patients. However, there is some evidence that general practitioners would be prepared to forfeit their role as validators of sick leave. Given the imperatives of both state and capital to reduce the financial burden of long-term sickness, this preparedness puts into doubt the continued role of general practitioners as gatekeepers to legitimate long-term sickness absence.



    Marko Halo; P. Strapák; A Hollý; Mlyneková, E.; E Kovalčík; HORNÝ, M.


    Etological and physiological tests were realized on 48 horses. There were observed following activities: spontaneous kinetic activity, voice display; the elimination behavior (excretion and urination) and motionless standing. The horses were observed in 40 minute periods during the morning hours. The horses were classed into the following groups: EHB+ - crossing more than 220 sq. per 40 min. (high sensitiveness to stress), EHB+/- - crossing 131 - 220 sq. per 40 min. (mean sensitiveness to str...

  1. Culling Rate of Icelandic Horses due to Bone Spavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árnason Th


    Full Text Available A survival analysis was used to compare the culling rate of Icelandic horses due to the presence of radiographic and clinical signs of bone spavin. A follow-up study of 508 horses from a survey five years earlier was performed. In the original survey 46% of the horses had radiographic signs of bone spavin (RS and/or lameness after flexion test of the tarsus. The horse owners were interviewed by telephone. The owners were asked if the horses were still used for riding and if not, they were regarded as culled. The owners were then asked when and why the horses were culled. During the 5 years, 98 horses had been culled, 151 had been withdrawn (sold or selected for breeding and 259 were still used for riding. Hind limb lameness (HLL was the most common reason for culling (n = 42. The rate of culling was low up to the age of 11 years, when it rose to 0.05 for horses with RS. The risk ratio for culling was twice as high for horses with RS compared with horses without RS and 5.5 times higher for culling because of HLL. The risk of culling (prognostic value was highest for the combination of RS with lameness after flexion test, next highest for RS and lowest for lameness after flexion test as the only finding. It was concluded that bone spavin affects the duration of use of Icelandic horses and is the most common cause of culling due to disease of riding horses in the age range of 7–17 years.

  2. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  3. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer. (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K


    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( horses were using the closed shelter ( 0.05). Results showed that horses made use of shelters during the summer even when weather conditions were moderate. A shelter with roof and covers on 3 sides was preferred over a shelter with roof only and can reduce insect-defensive behavior.

  4. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute


    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental di

  5. Strongylids in domestic horses: Influence of horse age, breed and deworming programs on the strongyle parasite community. (United States)

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Dzeverin, Igor; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A


    An extensive analysis of the relationships between strongylid egg shedding in domestic horses and the strongylid community structure in regard to the age of the horses, their breeds and different strategies of horse management, particularly with anthelmintic treatment programs was performed. Domestic horses (n=197) of different ages (5 months to 22 years) and of various breeds from 15 farms with different types of deworming programs were included in this study. Strongylids (totally, 82,767 specimens) were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic ("Univerm", 0.2% aversectin C), and identified to the species level. Models of multiple regressions with dummy variables were used to estimate the effects of age, breed, type of farm and deworming programs on number of eggs shed per gram of feces (EPG value) and the strongylid community. Totally, 33 strongylid species were collected (8 species of Strongylinae and 25 - of Cyathostominae); a significant correlation (r=0.67; phorses (1.5-4 years old); the lowest (17) - in old horses (>16years). Foals (horses. The linear regression models of the strongyle egg counts (EPG) with three predictors: horse age (AGE), number of strongylids (SN), and type of farm (FARM) revealed significant effects of SN and FARM, but an effect of AGE was near the limit of significance. Horses from farms with rare or no anthelmintic treatments (type A) shed significantly more strongyle eggs than horses from farms with regular treatments; frequency of dewormings - 1-2 (type B) or 3-4 and more times per year (type C) did not have a significant impact on the EPG value. Thoroughbreds, Ukrainian Saddlers and Russian Racers had much higher EPG values comparing to non-breed horses. Analysis of the relation of age of the horses and structure of the strongylid communities revealed that foals (horses (>16years old) were significantly less infected by large strongyles as compared to other horses. Species from the

  6. Fenbendazole pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and potentiation in horses. (United States)

    McKellar, Q A; Gokbulut, C; Muzandu, K; Benchaoui, H


    The present study was designed to describe the pharmacokinetics and fecal excretion of fenbendazole (FBZ) and fenbendazole sulphoxide (FBZSO) and their metabolites in horses, to investigate the effects which concurrent feeding has on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of FBZ, and to determine the effect of coadministration of the metabolic inhibitor piperonyl-butoxide on the in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro liver microsomal metabolism of sulfide and sulfoxide benzimidazoles. The effect of piperonyl-butoxide on the enantiomeric genesis of the sulfoxide moiety was also investigated. Following administration of FBZSO and FBZ, the fenbendazole sulphone metabolite predominated in plasma, and the C(max) and area under the plasma curve (AUC) values for each moiety were larger (P 4:1 to 1:1. It is concluded that in horses efficacy of FBZSO and FBZ could be improved by administration to unfed animals and coadministration with piperonyl-butoxide.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Henderson


    Full Text Available The aptly-named stallion Pherenikos (Victory-bearer raced and won for Hieron,tyrant of Gela (485 BC and Syracuse (485-467/6 BC. This is the only horse thatis named in the surviving victory odes (epinikia of Pindar and Bacchylides.1 Hemakes his first victorious appearance in the single-horse event, the κέλης, of sixlaps (just over 1 km in the hippodrome at the Pythia in 478, to which Pindar refersin P. 3.72-74, composed sometime after 476.2 This is probably the victory to whichBacchylides (5.41 refers when he states that Pherenikos won at Delphi before hisvictory at Olympia in 476.

  8. [HYPP--hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in horses]. (United States)

    Zeilmann, M


    A literature review of the clinical syndrome HYPP (Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) affecting Quarter Horses is given. HYPP is characterized by sporadic attacks of muscle tremors, weakness and/or collapse, lasting for variable periods of time. Diagnosis is based on physical findings in association with hyperkalemia. In horses with HYPP, the regulation of ion transport through the sodium channels in the muscle cells occasionally fails, causing uncontrollable muscle twitching. Further investigations into molecular genetics reveals a mutation in the gene responsible for sodium and potassium regulation. The identification of this gene mutation is the basis for the blood test used to diagnose HYPP. HYPP is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Treatment of HYPP attacks by intravenous application of calcium gluconate, bicarbonate and glucose results in rapid recovery. Consequent dietary management and daily administration of acetazolamide effectively controls the disease.

  9. Trimming and shoeing the chronically affected horse. (United States)

    Curtis, S; Ferguson, D W; Luikart, R; Ovnicek, G


    Several of the technical approaches applied to the foot overlap with regard to intent. Frog or solar support, for example, may be provided either to stabilize the distal phalanx within the hoof capsule or in an effort to unload regional pain arising from the solar surface of the foot. It is likewise obvious that some techniques such as lowering the heels to achieve phalangeal realignment and raising the heels to relieve deep digital flexor tendon tension are contradictory. In these instances, it is not that one technique is always correct but that differences exist among horses. Currently, it is something of an art to define what specific technique is needed or, alternatively, how to best apply a specific technique. As more facts regarding how the normal and foundered foot function, the farrier's role in the rehabilitation of affected horses is likely to increase.

  10. Molecular tests for coat colours in horses. (United States)

    Rieder, Stefan


    Colour phenotypes may have played a major role during early domestication events and initial selection among domestic animal species. As coat colours mostly follow a relatively simple mode of Mendelian inheritance, they have been among the first traits to be systematically analysed at the molecular level. As a result of the number of genetic tools developed during the past decade, horse coat colour tests have been designed and are now commercially available for some of the basic phenotypes. These tests enable breeders to verify segregation within particular pedigrees, to select specific colour phenotypes according to market demand or studbook policies and to avoid complex inherited diseases associated with some of the colour patterns. This paper reviews the relevance of the topic, describes all currently available tests for coat colours in horses and addresses also ongoing research in this field.

  11. Allometric scaling of decompression sickness risk in terrestrial mammals; cardiac output explains risk of decompression sickness (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas


    A probabilistic model was used to predict decompression sickness (DCS) outcome in pig (70 and 20 kg), hamster (100 g), rat (220 g) and mouse (20 g) following air saturation dives. The data set included 179 pig, 200 hamster, 360 rat, and 224 mouse exposures to saturation pressures ranging from 1.9–15.2 ATA and with varying decompression rates (0.9–156 ATA • min‑1). Single exponential kinetics described the tissue partial pressures (Ptiss) of N2: Ptiss =  ∫(Pamb – Ptiss) • τ‑1 dt, where Pamb is ambient N2 pressure and τ is a time constant. The probability of DCS [P(DCS)] was predicted from the risk function: P(DCS) = 1‑e‑r, where r = ∫(PtissN2 ‑ Thr ‑ Pamb) • Pamb–1 dt, and Thr is a threshold parameter. An equation that scaled τ with body mass included a constant (c) and an allometric scaling parameter (n), and the best model included n, Thr, and two c. The final model provided accurate predictions for 58 out of 61 dive profiles for pig, hamster, rat, and mouse. Thus, body mass helped improve the prediction of DCS risk in four mammalian species over a body mass range covering 3 orders of magnitude.

  12. Transport induced inflammatory responses in horses. (United States)

    Wessely-Szponder, J; Bełkot, Z; Bobowiec, R; Kosior-Korzecka, U; Wójcik, M


    Deleterious response to road transport is an important problem in equine practice. It determines different physiological, immunological and metabolic changes which lead to increased susceptibility to several disorders such as pneumonia, diarrhea, colics, laminitis, injuries and rhabdomyolisis. The aim of our study was to look for possible relationships between transportation of female young and older horses over a long and short distance and an inflammatory state reflected by an increase of acute phase protein concentration, oxidative stress and muscle injury. The study was conducted on 24 cold-blooded female horses divided into four groups. Six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 550 km, six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 50 km. Plasma and serum were obtained from blood samples taken before transportation (T0), immediately after transportation (T1) and at an abattoir during slaughter (T2). In these samples fibrinogen, MDA, AST and CK were assessed. Fibrinogen increased in all studied groups especially in fillies after long distance transportation, where it reached 205±7.07 mg/dl before transportation, 625±35.35 mg/dl after transportation, and 790±14.14 mg/dl during slaughter. MDA concentrations rose after transportation and reached the maximal level during slaughter. CK activity was more elevated after short transportation in younger horses, whereas initial activity of AST was higher in older horses. We estimated that intensified responses from acute phase, oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters indicated an inflammatory state.

  13. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction


    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty


    A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm), reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their fo...

  14. [Flunixin and its use in horses]. (United States)

    Jaussaud, P


    Flunixin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, with a potent analgesic activity and a slight toxicity. It is largely used in horses, in the form of meglumine salt, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases or colics, and often identified in dopage cases. Physical and chemical properties of the drug, its pharmacological and toxicological properties, and its use in equine species are depicted.

  15. Genetic parameters for earnings in Quarter Horse. (United States)

    Silva, A P A; Curi, R A; Langlois, B; Silva, J A Ii V


    In this study, we estimated the heritability (h(2)) of earnings in the Quarter Horse in order to evaluate the inclusion of this trait in breeding programs. Records from 14,754 races of 2443 horses from 1978-2009 were provided by Sorocaba Hippodrome, São Paulo, Brazil. All ancestors of the registered horses were included in the pedigree file until the 4th generation. Log-transformed performance measures (LPM) were analyzed for animals aged 2, 3, and 4 years and during their entire career. The h(2) estimates were obtained using a multi-trait model and Gibbs sampling that included the effects of sex, year of race, and animal in all analyses. Five analyses were performed: 1 in which LPM was divided by the number of prizes, 1 in which LPM was divided by the number of race starts, and 3 analyses that included the number of prizes, number of race starts, and both (LPM_cNPS) as covariates. Analysis was performed with and without inclusion of the maternal effect. Models were compared based on the deviance information criterion and LPM_cNPS including maternal effects was found to be the best model. The h(2) estimates and standard deviation obtained using model LPM_cNPS were 0.19 ± 0.08, 0.21 ± 0.08, 0.22 ± 0.09, and 0.21 ± 0.07 for earnings at 2, 3, and 4 years of age and total career, respectively. Our analyses indicate that earnings are subject to selection and can be included in breeding programs to improve the racing performance of Quarter Horses.

  16. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses. (United States)

    Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna


    The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise.

  17. Ancient Road For Tea Horse Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    For many, manypeople in theworld,a roadexclusively devot-ed to the tea-horse tradewould be considered some-thing of a tall tale.However,such a road did exist,fromthe Tang Dynasty(618-907)to the opening of the Yun-nan-Tibet and Sichuan-TibetHighways in the 196Os.Insome areas,sections of theroad are still used for trans-port purposes.

  18. The Horse Doesn't Eat Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    One day it is raining (下雨) hard, and a traveller isriding a horse in the rain. He is all wet and cold. Just then he gets to a country inn (乡村小店). The inn is very crowded (拥挤有)with people,so he can not get near the fire.What can he do? After a shorttime, he has a good idea.

  19. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)


    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Halo


    Full Text Available Etological and physiological tests were realized on 48 horses. There were observed following activities: spontaneous kinetic activity, voice display; the elimination behavior (excretion and urination and motionless standing. The horses were observed in 40 minute periods during the morning hours. The horses were classed into the following groups: EHB+ - crossing more than 220 sq. per 40 min. (high sensitiveness to stress, EHB+/- - crossing 131 - 220 sq. per 40 min. (mean sensitiveness to stress, EHB- - crossing 130 and less sq. per 40 min. (low sensitiveness to stress. After the evaluating of mineral, energetic, lipid, nitrogen, and enzymatic profile of sport horses there were not observed significant differences from the reference values.

  1. Sarcocystis fayeri in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Shapiro, Karen; Sisó, Silvia; Williams, Diane C; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A


    Recent reports of Sarcocystis fayeri-induced toxicity in people consuming horse meat warrant investigation on the prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. infection in horses. Sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses have been commonly regarded as an incidental finding. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. Our findings indicated that S. fayeri infection was common in young mature horses with neuromuscular disease and could be associated with myopathic and neurogenic processes. The number of infected muscles and number of sarcocysts per muscle were significantly higher in diseased than in control horses. S. fayeri was predominantly found in low oxidative highly glycolytic myofibers. This pathogen had a high glycolytic metabolism. Common clinical signs of disease included muscle atrophy, weakness with or without apparent muscle pain, gait deficits, and dysphagia in horses with involvement of the tongue and esophagus. Horses with myositis were lethargic, apparently painful, stiff, and reluctant to move. Similar to humans, sarcocystosis and cardiomyopathy can occur in horses. This study did not establish causality but supported a possible association (8.9% of cases) with disease. The assumption of Sarcocysts spp. being an incidental finding in every case might be inaccurate.

  2. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.


    Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact......, as shown by much higher intercept values (2.51 vs. 0.99; P ... the restriction on social contact (full > head > muzzle). However, the finding that horses showed a similar and high motivation for all three types of social contact suggests that they are valued equally highly in a situation where the alternative is no social contact....

  3. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrickson Larry E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

  4. Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali


    Full Text Available The largest proportion of the world’s horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and competition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order to have a proper welfare. This paper will review the main welfare issues of horses and the following aspects will be considered: nutrition, housing and management, clinical problems, behaviour problems, training and riding, transportation, measuring welfare. Horses are social animals that live in groups in close contact with conspecifics. They spend most of their waking hours moving at walk, grazing and eating grass. Some of the constraints imposed on horses during the last centuries conflict to their naturally evolved behaviour. Effective and humane handling of horses positively affects many important aspects like the safety of man, the performance level and the welfare of horses. It is an essential condition for keeping horses that handlers, riders, trainers, farriers and veterinarians have proper knowledge of the behaviour of the horse in order to fulfil their natural needs and guarantee their welfare.

  5. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian


    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...

  6. Prevalence and Types of Coinfections in Sleeping Sickness Patients in Kenya (2000/2009

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    J. M. Kagira


    Full Text Available The occurrence of coinfections in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT patients was investigated using a retrospective data of hospital records at the National Sleeping Sickness Referral Hospital in Alupe, Kenya. A total of 31 patients, 19 males and 12 females, were diagnosed with HAT between the years 2000 and 2009. The observed co-infections included malaria (100%, helminthosis (64.5%, typhoid (22.5%, urinary tract infections (16.1%, HIV (12.9%, and tuberculosis (3.2%. The species of helminthes observed included Ancylostoma duodenale (38.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (45.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis (9.7%, and Taenia spp. (3.2%. The patients were also infected with Entamoeba spp. (32.3% and Trichomonas hominis (22.6% protozoan parasites. The main clinical signs observed at the point of admission included headache (74.2%, fever (48.4%, sleep disorders (45.2%, and general body pain (41.9%. The HAT patients were treated with suramin (early stage, 9/31 and melarsoprol (late stage, 22/31. In conclusion, the study has shown that HAT patients have multiple co-infections which may influence the disease pathogenesis and complicate management of HAT.

  7. Survey on Trypanosoma spp. infection of dogs in Gabon and its epidemiological implications for sleeping sickness. (United States)

    Watier-Grillot, S; Herder, S; Marié, J-L; Bourry, O; Cuny, G; Davoust, B


    This survey screened native dogs (Canis familiaris) in Gabon (Africa) for trypanosome infection. A total of 376 apparently healthy dogs, divided into two populations, were examined. The first group included 252 semi-domesticated dogs inhabiting 16 villages of the Ogooué-Ivindo Province, a rural inland area in northeast Gabon, and the second group 124 dogs belonging to protection companies or families from Libreville (n = 113) and Port-Gentil (n = 11), in the coastal area of Gabon. Both study areas include active or former foci of sleeping sickness in Gabon. Molecular testing (polymerase chain reaction) was performed on blood samples from dogs in both groups. All dogs were negative for T. congolense ("savanna type" and "forest type"). Eighteen dogs (4.7%), however, tested positive for T. brucei s.l.: 3% (8/252) were from the Ogooué-Ivindo Province, and 8% (10/124) from the coastal area. These animals may be potential reservoirs of the parasite T. brucei gambiense, responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. This hypothesis, as well as the role of the dog as a sentinel of human infection by T. brucei gambiense, should be investigated in further studies.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir in the adult horse. (United States)

    Maxwell, L K; Bentz, B G; Bourne, D W A; Erkert, R S


    Recent outbreaks of equine herpes virus type-1 infections have stimulated renewed interest in the use of effective antiherpetic drugs in horses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir (VCV), the prodrug of acyclovir (ACV), in horses. Six adult horses were used in a randomized cross-over design. Treatments consisted of 10 mg/kg ACV infused intravenously, 5 g (7.7-11.7 mg/kg) VCV delivered intragastrically (IG) and 15 g (22.7-34.1 mg/kg) VCV administered IG. Serum samples were obtained at predetermined times for acyclovir assay using high-performance liquid chromatography. Following the administration of 5 g VCV, the mean observed maximum serum ACV concentration (C(max)) was 1.45 +/- 0.38 (SD) microg/mL, at 0.74 +/- 0.43 h. At a dose of 15 g VCV, the mean C(max) was 5.26 +/- 2.82 microg/mL, at 1 +/- 0.27 h. The mean bioavailability of ACV from oral VCV was 60 +/- 12% after 5 g of VCV and 48 +/- 12% after 15 g VCV, and did not differ significantly between dose rates (P > 0.05). Superposition suggested that a loading dose of 27 mg/kg VCV every 8 h for 2 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 18 mg/kg every 12 h, will maintain effective serum ACV concentrations.

  9. Horses help to maintain CERN's forests

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard


    On the initiative of the Office National des Forêts, France’s forestry commission, horses are helping to remove trees cut down in CERN’s forests.   The CERN site covers 625 hectares, of which around 200 are fenced sites used for CERN’s research activities. The rest of the land consists of fields rented out to farmers and about 90 hectares of forests, mainly in France and managed by the French forestry commission, the Office National des Forêts (ONF), under an agreement with CERN signed in 2010. The upkeep of CERN’s forests requires regular maintenance work, which includes thinning out seedlings, selecting the strongest saplings and harvesting mature trees. This June, the ONF has decided to involve horses in the removal of felled trees from CERN’s woods in Prévessin.  As Florent Daloz, the logger entrusted with this activity by the ONF, explains, the use of horses to haul timber completely died out i...

  10. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers. (United States)

    Blum, J A; Neumayr, A L; Hatz, C F


    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache, pruritus, and lymphadenopathy in the first stage and by sleep disturbances and neuro-psychiatric disorders in the second stage. Recent descriptions of the clinical presentation of T.b. rhodesiense in endemic populations show a high variability in different foci. The symptomatology of travellers is markedly different from the usual textbook descriptions of African HAT patients. The onset of both infections is almost invariably an acute and febrile disease. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult and rely mostly on old methods and drugs. However, new molecular diagnostic technologies are under development. A promising new drug combination is currently evaluated in a phase 3 b study and further new drugs are under evaluation.

  11. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab). (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C


    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  12. A therapeutic community as a relevant and efficient ecclesial model in African Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsobane Manala


    Full Text Available This article sets forth the argument that Christian ministry in Africa must become socially and culturally informed and constructed or else it will not touch the African soul and thus remain superficial. Black African people aspire above everything else to experience fullness of life and wellbeing here and now, as demonstrated by their greetings that are actually an enquiry into each other’s health and an expression of the wish for the other’s good health and wellbeing. The mainline churches that operate in Africa should embrace the scripturally sound Christian healing ministry in obedience to Christ’s commission to preach the gospel and heal the sick, if they are to prosper. Hence, this article discusses the following eight points, namely, (1 good health and healing as Africans’ important aspiration, (2 healing as the work of God and thus of the church, (3 the imperative of serious consideration of and respect for the African worldview, (4 membership decline and mainline churches’ loss of influence, (5 rethinking church in African Christianity, (6 the need for the black African church to adopt a therapeutic or healing community ecclesial model in order to position itself strategically to cater for the holistic needs of African (South African church members and surrounding communities, (7 the rationale of the healing ministry in today’s Reformed Church in Africa and (8 the recommended healing ministry. The article closes with a few concluding statements and advice

  13. Colonialism, Biko and AIDS: reflections on the principle of beneficence in South African medical ethics. (United States)

    Braude, Hillel David


    This paper examines the principle of beneficence in the light of moral and epistemological concerns that have crystallized in the South African context around clinical care. Three examples from the South African experience affecting the development of bioethics are examined: medical colonialism, the death in detention of Steve Biko, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Michael Gelfand's book [(1948). The sick African: a clinical study. Cape Town: Stewart Printing Company.] on African medical conditions captures the ambiguous nature of colonial medicine that linked genuine medical treatment with the civilizing mission. Biko's death was a key historical event that deeply implicated the medical profession under apartheid. The present HIV/AIDS epidemic presents the gravest social and political crisis for South African society. All three experiences influence the meaning and relevance of beneficence as a bioethics principle in the South African context. This paper argues for a South African bioethics informed by a critical humanism that takes account of the colonial past, and that does not model itself on an "original wound" or negation, but on positive care-giving practices.

  14. Horses for courses:China’s equestrian scene——Posh families turn to horses,golf and piano lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Godfrey


    <正> Inever expected to ride a retired race horse in Beijing on Saturdays. But in this city of unknown equestrian quantities I have found some of the best horse-riding training and facilities I’ve ever encountered, anywhere. Most of the instructors come from Inner Mongolia, home to most of China’s horse culture. The horses meanwhile have been brought here from stables in Hong Kong and Australia. Many are retired racehorses, mild-mannered, gentle beasts who take students gently around the training pens. Lessons aren’t cheap by any standards but the qual-

  15. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya


    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  16. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.


    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop di

  17. Exposure to exhaled air from a sick occupant in a two-bed hospital room with mixing ventilation: effect of distance from sick occupant and air change rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Georgiev, Emanuil


    an exposed patient lying in the second bed. The doctor stood 0.55 m or 1.1 m facing the sick patient. The breathing mode of the “sick patient” was: exhalation mouth/inhalation nose. Tracer gas (R-134a) was mixed with the exhaled air. Important finding of this study is that airflow distribution...

  18. Bayesian approach to decompression sickness model parameter estimation. (United States)

    Howle, L E; Weber, P W; Nichols, J M


    We examine both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches for estimating probabilistic decompression sickness model parameters. Maximum likelihood estimation treats parameters as fixed values and determines the best estimate through repeated trials, whereas the Bayesian approach treats parameters as random variables and determines the parameter probability distributions. We would ultimately like to know the probability that a parameter lies in a certain range rather than simply make statements about the repeatability of our estimator. Although both represent powerful methods of inference, for models with complex or multi-peaked likelihoods, maximum likelihood parameter estimates can prove more difficult to interpret than the estimates of the parameter distributions provided by the Bayesian approach. For models of decompression sickness, we show that while these two estimation methods are complementary, the credible intervals generated by the Bayesian approach are more naturally suited to quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters.

  19. Pregnancy in sick sinus syndrome with pacemaker - two cases. (United States)

    Parveen, T; Begum, F; Akhter, N; Sharmin, F


    Sick sinus syndrome is a generalized abnormality of cardiac impulse formation that may be caused by extrinsic causes or by intrinsic disease of the sinus node making it unable to perform pace making function. It can be manifested for the first time in pregnancy. First case was diagnosed as sick sinus syndrome at 8 weeks of gestation having Mobitz type I heart block (Wenckebach block), and needed temporary pacemaker during caesarean section. Second case was diagnosed at 24 weeks of gestation having complete heart block and needed permanent pacemaker at 38 weeks of gestation due to exaggeration of the symptoms. Both the cases were dealt successfully by caesarean section under general anesthesia in close collaboration with cardiologists and anesthesiologists.

  20. Mechanisms of selective attention and space motion sickness (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.


    The neural mismatch theory of space motion sickness asserts that the central and peripheral autonomic sequelae of discordant sensory input arise from central integrative processes falling to reconcile patterns of incoming sensory information with existing memory. Stated differently, perceived novelty reaches a stress level as integrative mechanisms fail to return a sense of control to the individual in the new environment. Based on evidence summarized here, the severity of the neural mismatch may be dependent upon the relative amount of attention selectively afforded to each sensory input competing for control of behavior. Components of the limbic system may play important roles in match-mismatch operations, be therapeutically modulated by antimotion sickness drugs, and be optimally positioned to control autonomic output.

  1. Doppler bubble detection and decompression sickness: a prospective clinical trial. (United States)

    Bayne, C G; Hunt, W S; Johanson, D C; Flynn, E T; Weathersby, P K


    Decompression sickness in human beings exposed to high ambient pressure is thought to follow from gas bubble formation and growth in the body during return to low pressure. Detection of Doppler-shifted ultrasonic reflections in major blood vessels has been promoted as a noninvasive and sensitive indicator of the imminence of decompression sickness. We have conducted a double-blind, prospective clinical trial of Doppler ultrasonic bubble detection in simulated diving using 83 men, of whom 8 were stricken and treated for the clinical disease. Diagnosis based only on the Doppler signals had no correlation with clinical diagnosis. Bubble scores were only slightly higher in the stricken group. The Doppler technique does not appear to be of diagnostic value in the absence of other clinical information.

  2. EEG-based learning system for online motion sickness level estimation in a dynamic vehicle environment. (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Ko, Li-Wei


    Motion sickness is a common experience for many people. Several previous researches indicated that motion sickness has a negative effect on driving performance and sometimes leads to serious traffic accidents because of a decline in a person's ability to maintain self-control. This safety issue has motivated us to find a way to prevent vehicle accidents. Our target was to determine a set of valid motion sickness indicators that would predict the occurrence of a person's motion sickness as soon as possible. A successful method for the early detection of motion sickness will help us to construct a cognitive monitoring system. Such a monitoring system can alert people before they become sick and prevent them from being distracted by various motion sickness symptoms while driving or riding in a car. In our past researches, we investigated the physiological changes that occur during the transition of a passenger's cognitive state using electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum analysis, and we found that the EEG power responses in the left and right motors, parietal, lateral occipital, and occipital midline brain areas were more highly correlated to subjective sickness levels than other brain areas. In this paper, we propose the use of a self-organizing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) to estimate a driver's/passenger's sickness level based on EEG features that have been extracted online from five motion sickness-related brain areas, while either in real or virtual vehicle environments. The results show that our proposed learning system is capable of extracting a set of valid motion sickness indicators that originated from EEG dynamics, and through SONFIN, a neuro-fuzzy prediction model, we successfully translated the set of motion sickness indicators into motion sickness levels. The overall performance of this proposed EEG-based learning system can achieve an average prediction accuracy of ~82%.

  3. How can acute mountain sickness be quantified at moderate altitude?


    Roeggla, G; Roeggla, M; Podolsky, A.; Wagner, A; Laggner, A N


    Reports of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at moderate altitude show a wide variability, possibly because of different investigation methods. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of investigation methods on AMS incidence. Hackett's established AMS score (a structured interview and physical examination), the new Lake Louise AMS score (a self-reported questionnaire) and oxygen saturation were determined in 99 alpinists after ascent to 2.94 km altitude. AMS incidence was 8% in Hacket...

  4. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H


    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  5. Returning long-term Sick-Listed to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    The Danish policy towards work-disabled persons seems to comprise contradictory forces. On the one hand, the state seeks to enhance labour market integration of work-disabled persons through vocational rehabilitation. On the other hand, lax job protection legislation makes it easy for employers...... facilitates a flexible labour market, but an important drawback seems to be that many sick-listed employees loose their labour market attachment....

  6. Motion Sickness Prevention by Stroboscopic Environment during Simulated Military Transport (United States)


    known, most of these drugs fall into three classes: antidopaminergics, anticholinergics, and antihistamines ( Drug Facts and Comparisons, 1999...vomiting 2 center also is directly stimulated by motion and by high levels of acetylcholine. Therefore, most drugs that are used to prevent or...Brendley, K. W., Marti, J., & DiZio, P. 2003. Motion Coupled Visual Environment (MOCOVE): Drug -Free Alleviations of Motion Sickness. U.S

  7. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.


    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inex

  8. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene


    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet...

  9. Analgesia in the horse, assessing and treating pain in equines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Thijs van


    This review focuses on pain and nociception in horses and is based on the PhD thesis “Analgesia in the Horse, various approaches for assessment and treatment of pain and nociception in equines” by J.P.A.M. van Loon. Apart from a scientific review of the related literature, a multi-disciplinary appro

  10. Sinusitis associated with nasogastric intubation in 3 horses. (United States)

    Nieto, Jorge E; Yamout, Sawsan; Dechant, Julie E


    Sinusitis has not been reported as a complication of long-term nasogastric intubation in horses. We describe 3 horses that developed nosocomial sinusitis following abdominal surgery with associated perioperative nasogastric intubation. Sinusitis was suspected by the presence of malodorous discharge and confirmed by percussion, upper airway endoscopy, radiographs (n = 3), and bacterial culture (n = 1).

  11. Klossiella equi in the Kidneys of a Horse


    Austin, R J; Dies, K H


    The protozoan, Klossiella equi was found in the kidneys of an aged Shetland mare raised in the Fredericton area of New Brunswick. This is the first published report of K. equi in a horse in Canada. The microscopic appearance of the parasite in the kidney is described. A brief discussion of other conditions seen in the horse is also presented.

  12. Klossiella equi in the kidneys of a horse. (United States)

    Austin, R J; Dies, K H


    The protozoan, Klossiella equi was found in the kidneys of an aged Shetland mare raised in the Fredericton area of New Brunswick. This is the first published report of K. equi in a horse in Canada. The microscopic appearance of the parasite in the kidney is described. A brief discussion of other conditions seen in the horse is also presented.

  13. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M


    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  14. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Pablo Librado; Fages, Antoine Alphonse; Gaunitz, Charleen


    of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds...

  15. Visual expertise for horses in a case of congenital prosopagnosia. (United States)

    Weiss, Nilly; Mardo, Elite; Avidan, Galia


    A major question in the domain of face perception is whether faces comprise a distinct visual category that is processed by specialized mechanisms, or whether face processing merely represents an extreme case of visual expertise. Here, we examined O.H, a 22 years old woman with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), who despite her severe deficits in face processing, acquired superior recognition skills for horses. To compare the nature of face and horse processing, we utilised the inversion manipulation, known to disproportionally affect faces compared to other objects, with both faces and horses. O.H's performance was compared to data obtained from two control groups that were either horse experts, or non-experts. As expected, both control groups exhibited the face inversion effect, while O.H did not show the effect, but importantly, none of the participants showed an inversion effect for horses. Finally, gaze behaviour toward upright and inverted faces and horses was indicative of visual skill but in a distinct fashion for each category. Particularly, both control groups showed different gaze patterns for upright compared to inverted faces, while O.H presented a similar gaze pattern for the two orientations that differed from that of the two control groups. In contrast, O.H and the horse experts exhibited a similar gaze pattern for upright and inverted horses, while non-experts showed different gaze patterns for different orientations. Taken together, these results suggest that visual expertise can be acquired independently from the mechanisms mediating face recognition.

  16. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race. (United States)

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M


    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  17. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use...

  18. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  19. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series. (United States)

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  20. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc...

  1. Head protection for horse riders: a cause for concern.


    Muwanga, L C; Dove, A F


    We report the frequency with which horse riders with a significant head injury present to a large accident and emergency department. We have also recorded details about the use of headwear and conclude that horse-riding is associated with a serious risk of head injury and 'protective' headwear may not always protect.

  2. Head protection for horse riders: a cause for concern. (United States)

    Muwanga, L C; Dove, A F


    We report the frequency with which horse riders with a significant head injury present to a large accident and emergency department. We have also recorded details about the use of headwear and conclude that horse-riding is associated with a serious risk of head injury and 'protective' headwear may not always protect.

  3. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson


    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. (United States)

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y


    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers.

  5. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.; Madsen, O.; Norberg, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Ducro, B.J.


    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between the sub

  6. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen


    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals used to control upright posture. In particular, there is one class of subjects with a vestibular disorder known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) who often are particularly sensitive to inaccurate visual information. That is, they will use visual sensory information for the control of their posture even when that visual information is inaccurate and is in conflict with accurate proprioceptive and vestibular sensory signals. BPPV has been associated with disorders of both posterior semicircular canal function and possibly otolith function. The present proposal hopes to take advantage of the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with the BPPV syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives of this proposal are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans.

  7. The sick role and the role of the physician reconsidered. (United States)

    Parsons, T


    The main substance of this paper was presented orally at a meeting of the Sick Role, organized and chaired by Andrew Twaddle. It was a commentary on four papers and the oral discussion of them. In response to these the paper first discusses the relation of the sick role to deviant behavior and the motivation to become and remain ill. The position was taken that the author never had meant to confine the category of illness to deviant behavior, though its negative valuation should not be forgotten. Nor had he confined it to cases of acute illness, omitting consideration of chronic and other types. The most important issue, however, concerned the structure of the relation between physician and patient. Though insisting that interaction between them is two-way, not one-way, the author insisted that the relation is basically asymmetrical because of the physician's expertise in health matters, gained through training and experience, and his special fiduciary responsibility for the care of the sick. In this respect the relationship is different from others such as the competitive market or the democratic association, but is comparable to the relation of teacher and student in higher education.

  8. Absence from work and the medical sickness certificate. (United States)

    Massoni, F; Salesi, M; Sarra, M V; Ricci, S


    Internet and dematerialization have greatly facilitated the medical profession. Contractual physicians and national health service doctors now have efficient tools for the electronic management of their routine administrative workload. A recent innovation is the medical sickness certificate issued by primary care providers and national health service physicians. Following postponements and uncertainties, procedures for the electronic completion and online transmission of the sickness certificate are now complete. The changes introduced by the so-called "Brunetta decree", however, have made its application difficult and continuous improvement to the system is needed, considering also the severe penalties imposed for violations. In the light of serious legal repercussions for health care professionals, this article examines various critical issues, highlighting the pitfalls and the network's enormous potential for ascertaining evidence of irregularities. The overheated debate on absenteeism due to illness, the diverse roles of national health physicians and self-employed doctors responsible for issuing a sickness certificate, and problems related to circumstances in which a doctor operates, are the key topics in this discussion. Computerization is an effective tool for optimizing public resources; however, it also seeks to ferret out, through the traceability of certification, abuse of medical certification, with severe penalties applied if certificates are discovered to contain misleading or untrue information.

  9. The significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system. (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Ogata, M; Miura, M


    In order to clarify the significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system, we compared the findings of experimental motion sickness between different kinds of subjects, some of which were already reported. Subjects were healthy adults, healthy children between the ages of 4 and 15 years, and patients with congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss. They were asked to walk while wearing horizontally and vertically reversing goggles. Equilibrium ataxia as well as motion sickness were evoked by horizontal reversal, but not by vertical reversal in healthy subjects. Kindergarten children exhibited severe ataxia, but little nausea. The frequency of severe ataxia decreased during growth, inversely as the frequency of nausea syndrome increased. Although a patient with acquired loss became severely ataxic, a patient with congenital loss did not show any ataxia at all. The present study suggests that vestibular cues are indispensable to the ego-spatial relationship in the brain, and once the ego-spatial relationship becomes inadequate, discomfort acts as a safety device to brake uncontrollable actions. Then, perception of the outer world may automatically adjust voluntary actions by affecting motor commands. The importance of visual cues for representing an alternative framework may differ between congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz OZYARAL


    Full Text Available In this study, several mycological analyses made in the houses of the sick people whose sensitivity against allergens was examined in line with the people and their histories who applied to Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty Department of Pulmonery Disease. Clinically, in the blood serums of three housewives, who have complaints about respiration difficulties, specific lgG antibody against several mold, thermophylic actinomycetes and bird antigens were examined. As a result of the analysis it is found out that there is a 75% direct relation between in-house molds flora and the molds that the sick person gained sensitivity. Findings appeared in housewives who are living in houses surrounded by molds are regarded as “sick building syndrome”. In this particular work, knowledge is given about real agents that are hidden behind some general symptoms of anemnesia and examination of patients with chronic complaints. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 352-363

  11. Hemograma e proteinograma plasmático de eqüinos hígidos e de eqüinos acometidos por abdômem agudo, antes e após laparotomia Hemogram and plasma proteins of healthy horses and horses with acute abdomen before and after laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fagliari


    Full Text Available Foram examinados 20 eqüinos adultos, 10 sadios e 10 acometidos por abdômen agudo, submetidos à laparotomia. O exame clínico e a colheita de amostras de sangue foram realizados antes da laparotomia e diariamente, a partir da cirurgia, até o 10º dia após a intervenção. Constatou-se elevação da temperatura retal, das freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, do número de hemácias e de leucócitos, do volume globular e dos valores das proteínas plasmáticas após a cirurgia, em ambos os grupos, porém com valores mais elevados nos animais enfermos, especialmente do número de neutrófilos. O proteinograma plasmático dos eqüinos com abdômen agudo mostrou que houve elevação significativa nas concentrações de proteínas na fase aguda com maiores valores ao redor de 48 horas após a cirurgia. Os resultados indicaram que o padrão de elevação e decréscimo dessas proteínas pode ser útil na definição do prognóstico do quadro clínico de abdômen agudo e da recuperação cirúrgica dos eqüinos.Hemogram and plasma protein concentrations of healthy horses and horses affected with acute abdomen before and after laparotomy were determined to investigate if these determinations can be of help on the diagnosis and prognosis of the post-operative intercurrence. The body temperature, respiratory and heart rates, red blood cell, leukocyte and neutrophil counts, packed cell volume, and plasma protein concentrations increased after laparotomy, mainly in sick horses. Acute phase protein concentrations were higher in the horses affected with acute abdomen than in the healthy horses with the highest values detected at about 48 hours after surgery. The results suggest that determining the level of these proteins can be useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of post-operative recovery after laparotomy in healthy horses and in horses affected with acute abdomen.

  12. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training. (United States)

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M


    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these tests (excluding

  13. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie


    .e. testing for object recognition) and ii) a novel object (new shape and colour, i.e. testing for object generalisation), compared to CONTROLS. In the second experiment we investigated whether TEST horses reacted to a change in object order and object location. Behavioural reactions to the object, latency...... to eat, total eating time and heart rate were recorded. Compared to CONTROLS, TEST horses reacted significantly less towards objects, which were previously part of the complex object (e.g. mean heart rate; P = 0.006), indicating object recognition. In contrast to our expectations, TEST horses also...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...

  14. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America. (United States)

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C; Rivals, Florent; Solounias, Nikos; Semprebon, Gina M


    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association of molar height and dietary abrasion. Mesowear trends in horses are reflective of global cooling and associated vegetation changes. There is a strong correlation between mesowear and crown height in horses; however, most horse paleopopulations had highly variable amounts of dietary abrasion, suggesting that selective pressures for crown height may have been weak much of the time. However, instances of higher abrasion were observed in some paleopopulations, suggesting intervals of stronger selection for the evolution of dentitions, including the early Miocene shortly before the first appearance of Equinae, the horse subfamily in which high-crowned dentitions evolved.

  15. Acute phase response to surgery of varying intensity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Nielsen, Jon Vedding; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative inflammatory response of horses to elective surgery of varying intensity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. ANIMALS: Horses referred to 2 hospitals for either arthroscopic removal of a unilateral osteochondritic lesion in the tibiotarsal joint...... (minimal surgical trauma, n=11), correction of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy by laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy (intermediate surgical trauma, n=10) or removal of an ovarian tumor by laparotomy (major surgical trauma, n=5). METHODS: Horses had a thorough clinical examination every day. White blood cell....... RESULTS: Postoperative concentrations of SAA and fibrinogen were significantly higher in horses that had laparotomy and ovariectomy than in horses that had laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy, or arthroscopy. Iron concentrations decreased to lower levels after intermediate and major surgical trauma than...

  16. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  17. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  18. African Literature as Celebration. (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua


    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and…

  19. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  20. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.


    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  1. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron


    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  2. Seizures in horses: diagnosis and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacombe VA


    Full Text Available Véronique A Lacombe Department of Physiological Sciences, Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Stillwater, OK, USA Abstract: Seizures are a diverse and very common set of chronic neurologic disorders in humans and dogs but are less common in horses. Seizures refer to a specific clinical event (described as sudden and severe regardless of the etiology, which includes both intracranial and extracranial causes. Therefore, after briefly reviewing some definitions, this article aims to describe the use of a standardized classification, which could facilitate a logical approach for the clinician to establish a diagnosis, as well as to use a consistent mode of communication. For instance, seizures can be classified by type (ie, focal vs generalized or etiology (ie, reactive, symptomatic, cryptogenic, idiopathic. In particular, epilepsy, a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures can be classified as primary (ie, genetic origin or secondary (ie, acquired. This review further discusses the limitations associated with the clinical workup of horses with seizures. This is germane to the fact that the identification of the underlying cause remains challenging due to the technical limitations of imaging the equine adult brain. Indeed, as in man and dogs, epilepsies of unknown cause (ie, cryptogenic account for the majority of all epilepsies. Therefore, although electroencephalography and advanced brain imaging techniques (eg, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are becoming increasingly available, information obtained from the history, physical, and neurologic examinations and progression of clinical signs and response to treatment remain essential in the workup of horses with seizures. Keywords: focal seizure, generalized seizure, symptomatic, cryptogenic, electroencephalography, computed tomography

  3. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia. (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa


    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  4. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and... (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported...

  5. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis


    OBJECTIVE: To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. METHODS: The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from...... 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high...... perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: horse [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available horse Equus caballus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Equus_caballus_L.png Equus_caba...llus_NL.png Equus_caballus_S.png Equus_caballus_NS.png http:...// ...

  7. Local anesthetics as pain therapy in horses. (United States)

    Doherty, Thomas J; Seddighi, M Reza


    This article describes the rationale behind the use of systemically administered lidocaine as an analgesic. The analgesic efficacy of intravenously administered lidocaine is well documented by studies in human patients and laboratory animals. The mechanism by which systemically administered lidocaine produces analgesia is uncertain but is thought to include action at sodium, calcium, and potassium channels and the N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptor. In addition, the anti-inflammatory actions of lidocaine are important in producing analgesia because inflammatory mediators augment neuronal excitability. The available studies of systemically administered lidocaine in horses provide evidence for the analgesic and anesthetic effects of intravenous lidocaine in this species.

  8. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. (United States)


    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to...

  9. Differences in the electrocardiographic QT interval of various breeds of athletic horses during rest and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Karlsson, Madeleine; Madsen, Mette Flethøj


    athletic horses and to test for differences in the QT interval. ANIMALS: Ten Icelandic horses, 10 Arabian horses, 10 Thoroughbreds, 10 Standardbreds, six Coldblood trotters, 10 Warmbloods (dressage) and 10 Warmbloods (show jumping). All horses were geldings. METHODS: QT intervals were measured from resting...

  10. Stirrup forces during horse riding: a comparison between sitting and rising trot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van F.E.; Cocq, de P.; Timmerman, M.; Muller, M.


    Injuries of horses might be related to the force the rider exerts on the horse. To better understand the loading of the horse by a rider, a sensor was developed to measure the force exerted by the rider on the stirrups. In the study, five horses and 23 riders participated. Stirrup forces measured in

  11. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills (United States)

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.


    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse…

  12. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations. Each horse industry organization or...

  13. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses. (United States)


    ... horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Canada, the importer or his or her...

  14. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses. (United States)


    ... horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from regions...

  15. 9 CFR 93.321 - Import permits and applications for inspection for horses. (United States)


    ... inspection for horses. 93.321 Section 93.321 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.321 Import permits and applications for inspection for horses. For horses intended for importation into the...

  16. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From... importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis. We are also delaying the.... ``Subpart C--Horses,'' Sec. Sec. 93.300 through 93.326, pertains to the importation of horses into...

  17. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  18. 36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and... AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of other horses and burros. Horses and burros not within the definition in § 222.20(b)(13) which are...

  19. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  20. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  1. Agricultural Terrorism (Agroterror) and Escalation Theory (United States)


    Paratuberculosis Bluetongue New world screwworm Sheep pox and goat pox Old world screwworm African horse sickness Trichinellosis. African swine fever...diseases): Article The following diseases are included in List B, (sheep and goat diseases): Bovine anaplasmosis Ovine epididymitis...Brucella ovis) Bovine babesiosis Caprine and ovine brucellosis (excluding B. ovis) Bovine brucellosis Caprine arthritis/encephalitis Bovine genital

  2. Sick sinus syndrome associated with hypopituitarism: a case report and literature review (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Jingping; Zhang, Gang; Lu, Huihe; Huang, Jianfei; Shan, Qijun


    Abstract Though an association between autoimmune diseases and sick sinus syndrome has been reported, there has been no report on the association of hypopituitarism and sick sinus syndrome. Herein, we provide the first case report of hypopituitarism accompanying sick sinus syndrome in a 51-year-old woman presented to our hospital with syncope due to cardiac arrest. The patient was successfully managed by pacemaker installation and hormone replacement therapy. PMID:25332716



    S K Forouzannia; M h Abdollahi; Mirhosseini, S. J.; S H Moshtaghion; HOSSEINI, H; Jorat, M. V.; M Moeeni; M A Karimi-Zarchi


    "nReports which describe sick sinus syndrome due to malignant lymphoma have been rare and only eight cases have been reported until now. This is a case of sick sinus syndrome and superior vena cava syndrome secondary to invasion of occult malignant lymphoma of the lung in a 60 years old male. There were no symptoms or signs of malignancy before the first presentation with sick sinus syndrome. Patient was treated with implantation of a permanent pacemaker. SA node involvement by lymphoma ...

  4. A pilot study of rizatriptan and visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs


    Furman, Joseph M.; Marcus, Dawn A.


    Background: Limited evidence suggests that rizatriptan given before vestibular stimulation reduces motion sickness in persons with migraine-related dizziness. The present study was designed to test whether rizatriptan is also effective in protecting against visually-induced motion sickness and to test whether rizatriptan blocks the augmentation of motion sickness by head pain. Material and Methods: Using randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled methodology, 10 females, 6 with migrainous ve...

  5. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Mikkelsen, Sigurd


    . The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...... and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes....

  6. The ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through social observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Christensen, Janne Winther; Ladewig, Jan


    The ability of horses to learn through social observation may ease the implementation of new management systems, because the use of automatic feeders etc. by naive horses could be facilitated by observation of experienced horses. However, previous studies found no documentation for observational...... learning abilities in horses. This study aimed to investigate the ability of horses to learn an instrumental task from a familiar conspecific when social interaction was allowed during the demonstration. Two similar experiments were performed. In the first experiment, Observer horses (n = 11) participated...... not demonstrate an ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through observation...

  7. Common slavic *komońь "horse"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar


    Full Text Available The Common Slavic name for horse *koń', with a probably older, yet geographically more limited variant *komoń', has so far no generally accepted etymology. Given the great importance of this animal in the prehistory and the early history of the Indo-European and other peoples of Eurasia, this sets a problem not only for linguists, but also for historians and archeologists. The PIE word for horse, *ekuos, attested among all other branches of IE linguistic family, originally must have been common to the Slavs, as it was to their Baltic, Iranian and German neighbors, but at a later moment - which is hard to determine precisely, although we can assign it to a time before the disintegration of Slavic linguistic unity around the middle of the first millennium A. D. - for this inherited designation the new one *ko(moń' was substituted, either as a lexical innovation made by the Slavs themselves or as a borrowing from another language. Under the entries *komoń' and *koń' of the Moscow dictionary, where their continuations in Slavic languages are respectively listed, O. N. Trubachev gives a survey of previous etymological proposals and rejects all of them in favor of his own explanations. According to him, *komoń' is a Slavic onomatopoeic creation imitative of neigh, while *koń' is a loan-word, going back to Celtic *konkos/kankos 'horse' (originally 'springer'? through an intermediate form *konk', which was presumably understood as a diminutive in -'k'' and consequently shortened. Apart from the facts that the word in question is scarcely attested in comparison with two others Celtic designations for horse, *equo- (> Olr. ech, Gall, epo- and *marka-, and that in Slavic mouth it should have been reflected as *kok'', and not as *kon'k'', the very separation of both forms, *koń' and *komoń', seems unmethodical. With more reason Gamkrelidze and Ivanov recur to the old proposal connecting *koń' via *komoń' (<**kobn-? with *kobyla and further with

  8. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans. (United States)

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul


    Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse's cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  9. Cognition and learning in horses (Equus caballus): What we know and why we should ask more. (United States)

    Brubaker, Lauren; Udell, Monique A R


    Horses (Equus caballus) have a rich history in their relationship with humans. Across different cultures and eras they have been utilized for work, show, cultural rituals, consumption, therapy, and companionship and continue to serve in many of these roles today. As one of the most commonly trained domestic animals, understanding how horses learn and how their relationship with humans and other horses impacts their ability to learn has implications for horse welfare, training, husbandry and management. Given that unlike dogs and cats, domesticated horses have evolved from prey animals, the horse-human relationship poses interesting and unique scientific questions of theoretical value. There is still much to be learned about the cognition and behaviour of horses from a scientific perspective. This review explores current research within three related areas of horse cognition: human-horse interactions, social learning and independent learning in horses. Research on these topics is summarized and suggestions for future research are provided.

  10. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti


    with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically......PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...

  11. Employers' Importance for the Return to Work of Sick-Listed Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sociologisk Institut, Københavns Universitet, Anders; V Benn, Nis; Høgelund, Jan

    Using matched survey-register panel data about 419 long-term sick-listed workers and their sick leave employer, this paper assesses how sick-listed workers react to employers’ threat of dismissal. We simultaneously estimate the duration until the sick-listed worker either separate from the pre-si...... for Applied Microeconomics, University of Copenhagen, senior researcher, Jan Høgelund, the Danish National Institute of Social Research, and research assistant Nis Vilhelm Benn, the Danish National Institute of Social Research....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Forouzannia


    Full Text Available "nReports which describe sick sinus syndrome due to malignant lymphoma have been rare and only eight cases have been reported until now. This is a case of sick sinus syndrome and superior vena cava syndrome secondary to invasion of occult malignant lymphoma of the lung in a 60 years old male. There were no symptoms or signs of malignancy before the first presentation with sick sinus syndrome. Patient was treated with implantation of a permanent pacemaker. SA node involvement by lymphoma should be considered as an etiological factor when sick sinus syndrome of unknown cause is encountered.

  13. Standing body sway in women with and without morning sickness in pregnancy. (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Chung, Hyun Chae; Hemingway, Lauren; Stoffregen, Thomas A


    Morning sickness typically is attributed to hormonal changes in pregnancy. We asked whether morning sickness is associated with changes in standing postural equilibrium, as occurs in research on visually induced motion sickness. Twenty-one pregnant women (mean age=30 years, mean height=163cm; mean weight=63kg) were tested during the first trimester. Laboratory-based balance measures were collected, along with perceived postural stability, the presence of morning sickness, and the severity of subjective symptoms. We varied the distance between the feet and the visual task performed during stance. Participants were classified as either experiencing (Sick, n=12) or not experiencing (Well, n=9) morning sickness. Perceived balance stability was lower for Sick than for Well women. The positional variability of sway was reduced for the Sick group, relative to the Well group. Positional variability decreased with wider stance width, and was reduced during performance of a more demanding visual task. Stance width and visual task also influenced the temporal dynamics of sway. Effects of stance width and visual task on postural sway were similar to effects in non-pregnant adults, suggesting that sensitive tuning of posture is maintained during the first trimester. The findings suggest that women with morning sickness may attempt to stabilize their bodies by reducing overall body sway. It may be useful to recommend that women adopt wider stance early in pregnancy.

  14. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute;


    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  15. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten;


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response......) of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.52). The rate ratio for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks was 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Evening work may cause long-term sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks....

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess


    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  17. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown


    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  18. The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses. (United States)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; Visser, Kathalijne E K; van den Broek, Jan; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M


    A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was ridden by a different rider and was challenged by three objects (A-C). Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) of horse and rider, and behaviour score (BS) of the horse were obtained for each object and as a total for each test. The horse-rider interaction was evaluated with each combination and assessed as 'matching' or 'mismatching', and the horses were categorised as 'compliant', 'partly-compliant' or 'non-compliant'. Horses exhibited a decreased HR (P=0.015) and a decreased BS (P=0.004) within and across different tests. 'Matching' horse-rider combinations exhibited less stress as indicated by reduced HR ('match' 69±10 vs. 'mismatch' 72±9, P=0.001) and BS ('match' 1.9±1.1 vs. 'mismatch' 3.8±1.4, P=0.017) of the horse. 'Compliant' (68±8, Phorses had significantly lower HR than 'non-compliant' (75±9) animals. The findings of the study indicate that HR and BS measurements support a subjective 'match' diagnosis and HR measurement may be a valuable tool in assessing horse compliance.

  19. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases? (United States)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.


    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  20. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dejmal

    Full Text Available A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.