WorldWideScience

Sample records for african energy programme

  1. Natural convection solar crop dryers in Kenya: Theory and practical application. African Energy Programme research report series no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African Energy Programme (AEP) was established by the Commonwealth Science Council (CSC) to strengthen Africa's scientific and technical capabilities to develop and utilise the continent's enormous renewable energy resources to assist its socio-economic development. The AEP was conceived at a regional workshop held at Arusha, Tanzania in 1979, at which African researchers met to share their experiences of and explored the feasibility of establishing a collaborative regional R and D programme to develop and adapt technologies appropriate to the specific needs of the participating countries. The AEP researchers accorded the highest priority to seeking solutions to the energy problems of Africa's predominantly rural populations and identified eight project areas as the nodes for regional collaborative research and development: 1. Biogas for rural development; 2. Wood/Charcoal production and utilisation; 3. Solar crop drying; 4. Solar thermal heating and cooling; 5. Wind electricity generation; 6. Wind water pumping; 7. Resources Assessments; 8. Energy policy and planning. The primary goal of the AEP activities were to develop indigenous national capabilities to enable the examination and application of technological solutions appropriate to the unique problems and socio-cultural environments of each country. However, the severe limitations on expertise and the broad similarity of many of the critical problems favoured regional R and D cooperation around common techniques and methodologies in each project area. This work has made a significant contribution to Science and Technology. Prior to this work there was no detailed information in natural convection solar dryers. This work has exposed a number of critical design factors which must be considered in order to design an efficient dryer. Buoyancy-induced pressure inside the dryer, problems of multiple radiative heat exchange in the heater and cooling effects of wind have been studied in detail. The final dryer

  2. Biogas research and development in Mauritius. African energy programme research report series no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken primarily with a view to investigate the potential of biogas systems in Mauritius and consequential implications. At the very outset it was clear that biogas systems such as the KVIC model producing biogas at the rate of 0.2 digester volume of gas per day and involving high capital investment would not be economically viable. Thus, it was decided to look into the possibility of developing digesters with better performance and requiring at the same time lower capital investment. Several laboratory studies were carried out to determine gas production characteristics and the influence of various parameters, namely temperature, dilution, particle size, starter culture, retention time etc., on gas yield. These were followed by investigations on the design of pilot scale digesters and gas holders. The SAT-1 model, above ground metallic digester with floating gas holder, was finally developed and operated successfully at the University. This model is currently being tested in the field. This model constructed of metal with an external black emulsion coating makes use of solar energy to heat up the system. The slurry temperature of 27 to 35C is maintained during the day resulting in a yield of above 0.5 digester volume of gas per day. Comparative economic analysis gives the SAT-1 model a marginal edge over kerosene stove. The attractiveness of this model could be further enhanced by reduction of duty on the construction material. Concurrent to the development of the project, appropriate infrastructure and man power resources were built up. The dissemination of biogas technology both in Mauritius and the neighbouring islands could now be envisaged without any major problems. (author)

  3. South African History Online's Education Programme.

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Varushka

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines South African History Online as a NGO that focuses on the enhancement of history especially at school level. The advent of digital and social media platforms has changed the way scholars learn and the way they perceive their world. The book, paper and journals should no longer provide the exclusive model for historical knowledge to be passed on. With this in mind, SAHO has developed a comprehensive online programme that focuses on the current curriculum a...

  4. The South African National Accelerator Centre and its research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    An overview of the South African National Accelerator Centre and its research activities is given with emphasis on medium energy nuclear physics and nuclear data measurements for medical use. Also presented is a preliminary result of {sup 40}Ca(p,p`x) spectrum measurement for 392 MeV which has been carried out at RCNP, Osaka University, under the South Africa-Japan collaborative programme. (author)

  5. GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site

  6. The South African energy sector: issues and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Describes aspects of the South African energy sector including: energy policy; energy supply and demand; the role of coal in the South African economy; electricity consumption and the electrification programme; liquid fuels; natural gas; uranium; renewable energy; and the environmental implications. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Potential use and performance studies of solar crop driers in Mauritius. African Energy Programme research report series no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoculture has in the past, been the norm in agriculture in Mauritius. However under a recent policy of self reliance, there has been a move to multi-crop culture. Under this policy it has been decided to release, in the first instance, 800 hectares of the best arable land for the production of food crops. This decision, coupled with further increase in intense cultivation of crops in the interrow space of the 80,000 hectares of sugar cane fields, will make the need for crop drying more and more indispensable. As the present oil bill of MuR 25 million in precious foreign exchange, for crop drying only is already too much the country could afford, the need for solar drying remains the only other alternative. The Government's Plan of Action calls for immediate action on at least 10 major crops, among which maize is the single most important. The major land holders who will participate in the programme of agricultural diversification will normally use the established artificial drying process. However the 1200 small scale farmers who will also be called upon to contribute their share will obviously not be able to afford such an expensive process and open air or sun drying remains the only resort for them. However sun drying methods have several major constraints not least of which is the inability to dry down to the safe moisture content for subsequent storage. For example, sun-dried maize will only reach a minimum of 15 to 16% moisture and must be further dried artificially at a cost of about MuR 200 per tonne to attain the 12% moisture for storage. It is apparent that the use of solar driers would generate a higher income, through a reduction in post-harvest losses and a saving in drying cost, to these small scale farmers. This, in turn, would act as an impetus to grow more food for self-reliance, if not for export. This research work was, therefore, undertaken with the aim of fulfilling the needs of small-scale farmers. The objectives of the project were to

  8. Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection. While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  9. African Primary Care Research: Performing a programme evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Dudley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a series on Primary Care Research in the African context and focuses on programme evaluation. Different types of programme evaluation are outlined: developmental, process, outcome and impact. Eight steps to follow in designing your programme evaluation are then described in some detail: engage stakeholders; establish what is known; describe the programme; define the evaluation and select a study design; define the indicators; planand manage data collection and analysis; make judgements and recommendations; and disseminate the findings. Other articles in the series cover related topics such as writing your research proposal, performing a literature review, conducting surveys with questionnaires, qualitative interviewing and approaches to quantitative and qualitative data analysis.

  10. Four African Nations Agree to Water Management Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seeking to improve their management of water resources, four northeast African nations today agreed at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to establish a long-term framework for utlizing a key underground water system. Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan signed a Strategic Action Programme (SAP) that aims to optimize the equitable use of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, a huge water resource that lies beneath the four nations. The SAP also commits the countries to strengthen and build upon a previously existing regional coordination mechanism, in part by establishing a new Joint Authority for the Nubian Aquifer System. The Programme lays the groundwork for improving cooperation among the four arid nations and for strengthening their capacity to monitor and manage the aquifer effectively. With growing populations and decreasing water availability from other sources in the region, the aquifer is under mounting pressure. Removing water without a clear understanding of transboundary and other implications threatens water quality and has the potential to harm biodiversity and accelerate land degradation. The agreement resulted from a joint Technical Cooperation project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the IAEA. ''I congratulate all involved on this significant achievement,'' said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. ''Water is a key resource, and effective management and use of such water resources is essential for the future. The agreement of the Strategic Action Programme is the result of real cooperation between the four States, the Agency and UNDP-GEF. I am confident that this Programme will be a success and will benefit the people of the region. This positive project experience benefits strengthened and expanded cooperation between the IAEA and the UNDP-GEF.'' ''UNDP would like to congratulate the

  11. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  12. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization....

  13. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization.

  14. Rural Energy Development Programme-Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On 16 Auguest 1996 the Rural Energy Develoment Programme (REDP) was initiated with the aim of improving livelihoods of rural people and pressrving the environment through the promotion of rural energy systems. The Programme is run by the United Nations Deelopment Programme and His Majesty's Government of Nepal.

  15. Renal impairment in a rural African antiretroviral programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessells Richard J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little knowledge regarding the prevalence and nature of renal impairment in African populations initiating antiretroviral treatment, nor evidence to inform the most cost effective methods of screening for renal impairment. With the increasing availability of the potentially nephrotixic drug, tenofovir, such information is important for the planning of antiretroviral programmes Methods (i Retrospective review of the prevalence and risk factors for impaired renal function in 2189 individuals initiating antiretroviral treatment in a rural African setting between 2004 and 2007 (ii A prospective study of 149 consecutive patients initiating antiretrovirals to assess the utility of urine analysis for the detection of impaired renal function. Severe renal and moderately impaired renal function were defined as an estimated GFR of ≤ 30 mls/min/1.73 m2 and 30–60 mls/min/1.73 m2 respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratio (OR of significantly impaired renal function (combining severe and moderate impairment. Co-variates for analysis were age, sex and CD4 count at initiation. Results (i There was a low prevalence of severe renal impairment (29/2189, 1.3% 95% C.I. 0.8–1.8 whereas moderate renal impairment was more frequent (287/2189, 13.1% 95% C.I. 11.6–14.5 with many patients having advanced immunosuppression at treatment initiation (median CD4 120 cells/μl. In multivariable logistic regression age over 40 (aOR 4.65, 95% C.I. 3.54–6.1, male gender (aOR 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.39–2.56 and CD4 Conclusion In this rural African setting, significant renal impairment is uncommon in patients initiating antiretrovirals. Urine analysis alone may be inadequate for identification of those with impaired renal function where resources for biochemistry are limited.

  16. Cost Effective Ways of Implementing Nuclear Power Programme in African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.1 Energy Poverty Energy Poverty is a term for a lack of access to electricity, heat or other forms of power. This more than often refers to the situation of peoples in the developing world. According to the records of the International Energy Agency (IEA), a detailed country-by-country database estimated that in 2009 the number of people without access to electricity was 1.4 billion or 20% of the world's population. Some 85% of those people live in rural areas. According to, current forecasts suggest the world will see an increase in global energy consumption of over 50% by 2030 with 70% of this growth in demand expected to come from developing countries. There is therefore the need to seek for a way of meeting this need within the time frame and doing so at an affordable price or rather with the most efficient allocation of resources. Nuclear energy can play a role in providing increased access to affordable energy in many parts of the world. There are growing concerns all over the world about energy security. This is partially due to the instability in the price of fossil fuel and to the political instability of most of the oil rich regions of the world. There arises therefore a need for means of meeting the increasingly growing energy demands of the nations while cutting down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. 1.2 The African Situation Presently, the only country on the African continent that has operational nuclear power plants is South Africa. South Africa has two nuclear power plants. Koeberg- 1 and Koeberg-2. Koeberg-1 started operation in 1984 and Koeberg-2 in 1985. Both are 900 MW(e) PWRs. The remaining nations across Africa are dependent largely on either hydro power plants, thermal or gas or a combination of both. However, there has been an increase in interest in nuclear electricity in a number of African countries. The list includes countries like Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Namibia, e.tc. These are countries whose economies are

  17. Policy Pathways: Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection.While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  18. Planning the Social Studies Programme for the Contemporary African Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaohwo, J. Okpako

    1989-01-01

    Identifies characteristics of a viable social studies program for African nations, urging multidisciplinary and integrated approaches. Offers a cyclical framework for planning a curriculum which includes defining the problem, setting objectives, identifying methods of implementation, evaluation, and regeneration. (LS)

  19. A Critical Evaluation of Training within the South African National Public Works Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccord, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…

  20. "Views from the Nano Edge": Women on Doctoral Preparation Programmes in Selected African Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the conceptual views of "critical mass", alongside micro experiences, of women, at a practice level, on a doctoral preparation programme which was implemented within the South African Development Community (SADC) and Ethiopian contexts. At the strategising level of policies, insufficient attention has been paid to the…

  1. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: Model-Estimated Health Impact and Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Coffeng (Luc); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); H.G.M. Zouré (Honorat G.); J.L. Veerman (Lennert); K.B. Agblewonu (Koffi); M.E. Murdoch (Michele); M. Noma (Mounkaila); G. Fobi (Grace); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); D.A.P. Bundy (Donald A.); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); U.V. Amazigo (Uche)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health

  2. Energy programme of the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some basic remarks on energy supply as an economic and political challenge the German energy policy of the individual sectors is explained and corroborated by corresponding data. The appendix gives a new pre-assessment of the energy supply of the F.R. of Germany until the year 1995. Some additional graphs and tables contribute to a clear survey of this development. The programme contains a new confession on the promotion of nuclear energy and on the continuation of the recent energy policy in the fields of natural gas, coal and petroleum as well as some suggestions on the demand-oriented development of district heat and of renewable energies. (UA)

  3. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  4. The international atomic energy agency's programme on inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has been promoting international activity and collaboration related to the use of inertial fusion confinement schemes for energy production for many years. Thorough review of inertial fusion research and a detailed analysis of future prospects has been conducted. Inertial Fusion Energy is now approaching the turning point in the long history from physics oriented research to fusion energy oriented development. The programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency reflects, to some extent, this development

  5. IEA Energy Training Capacity-building Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The IEA has carried out training activities in energy-related areas from its origins as an agency, with the Emergency Response Exercises (ERE), designed to prepare member countries for oil supply disruption through a set of specially prepared drills simulating crisis conditions. The globalisation of world energy markets in recent years and the wider engagement of the IEA beyond its members have expanded this role, as demand for training instruction has increased. In response, the IEA has created the Energy Training and Capacity-Building Programme, which, through seminars and workshops, secondments and internships, will offer training in the methods and standards that make IEA work in a wide range of energy-related areas, including statistics, the international standard for objective policy recommendations.

  6. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  7. Infrastructure and other considerations to launch nuclear power programme: The case of sub-sahara African developing countries like Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-Saharan countries are new to launch a nuclear power (NP) programme. If they are interested to consider this technology, they should be highly committed to develop the required basic infrastructure in stages; and should conduct important activities that need to be completed in phases. This include longer than 100 years of maintaining a sustainable national infrastructure throughout its operation, decommissioning and waste disposal. The major challenges to launch a NP programme in these countries are; lack of funding, inadequate technical know-how, lack of information on the available resources, low grid capacity of nations, lack of required organizations and physical component of the infrastructure. However, there are also encouraging aspects such as commitment to expand electric supply to rural areas, strategic shift to diversify energy sources, availability of uranium (thorium) reserves, availability of basic regulatory infrastructure in radiation protection and nuclear safety, and enhanced regional and international economic cooperation. In conclusion, the high level of poverty in Sub-Saharan countries mainly is due to lack of adequate energy and its poor coverage. It is vital to assert here that provision of sustainable and sufficient amount of energy in the region can greatly advance development, alleviate poverty and ensure stability. Besides, to come out of this cyclic challenge; countries based on regional economic cooperation and ideals of African Union, should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and commonly invest to launch NP programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements

  8. Energy technology programmes 1993-1998. Evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    In the late 1980s Finland`s Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) initiated a series of research and development (R and D) programmes in the field of energy technology. Subsequently, in 1993, it launched a further suite of eleven Energy Technology Programmes scheduled to run over the period 1993-1998. Aimed at the development of efficient and environmentally sound energy technologies intended to be competitive in the international marketplace, the programmes sought to involve the research, industrial and public sectors in some FIM 1.2 billion of research and development activity. The technology areas spanned: Combustion and gasification techniques Bioenergy, Advanced energy systems and technologies (e.g. wind, solar energy), Fusion, Energy and environmental technology, Energy and the environment in transportation, Energy use in buildings, Energy in steel and metal production, Energy in paper and board production, District heating, Electricity distribution automation. In early 1995, the Technology Development Centre of Finland (Tekes) assumed responsibility for the funding, management and administration of the programmes. As the final year of activities began, Tekes commissioned Technopolis to assemble a team to conduct a major review of all eleven programmes over the course of 1998. The broad aim of the exercise was to review the experience of the eleven technology R and D programmes and to make suggestions for the future. In particular, the intention was to cover a number of distinct levels. Most important were the Programme and Portfolio levels. At the individual Programme level, the review was to comment on the relevance, calibre and impact of programmes, concentrating in particular on the following: Relevance - were programme and project level goals in line with Finnish interests and comparable agendas in other countries; Efficiency - how well were the programmes implemented and managed; Quality - how did the scientific and technological quality of the work

  9. West African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines a ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested with assistance from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Initial results from the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Planning (EREP) model for continental ECOWAS countries show that the share of renewable technologies in the region could increase from the current 22% of electricity generation to as much as 52% in 2030, provided that the cost of these technologies continues to fall and fossil fuel prices continue to rise. In this scenario, nearly half of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 would be with renewable technologies. Analysis using EREP – along with a similar model developed for Southern Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  10. Service Quality and Students' Satisfaction with the Professional Teacher Development Programmes by Distance Mode in a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduaran, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between seven factors that described dimensions of education service quality and overall service quality on one hand, and students' satisfaction with the professional teacher development programmes by distance mode in a South African University on the other. We sought to find out whether students enrolled…

  11. South African CSP projects under the REIPPP programme - Requirements, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relancio, Javier; Cuellar, Alberto; Walker, Gregg; Ettmayr, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Thus far seven Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) projects have been awarded under the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP), totalling 600MW: one project is in operation, four under construction and two on their way to financial close. This provides an excellent opportunity for analysis of key features of the projects that have contributed to or detracted from the programme's success. The paper draws from Mott MacDonald's involvement as Technical Advisor on the seven CSP projects that have been successful under the REIPPPP to date as well as other global CSP developments. It presents how various programme requirements have affected the implementation of projects, such as the technical requirements, time of day tariff structure, economic development requirements and the renewable energy grid code. The increasingly competitive tariffs offered have encouraged developers to investigate efficiency maximising project configurations and cost saving mechanisms, as well as featuring state of the art technology in their proposals. The paper assesses the role of the project participants (developers, lenders and government) with regards to these innovative technologies and solutions. In our paper we discuss the status of projects and the SA market, analysing the main challenges and opportunities that in turn have influenced various aspects such as technology choice, operational regimes and supply chain arrangements.

  12. Energy market opening and the national energy programme in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia is now moving fast toward market opening, at least in the electricity sector, due to the new Energy Law adopted in 1999. The Energy Law defines the main energy policy directions, including the sustainable development criterion. It also calls for the preparation of a National Energy Programme (NEP) to be adopted by the Parliament. According to the Law, local governments are expected to prepare local energy concepts, in line with the NEP and space planning decisions. Two most difficult challenges for national energy policies are: opening of the electricity market and meeting the Kyoto Protocol targets in the reduction of greenhouse gasses. The success of the energy sector reform depends on the fine-tuning of various instruments: market structuring and state interventions. The immediate concern for the sector in the secondary legislation, the fifty regulations that the Energy Law calls for. These regulations have to be prepared well before the date of internal electricity market opening on April 15th, 2001. The institutional structure to be established should be adapted for international competition that will start in electricity and gas no later than January 1st, 2003. It is expected that the NEP, to be prepared by spring of the year 2001, will propose complementary development strategies to cope with partially conflicting targets. Four groups of criteria shall be applied to compare the alternatives: security of supply, competitiveness of the society, preserving the space and environment quality and social cohesion. It is expected that energy market opening, not a final goal by itself, can be instrumental for the improvement of the energy sector performance on all accounts. (author)

  13. Promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization in HIV/AIDS programmes: lessons and curricular tools from a South African intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail; de Wet, Jacques; Bonell, Christopher Philip; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Proynk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Morison, Linda; Porter, John D H; Busza, Joanna; Watts, Charlotte; Hargreaves, James R

    2011-06-01

    The development of critical consciousness is seen as a key stage in communities increasing levels of dialogue about priority problems and effecting structural change for health. However, relatively little research identifies concrete methods for programmes to build critical consciousness. We examined how a South African structural intervention used critical consciousness as a tool for prevention of intimate partner violence and HIV infection. We collected qualitative data in the form of in-depth interviews with managers, trainers, and participants of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity intervention (IMAGE) in rural South Africa. The data were analysed through a coding structure developed in QSR NVivo. We draw practical lessons from IMAGE to guide other HIV programmes aiming to promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization. This research suggests that specific curricular tools can work towards critical consciousness and that mobilization efforts in future programmes can be strengthened by including individual and collective efforts by participants. PMID:20965911

  14. Real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to perform a real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme. Strategic value of thermonuclear fusion technology is estimated here based on the expected cash flows from construction and operation of fusion power plants and the real options value arising due to managerial flexibility and the underlying uncertainty. First, a basic investment option model of Black-Scholes type is being considered. Then, a fuzzy compound real R and D option model is elaborated, which reflects in a better way the multi-stage nature of the programme and takes into account the imprecision of information as one of the components of the overall programme uncertainty. Two different strategies are compared: 'Baseline' corresponding to a relatively moderate pace of fusion research, development, demonstration and deployment activities vs. 'Accelerated' strategy, which assumes a rapid demonstration and massive deployment of fusion. The conclusions are drawn from the model calculations regarding the strategic value of fusion energy R and D and the advantages of accelerated development path. - Research highlights: → Real options analysis of fusion R and D, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) programme. → ENPV of fusion RDDD programme is calculated using stochastic probabilistic simulation. → Fusion RDDD programme exhibits substantial positive real options value: Euro 245 billion. → Fuzzy compound real option valuation method provides more robust results.

  15. A proposed programme for energy risk research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report consists of two parts. Part I presents an overview of technological risk management, noting major contributions and current research needs. Part II details a proposed program of energy research, including discussions of some seven recommended projects. The proposed energy risk research program addresses two basic problem areas: improving the management of energy risks and energy risk communication and public response. Specific recommended projects are given for each. (Auth.)

  16. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc E Coffeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  17. Quantifying the savings of an industry energy efficiency programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, C.J. [Sustainable Energy Research Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Gallachoir, B.P.O. [Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Lee Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2012-05-15

    In a developed economy, improving the energy performance of the industry sector can make an important contribution to achieving national energy efficiency goals. Policy measures aimed at increasing energy efficiency in industry must be proven to be effective. In Ireland one such measure is the Large Industry Energy Network (LIEN) programme. LIEN is a voluntary network of large energy users, facilitated by the national energy agency, working to maintain strong energy management practices. In this paper, we combine top-down methods for analysing national energy statistics with company-level figures supplied by LIEN participants to quantify the energy savings achieved by the companies and to determine the fraction of national savings that can be attributed to them. By comparing the collective performance of participant companies with the performance of the rest of industry we provide an indication of the effectiveness of the programme and quantify the savings that may be directly attributable to it. These figures when combined with national energy forecasts for industry help us assess the likely contribution of the programme to future national energy savings targets.

  18. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thollander, Patrik; Danestig, Maria; Rohdin, Patrik [Linkoeping University, (Sweden). Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering

    2007-11-15

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue. (author)

  19. Energy Technology Programmes 1993-1998. Intermediate report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Tekes energy technology research programmes were launched in 1993. The aim is to produce innovative solutions that are efficient, environmentally sound and widely - even globally - applicable. Now Tekes manages a total of 12 energy technology research programmed. Research programmed form a network linking academia and industry. Total funding for the energy technology programmed during the years 1993-1998 is estimated at some FIM 1.5 billion, about half of which will be put up by the Tekes and the rest by the industry. Funding by the Ministry of Trade and Industry covers the first full-scale applications (demonstrations) resulting from the research and development activities. Finnish technology is front-ranking in the efficient use of energy, combustion technology, renewable energy sources and environmental technology. In this report the results and the research activities of the separate programmes is presented and discussed

  20. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  1. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezroukikh, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  2. The West African monsoon: Contribution of the AMMA multidisciplinary programme to the study of a regional climate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, T.; Janicot, S.; Redelsperger, J. L.; Parker, D. J.; Thorncroft, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The AMMA international project aims at improving our knowledge and understanding of the West African monsoon and its variability with an emphasis on daily-to-interannual timescales. AMMA is motivated by an interest in fundamental scientific issues and by the societal need for improved prediction of the WAM and its impacts on water resources, health and food security for West African nations. The West African monsoon (WAM) has a distinctive annual cycle in rainfall that remains a challenge to understand and predict. The location of peak rainfall, which resides in the Northern Hemisphere throughout the year, moves from the ocean to the land in boreal spring. Around the end of June there is a rapid shift in the location of peak rainfall between the coast and around 10°N where it remains until about the end of August. In September the peak rainfall returns equatorward at a relatively steady pace and is located over the ocean again by November. The fact that the peak rainfall migrates irregularly compared to the peak solar heating is due to the interactions that occur between the land, the atmosphere and the ocean. To gain a better understanding of this complex climate system, a large international research programme was launched in 2002, the biggest of its kind into environment and climate ever attempted in Africa. AMMA has involved a comprehensive field experiment bringing together ocean, land and atmospheric measurements, on timescales ranging from hourly and daily variability up to the changes in seasonal activity over a number of years. This presentation will focus on the description of the field programme and its accomplishments, and address some key questions that have been recently identified to form the core of AMMA-Phase 2.

  3. The Wind Energy programme - SFOE Research Programme 2000 - 2003; Programm Wind. Konzept BFE-Forschungsprogramm 'Wind' 2000 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R.

    2001-07-01

    This document, issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the concept behind the Swiss wind energy programme. The first part of the report discusses the origins and development of the wind energy programme in Switzerland, discussing the importance of wind energy and policy matters associated with its promotion. The experience gained during the previous research programmes is reviewed. The degree to which targets were reached, promotional activities, the central government's own wind energy activities and the results of a programme evaluation are discussed. Lists of projects that have been realised and activities that have been carried out are presented and positive and negative influences on development are noted. A second part is dedicated to the goals of the wind energy programme in terms of target figures for the year 2010 and the strategies chosen to reach these goals, including pilot and demonstration projects (P and D) and promotional activities. Details of the P and D programme including lists of wind-power projects to be supported, the priorities that have been set and information and further education that is to be provided, are given. New activities in the wind power area such as the development of new type of wind turbine especially suited to alpine conditions are discussed. The role of the Swiss Association for Wind Energy 'Suisse Eole' as a network-partner in the wind energy programme is discussed. An appendix provides details of wind energy projects in Switzerland, market partners and customers. The results of a survey made of wind energy activities at Swiss institutes of higher education are presented.

  4. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    OpenAIRE

    Kielmann Karina; Fielding Katherine; Hamilton Robin; Charalambous Salome; Dahab Mison; Churchyard Gavin J; Grant Alison D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs) and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existen...

  5. Real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednyagin, Denis [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 18, CH-1015 (Switzerland); EIC Partners AG, Seefeldstrasse 19, 8008 Zurich (Switzerland); Gnansounou, Edgard [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 18, CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper aims to perform a real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme. Strategic value of thermonuclear fusion technology is estimated here based on the expected cash flows from construction and operation of fusion power plants and the real options value arising due to managerial flexibility and the underlying uncertainty. First, a basic investment option model of Black-Scholes type is being considered. Then, a fuzzy compound real R and D option model is elaborated, which reflects in a better way the multi-stage nature of the programme and takes into account the imprecision of information as one of the components of the overall programme uncertainty. Two different strategies are compared: 'Baseline' corresponding to a relatively moderate pace of fusion research, development, demonstration and deployment activities vs. 'Accelerated' strategy, which assumes a rapid demonstration and massive deployment of fusion. The conclusions are drawn from the model calculations regarding the strategic value of fusion energy R and D and the advantages of accelerated development path. (author)

  6. SwissEnergy - The follow-up programme to 'Energy 2000'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the basic ideas behind the 'SwissEnergy' energy policy programme which follows on from the 'Energy 2000' action programme. The first part of the report discusses the need for the programme and reviews the experience gained during the 'Energy 2000' programme. The degree to which targets were reached, co-operation issues and the results of an evaluation are discussed. Further sections are dedicated to the goals of SwissEnergy in terms of target figures for the year 2010 and the strategies chosen to reach these goals. The various areas addressed by the programme such as building, industry, traffic, public authorities, new energy technologies and renewable energy are examined. The legal basis of measures to be taken and the instruments proposed for use are discussed. These include agreements with the various actor-groups involved as well as promotional measures, regulations and certificate systems. Finally, the organisation and co-ordination of the federal and cantonal authorities as well as private organisations and agencies is discussed and methods for the supervision and evaluation of action taken under the programme are described

  7. Research Protocol: Development, implementation and evaluation of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention programme for the management of anxiety symptoms in South African children with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Visagie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood anxiety presents a serious mental health problem, and it is one of the most common forms of psychological distress reported by youth worldwide. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms amongst South African youth is reported to be significantly higher than in other parts of the world. These high prevalence rates become even more significant when viewed in terms of children with visual impairments, as it is suggested that children with physical disabilities may be more prone, than their non-disabled peers, for the development of psychological difficulties. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a specifically tailored anxiety intervention programme for use with South African children with visual impairments. Method: A specifically tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy-based anxiety intervention, for 9–13 year old South African children with visual impairments, will be evaluated in two special schools. The study will employ a randomised wait-list control group design with pre- postand follow-up intervention measures, with two groups each receiving a 10 session anxiety intervention programme. The main outcome measure relates to the participants’ symptoms of anxiety as indicated on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Conclusion: If the anxiety intervention programme is found to be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, this universal intervention will lay down the foundation upon which future contextually sensitive (South African anxiety intervention programmes can be built.

  8. The achievements and challenges of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sékétéli, A; Adeoye, G; Eyamba, A; Nnoruka, E; Drameh, P; Amazigo, U V; Noma, M; Agboton, F; Aholou, Y; Kale, O O; Dadzie, K Y

    2002-03-01

    The main strategy of APOC, of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), has enabled the programme to reach, empower and bring relief to remote and under-served, onchocerciasis-endemic communities. With CDTI, geographical and therapeutic coverages have increased substantially, in most areas, to the levels required to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public-health problem. Over 20 million people received treatment in 2000. APOC has also made effective use of the combination of the rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) and geographical information systems (GIS), to provide information on the geographical distribution and prevalence of the disease. This has led to improvements in the identification of CDTI-priority areas, and in the estimates of the numbers of people to be treated. A unique public-private-sector partnership has been at the heart of APOC's relative success. Through efficient capacity-building, the programme's operations have positively influenced and strengthened the health services of participating countries. These laudable achievements notwithstanding, APOC faces many challenges during the second phase of its operations, when the full impact of the programme is expected to be felt. Notable among these challenges are the sustainability of CDTI, the strategy's effective integration into the healthcare system, and the full exploitation of its potential as an entry point for other health programmes. The channels created for CDTI, could, for example, help efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (which will feature on the agenda of many participating countries during APOC's Phase 2). However, these other programmes need to be executed without compromising the onchocerciasis-control programme itself. Success in meeting these challenges will depend on the continued, wholehearted commitment of all the partners involved, particularly that of the governments of the participating countries. PMID:12081247

  9. Productivity assessments in small ruminants improvement programmes. A case study of the West African Dwarf Goat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the suitabilit

  10. Energy 2000 Investment Programme - Effects on the economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of an evaluation made of the Energy 2000 Investment Programme which was launched to stimulate the economy and help meet Switzerland's goals in the energy sector. The aims of the evaluation and the methods used are discussed. The implementation of the programme, which provided financial support for energy-relevant projects implemented by private persons and institutions, is described and comments are made on the results obtained in the various regions of Switzerland. Further, the problems encountered, such as the economic situation, the shortage of energy consultants in western Switzerland, the short time available for the programme's implementation and the limited possibilities of spreading information in the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning sector are discussed. Also, the so-called 'go-along' effect - the unintentional support of projects that would have been realised anyway - is described. The positive results of the programme - in particular the correct and efficient implementation of those projects it supported - are mentioned. The last part of the report describes the impact of the programme on the Swiss economy, the consumption and use of energy and on the environment and presents appropriate figures

  11. Contrasting predictors of poor antiretroviral therapy outcomes in two South African HIV programmes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Robin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many national antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes encourage providers to identify and address baseline factors associated with poor treatment outcomes, including modifiable adherence-related behaviours, before initiating ART. However, evidence on such predictors is scarce, and providers judgement may often be inaccurate. To help address this evidence gap, this observational cohort study examined baseline factors potentially predictive of poor treatment outcomes in two ART programmes in South Africa, with a particular focus on determinants of adherence. Methods Treatment-naïve patients starting ART were enrolled from a community and a workplace ART programme. Potential baseline predictors associated with poor treatment outcomes (defined as viral load > 400 copies/ml or having discontinued treatment by six months were assessed using logistic regression. Exposure variables were organised for regression analysis using a hierarchical framework. Results 38/227 (17% of participants in the community had poor treatment outcomes compared to 47/117 (40% in the workplace. In the community, predictors of worse outcomes included: drinking more than 20 units of alcohol per week, having no prior experience of chronic medications, and consulting a traditional healer in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 15.36, 95% CI 3.22-73.27; aOR 2.30, 95%CI 1.00-5.30; aOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.00-5.19 respectively. Being male and knowing someone on ART were associated with better outcomes (aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.74; aOR 0.44, 95%CI 0.19-1.01 respectively. In the workplace, predictors of poor treatment outcomes included being uncertain about the health effects of ART and a traditional healer's ability to treat HIV (aOR 7.53, 95%CI 2.02-27.98; aOR 4.40, 95%CI 1.41-13.75 respectively. Longer pre-ART waiting time (2-12 weeks compared to Conclusion Baseline predictors of poor treatment outcomes were largely unique to each programme, likely reflecting

  12. Nurse educators’ experiences of case-based education in a South African nursing programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity M. Daniels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape experienced an increase in student enrolments from an intake of 150 students to 300 students in the space of one year. This required a review of the teaching and learning approach to ensure that it was appropriate for effective facilitation of large classes. The case-based education (CBE approach was adopted for the delivery of the Bachelor of Nursing programme in 2005.Aim: The aim of the study was to explore nurse educators’ experiences, current practices and possible improvements to inform best practice of CBE at the nursing school in the Western Cape.Methods: A participatory action research method was applied in a two day workshop conducted with nurse educators in the undergraduate nursing programme. The nominal group technique was used to collect the data.Results: Three themes emerged from the final synthesis of the findings, namely: teaching and learning related issues, student issues and teacher issues. Amongst other aspects, theory and practice integration, as well as the need for peer support in facilitation of CBE, were identified as requiring strengthening.Conclusion: It was concluded that case-based education should continue to be used in the school, however, more workshops should be arranged to keep educators updated and new staff orientated in respect of this teaching and learning approach.

  13. Energy research 1998. The programme leaders` status reports; Energie-Forschung 1998. Recherche energetique 1998. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Rapport de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voirol, C. [ed.; Dubal, L. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    This report is a collection of the annual reports written by the 20 energy research programme leaders of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy about their activities in 1998. There is also a report of the Energy Research Coordinator reviewing the progress achieved in 1998. Finally, the organisation of the Swiss energy research is shortly presented, and useful addresses are given

  14. Infrastructure and Other Considerations to Launch Nuclear Power Programme: The Case of Sub-Sahara African Developing Countries like Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends in the world's population and energy use during the past decades show dramatic increases; and the demand for electricity, mainly from developing countries, is expected to increase more rapidly than the demand for other forms of energy. Besides, concern of climate change led to the need for production of significant amount of 'safe and clean' energy which in turn favours to nuclear option. Other alternative renewable sources like solar and wind can assist but currently they are short of supplying the required high energy demand either economically or/and in substantial amount. Nuclear option therefore remains a possible (developed) technology to fill this energy gap; and many countries including developing one show interest to make use of this energy source. In this paper the economic situations and energy production of six East Africa Sub-Saharan developing countries, with total population of 240 million were assessed, and 6.8% and 2.9% average GDP and population growth respectively registered in the last four years; however, their energy production in 2008 (est.) was 17.662 billion kWh, which is the least in the world. The contribution of inadequate energy and its poor coverage in hampering development, increase poverty and unstability were also analyzed. To come out of this cyclic challenge; it is recommended that countries based on regional economic cooperation should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and cooperate to invest commonly or unilaterally to launch Nuclear Power Programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements. It is also noted that the best candidate to start NP programme in these countries would be the worldwide dominant water cooled reactors. However, for countries with low grid capacity and to carry out projects in remote areas which are far-away from national grid systems or to desalinate water, considerations for smaller

  15. The impact of HIV, an antiretroviral programme and tuberculosis on mortality in South African platinum miners, 1992-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan S C Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV and tuberculosis (TB are the most common causes of death in South Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes should have had an impact on mortality rates. This study describes the impact of HIV, a Wellness (HIV/ART programme and TB on population-wide trends in mortality and causes of death among South African platinum miners, from before the HIV epidemic into the ART era. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective analysis was conducted using routinely-collected data from an open cohort. Mortality and causes of death were determined from multiple sources, including cardiorespiratory autopsy records. All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were calculated by calendar year. 41,665 male miners were observed for 311,938 person years (py with 3863 deaths. The all-cause age-standardised mortality rate increased from 5.9/1000 py in 1992 to 20.2/1000 py in 2002. Following ART rollout in 2003, annual mortality rates fluctuated between 12.4/1000 py and 19.3/1000 py in the subsequent 7 years. Half of all deaths were HIV-related and 21% were caused by TB. Half (50% of miners who died of HIV after ART rollout had never been registered on the Wellness programme. TB was the most common cause of death in HIV positive miners, increasing from 28% of deaths in the pre-ART period to 41% in the post-ART period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This population-based cohort experienced a rapid increase in mortality from 1996 to 2003 due to increases in HIV and TB mortality. Following ART rollout there was a decrease in mortality, but a steady decrease has not been sustained. Possible explanations for these trends include the changing composition of the workforce, maturation of the HIV epidemic, insufficient uptake of ART and an increase in the proportion of deaths due to TB. In order to make a significant and sustained reduction in mortality in this population, expanding and integrating HIV and TB care and treatment is essential.

  16. Views on Finnish energy technology programmes. Environmentally viable results for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannus, S.; Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Finland`s exports of energy technology have been growing dynamically over the past few years and they have now exceeded net imports of oil. Highly efficient technology has not only been applied to the national energy economy but also exported to more than 140 other countries. Finnish skills in this field are the result of many traditional factors: the cold climate, long distances between towns, energy-intensivity industry and the lack of fossil fuels in Finland. In addition to these geographical and natural factors, Finnish expertise in energy has been radically influenced by especially favourable organizational and institutional conditions: the mechanisms for competition in the domestic marketplace ant strong networking both in Finland and abroad. The small home market has also been a stimulus for exports. Finland`s potential new subdivisions of energy fields include automation and IT for energy production systems, which is based on strong Finnish expertise and success in information technology. Another new field with potential is photoelectric systems, an area in which Finland is already well placed on the market. The extensive utilization of solar energy in northern latitudes calls for the seasonal storage of energy. The use of hydrogen as a means of storing solar power has been studied with good results in the NEMO 2 Technology Programme. In addition Finland put great emphasis on renewable energy sources like biomass, combustion processes and environmental technologies related to the energy sector. Harvesting and utilisation of biomass has been studied in the national BIOENERGIA programme. Combustion processes have been studied in the LIEKKI 2 programme. A variety of different energy related environmental technologies have been studied in the S1HTI 2 programme

  17. South Africa [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa has only small deposits of oil and natural gas and relies on coal production for most of its energy needs. South Africa's economy is structured around large scale, energy-intensive mining and primary minerals industries having a high commercial primary energy intensity. The supply of primary energy in 2007 was 128 Mtoe at a growth rate of 4.4 %/a. The main shares were given by coal (68%), crude oil (19%), renewables (8%), nuclear (3%) and natural gas (2%). South Africa accounts for a major fraction of the CO2 emissions of the whole continent. Due to its large coal deposits, South Africa is one of the cheapest electricity suppliers in the world. The main reason is its coal based power generating capacity, whose share is 79% (of ∼40 GW(e)), followed by crude oil (10%), renewables (6%), nuclear (3%) and natural gas (2%). Eskom Holdings Ltd, the State owned power utility that supplies 95% of South Africa's electricity, is planning to increase the current generation capacity of 40 GW by 4%/a to 80 GW by 2025. The power supply crisis in January 2008, which forced shutdowns at mines, has accelerated recognition of the need to diversify the energy mix, such as with nuclear power and natural gas, as well as various forms of renewable energy. Starting in 1984, the national utility ESKOM has been successfully operating the Koeberg nuclear power station consisting of two 900 MW(e) PWR units which generated ∼6.5% of the electricity needs. In addition, ESKOM has been pursuing the project of modular HTGRs for electricity production to meet the demand of its growing economy. In 2007-2008, the demand for electricity in South Africa started to exceed supply when the economy was growing and, at the same time, existing plants went out for maintenance. As a result, ESKOM and the South African Government decided to request proposals for new nuclear capacity and to expand the nuclear component in the energy supply mix of the country. In the strategic plan for the

  18. Policies and programmes on new and renewable energy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New and Renewable Energy Programme aims at accelerating the promotion and commercialization of new and renewable energy systems. In pursuit of this goal, the Programme has the following policies: (a) pursue the large-scale use of new and renewable energy sources (NRSE), (b) enhance energy self-sufficiency through continuous exploration, development and exploitation of indigenous energy sources and (c) encourage greater private sector investment and participation in all energy activities. The strategies to be implemented include the intensification of R and D and the demonstration of technologically feasible and socio-environmentally acceptable NRSE; the institutionalization of area-based energy planning and management for NRSE; the encouragement of a favourable market environment for manufacturers, suppliers and users of NRSE; the promotion of commercially viable energy sources such as solar and wind energy, and continuing applied R and D for less-advanced technologies such as ocean thermal and wave energy conversion, fuel cells and municipal wastes. The sub programmes of the New and Renewable Energy Program are as follows: The technology sub programme aims at developing economically viable NRSE to levels of technical maturity at which NRSE can compete commercially with conventional energy; The commercialization sub programme envisages the creation of a favourable market environment to encourage private sector investment and participation in NRSE projects and activities; The promotion sub programme attempts to heighten public awareness of NRSE; The area-based energy sub programme is a mechanism for accelerating the promotion and commercialization of new and renewable energy systems at the regional and subregional levels using a decentralized, area-based approach. (author)

  19. Devising and carrying out an evaluation of the Energy 2000 programme of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of the Swiss programme 'Energy 2000' (1990-2000) has been subjected to a systematic and continuous evaluation by independent experts. Between 1991 and 1999 various aspects of the programme have been investigated in some 50 scientific investigations. The results are summarized in this book. On one hand we present a differentiated picture of the causal connections between the most significant legal measures and voluntary actions. On the other hand we draw conclusions for the future Swiss energy policy, well aware of the fact that the translation of experiences from the past into the future may be affected considerably by new boundary conditions. The book is divided into three parts: In the first part the organisational frame of the programme is presented, and the question is addressed whether the basic principles formulated in shaping the programme have turned put to be appropriate. In the second part the knowledge resulting from the evaluations of the efficacy of the legal measures, the conflict solving discussion groups, and the actions initiated by the nine departments of the programme, is reviewed. In the third part the results of the evaluations are combined and conclusions are drawn for the shaping of the follow-up programme for the coming decade. In addition Hans-Luzius Schmid, assistant director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and director of the 'Energy 2000' programme presents some of his considerations on the longer term development of Switzerland's energy policy and on the role of his office

  20. Reinforcement of Energy Knowledge in Higher Education of African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sánchez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Project HEEMS (Reinforcement of Higher Education as a tool to foster efficient use of energy applied to the poverty reduction within the marine sectorthrough capacity building and regional integration.. This project is part of the cooperation program Edulink II. Edulink is a Higher Education Cooperation Program of European Union with the ACP Countries (African, Caribbean and Pacific. The principal aim of HEEMS is to improve the know how of knwoledge fields related to the efficient use of energy, and take advantage of small scale use of renewable energies as a tool to thedevelopment of marine sector. The countries covered by the project are the African Lusophone Countries (excep Angola, that is: Cape Verde, São Tomé and Principe andMozambique. Actions proposed are related to Energy Access and Efficiency Higher Studies.Due the University of Vigo expertise on earninig technologies, the learning contents will availables at the University of Vigo Digital Online Campus which is a part of the Campus del Mar: Knowledge in Depth (International Campus of Excellence, at undergraduate, graduate and professional training levels in the fields of renewable energies. Furthermore, ACP HEEMS countries will use the University of Vigo Infrastructure (online education platforms, WebTV, videoconference and all the material generated by professors at the universities linked to Campus del Mar, even clone totally or partially that infrastructure with the assitance os european technicians. The project will contribute to the training (presential or remotel of the local trainers, thus allowing new in-person and online teaching programs at the same time. This is project oriented to the training of trainersproject.

  1. The comparison and coordination of national policies and programmes in the energy research and development sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventory of programmes and expenditures in the field of energy research and development, which are financed from the public sector funds of the Member States and of the European Communities (1974-1976)

  2. Review on Malaysia's national energy developments: Key policies, agencies, programmes and international involvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, Shing Chyi; Oh, Tick Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    This paper aims to present a review on Malaysia's national energy developments by looking at various angles in terms of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Energy demand and consumption by sectors are presented as well as the fuel mix in electricity generation. Key energy policies implemented from the incorporation of Malaysia's national oil company, Petronas in 1974 until the National Green Technology Policy 2009 and a future policy will be addressed. The roles of key players as well as important agencies in energy development are briefly presented. Key programmes in energy development such as Malaysian Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, Small Renewable Energy Power Programme and Building Energy Efficiency Programme are discussed as well as successful initiatives from the programmes. Malaysia's international involvements towards reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon emissions especially Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol are highlighted. As a conclusion, Malaysia is aware of its role in formulating its national energy development policies, sensitive towards the country's development towards the environment and utilization of energy resources as well as conscientious and responsive towards the call for sustainable development in promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency. (author)

  3. Evaluation of programme for energy management in buildings; Evaluering av program for energiledelse i bygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Enova SF needed to evaluate the programmes for energy management for greater and smaller building owners. The question was: What has been the impact of the Buildings Network and the energy management programmes for greater and smaller building owners on energy conservation and economic life , and are the programmes operated efficiently? The buildings which participated in the Buildings Network in 1996 - 2002 had an average reduction of the energy consumption of about 7 per cent, which is somewhat less than the supposed potential of 10 per cent. There is some uncertainty in this calculation and the true figure is probably 1 or 2 per cent higher. Whether this energy conservation tendency has continued after Enova took over the responsibility for the programme in 2002 is too early to measure. It is very probable that the public support to the projects has triggered off the saving, that is, there has been few free riders. After 2002, Enova has made the programme more efficient and the cost per building has been halved in the period 2001 - 2003. But some of the original infrastructure of the programme has been discontinued.

  4. The role of the African Development Bank in energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sharp increases in the oil price in 1973 and 1979 devastated the economies of the petroleum-importing countries of sub-Saharan Africa, which were compelled to divert significant portions of their foreign exchange earnings to meet huge and burgeoning energy import bills. The economic shocks induced by the oil price triggered wide-scale internal and external disequilibria, demonstrated by deteriorating trade balances and large and growing current account deficits. The prolonged slump in the prices of primary commodities, combined with frequent droughts, ensured that economic retrogression persisted during the 1980s. Rapid accumulation of external indebtedness resulted in the build-up of an onerous debt-servicing burden that further aggravated the balance of payments situation. The 1980s were characterized by a substantial fall in the standards of living of the average African and deterioration in both physical and institutional infrastructures. (Author)

  5. Final Report: African Power/Energy and Environmental Development Plan, July 1, 1994 - August 21, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, John M.

    1999-08-21

    In 1994 AEF signed a Cooperative Agreement with DOE to address a program called the African Power /Energy and Environmental Development Plan. The Program initially addressed five area: (1) Historical Black Colleges and Universities Energy/Environmental Program; (2) The Department of Energy and United States Private Industry Africa Program; (3) The Annual United States Energy Study Tour; (4) South African Training Program, and (5) South African Environmental Program. The programs were implemented in conjunction with DOE, institutions, agencies and the private sector support in the USA and within African nations. AEF has worked with government and technical representatives from 13 African nations and expanded the program to address sponsorship of South African students in Historical Black Colleges and Universities, supporting DOE trade missions through participation and planning, and giving presentations in the U.S., and Africa regarding business opportunities in the African energy sector. The programs implemented have also opened doors for the US private sector to seek business opportunities in Africa and for African nations to gain exposure to US products and services.

  6. SIHTI 2 - Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1993 of the research programme. Project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SIHTI 2 research programme on energy and environmental technology, established by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, is concentrating on areas of environmental technology that are vital to Finland or in which Finns can engage in pioneering research. The promotion of product development within the environmental technology industry produces solutions for reducing the emissions of the energy sector. It is also a way of boosting Finland's share of the world market for such technology. The objectives of the programme are to cut down harmful emissions, recycle raw materials, reduce the amount of byproducts and wastes and achieve a greater utilization of wastes. In addition, an objective is to create basic information about the effects of environmental protection technology for the other research programmes financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The development of internationally comparable research, monitoring and measurement methods creates a basis for wide-ranging international cooperation. The programme, to be carried out in 1993 - 1998, is in part a continuation of the previous SIHTI programme. New areas of research are environmental problems connected with energy in the forest and base metal industries as well as the systematic development of life-cycle analyses. This publication is yearbook 1993 of the programme. It contains the project reports of the research and joint development projects and information about the participating institutions

  7. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielmann Karina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existence of HIV or of one's own positive status, use of traditional medicines, speaking a different language from the HSP, alcohol use, being away from home, perceived severity of side-effects, feeling better on treatment and long waiting times at the clinic. The key facilitators were social support, belief in the value of treatment, belief in the importance of one's own life to the survival of one's family, and the ability to fit ART into daily life schedules. Conclusion Given the reported uncertainty about the existence of HIV disease and the use of traditional medicines while on ART, despite a programme emphasising ART counselling, there is a need to find effective ways to support adherence to ART even if the individual does not accept biomedical concepts of HIV disease or decides to use traditional medicines. Additionally, providers should identify ways to minimize barriers in communication with patients with whom they have no common language. Finally, dissatisfaction with clinical services, due to long waiting times, should be addressed.

  8. Renewable Energy Programmes in India: Status and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy sources and technologies have potential to provide solutions to the long-standing energy problems being faced by the developing countries. The renewable energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy and fuel cell technology can be used to overcome energy shortage in India. To meet the energy requirement for such a fast growing economy, India will require an assured supply of 3-4 times more energy than the total energy consumed today. The renewable energy is one of the options to meet this requirement. India is increasingly adopting responsible renewable energy techniques and taking positive steps towards carbon emissions, cleaning the air and ensuring a more sustainable future. In India, from the last two and half decades there has been a vigorous pursuit of activities relating to research, development, demonstration, production and application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors. In this paper, efforts have been made to summarize the availability, current status, major achievements and future potentials of renewable energy options in India. This paper also assesses specific policy interventions for overcoming the barriers and enhancing deployment of renewable energy devices for the future. (author)

  9. Advanced energy systems and technologies research in Finland. NEMO-2 Programme Annual Report 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Advanced energy technologies were linked to the national energy research in the beginning of 1988 when energy research was reorganised in Finland. The Ministry of Trade and Industry established several energy research programmes and NEMO was one of them. Major objectives of the programme were to assess the potential of new energy systems for the national energy supply system and to promote industrial activities. Within the NEMO 2 programme for the years 1993-1998, research was focused on a few promising technological solutions. In the beginning of 1995, the national energy research activities were passed on to the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The NEMO 2 programme is directed towards those areas that have particular potential for commercial exploitation or development. Emphasis is placed particularly on solar and wind energy, as well as supporting technologies, such as energy storage and hydrogen technology. Resources have been focused on three specific areas: arctic wind technology, wind turbine components, and the integration of solar energy into applications (including thin film solar cells). In Finland, the growth of the new energy technology industry is concentrated on these areas. The turnover of the Finnish industry has been growing considerably due to the national research activities and support of technology development. The sales have increased more than 10 times compared with the year 1987 and is now over 300 million FIM. The support to industries and their involvement in the program has grown considerably. In this report, the essential research projects of the programme during 1996-1997 are described. The total funding for these projects was about 30 million FIM per year, of which the TEKES`s share was about 40 per cent. The programme consists of 10 research projects, some 15 joint development projects, and 9 EU projects. In case the research projects and joint development projects are acting very closely, the description of the project is

  10. Advanced energy systems and technologies research in Finland. NEMO-2 Programme Annual Report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced energy technologies were linked to the national energy research in the beginning of 1988 when energy research was reorganised in Finland. The Ministry of Trade and Industry established several energy research programmes and NEMO was one of them. Major objectives of the programme were to assess the potential of new energy systems for the national energy supply system and to promote industrial activities. Within the NEMO 2 programme for the years 1993-1998, research was focused on a few promising technological solutions. In the beginning of 1995, the national energy research activities were passed on to the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The NEMO 2 programme is directed towards those areas that have particular potential for commercial exploitation or development. Emphasis is placed particularly on solar and wind energy, as well as supporting technologies, such as energy storage and hydrogen technology. Resources have been focused on three specific areas: arctic wind technology, wind turbine components, and the integration of solar energy into applications (including thin film solar cells). In Finland, the growth of the new energy technology industry is concentrated on these areas. The turnover of the Finnish industry has been growing considerably due to the national research activities and support of technology development. The sales have increased more than 10 times compared with the year 1987 and is now over 300 million FIM. The support to industries and their involvement in the program has grown considerably. In this report, the essential research projects of the programme during 1996-1997 are described. The total funding for these projects was about 30 million FIM per year, of which the TEKES's share was about 40 per cent. The programme consists of 10 research projects, some 15 joint development projects, and 9 EU projects. In case the research projects and joint development projects are acting very closely, the description of the project is

  11. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  12. Introducing the Resources and Energy Analysis Programme (REAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Alistair; Wiedmann, Thomas; Barrett, John; Minx, Jan; Scott, Kate; Dawkins, Elena; Owen, Anne; Briggs, Julian; Gray, Ian

    2010-02-15

    REAP is a highly sophisticated model that helps policy makers to understand and measure the environmental pressures associated with human consumption. It can be used at the local, regional and national levels and generates indicators on: - Carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions measured in tonnes per capita; - The Ecological Footprint required to sustain an area in global hectares per capita; - The Material Flows of products and services through an area measured in thousands of tonnes. REAP contains several unique features and has applications in a wide range of policy areas including transport, housing and planning. The programme's powerful scenario tool models the impacts of policy and creates plausible scenarios of the future. These scenarios can be set against targets or compared to alternative futures based on different trends or assumptions

  13. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS theme meeting on chemistry in atomic energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pivotal role played by chemistry in all the stages of atomic energy programme, right from mineral exploration, materials processing, fuel fabrication, coolant, control and structural materials, reactor chemistry, fuel recycling and actinide partitioning to radioactive waste management, has been explicitly demonstrated in the last few decades. The discoveries and developments in chemical sciences that have contributed to the formulation and successful implementation of our nuclear programme are enormous. It is to the credit of all our colleagues of Department of Atomic Energy to reckon the chronology of mile stones in our programme and how they place our nation on the global map of nuclear energy. The theme meeting on Chemistry in Atomic Energy Programme is an outcome of the thinking of some of our colleagues in BARC to take stock of the accomplishments made hitherto and to prepare a roadmap to meet the challenges of future advanced reactor regimes, while safeguarding the strategic interests of mankind. It is not out-of-context to record here that India, with its rich experience, is poised to play a major role in the global nuclear power programme, through bilateral international collaborations as well as on the platform of IAEA. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. Strategies for Achieving Healthy Energy Balance Among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Groesbeck P. Parham, MD; Isabel C. Scarinci, PhD

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Low-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1) their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2) t...

  15. Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy-efficiency programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Campbell, Nina

    2011-06-15

    The International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency Unit (EEU) has begun a new programme of work on innovative energy-efficiency policies for mitigating fuel poverty. The IEA's current research focuses on the potential for low-income weatherisation programmes to address poor housing quality -- the main driver of fuel poverty -- as well as innovative methods for financing and evaluating such programmes. A common problem is that the energy-saving benefits accruing to fuel-poor households barely offset the investment required, suggesting a weak return on government spending. However, these investments have additional co-benefits for participants as well as for energy providers, property owners, local communities and society as a whole. This first IEA workshop focused on methods for incorporating the range of co-benefits into evaluation of low-income weatherisation programmes. The presentations given by top experts in the fuel poverty field are summarised in this report, along with conclusions and proposals for further research.

  16. Equity Development Programmes: Does Mentoring Make a Difference in Individual and Social Transformation for South African WonderWomen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    The equity and transformation challenge for women and black academics at universities in Post-Apartheid South Africa is enormous. Despite a marked increase in equity development programmes since the 1996 Employment Equity legislation, fewer women than expected have advanced through the academic ranks. An indigenous mentoring model for…

  17. Peer Review and the Dilemmas of Quality Control in Programme Accreditation in South African Higher Education: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Michael; Naidoo, Devika

    2011-01-01

    The paper scrutinises the dynamics and the nature of peer review in the programme evaluation and accreditation process within the context of diverse individual and institutional legacies in South Africa. It analyses the peer review process and highlights the contestation at political, policy and epistemological levels. The paper argues that,…

  18. Measurement of the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS intervention programme on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the South African Polise Service employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cherian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if there was any change in the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the South African Police Service’s (SAPS employees of Limpopo province after attending the HIV/AIDS intervention programme. From a population of (N=108 employees, those who attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop participated as experimental group (n=51 while those who attended the suicide prevention and disability workshop as control group (n=57. Random sampling method was used to select the above sample. Both workshops were conducted at various places in Limpopo Province. Pre-tests were administered before the workshops while the post-tests were administered after the workshops. The results were analysed using 2 (Group: Experimental versus Control Group x 2 (Time: Pre-test versus Post-test, a repeated measure Analyses of Variances (ANOVA. The findings showed that there was a significant change in HIV/AIDS knowledge after employees have attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop. There was however no significant change in attitude and behaviour after the HIV/AIDS awareness programme. The study recommends that a one day workshop is not enough to change attitude and behaviour. It also recommends that a follow up in the form of delayed post-test is required to investigate if the behaviour of the members who promised to change positively had actually changed as behaviour changes cannot manifest in a one day workshop. This can also serve as a suggestion for further research.

  19. A study of the effects of the programme 'Energy 2000' on the Swiss market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study's summary of the effects of the programme 'Energy 2000' set up by the Swiss government along with its regional counterparts and the Swiss industry in response to the energy policy article in the Swiss Constitution adopted by a referendum in 1990. The question was whether 'Energy 2000' has an influence on the market, and especially whether the principles of the market economy, which any governmental promotion programme has to comply with, have been effectively obeyed. The study has been done in the course of the 9th year of 'Energy 2000', which aims at promoting energy conservation and renewable energy sources. The study focuses on the work-out of an analytical project able to estimate the interventions' consequences of the State on the market, from a point of view of economy and law. The authors present recommendations applicable to a follow-up programme beginning 2001, after the completion of 'Energy 2000'. The report also includes a response of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy to the formulated recommendations and, more generally, to the whole content of the report

  20. 24. IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Programme and Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fosters the exchange of scientific and technical results in nuclear fusion research through its series of Fusion Energy Conferences. The 24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2012) aims to provide a forum for the discussion of key physics and technology issues as well as innovative concepts of direct relevance to fusion as a source of nuclear energy. With a number of next-step fusion devices currently being implemented - such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in Cadarache, France, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Livermore, USA - and in view of the concomitant need to demonstrate the technological feasibility of fusion power plants as well as the economical viability of this method of energy production, the fusion community is now facing new challenges. The resolution of these challenges will dictate research orientations in the present and coming decades. The scientific scope of FEC 2012 is, therefore, intended to reflect the priorities of this new era in fusion energy research. The conference aims to be a platform for sharing the results of research and development efforts in both national and international fusion experiments that have been shaped by these new priorities, and thereby help in pinpointing worldwide advances in fusion theory, experiments, technology, engineering, safety and socio-economics. Furthermore, the conference will also set these results against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and a fusion power plant in general, and will thus help in defining the way forward. With the participation of international organizations such as the ITER International Organization and EURATOM, as well as the collaboration of more than forty countries and several research institutes, including those working on smaller plasma devices, it is expected that this conference will, as in the past, serve to identify possibilities and means for a

  1. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  2. WHEN RELEVANCE DECENTERS CRITICALITY: THE CASE OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL CRIME, VIOLENCE AND INJURY LEAD PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Seedat

    2010-01-01

    Following the formal demise of political apartheid in SouthAfrica in 1994, critical and community-centred psychologistshave tended to obtain relevance through alignment with thetenets of social justice and the larger democratic project. Thisarticle draws on the experiences of the Crime, Violence andInjury Lead Programme (CVI) to illustrate how particularformulations of scientific and social relevance function tomarginalize criticality and critical scholarship. The authorsuggests that relevanc...

  3. Energy economics basics - Emphasis programme 2004 - 2007; Schwerpunktprogramm EWG 2004 bis 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzwiller, L.

    2005-07-01

    This report from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the work done within the framework of the interdisciplinary energy economics programme on scenarios and instruments for energy policy-making and economics, as well as on social and environmental aspects. The report reviews the emphasis and goals of the next phase of the programme for the period 2004 - 2007. A research road map is discussed that is to identify promising technologies that will provide a substantial contribution to meeting the goal of creating the so-called '2000-Watt Society'. The road map is to also help identify technologies that provide socio-economic advantages and identify bottlenecks and restraints on the propagation of energy-efficient technologies in the building and transport areas.

  4. The future of the ''intelligent Energy for Europe'' programme stakeholders consultation on the framework programme for competitiveness and innovation (CIP) Energie-Cites Opinion; L'Avenir du Programme ''Energie Intelligente Europe'' consultation des acteurs sur le programme pour la competitivite et l nnovation Avis d nergie-Cites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    The European Commission has launched a Consultation relative to the integration of support programmes to energy efficiency (EIE Programme) in the Competitiveness and Innovative Programme (CIP), this one being integrated in the Lisbon process. This consultation offers the opportunity to Energie-Cites to define its opinion on the relationships between Sustainable energy, Competitiveness and Innovation. - If Europe is to become the most competitive and innovative region in the world, it must consider this objective from the angle of sustainable growth, that is, by promoting the efficient use of fossil resources and by controlling the effluents and waste that are generated by the transformation of energy. What is at stake for Europe is its capacity to propose an energy model (consumption and production) that can be reproducible in the rest of the world. In other hands, the integration of energy efficiency and renewable energy support programmes into a broader scheme (CIP) covering very different areas, with no links between them and with no clear information regarding both the financial amounts and sources involved, entails a major risk, that of reducing, or even suppressing support at a time when we need it most. From the current understanding of the situation, Energie-Cites is not favourable to such integration. (A.L.B.)

  5. A tentative programme towards a full scale energy amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1996-01-01

    We present a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier (EA), following the conceptual design of Ref. [1]. Unlike the presently on going CERN experiments, reaction rates will be sufficiently massive to permit demonstrating the practical feasibility of energy generation on an industrial scale and to tackle the complete family chains of [1] the breeding process in Thorium fuel, [2] the burning of the self-generated Actinides, [3] the Plutonium (higher Actinides) burning of spent fuel from ordinary Reactors and [4] Fuel reprocessing/regeneration. The accelerator must provide a beam power which is commensurate to the rate of transformations which are sought. No existing accelerator can meet such a performance and a dedicated facility must be built. We describe an alternative based on the superconducting cavities (SC) now in standard use at the LEP \\[e^+-e^-\\] collider which is scheduled to terminate its operation by year 200 After this time, with reasonable modifications, the fully opera...

  6. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs.

  7. Renewable energy rural electrification. Sustainability aspects of the Mexican programme in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 20 years Mexico has been fertile ground for rural projects using renewable energy technologies. In many cases, however, sustainability aspects were either improperly handled or essentially ignored. Such was the case, for instance, with solar thermal water pumping projects, solar water desalination, and even complete 'solar towns'. Painful but important lessons were learned from such failed projects. Now, sustainability is the focal point of a current rural electrification programme with renewable energy. As of this writing, over 24,000 individual home photovoltaic lighting systems have already been installed in different regions of Mexico; another 12,000 systems are estimated to have been installed in rural areas as a result of private commercial activities; seven village-size hybrid systems (photovoltaic-wind and photovoltaic-wind-diesel) have also been implemented. With this, the Mexican renewable energy rural electrification programme stands among the largest programmes of its kind in the world today. The question of the programme's sustainability has been a major concern at the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), where activities have been under way since the start to lend it technical support. The lessons learned in the process will be discussed in this article. (author). 8 refs

  8. Energy conservation 1999-2002. Programme of action; Energiebesparing 1999-2002. Actieprogramma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In this programme of action it is described what contribution the Dutch government expects from different sectors and target groups in the Dutch society. Also an overview is given of the tools that can be used to realize energy conservation targets. Activities for energy efficiency improvements concern a goal-oriented approach of final consumers, a clear division of responsibilities within the Dutch government, and an important role for the intermediary organizations. In the programme of action eight different groups of final consumers are distinguished: the energy-intensive industry, the medium-sized businesses, the profit sector, medium and small businesses, the agricultural sector, the non-profit sector, governmental bodies, and households. The tools that can be applied are bench-marking and long-range agreements on energy efficiency improvements for the energy-intensive industry, and taxes and levies, counselling and regulations for the other sectors. It is stressed that the programme of action can only be successful if every party involved (governmental departments, intermediaries, such as municipalities, energy suppliers and societal organizations) are willing to cooperate actively. Special attention is paid to the subject of monitoring to control the progress and quality of the activities and measures to be taken

  9. Regional initiatives to scale-up energy access for economic and human development: Lessons learned from the East African community and the economic community of West African States. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents the experience of two African Regional Economic Commissions (RECs) - East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - who, with assistance from the UNDP, have moved towards developing and implementing regional strategies to increase access to modern energy services (UNDP, 2006a). The Johannesburg consensus: access to energy underpins development and poverty reduction The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) includes an emerging international consensus on the role of energy in sustainable development: 1) Energy services are an essential input to economic development and social progress, notably to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Energy services are necessary for successful implementation of almost all sectoral development programmes, notably revenue generating activities, health, education, water, food security, agricultural development, etc. Increased access to energy fuels economic growth and poverty reduction. 'The lack of modern fuels and electricity in most developing countries entrenches poverty, constrains the delivery of social services, limits opportunities for women, and erodes environmental sustainability' (UN-Energy, 2005). 2) Under current economic conditions, provision of energy services to poor populations in many developing countries is not attractive to market actors. Experience in the decades before and after Johannesburg had amply demonstrated the positive and negative aspects of a purely market based approach to the provision of energy services. On the positive side, in the power sector for instance, privatization and deregulation had in many cases reduced expenditure of public funds in support of money losing public utilities. However, on the negative side, these attempts only rarely achieved improvement in the quality or reliability of service in urban areas (see Chapter 3). In almost no cases had they achieved improvement in the rates of access to electricity in rural

  10. Energy prices and the promotion of energy conservation. A background study for energy conservation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prices of fuels in the international markets affect the development of consumer prices of energy in Finland. In the near future no factors can be foreseen, which would cause major increases in the prices of oil, coal or gas. It can thus not be expected that increased fuel prices would motivate more efficient energy conservation. In international comparison, consumer prices of energy have been relatively low in Finland. This applies especially to electricity. After the removal of price controls, energy prices have been determined by the markets. The influence of the public authorities in energy pricing is put into effect through taxation. The price of energy has a fairly small effect on energy consumption in a short term, but longer term effects are more significant. Energy products are faxed in all western countries. (orig.)

  11. A new energy future for South Africa: The political ecology of South African renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy remains a contested topic in South Africa. This paper argues that South Africa can build on the momentum surrounding its introduction of a feed-in tariff by enacting policies that may, if given adequate funding and political effort, allow the country to be a world leader in renewable energy. Given a variety of renewable energy policy options for moving forward, a majority of stakeholders consulted in this study strongly prefer the development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster, in which government develops coordinated policy mechanisms that attract renewable energy manufacturers, over three other policies suggested by the authors. Interviews with key informants that play critical roles in this decision-making process suggest that there are reasons to remain cautiously optimistic about the country's renewable energy future while cognizant of the challenges that must still be overcome. Opportunities for a low carbon renewable energy transition in South Africa include the prevalence of broad stakeholder consultation, facilitated by civil society, and an innovative policy development context. Significant impediments also exist, however, and include pervasive social issues such as poverty and political inertia, along with the ongoing difficulties facing renewable energy technologies in reaching grid parity with inexpensive and abundant South African coal. - Highlights: → Numerous opportunities exist for a low carbon energy transition in South Africa. → Stakeholders in study prefer development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster. → Significant impediments still exist, including grid parity, poverty, and inequality.

  12. Energy research 2004 - Overview; Recherche energetique / Energie-Forschung 2004. Rapport de synthese des chefs de programme / Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2004. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energies, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, combustion, fuel cells and in the process engineering areas. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning solar heating and cooling, energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small-scale hydro, geothermal energy and wind energy are presented. Work being done on nuclear safety and disposal regulations as well as controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  13. WHEN RELEVANCE DECENTERS CRITICALITY: THE CASE OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL CRIME, VIOLENCE AND INJURY LEAD PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Seedat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the formal demise of political apartheid in SouthAfrica in 1994, critical and community-centred psychologistshave tended to obtain relevance through alignment with thetenets of social justice and the larger democratic project. Thisarticle draws on the experiences of the Crime, Violence andInjury Lead Programme (CVI to illustrate how particularformulations of scientific and social relevance function tomarginalize criticality and critical scholarship. The authorsuggests that relevance without criticality produces forms ofintellectual activity that privilege empiricist traditions, perpetrate a binary between research and research translation, andreproduce the myth that intervention work is atheoretical.The review of the CVI serves as a reminder of the challengesinherent in enactments of critical psychology. Among themany issues that critical psychology oriented initiatives likeCVI have to contend with is the task of developing theoreticaland other resources to move between co-operation and critiquein the service of democratic development.

  14. Bioenergy research programme results on the harvesting of energy wood; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelman tuloksia energiapuun korjuusta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, S.

    1999-07-01

    The six-year-long Bioenergy Research Programme, which ended at the end of 1998 has been assessed to have been among the best energy-technology programmes carried out concurrently under the auspices of TEKES. The concrete results obtained have for their part contributed to the powerful increase in the use of fuelwood and small-diameter trees (logging residues) on logging sites in Finland. The competitiveness of energy wood improved greatly thanks to the technology developed in the course of the programme and the concurrent changes in taxation implemented. The expenditures goal of the research programme as regards the large-scale production of chipped small-diameter trees (logging residues) was set at FIM 45 per MWh. This can be achieved when using the harvesting methods developed in connection with the research programme for logging- residue chips involving truck-, logging-strip- or landing-based chipping and short forest-haulage distances in relatively easy harvesting conditions. The development objective as regards small-scale production of fuelwood was to reduce production costs by 20 % of what they were in 1992. This was the assignment given to the TTS-Institute and machine manufacturers. The objective was achieved in the production of a chopped firewood and longwood chips. The savings in costs were achieved by mechanising the felling of longwood using new harvester heads and by using feeder-equipped chopping machines to do the chopping. The objective in the forest haulage of logging residues was achieved by using trailers developed at the TTS-Institute. (orig.)

  15. The Department of Energy's nuclear R and D programmes [United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Consultation Document reviews how the United Kingdom Department of Energy's nuclear R and D programmes support the Government's nuclear policy and reaches preliminary conclusions about their future direction. It describes the changes the Department has adopted, and is proposing, to ensure that it is better informed about the nuclear R and D it commissions and that the work is carried out cost-effectively. The areas of research reviewed are: safety; radiological protection; safeguards; reactor technology; fusion; decommissioning and waste management. (author)

  16. The economics of energy efficiency for the poor--a South African case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa's Reconstruction and Development Programme set ambitious goals for providing basic services to all, including housing and electrification. More efficient use of energy has the potential to socially and politically support these goals, particularly when it is targeted at low-income communities lacking adequate energy services. This paper examines the economics of energy efficiency for the urban poor from the perspective of society, utilities and poor consumers, using five example programmes. While the five energy efficiency programmes generally have significant economic and environmental benefits from a social perspective, they may not be as attractive to utilities and consumers. Also examined are the policy options for overcoming the significant barriers to energy efficiency, and ways government can bridge the gap between what is good for society and what is good for the electricity industry

  17. Strategies for Achieving Healthy Energy Balance Among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groesbeck P. Parham, MD

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLow-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1 their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2 their attitudes toward CDC’s suggested physical activity strategies, and 3 their suggestions on how to achieve CDC’s strategies within their own environment. MethodsA qualitative method (focus groups was used to conduct the study during 2005. Prestudy meetings were held with African American lay health workers to formulate a focus group topic guide, establish inclusion criteria for focus group participants, select meeting sites and times, and determine group segmentation guidelines. Focus groups were divided into two phases.ResultsAll discussions and focus group meetings were held in community centers within African American neighborhoods in the Mississippi Delta and were led by trained African American moderators. Phase I focus groups identified the following themes: overeating, low self-esteem, low income, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy methods of food preparation, a poor working definition of healthy energy balance, and superficial knowledge of strategies for achieving healthy energy balance. Phase 2 focus groups identified a preference for social support-based strategies for increasing physical activity levels. ConclusionEnergy balance strategies targeting low-income, rural African Americans in the Deep South may be more effective if they emphasize social interaction at the community and family levels and incorporate the concept of community volunteerism.

  18. Actor interfaces and practices of power in a community health worker programme: a South African study of unintended policy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    This paper makes a contribution to a much-neglected aspect of policy analysis: the practice of power in implementation. Practices of power are at the heart of every policy process, yet are rarely explicitly explored in the health policy literature. This paper provides a detailed study of micro-practices of power by those at the frontline of service delivery in the implementation of a national community health worker policy in one rural South African sub-district. The paper is based on a small-scale qualitative study which collected data through observations, interviews and focus group discussions with health services and facility managers, community health workers and community members. Practices of power were analysed using VeneKlasen and Miller's categorization of multiple dimensions of power, as power over, power with, power to and power within. Furthermore, the concept of 'actor interface analysis' allowed exploration of different actors' experience, interests and their specific location in the landscape of local health system governance. The study revealed that almost all policy actors exercised some form of power, from authoritative power, derived from hierarchy and budget control, to the discretionary power of those working at lower levels to withhold labour or organize in-service training. Each of these practices of power had their rationale in different actors' efforts to make the intervention 'fit' their understandings of local reality. While each had a limited impact on policy outcomes, their cumulative effect produced a significant thinning down of the policy's intent. However, discretionary power was not always used to undermine policy. One manager's use of discretionary power in fact led to a partial reconstruction of the original policy intent. The paper concludes that understanding and being responsive to the complexity of local realities, interests and contexts and the multi-layered practices of power may allow managers to adopt more appropriate

  19. Technical Session: Germany. Legal Issues Associated with Preparing for a Nuclear Energy Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing and implementing a national programme for the civilian use of nuclear energy means embarking on the use of a Janus-faced form of energy. We all know that nuclear energy implies both extraordinary benefits and extraordinary risks. This fact requires a legal framework appropriate to cope with both elements of nuclear power. Legislators and State authorities have to establish a sound balance between risks and benefits. That is not at all an easy task. While excluding or limiting risks requires severe legal control mechanisms, the benefits can only fully be enjoyed if the legal framework ensures freedom of research and of economic and industrial development including the guarantee of property ownership and of investments. Combining both opposite poles seems like trying to square the circle. In case of a conflict between promotion and protection, there is no doubt that the protection against nuclear risks has to prevail. Therefore this aspect of nuclear law will be mainly dealt with in this presentation. Establishing a legal framework to tame the hazards of nuclear energy is a much more challenging task for law-makers than providing a legal basis for promoting the use of nuclear energy. With regard to the promotion of nuclear energy, States enjoy a broad range of discretion and may use a great number of legal and non-legal instruments to support the development of a nuclear programme. From a legal point of view, promoting nuclear energy does not require a specific regime. However, it does require a specific regime to control the risks of nuclear energy. States preparing for a nuclear energy programme have to be aware that the use of nuclear energy is not an exclusively national matter. In particular the risk associated with nuclear energy extends beyond national borders. Using the benefits also needs international cooperation in many fields including, e.g., research or fuel supply. Today a network of multilateral and bilateral international treaties exists

  20. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  1. Development of charcoal retort pilot plant in Zambia. African Energy Programme research report series no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical report discusses the theoretical and experimental work which has been undertaken in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of charcoal retort model prototypes. Optimum operating conditions have been established at an initial temperature of 350 deg. C and stabilisation time of 5 hours. From the technical point of view, the project is viable since as per set objectives, charcoal is being produced at a higher conversion efficiency of around 40% and the by-products in the form of pyroligenous liquor and tar are recovered. As expected, the analysis shows that the model is uneconomic since the technological price of the products exceeds that of the selling price of products. However, the increase in the size of the retort chamber by eighteen renders the prototype economically viable. The report also discusses further work such as continuation of the testing of the retort to establish concretely the optimum operating conditions, determination of the reliability and durability of the retort and evaluation of the quality of charcoal produced, which has been recommended. Based on the results from the retort model and preliminary financial analysis, an economic analysis on the value of by-products from wood distillation is undertaken. The analysis shows that there is a reasonable market of by-products, (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) to warrant processing of the pyroligenous liquor, and subsequent setting up of a small scale distillation plant. Using the same results from the retort model, a charcoal retort plant with a 10m3 retort chamber capacity is designed. In the design of the retort chamber, various considerations are undertaken such as stress calculations of the retort chamber on the support legs, furnace, piping and distribution chamber design, and their associated heat losses. Basing on the amount of heat required to complete the carbonisation process and heat losses from the system, a suitable furnace size and air blower are selected. The latter is to ensure that effective combustion takes place in the furnace. For the purpose of condensing smoke, emanating from the retort chamber, into a pyroligenous liquor, a heat exchanger is designed. During the design, most of the parameters which were unknown from theoretical consideration, were obtained from experimental analysis of the retort model. Finally, based on actual costs of materials for construction of the pilot plant, including buildings, a financial analysis of the pilot plant is undertaken. The analysis indicates that a second version of two retort chambers of 10m3 each being supplied with heat from one furnace is economically attractive. Further improvement in the financial analysis is obtained through sale of both charcoal and pyroligenous liquor. It is recommended that construction of the plant be completed, vigorously tested and commissioned before commercialisation can be undertaken. (author)

  2. Status of the United States Department of Energy's site remediation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper provides an overview of the status of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) site closure activities and a case study on closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), concentrating on recent changes in management of the US programme and the resulting lessons learned. Over the past year, the USDOE has been changing fundamentally the way it manages its Environmental Management or cleanup programme.This programme is responsible for the cleanup of 114 sites across the United States of America.About US $6.7 billion each year are spent to manage sites, safeguard nuclear materials, dispose of waste in numerous operating low level waste disposal facilities and to manage a transuranic waste geological repository, remediate extensive surface and groundwater contamination, and deactivate and decommission thousands of excess contaminated facilities.The fundamental change is in focusing efforts on risk reduction and site closure rather than maintaining the status quo, which has lengthy closure schedules and increasing life-cycle cost estimates. The USDOE is taking lessons learned from successful projects, such as the RFETS, and applying those lessons to the entire cleanup programme. At the RFETS, a risk-based management approach is being adopted, which applies effective contracting strategies and an overall sense of urgency to produce performance that serves the interest of the workers, the public and other stake holders. The goal is to replicate this success at other sites being closed. In February 2002, the USDOE completed a comprehensive review of the Environmental Management programme, entitled the Top-to-Bottom Review.The review found numerous structural and institutional problems and identified specific remedies. The report urged the programme to transform its mission from managing risk to eliminating risk. Some of the problems and recommendations include improving contract strategy and management; moving to an accelerated

  3. The United States Atomic Energy Commission Programme of Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear materials management as conceived by the US Atomic Energy Commission is defined and its development traced from 1943 to the present time. The general programme is outlined and its principal features discussed. Emphasis is placed on administration of those portions of the USAEC programme which pertain to the development and maintenance of quantity data, the establishment of internal controls and the evaluation of performance. The current techniques whereby transfer data are recorded and processed within the USAEC are discussed in some detail, as are the techniques for presentation of material balance reports which periodically summarize the transactions and the results of operations. The techniques used by the USAEC to ascertain the effectiveness of the nuclear materials management programmes of its operating contractors are also discussed. In addition to material being held by contractors which operate USAEC-owned plants and laboratories, there are large quantities of special nuclear material held under a wide variety of financial and administrative arrangements, e.g. under lease, private ownership, under contract with the USAEC where the user is financially liable for losses, as well as those where the risk of losses is taken by the USAEC. This divergence of circumstances causes significant variation in the emphasis and approach used by the AEC and this variation is noted. A brief summary of unresolved problem areas concludes the presentation. (author)

  4. Evaluation of energy potential of Municipal Solid Waste from African urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    SCARLAT NICOLAE; MOTOLA VINCENZO; DALLEMAND Jean-Francois; MONFORTI-FERRARIO Fabio; MOFOR Linus

    2014-01-01

    Energy is a critical issue for Africa, where large number of people does not have access to energy and often rely on the traditional use of biomass. Energy recovery from waste can play a role in minimizing the impact of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) on the environment with the additional benefit of providing a local source of energy. This study was carried out to assess, at the African level, the role which waste could play in providing energy to citizens and provides an estimate of the total p...

  5. A rose by any other name? New contexts and players in European energy efficiency programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Saastamoinen, Mika (National Consumer Research Centre (Finland)); Hodson, Mike; Marvin, Simon (SURF Centre for Sustainable Urban and Regional Futures, Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom)); Kallaste, Tiit (Stockholm Environment Inst. Tallinn Centre, Tallinn (Estonia)); Maier, Petra (Consumer Association of North Rhine Westfalia (Germany)); Mourik, Ruth (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)); Rinne, Samuli (Enespa Ltd. (Finland)); Vadovics, Edina (Green Dependent Sustainable Solutions Association (Hungary))

    2009-07-01

    Until recent years, the promotion of energy efficiency has mainly been the mandate of national governments and energy utilities. As energy markets have been privatised and opened up to competition, utility-driven DSM programmes have run into increasing problems and thus often had to be re-configured and re-invented. New intermediary organisations are also called for to tackle the demand side, such as specialized energy service companies (ESCOs), energy agencies, or specific organizations that gain their funding from public benefit charges. A closer look at who is promoting energy efficiency in Europe today, however, reveals an even more diverse picture. Energy efficiency is promoted under a variety of headings, including climate change mitigation, sustainability, eco-efficiency or energy self-sufficiency. Moreover, the intermediary organizations working on energy efficiency include a variety of non-governmental organizations, public-private partnerships and regional or sectoral networks. After painting a synthesized picture of the general problems confronting energy efficiency, our paper discusses the diversity of ways in which new energy intermediaries in old and new member states of the EU are working to promote energy efficiency, and the opportunities and challenges encountered by different kinds of intermediaries. We then turn to analyse the merits of 'nesting' energy efficiency within a broader climate or sustainability agenda. This broader agenda provides some advantages for the promotion of energy efficiency, but also some special challenges. We discuss the pros and cons of hosting energy efficiency under a broader agenda on the basis of recent findings from an EC FP7 funded study called CHANGING BEHAVIOUR

  6. Annual Report 2003. Research programme 'Electricity' of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work done in 2003 in the various research areas covered by the Swiss Electricity Research programme. Work done in the programme's five main areas - electricity transport and storage, high-temperature superconductivity, energy and information technologies, drives and electric motors, and appliances is reviewed. In the electricity transport and storage area an agreement with the Swiss Association of Electricity Producers (VSE) on the transfer of findings was made and the focus of work was set on decentralised systems. Also, the use of compressed-air storage systems was looked at and the AC corrosion of pipelines was examined. Swiss participation in an IEA Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme for Assessing the Impact of High-Temperature Superconductivity on the Electric Power Sector is mentioned, as is the market potential of superconductive current limiters. A total of 8 institutions and industries are involved in theoretical or practical research in the area of high-temperature superconductors. Information and communications technologies are reviewed, including work on energy-efficient EDP server management. Work in other areas summarised includes lighting and uninterruptible power-supplies and work on the energy consumption of process control units. In the electrical drives area, work is summarised in various areas ranging from an industry agreement on the energy-efficiency of motors through to the optimisation of compressed-air systems and energy-efficient gearless drives. Efficient hotel minibars, the energy-efficiency potential in the area of water dispensers and the energy-efficiency potential of hot beverage dispensers used in the area of staff catering and the standby consumption of household appliances are just a few of the topics dealt with. Co-operation with Swiss institutions and international organisations such as the IEA is reviewed. Implementation work in the

  7. The Lund Monte Carlo programme for high energy interactions between hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In high energy hadron-nucleus and hadron-hadron collisions low Psub(T) is the dominating feature, not explained by QCD and related to quark confinement. Nevertheless QCD inspired formulations have been used to explain low Psub(T) interactions. Experimentally observed features like cascades are still not fully explained and we do not know when and in what way the hadronization take place. We present a Monte Carlo programme for ultra relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions where we let the projectile nucleon rescatter inside the target nucleus, get excited and then fragment according to the Lund fragmentation scheme for particle production. (Author)

  8. 2000-2006 National Wood Energy Programme. 2000-2005 Activities Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005 was marked by key decisions which were taken with the aim of developing the biomass sector as a substitute for fossil fuels. Indeed, to achieve the ambitious objectives for renewable sources of energy set out by the July 2005 Energy Policy Orientation Programme (POPE), we must make great use of biomass, particularly to increase by 50% the share of renewable thermal energy between now and 2010 and to enable biofuels to represent 7% of all fuels used at the same date. To a lesser extent, and in conjunction with heat production, the share of biomass in renewable electricity production also needs to rise. Both the resource and key supply players are there and are ready to get organised in order to rise to these challenges. There is an abundant supply of agricultural and forest by-products. More than sixty companies organise and deliver heating wood. More than 300 government and professional promotion, regulatory, PR, finance, equipment construction and operation, research and engineering organizations are involved in this market. The strategic and economic context is highly favourable in the light of laws, directives and international agreements aiming to combat greenhouse gas emissions, but also due to the structural pressure on the price of fossil fuels. Wood energy, as a renewable energy source, has an important role to play in this context of growth. Furthermore, the wood energy sector should be developed using an exemplary sustainable development approach, which means that all the economic, social and environmental effects are taken into account. In order to comprehensively assess the sector's environmental impact, a full chapter of this report presents the work and programmes set up by ADEME to reduce pollutant emissions produced by biomass combustion, particularly from private households. Moreover, consultation and dialogue between those involved must be widened in order to enable all wood users to benefit from 'best forest use' which will be a key

  9. Enabling innovations in energy access: An African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional energy technologies and deployment approaches cannot be relied upon to eliminate energy poverty in Africa. Innovations in energy access are necessary. Previous attempts at introducing and scaling up innovative solutions do not sufficiently address dynamic and structural determinants of success. This limits their actual performance as scalable drivers of innovations in technology, policy and institutions. Using technological innovation systems theory, we demonstrate a practical approach to assess the sustainability of innovations in energy access, and develop a framework to guide energy policy makers, clean energy entrepreneurs and energy-development researchers. - Highlights: ► Innovative technologies and policies are needed to expand energy access. ► TIS approach can guide the formulation and deployment of sustainable energy innovations. ► Learning by exploring and doing are the keys to entrepreneurial success. ► Lack of infrastructure and institutional frameworks are major barriers to innovations. ► Government intervention is needed to eliminate barriers to innovations.

  10. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 5: straw, poultry litter and energy crops as energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  11. Programmable extraction of different energy proton beam to an experimental facility in the process of injection into the IHEP synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programmable different energy proton beam extraction to an experimental facility of the IHEP under injection to the IHEP proton synchrotron is realized in the following way; after inquiry from the IHEP EF transfer to a lower extraction energy and beam extraction to EF are performed. 1 ref.; 1 fig

  12. Proposal for a coordination research programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on stable isotope tracer techniques for studies on protein-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report provides a rationale and justification for the initiation of a Coordinated Research programme to support studies using stable isotopic tracer techniques to address priority areas of human protein-energy interactions with special emphasis on the problems of human nutrition in developing countries. The Report suggests a modus for establishing such a practically oriented Coordinated Research Programme under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency with concrete suggestions for its organization and the identification of probable participants in such a programme. The likely sources of additional funding to sustain such an activity viable for a period of 4 to 5 years are also indicated. 8 refs

  13. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  14. Wii Tennis Play for Low-Income African American Adolescents’ Energy Expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Exergames, which are video games that require gross motor activity, are popular activities that produce energy expenditure. Seventy-four low-income African American 12- to 18-year-old adolescents were randomly assigned to a 30-minute condition: 1) solitary Wii tennis exergame play against virtual peers; 2) social Wii tennis exergame play against a real peer; or 3) control group with sedentary computer activity. Adolescents were tested for caloric expenditure after exposure to treatment condit...

  15. Anaemia and zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy in paediatric antiretroviral programmes in the IeDEA Paediatric West African Database to evaluate AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna A Renner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART containing zidovudine (ZDV recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines. We estimated the risk of severe anaemia after initiation of a ZDV-containing regimen in HIV-infected children included in the IeDEA West African database. Methods: Standardized collection of data from HIV-infected children (positive PCR<18 months or positive serology ≥18 months followed up in HIV programmes was included in the regional IeDEA West Africa collaboration. Ten clinical centres from seven countries contributed (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal to this collection. Inclusion criteria were age <16 years and starting ART. We explored the data quality of haemoglobin documentation over time and the incidence and predictors of severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dL per 100 child-years of follow-up over the duration of first-line antiretroviral therapy. Results: As of December 2009, among the 2933 children included in the collaboration, 45% were girls, median age was five years; median CD4 cell percentage was 13%; median weight-for-age z-score was−2.7; and 1772 (60.4% had a first-line ZDV-containing regimen. At baseline, 70% of the children with a first-line ZDV-containing regimen had a haemoglobin measure available versus 76% in those not on ZDV (p≤0.01: the prevalence of severe anaemia was 3.0% (n=38 in the ZDV group versus 10.2% (n=89 in those without (p<0. 01. Over the first-line follow-up, 58.9% of the children had ≥1 measure of haemoglobin available in those exposed to ZDV versus 60.4% of those not (p=0.45. Severe anaemia occurred in 92 children with an incidence of 2.47 per 100 child-years of follow-up in those on a ZDV-containing regimen versus 4.25 in those not (p≤0.01. Adjusted for age at ART initiation and first-line regimen, a weight-for-age z-score ≤−3 was a strong predictor associated with a 5.59 times risk of

  16. Technology programme SULA 2. Energy in steel and base metal production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    SULA 2 is the energy research programme of the steel and metal producing industry. Central steel and metal producing companies are Outokumpu, Rautaruukki, Imatra Steel and Fundia Wire which is a subsidiary of Rautaruukki. The priorities of the SULA 2 programme are in process development. Worthwhile areas of concentration in energy research by Finland include the following: Iron and steel production; Zinc production; The production of ferrochromium and stainless steel; The pyrometallurgical production of copper and nickel and Rolling and heat treatment of steel In addition to the steel and metal producers the following companies participate in some projects: Kuusakoski, Kumera, Fiskars Tools and BETKER. Research work is performed in the following universities and research centers: Helsinki University of Technology, Oulu University, Aabo Akademi University, Tampere University of Technology, VTT Energy and VTT Building Technology. The total number of projects in SULA 2 programme is 51. Of these 20 are research institute projects, 21 are company R and D projects and 10 are energy conservation projects funded by Ministry of Trade and Industry. The total research costs are ca. 130 million FIM. The major part of costs is carried by the participating companies, 62 % and by public funding (Ministry of Trade and Industry, TEKES, The Academy of Finland) 36 %. In six projects the objective of research was studying and inventing new production processes or equipment. Results so far are a new production process for the Tornio stainless steel plant and a new design of ore concentrate rotary dryer, which has been commercialized. The electric energy consumption of the melting shop in Tornio has decreased by 25 %, and the production capacity has increased accordingly. Considerable savings in production process energy consumption, estimable from production reports have been achieved in several projects. The total amount of estimable saving in specific energy consumption is about 900

  17. Use of wind energy in the Netherlands, part 2. The multi-annual programme for wind energy 1996-2000 TWIN-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch government would like to achieve a cleaner energy supply in the Netherlands. The target of the government is 10% saving of fossil fuels in 2020. How this can be realized is formulated in the Third White Paper on Energy Policy, published in December 1995. The use of renewable energy sources, including wind energy, plays an important part in this national policy. For the use of wind energy the government aims at a growth of the wind turbine capacity by an average of 100 MW per year, to be realized by installing wind turbines both on land and (in the longer term) offshore. This should result into a fuel saving of 33 PJ in 2007 and 45 PJ in 2020. To stimulate the use of wind energy Novem carried out the Use of Wind Energy in the Netherlands programme (TWIN) from 1991 to 1995. This programme has given a considerable impulse to the growth of wind turbine capacity in the Netherlands. Market parties have been able to complete around 250 MW up to 1996. The programme has unfortunately not resulted in an autonomous market, so the government has ordered the implementation of the TWIN-2 follow-up programme. This follow-up programme runs from 1996 to 2000 and provides a framework for the operations which Novem will be carrying out over this period in the field of wind energy. In this brochure the main elements of the programme are outlined. Also a state-of-the-art is given since the end of 1995, as well as an overview of developments in the wind energy market, and the mission, aim and targets of the TWIN-2 programme. 12 refs

  18. Targeting Energy Management : Analysing targets, outcomes and impacts of corporate energy and greenhouse gas management programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced drastically to limit global increases in temperature to the relatively safe level of maximum 2 degrees Celsius. In the coming decades, energy efficiency improvement will be the main strategy for reducing energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. Energy

  19. Enhancing energy efficiency in public buildings: The role of local energy audit programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the objective of reaching the “nearly zero-energy buildings” target set by the European Union, municipalities cover a crucial role in advocating and implementing energy-efficient measures on a local scale. Based on a dataset of 322 municipalities in Northern Italy, we carried out a statistical analysis to investigate which factors influence the adoption of energy efficiency in municipal buildings. In particular, the analysis focuses on four categories of factors: (i) capacity building for energy efficiency, (ii) existing structure and competences for energy efficiency, (iii) technical and economic support for energy efficiency, and (iv) spill-over effect caused by adoption of “easier” energy-efficient measures. Our results show that capacity building through training courses and technical support provided by energy audits affect positively the adoption of energy efficiency in municipal buildings. The size of the municipal authority, the setting of local energy policies for residential buildings and funding for energy audits are not correlated with energy efficiency in public buildings, where the “plucking of low hanging fruit” often prevails over more cost-effective but long-term strategies. Finally, our results call for the need to promote an efficient knowledge management and a revision of the Stability and Growth Pact. - Highlights: • Public procurement supports the deployment of the energy efficiency of buildings. • Energy audits and other factors influence energy efficiency in public buildings. • Econometric analysis applied to data from 322 municipalities in Northern Italy. • Municipalities need to overtake the “plucking of low-hanging fruit”. • Knowledge management should be associated with removal of budget constraints

  20. Programme wood/energy 2000-2006. Activity Report for 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When ADEME launched its Wood fuel programme throughout all of France in late 1999, its aim was to guide this resource supply chain to maturity and stable development in all user sectors: domestic, multi-family housing, commercial/institutional and industrial applications. To this end the Wood fuel Programme 2000-2006 was assigned objectives and endowed with significant financial means for studies and coordination in order to support and carry out general-interest projects, piloted by ADEME. The stated goal was to replace fossil fuels, avoid carbon emissions and establish quality assurance standards for household firewood and wood-fired devices. This report makes a status of ADEME's Wood fuel programme for the 2000-2004 era: - Domestic heating: After a drop during the 1990's, figures since 1999 of sales of wood-fuel domestic heating equipment (closed heaters, glass-door fires and stoves) have shown a significant rise. On average over 30 years, wood consumption has risen to 7.2 million TOE (40 million cubic metres) per year; - Industry: It is thought there are 1000 wood-fired heaters (above 1 megawatt) used in French industry. These are found mainly in timber-based industries and in timber crushing plants. This amounts to a total power output of 2.5 gigawatts. In the primary and secondary wood processing industries, the increase in the number of wood-fired boilers and energy produced has reached 5% per year Results of a call for carbon energy projects (APEC) was 61 submitted of which 52 were selected; 9 projects pending (166.5 K of aid from ADEME); and 35 projects begun (1,649 K of aid from ADEME). - Local authority and service sector wood-fired heating systems: At the end of 2004, the number of local authority active boilers was 641, producing 430 megawatts. This is an increase of an average of 13% year on year since 2000. By the end of 2004, the target had already been met for the number of boilers being financed (1,090). By 2006 however we still need to generate a

  1. The validation of a measure of organisational energy in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Derman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Previous research has highlighted the need to examine the relationship between people and organisations. This perspective facilitates the study of organisational energy.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to validate a measure of organisational energy in the South African context and to investigate whether there are differences in organisational energy as perceived by employees based on their demographic characteristics and lifestyle variables.Motivation for the study: Managing energy in organisations is important as it drives motivation, powers teamwork, fosters creativity and gives organisations a competitive edge (Schiuma, Mason & Kennerley, 2007. Limited empirical research currently exists on the phenomenon of energy in organisations.Research design/approach method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design, with a convenience sample (N = 520 of employees in a South African financial institution. The researchers administered the EnergyScapes Profile.Main findings: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a one-factor structure for the EnergyScapes Profile. The scale, labelled organisational energy, showed acceptable internal consistency. The researchers found statistically significant differences in the organisational energy levels of employees based on age, tenure, geographical region, relaxation, hypertension and diabetes, depression or psychosis.Practical/managerial implications: The research provides valuable insight for practicing managers about understanding the concept of organisational energy and encourages leaders to question the energy of their employees.Contribution/value-add: The insight the researchers gained by studying the concept of organisational energy contributed in a unique way and showed the importance of considering organisations as dynamic and interactive with the people that work for them.

  2. Threshold cointegration and causality relationship between energy use and growth in seven African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esso, Loesse Jacques [CES, Universite Paris 1-Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Statistique et d' Economie Appliquee (ENSEA), Cellule d' Analyse de Politiques Economiques du CIRES (CAPEC) (Ivory Coast)

    2010-11-15

    The paper investigates the long-run and the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for seven Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1970-2007. Using the Gregory and Hansen testing approach to threshold cointegration, we find that energy consumption is cointegrated with economic growth in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. Moreover, this test suggests that economic growth has a significant positive long-run impact on energy consumption in these countries before 1988 and this effect becomes negative after 1988 in Ghana and South Africa. Furthermore, causality tests suggest bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real GDP in Cote d'Ivoire and unidirectional causality running from real GDP to energy usage in the case of Congo and Ghana. (author)

  3. Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies: African Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is focused on the key drivers of energy access in North and sub-Saharan Africa which are characterized by huge discrepancies in terms of energy access to modern forms of energy. The paper points out that long term development strategies and large programmes with significant financial resources are essential to achieving substantial results in terms of energy access. The paper argues that building up the energy infrastructure (power plants, grid interconnections and small-scale decentralized energy options in rural areas.) is a pre-condition for economic growth and ultimately for energy access. It underlines that historically there is a trend towards more efficient, convenient and cost effective forms of energy. Low carbon path and above all renewable will therefore play an increasing role in the energy mix in the next couple of decades. Manufacturing of capital goods for the renewable energy industry in Africa will be a key challenge to achieving energy security economic growth and energy access. - Highlights: ► Sharp differences of energy access situation and approaches between North and Sub Saharan Africa. ► Energy infrastructure is a pre-condition to economic growth and energy access. ► Interconnections and small-scale decentralized energy schemes are a good mechanism to increasing energy access. ► However interconnections will only contribute marginally to the urban-rural energy divide. ► Manufacturing of capital goods is a key challenge to economic development.

  4. A clinical audit programme for diagnostic radiology: the approach adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, K; Järvinen, H; Butler, P; McLean, I D; Pentecost, M; Rickard, M; Abdullah, B

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a mandate to assist member states in areas of human health and particularly in the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment. Clinical audit is seen as an essential tool to assist in assuring the quality of radiation medicine, particularly in the instance of multidisciplinary audit of diagnostic radiology. Consequently, an external clinical audit programme has been developed by the IAEA to examine the structure and processes existent at a clinical site, with the basic objectives of: (1) improvement in the quality of patient care; (2) promotion of the effective use of resources; (3) enhancement of the provision and organisation of clinical services; (4) further professional education and training. These objectives apply in four general areas of service delivery, namely quality management and infrastructure, patient procedures, technical procedures and education, training and research. In the IAEA approach, the audit process is initiated by a request from the centre seeking the audit. A three-member team, comprising a radiologist, medical physicist and radiographer, subsequently undertakes a 5-d audit visit to the clinical site to perform the audit and write the formal audit report. Preparation for the audit visit is crucial and involves the local clinical centre completing a form, which provides the audit team with information on the clinical centre. While all main aspects of clinical structure and process are examined, particular attention is paid to radiation-related activities as described in the relevant documents such as the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, the Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and related equipment and quality assurance documentation. It should be stressed, however, that the clinical audit does not have any regulatory function. The main purpose of the IAEA approach to clinical audit is one of promoting quality improvement and learning. This paper describes the background to

  5. A clinical audit programme for diagnostic radiology: The Approach adopted by the international atomic energy agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a mandate to assist member states in areas of human health and particularly in the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment. Clinical audit is seen as an essential tool to assist in assuring the quality of radiation medicine, particularly in the instance of multidisciplinary audit of diagnostic radiology. Consequently, an external clinical audit programme has been developed by the IAEA to examine the structure and processes existent at a clinical site, with the basic objectives of: (1) improvement in the quality of patient care; (2) promotion of the effective use of resources; (3) enhancement of the provision and organisation of clinical services; (4) further professional education and training. These objectives apply in four general areas of service delivery, namely quality management and infrastructure, patient procedures, technical procedures and education, training and research. In the IAEA approach, the audit process is initiated by a request from the centre seeking the audit. A three-member team, comprising a radiologist, medical physicist and radiographer, subsequently undertakes a 5-d audit visit to the clinical site to perform the audit and write the formal audit report. Preparation for the audit visit is crucial and involves the local clinical centre completing a form, which provides the audit team with information on the clinical centre. While all main aspects of clinical structure and process are examined, particular attention is paid to radiation-related activities as described in the relevant documents such as the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, the Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and related equipment and quality assurance documentation. It should be stressed, however, that the clinical audit does not have any regulatory function. The main purpose of the IAEA approach to clinical audit is one of promoting quality improvement and learning. This paper describes the background to

  6. What is the role of Financial Development and Energy Consumption on Economic Growth? New Evidence from North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohamed Salman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to test the validity of the causality between financial development and economic growth on energy consumption in three of North African countries. The study employs error coreection model and Granger causaility test to analyza a dataset for three North African countries covering a period from 1980 to 2010. The applied model is based on demand function for energy to assess the existing of causal relationship of energy with financial development, and economic growth, in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia.  Empirical results provide a positive significant relating financial development and energy consumption in Algeria, and Tunisia. On the other hand, Egypt’s results show a negative significant relationship relating energy consumption and financial development. The paper is valuable to policy makers in North African countries in their pursuit for achieving economic growth as it clarifies the urge for the financial development reforms to stimulate investment and growth. 

  7. Swiss energy research programme on solar heat and storage for 2008-2011; Programme de recherche energetique. Chaleur solaire et stockage pour la periode 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadorn, J.-C.

    2009-07-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the research programme on solar heat and heat storage for the years 2008 - 2011. This document presents some aspects of the solar thermal market in 2007, summarizes the main solar thermal technologies for buildings and sketches the main topics of the 'Solar Heat and Heat Storage' research programme. Research and development issues looked at focus mainly on the heating and cooling of buildings. The research and development issues for solar thermal technologies during the period 2008-2011 include improved performance and durability of solar collectors and components, new coatings for solar collectors based on nano-materials as well as simplified and standardised systems for solar heating and cooling. Building Integration and integration in existing heating systems and long-term work with a focus on new materials for storing heat for use in residential buildings are discussed. Also, calculation methods and simulation tools are examined. Pilot and demonstration projects are reviewed.

  8. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 3: converting wood fuel to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  9. Energy research programme on photovoltaics for the 2008 - 2011 period; Energieforschungsprogramm Photovoltaik fuer die Jahre 2008 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2008-09-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the Swiss Energy Research Programme on Photovoltaics for the period 2008 - 2011. The programme is to continue the tried and tested concept of previous years and will involve all the important players in the Swiss photovoltaics area. The report reviews the situation at the international level and the situation in Switzerland. Future developments are discussed. Financing aspects are looked at and the main focal points for the period are listed, including solar cells, solar modules and building integration, electrical system technology, international co-operation and pilot and demonstration projects. In a chapter on national co-operation, competence centres and industry are looked at and co-operation with other Swiss federal and cantonal institutions as well as with private institutions and the electricity industry is reviewed. Operational aspects of the programme such as project submission and assessment, project management and controlling are discussed. Information and communication work, including seminars, conferences and the Internet are discussed. The report is concluded with lists of research and development projects as will as pilot and demonstration projects, references and internet links. Appendices include a review of photovoltaic technologies, an extract from the Swiss Energy Research Concept for 2008 - 2011, a review of the various factors and competencies involved and an overview of international programmes and networks.

  10. New MSc programme in Sustainable Energy at Risø DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryde, M.

    2007-01-01

    In September 2008, the fi rst batch of students will start a new MSc programme which is based at Risø DTU. It is a two-year study programme, so the students will be well into their studies when the UN’s climate conference is held in Copenhagen in 2009...

  11. Applications of Atomic Energy in African economic and social development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes briefly the basic principles of nuclear techniques applied in: raw materials development, including resources inventory; power; food and agriculture, including preservation and conservation; industry; medicine and biology; water resources development; and education and training, including manpower resources. It relates these subjects to situations and problems as they are to be found in individual African countries or sub-regions of the Continent. It suggests relative priorities and reveals that applications of atomic energy can only be beneficial on an inter-sectoral basis. Certain conclusions are put forward which may be relevant to the preparation and implementation of development plans at the national level. (author)

  12. Storage exploratory project. Energy program. Final report; Projet exploratoire Stockage. Programme Energie. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Y. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble, UMR 5529 INPG/UJF - CNRS, ENSIEG, 38 - Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Ozil, P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), ENSEEG, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Cheron, Y. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, CNRS, 31 - Toulouse (France); Multon, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Information et des Systemes et Applications des Technologies de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE), 94 - Cachan (France); Carillo, S. [Centre Interuniversitaire de recherche et d' Ingenierie sur les Materiaux (CIRIMAT), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory project was the analysis of the most efficient possibilities of electric power storage. It was limited to the electrochemical storage, the lead batteries which behavior is not completely characterized, the flywheel energy storage and the development of simulation. This report presents the results of the works. (A.L.B.)

  13. Swiss energy research in 2008; Energie-Forschung 2008 - Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter / Recherche energetique 2008 - Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive document published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on Swiss energy research in the year 2008. The overview reports made by the programme leaders are presented. In the area of efficient energy use, programme reports are presented for the following areas: Energy in buildings, traffic, electricity technologies and their usage, networks, heat-pumps and combined heat and power, combustion technologies, power station 2020 and carbon capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen as well as process engineering. In the renewables sector, work in the following areas is reported on: Solar thermal energy and storage, photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy, biomass and wood energy, hydropower, geothermal energy and wind energy. Research in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear safety is reported on, as is research in the areas of regulatory safety, fusion and nuclear wastes. Finally, a report on energy-economics research is presented. The report is completed with a list of projects and an appendix containing details on the Swiss Energy Research Commission CORE and a list of those responsible for the various research programmes.

  14. Wii Tennis Play for Low-Income African American Adolescents' Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-07-01

    Exergames, which are video games that require gross motor activity, are popular activities that produce energy expenditure. Seventy-four low-income African American 12- to 18-year-old adolescents were randomly assigned to a 30-minute condition: 1) solitary Wii tennis exergame play against virtual peers; 2) social Wii tennis exergame play against a real peer; or 3) control group with sedentary computer activity. Adolescents were tested for caloric expenditure after exposure to treatment conditions as well as on a tennis court using Actical accelerometers. Adolescents who played the social exergame against a peer expended significantly more energy than those who played alone. Both exergame groups expended more energy than the control group. Adolescents who played the social exergame also expended comparable calories to actual tennis court play during a simulated lesson. Exergames, then, could promote physical activity, thereby becoming a tool to combat the obesity crisis that is affecting many youth. PMID:24058381

  15. Investing in African research training institutions creates sustainable capacity for Africa: the case of the University of the Witwatersrand School of Public Health masters programme in epidemiology and biostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellerman Ronel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in Africa is a high priority internationally. Inadequate research capacity to produce local, relevant research has been identified as a limitation to improved population health. Increasing attention is being paid to the higher education sector in Africa as a method of addressing this; evidence that such investment is having the desired impact is required. A 1998 3-year investment by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR in research training at the School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa was reviewed to assess its' impact. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey of the 70 students registered for the masters programme in epidemiology & biostatistics from 2000-2005 was conducted. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires. Results Sixty percent (42/70 of students responded. At the time of the survey 19% of respondents changed their country of residence after completion of the masters course, 14% migrated within Africa and 5% migrated out of Africa. Approximately half (47% were employed as researchers and 38% worked in research institutions. Sixty percent reported research output, and four graduates were pursuing PhD studies. Government subsidy to higher education institutions, investments of the University of the Witwatersrand in successful programmes and ongoing bursaries for students to cover tuition fees were important for sustainability. Conclusions Investing in African institutions to improve research training capacity resulted in the retention of graduates in Africa in research positions and produced research output. Training programmes can be sustained when national governments invest in higher education and where that funding is judiciously applied. Challenges remain if funding for students bursaries is not available.

  16. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual. PMID:25585294

  17. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.

  18. Proceedings of the business and investment forum 'renewable energy in Africa'. A Thermie and UNESCO action; Recueil des interventions du forum d'affaires 'energies renouvelables en Afrique'. Une action du programme Thermie et de l'Unesco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    One of the objectives of THERMIE (which is the demonstration component of the Research and Technological Development JOULE-THERMIE programme of the European community in non-nuclear energy technologies) is to promote co-operation in the field of renewable energy technologies between the European Union and African countries. The World Solar Programme 1996-2005 adopted during the Harare summit (September 96) organised by UNESCO in co-operation with the European Commission, recommends a wider use of renewable energy sources, through the implementation of national high priority projects. This Business and investment Forum is an integral part of the follow-up to the World Solar Summit. Following QUITO in September 98 and HARARE in March 99, similar events will be organised in other Regions, with an ADEME co-ordination. The Forum was specifically targeted at decision and policy-makers, local authorities, investors and international co-operation agencies, industrialists, institutional representatives and programme managers working in the field of Renewable Energy. One of the main goals of this Forum is to promote investments and financing opportunities for projects using efficient renewable energy technologies, for a sustainable development in Africa. (author)

  19. 尼日利亚非洲盘尾丝虫病项目实施效果的评价%Evaluation on implementation of the African programme for onchocerciasis control in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢铮; Ifeanyi Nsofor; Rachel Tolhurst

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解不同利益相关方对非洲盘尾丝虫病项目(African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control,APOC)的评价,调查该项目在社区实施中的进展及所存在的问题,为未来被忽视的热带病(neglected tropical diseases,NTD)控制项目提供政策建议.方法:采用个人深度访谈和焦点组访谈作为研究方法,使用主题框架法作为资料处理方法.结果:药物发放取得了一定的效果,社区居民普遍认可并接受了发放的预防药物.同时,研究还发现社区缺乏对NTD的健康教育,社区没有充分认识到疾病预防的责任,社区志愿者力量尚未得到可持续发展.结论:APOC项目目标部分得到实现,与其他非洲国家相比,尼日利亚在项目实施上遇到一些挑战和困难.该项目对于中国也具有借鉴意义.%Objective: To investigate the progress and challenges of the implementation of the global programme in Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods; The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control ( APOC) as the first neglected tropical diseases ( 1NTD ) control initiative in Africa had been introduced to Nigeria since 1997. Community-directed distributors of community-directed treatment with ivermectin had been adopted as its main strategy. As a qualitative study, in-depth interview and focus group discussion were used as data collection methods. The thematic framework method was used as a data analysis method. Results: The community reported that they had benefited from the programme. The study findings showed that the health education on NTDs remained very poor, and the community had not fully realized its responsibility for the drug distribution and NTDs control, and the community drug distributor (CDDs) had not been developed as a substantial team working for other projects. Conclusion; The goals of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) only have been achieved partly. China should learn from the experience.

  20. Scoping study on SADC energy sector carbon market potential; SADC = Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-22

    This study shows that, while there is a certain degree of institutional and project development capacity in the region and significant Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) potential, very little of this potential is currently being tapped. National institutional structures are mostly very new, understaffed, and working in isolation from each other. There are ongoing national CDM capacity building programmes in several SADC countries that will address barriers and develop projects at a national level, but there are also regional opportunities that these programmes will not address. For some of large scale project opportunities such as landfill gas, industrial energy use, fugitive emission and transport, a national approach is required because these projects depend on local industrial base, regulatory environment, and are also large enough that the carbon revenue can cover the transaction costs. There are a few key areas that should be addressed, however, at a regional level: Energy trade and power development: any low carbon power projects that are developed to serve regional energy needs and displace coal fired power can only receive carbon credits if the baseline is a regional power grid rather than just a national grid. This is also true for large scale energy efficiency projects in countries that have only hydropower - these would not receive any carbon credits unless there is justification for a regional grid definition that includes fossil fuel fired power stations.Small scale projects: While the total potential for small scale renewables may not be large in terms of tonnes of CO{sub 2} mitigated, the local development impacts of distributed renewable energy and energy efficiency projects are very large. For these projects to be implemented at a large enough scale to recoup the transaction costs of project development, a regional approach is critical. The CDM 'Programme of Activities' (PoA) approach is ideally suited for such regional small scale energy

  1. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  2. 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October 2003 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES Main Auditorium bldg. 500 (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States D. Reiche / Free University of Berlin, D The aim of this lecture is to discuss the transformation of the energy sectors in the EU with the main focus on obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources. Besides the EU-15 and the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. The factors which influence renewable energy development are described as the path dependencies/starting positions in energy policy (natural conditions for the RES, availability of fossil resources, use of nuclear power), the instruments for promoting renewable energies (as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations), the economic (level of energy prices, for example), technological (i.e. grid capacity), and cognitive environment.

  3. CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade: A South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of trade liberalisation on environmental conditions has yielded significant debate in the energy economics literature. Although research on the relationship between energy consumption, emissions and economic growth is not new in South Africa, no study specifically addresses the role that South Africa's foreign trade plays in this context. A surprising fact given trade is one of the most important factors that can explain the environmental Kuznets curve. This study employs recent South African trade and energy data and modern econometric techniques to investigate this. The main finding of interest in this paper is the existence of a long run relationship between environmental quality, levels of per capita energy use and foreign trade in South Africa. As anticipated per capita energy use has a significant long run effect in raising the country's CO2 emission levels, yet surprisingly higher levels of trade for the country act to reduce these emissions. Granger causality tests confirm the existence of a positive bidirectional relationship between per capita energy use and CO2 emissions. Whilst the study also finds positive bidirectional causality between trade and income per capita and between trade and per capita energy use, it appears however that trade liberalisation in South Africa has not contributed to a long run growth in pollution-intensive activities nor higher emission levels. - Highlights: • A long run relationship between CO2 emissions, levels of energy use and trade in SA. • Per capita energy has a significant long run effect in raising SA's CO2 levels. • Trade reduces CO2 emissions through stimulating technological innovations. • Positive bidirectional causality between per capita energy use and CO2 emissions. • Bidirectional causality between trade and income and trade and energy use

  4. Developing Programmes to Promote Participation in Sport among Adolescents with Disabilities: Perceptions Expressed by a Group of South African Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Conchar, Lauren; Derman, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities in developing countries frequently have limited access to sporting opportunities and comparatively little is known of their lived experiences and preferences. We set out to understand what a group of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) living in South Africa perceive to be important components of programmes developed…

  5. Land use and land cover change as a consequence of the South African land reform programme : A remote sensing approach / Zwidofhelangani Lidzhegu

    OpenAIRE

    Lidzhegu, Zwidofhelangani

    2012-01-01

    Over 18 years after the democratic government took power in South Africa, environmental changes relevant to the land reform policies are taking place because of unintended consequences of land reform policy. This study aimed at investigating the effects of the South African land reform policy on land use and land cover change on a land restitution project in Makotopong, Limpopo province, South Africa. The study used remote sensing techniques through the analysis of Landsat TM i...

  6. Energy research 2003 - Overview; Energie-Forschung 2003 / Recherche energetique 2003. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter / Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2003. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energies, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, combustion, fuel cells and in the process engineering areas. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small-scale hydro, geothermal energy and wind energy are presented. Work being done on nuclear safety and disposal regulations as well as controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  7. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxton Christiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2% reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6% of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%, to improve performance (9.8% and to reduce fatigue (5.4%. Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  8. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 4: anaerobic digestion for biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  9. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The national Wood Energy Technology Programme was carried out by Tekes during the period 1999- 2003 to develop efficient technology for large- scale production of forest chips from small- sized trees and logging residues. This is the final report of the programme, and it outlines the general development of forest chip procurement and use during the programme period. In 2002, a sub-programme was established to address small-scale production and use of wood fuels. This sub-programme will continue to the end of 2004, and it is not reported here. The programme was coordinated by VTT Processes. As of January 2004, the programme consisted of 44 public research projects, 46 industrial or product development projects, and 29 demonstration projects. Altogether, 27 research organizations and 53 enterprises participated. The total cost of the programme was 42 M euro of which 13 M euro was provided by Tekes. The Ministry of Trade and Industry provided investment aid for the new technology employed in the demonstration projects. When the programme was launched at the end of the 1990s, the major barriers to the use of forest chips were high cost of production, shortage of reliable chip procurement organizations, and the unsatisfactory quality of fuel. Accordingly, the programme focused largely on these problems. In addition, upgrading of the fuel properties of bark was also studied. The production of forest chips must be adapted to the existing operating environment and infrastructure. In Finland, these are charaterized by rich bio-mass potential, a sophisticated and efficient organization for the procurement of industrial timber, a large capacity of heating and CHP plants to use wood fuels, the possibility to co-fire wood and peat, and the unreserved acceptance of society at large. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 million m3 (0.9 Mtoe) chips annually by 2010. The Wood Energy Technology Programme was an important link in the long chain of activities

  10. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole-1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  11. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole(-1). This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range. PMID:25078857

  12. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8–34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole−1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range. (paper)

  13. THE EMBEDDEDNESS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN THE CURRICULA OF NON-BUSINESS UNIVERSITY PROGRAMMES: PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE FROM SOUTH AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES OF TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson K. Tengeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The total early stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA in South Africa is said to be extremely low compared to those of other sub-Saharan countries. This is despite the concerted efforts of the government to establish, develop and nurture entrepreneurship at all levels, especially among the youths. This calls for concern given the current state of the economy and the challenges faced by South Africa’s future generation. This paper is anchored on two theoretical frameworks to substantiate our argument for the inclusion of entrepreneurship education in the curricula of non-business programmes at universities of technology. The theoretical frameworks are the contingency organizational theory and the magnet versus radiant model. The study adopted an exploratory cross sectional research design which allowed us to collect data from a cross-section of a population: the universities of technology in South Africa. The findings suggest that only fifteen (out of the 46 of the programmes showed visible evidence of entrepreneurship/business studies in their content. Such finding implies that there is a need for entrepreneurship to be integrated into the curricula of all non-business departments if not for the sake of its perceived employment generation attributes, but for its other attributes such as innovation, and more importantly employability.

  14. Swiss Energy Research Programme 2008 - 2011. Electricity technologies and applications; Energieforschungsprogramm 2008-2011. Elektriztaetstechnologien und -Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2008-05-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of research work done in Switzerland in the area of electricity technologies and their application. A technologies section takes a look at the conversion of heat into electricity, efficient compressed air storage and high-temperature superconductivity. In the applications area, efficient drives and motors, information technology and communication are discussed, as are electrical appliances for households and lighting. The organisation of the programme is presented and the focus of research for the period 2008 - 2011 in these areas is discussed.

  15. The use of immunoassay method to improve the diagnosis of African trypanosomosis and its application to monitor disease control programmes: A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional diagnostic techniques for detecting trypanosomes in animals have been the microscopic examination of wet blood films or of thin and thick bloodsmears following fixation and Giemsa staining. The development of concentration methods such as the microhaematocrit centrifuge technique (MHCT) or the buffy coat technique (BCT) using a phase contrast/darkground microscope has improved diagnosis considerably. All these parasitological techniques are very specific (a positive result indicates the true presence of a trypanosome and few false positives are encountered), but generally lack sensitivity. However, in chronically infected animals low parasitaemias often occur, which could not be detected by the most sensitive technique, the BCT method. In 1971 the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and various applications of the technique soon proved to be highly sensitive and specific as well as reliable and flexible methods for screening large number of samples. The technique was modified for the detection of trypanosomal antigens and applied for the diagnosis of T. vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei infections in cattle. In experimental infections the test proved to be a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of animal trypanosomosis. Moreover, indications were that the test was well suited for application in developing countries. Consequently, the ELISA was transferred to the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture for distribution to various African research institutes for extensive validation under tropical conditions. 17 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Evaluation of the Danish Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Programme EDDP 2007-2010; Evaluering af Energiteknologisk Udviklings- og Demonstrationsprogram EUDP 2007-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    As one of the largest recipients of energy research and development funds in Denmark, EDDP (Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Programme) is a central granting programme. The programme allocates funds to interesting and promising energy technologies that are either under development or ready to be tested in real life - also called demonstration. The 'Act on Energy Technology Development and Demonstration programme' shows that EDDP projects must contribute to meeting the energy and climate policy objectives for security of supplies, respect for the global climate and a cleaner environment and cost efficiency. These three objectives are related, which means that the projects supported in principle must contribute to several objectives. In addition, the programme shall support the further development of the Danish energy technological strategic strongholds, where prospects for Danish research and industry looks particularly favorable. With the desire to reveal which outputs EDDP actually generates, the EDDP's Board in January 2011 launched an evaluation of the EDDP's results and effects. The focus of the evaluation has particularly been to identify the programme's industrial effects and its contribution to reach the energy and climate policy objectives. The evaluation is thus an effect evaluation and not an actual programme evaluation. Participants from both completed and uncompleted projects participated in the evaluation. The evaluation reveals, therefore, both the results and effects that have already been achieved under the auspices of EDDP projects, and the results and effects which the various project participants expect to achieve in the longer term based on their project participation. In brief, the evaluation shows that: - EDDP projects are largely expected to contribute to Denmark's energy and climate policy objectives; - Satisfactory technological results are created in the projects; - Many projects also generate

  17. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    Finland is enhancing its use of renewable sources in energy production. From the 1995 level, the use of renewable energy is to be increased by 50 % by 2010, and 100 % by 2025. Wood-based fuels will play a leading role in this development. The main source of wood-based fuels is processing residues from the forest industries. However, as all processing residues are already in use, an increase is possible only as far as the capacity and wood consumption of the forest industries grow. Energy policy affects the production and availability of processing residues only indirectly. Another large source of wood-based energy is forest fuels, consisting of traditional firewood and chips comminuted from low-quality biomass. It is estimated that the reserve of technically harvest-able forest biomass is 10-16 Mm' annually, when no specific cost limit is applied. This corresponds to 2-3 Mtoe or 6-9 % of the present consumption of primary energy in Finland. How much of this re-serve it will actually be possible to harvest and utilize depends on the cost competitiveness of forest chips against alternative sources of energy. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 Mm' forest chips annually by 2010. The use of wood fuels is being promoted by means of taxation, investment aid and support for chip production from young forests. Furthermore, research and development is being supported in order to create techno-economic conditions for the competitive production of forest chips. In 1999, the National Technology Agency Tekes established the five-year Wood Energy Technology Programme to stimulate the development of efficient systems for the large-scale production of forest chips. Key tar-gets are competitive costs, reliable supply and good quality chips. The two guiding principles of the programme are: (1) close cooperation between researchers and practitioners and (2) to apply research and development to the practical applications and commercialization. As of

  18. The use of variable speed drives for cost-effective energy savings in South African mine cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy analysis of 20 South African mine cooling systems. • Energy savings and feasibility calculated for large-scale variable speed drive implementation. • An annual electricity saving of 144,721 MW h (32.2%) and CO2 emission reduction of 132 Mton can be realised. • Pump and fan application found more viable than chiller application. • Pilot implementation study shows pump electricity savings of 29.9%. - Abstract: An industrial energy efficiency improvement through the introduction of modern technology is an important demand-side management initiative. Cooling systems on South African mines have been identified as large electricity consumers. There is significant potential for energy efficiency improvement by the widespread introduction of variable speed drive (VSD) technology. An energy audit was conducted on 20 large mine cooling systems and potential savings and feasibility indicators were calculated. A pilot implementation study was also done on one mine to experimentally validate the estimated savings. In this paper, the results of the audit, the potential savings and the pilot study results are presented. It is shown that large-scale implementation of VSDs on mine cooling system pumps and fans is economically viable. A total annual electrical energy saving of 144,721 MW h, or 32.2%, can be achieved. An annual cost saving of US$6,938,148 and CO2 emissions reduction of 132 Mton is possible. The implementation of VSDs on mine chiller compressors will also result in large energy savings, but is not economically feasible at present. Results of the pilot study indicate an electricity savings of 29.9%. The results are important to decision makers and indicate the significant impact that widespread VSD usage on mine cooling systems can have on South African mine sustainability

  19. The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) some months before the start of its particle physics programme

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    LEAR [see e.g.: H.Koziol and D. Möhl, Phys. Rep. 403-404 (2004), p.271 and references therein] and its enclosure in the PS South Hall in Jan, 1983, 4 months before the start of its particle physics programme. Visible (in red) are the 90 degree bending magnets consisting of 6 blocks each. Separated from the magnets by short straight sections are the quadrupole doublets (blue with read end-plates). The 4 long straight sections house large equipment like septa for injection/ejection, RF-cavities and later (since 1986) electron cooling and an internal target and its associated detector (JETSET experiment). Two small copper tubes spanning across the ring are coaxial lines transmitting the stochastic cooling signals from pick up to kicker. (see also photos 8205747X, 8207133, 8207541X, 8301550X,8309026X)

  20. The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) some months before the start of its particle physics programme

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    LEAR*)and its enclosure in the PS South Hall in Jan, 1983, 4 months before the start of its particle physics programme. Visible (in red) are the 90 degree bending magnets consisting of 6 blocks each. Separated from the magnets by short straight sections are the quadrupole doublets (blue with read end-plates). The 4 long straight sections house large equipment like septa for injection/ejection, RF-cavities and later (since 1986) electron cooling and an internal target and its associated detector (JETSET experiment). Two small copper tubes spanning across the ring are coaxial lines transmitting the stochastic cooling signals from pickup to kicker. (see also photos 8205747X, 8207133, 8207541X, 8309026) *)see e.g.: H.Koziol and D. Möhl, Phys. Rep. 403-404 (2004), p.271 and references therein

  1. Programme of Investments for the Future: continuing and amplifying the action in favour of energy transition. Assessment 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the ADEME is to implement four Programmes of Investments for the Future (PIA) to support pre-industrial experimentations, research demonstrators or industry firsts in the fields of renewable energies and green chemistry, of tomorrow's vehicles and mobility, of smart power grids, and of circular economy, this report proposes indications of numbers of retained projects and of financial support in different specific fields, and brief presentations of objectives and realisations or projects in energy storage and the hydrogen sector (creation of a world leader in hydrogen production by hydrolysis, project of injection of hydrogen in gas networks), in renewable energies (projects of renewable marine energy), in smart grids (a smart grid tested at the scale of an area of activity), in mobility and transport (the necessity to install at a higher rate charging points for electric vehicles, cleaner ferries, improved performance in railway, an innovative electric bus in Nice), in energy and environmental efficiency (less consuming buildings, improvement of ecologic efficiency in agriculture and industry), and in circular economy and recycling (titanium recycling in aeronautics, fabrication of new tyres with old ones). The themes of the second wave of investments are finally presented, with notably a better efficiency in project instruction modalities (shorter delays, project support, ecologically and economically conditioned financing)

  2. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in five African settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slutsker Lawrence

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IPTi delivered through EPI has been shown to reduce the incidence of clinical malaria by 20–59%. However, new health interventions can only be effective if they are also socially and culturally acceptable. It is also crucial to ensure that attitudes to IPTi do not negatively influence attitudes to and uptake of immunization, or that people do not misunderstand IPTi as immunization against malaria and neglect other preventive measures or delay treatment seeking. Methods These issues were studied in five African countries in the context of clinical trials and implementation studies of IPTi. Mixed methods were used, including structured questionnaires (1,296, semi-structured interviews (168, in-depth interviews (748 and focus group discussions (95 with mothers, fathers, health workers, community members, opinion leaders, and traditional healers. Participant observation was also carried out in the clinics. Results IPTi was widely acceptable because it resonated with existing traditional preventive practices and a general concern about infant health and good motherhood. It also fit neatly within already widely accepted routine vaccination. Acceptance and adherence were further facilitated by the hierarchical relationship between health staff and mothers and by the fact that clinic attendance had a social function for women beyond acquiring health care. Type of drug and regimen were important, with newer drugs being seen as more effective, but potentially also more dangerous. Single dose infant formulations delivered in the clinic seem to be the most likely to be both acceptable and adhered to. There was little evidence that IPTi per se had a negative impact on attitudes to EPI or that it had any affect on EPI adherence. There was also little evidence of IPTi having a negative impact on health seeking for infants with febrile illness or existing preventive practices. Conclusion IPTi is generally acceptable across a wide range of

  3. The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy – a South African perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barnard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In terms of existing energy policy in South-Africa, the interconnectivity of renewable energy and sustainable development is evident. Most notably, the White Paper on Renewable Energy of 2003 promotes increased access to affordable renewable energy in order to contribute to sustainable development. Moreover, the 2008 first review of the National Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South-Africa of 2005 states that in order for the country’s renewable energy policy to be considered sustainable, it needs to facilitate development in the social, economic and environmental spheres. Notwithstanding, attaining the goal of sustainable development depends on whether all its effecting principles are catered for in the policy developments. Accordingly, in order to ascertain whether South-African law and policy can successfully facilitate/enable sustainable development via the implementation of renewable energy, a specific methodology is proposed. In terms of the New Delhi Declaration of 2002 there are 7 principles of international law effecting sustainable development. These principles will be used as criteria in a principled assessment of South-African renewable energy law and policy in order to establish whether the goal of promoting sustainable development would be effected through the national policy developments.

  4. A programmable energy efficient readout chip for a multiparameter highly integrated implantable biosensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawito, M.; Richter, H.; Stett, A.; Burghartz, J. N.

    2015-11-01

    In this work an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for an implantable electrochemical biosensor system (SMART implant, Stett et al., 2014) is presented. The ASIC drives the measurement electrodes and performs amperometric measurements for determining the oxygen concentration, potentiometric measurements for evaluating the pH-level as well as temperature measurements. A 10-bit pipeline analog to digital (ADC) is used to digitize the acquired analog samples and is implemented as a single stage to reduce power consumption and chip area. For pH measurements, an offset subtraction technique is employed to raise the resolution to 12-bits. Charge integration is utilized for oxygen and temperature measurements with the capability to cover current ranges between 30 nA and 1 μA. In order to achieve good performance over a wide range of supply and process variations, internal reference voltages are generated from a programmable band-gap regulated circuit and biasing currents are supplied from a wide-range bootstrap current reference. To accommodate the limited available electrical power, all components are designed for low power operation. Also a sequential operation approach is applied, in which essential circuit building blocks are time multiplexed between different measurement types. All measurement sequences and parameters are programmable and can be adjusted for different tissues and media. The chip communicates with external unites through a full duplex two-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), which receives operational instructions and at the same time outputs the internally stored measurement data. The circuit has been fabricated in a standard 0.5-μm CMOS process and operates on a supply as low as 2.7 V. Measurement results show good performance and agree with circuit simulation. It consumes a maximum of 500 μA DC current and is clocked between 500 kHz and 4 MHz according to the measurement parameters. Measurement results of the on-chip ADC show a

  5. Socio-Economic Assessment of Fusion Energy Research, Development, Demonstration and Deployment Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Bednyagin, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Providing safe, clean and affordable energy supply is essential for meeting the basic needs of human society and for supporting economic growth. From the historical perspective, the constantly growing energy use was one of the main factors, which drove the industrialised countries to the current level of prosperity. Meanwhile, in recent decades, the issue of global energy security became a topic of increasing concern in the international policy agenda...

  6. Acceptance of energy management in medium-sized industrial firms in Hessen. Report to the IMPULS programme Hessen in Darmstadt; Akzeptanz von Energiemanagement in der mittelstaendischen Industrie in Hessen. Bericht an das IMPULS-Programm Hessen in Darmstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boede, U.; Gruber, E.; Weigert, K.

    1998-07-01

    Furthering of innovation processes in the sense of lastingly sustainable development demands recognizing existing obstacles and points where furtherance might be beneficial. The search for strategies and points of attack needs to start from existing attitudes and patterns of behaviour (commission of inquiry, 1997). This comprises implementation-oriented offers to enterprises, and offers taking needs into account. Within the framework of its energy conservation and climate protection policy, the state of Hessen furthers employment-accompanied qualification of planning and executing vocational groups as well as users in energy efficiency. The IMPULS programme of Hessen, a programme instituted by the ministry for the environment, energy, youth, family and health affairs of Hessen, organizes seminars on 'rational use of electric power' enabling decision-makers to inform themselves on energy-saving measures and to exchange their knowledge. Enterprises with a potential for in-house energy conservation have a great interest in hints and support to be rapidly transformed into action. (orig.) [German] Im Innovationsprozesse in Richtung einer nachhaltig zukunftsvertraeglichen Entwicklung zu foerdern, kommt es darauf an, vorhandene Hemnisse und Ansatzpunkte zur Foerderung zu erkennen. Die Suche nach Strategien und Ansatzpunkten muss an vorhandenen Einstellungen und Verhaltensmustern ansetzen (Enquete-Kommission, 1997). Darunter fallen auch umsetzungs- und an den Beduerfnissen orientierte Angebote fuer Unternehmen. Im Rahmen seiner Energieeinspar- und Klimaschutzpolitik foerdert das Land Hessen die berufsbegleitende Qualifikation im Energieeffizienzbereich fuer planende und ausfuehrende Berufsgruppen und fuer Anwender. Das IMPULS-Programm Hessen, eine Einrichtung des hessischen Ministeriums fuer Umwelt, Energie, Jugend, Familie und Gesundheit, bietet Entscheidungstraegern mit seinen Seminaren im Bereich 'rationelle Stromnutzung' die Moeglichkeit, sich ueber

  7. Renewable energy: RD&D priorities. Insights from IEA technology programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2006-12-19

    In order to substantially enhance the share of renewable energy technologies in the energy portfolio, it is imperative to accelerate technological advancement and subsequently reduce costs, in combination with novel applications and deployment. This outcome can be significantly supported by a range of RD and D initiatives, if properly designed and implemented. This publication reviews the current status of the renewable energy technologies portfolio and provides guidance on their mid- and long-term development. The study explores the options for the RD&D to achieve breakthroughs that will lead to large-scale markets and identifies what activities should take priority. It also looks at the benefits of increased RD&D funding in terms of technological advancement and cost improvement. It covers renewable energy technologies in the early research stage through to those that have reached a level of maturity. It also lists national renewable energy RD and D trends in IEA member countries.

  8. Indian experience in capacity building as a part of development of atomic energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India embarked on a programme to harness nuclear technologies for the welfare of the nation more than five decades ago and adopted an approach involving knowledge generation through research and development, disseminating the knowledge acquired to the young generation through in-house arrangement, encouraging the researchers in the university system to work on problems of interest to the nuclear industry by providing research funding, networking with the university system, collaborating with industry to upgrade their skills to take up challenging manufacturing jobs, setting up industry under the control of the Government wherever private industry was not coming forward and so on. The basic approach underlying all efforts was to tap the 'knowledge' wherever available and to upgrade the 'knowledge' by R and D. For developing new technologies and for problem solving, 'bottoms up approach' implying study of scientific basis of all issues beginning from fundamentals was used and shortcuts were avoided. This has enabled the country to be self sufficient in all aspects of nuclear fuel cycle as well as applications of radiation technology to industry, agriculture and health care. This also enabled the industry to gain skills and use the skills gained for other sectors of economy. Now that the industry in India is much more mature and the engineering education at the post-graduate level is well developed, several changes in the approach followed have been made. These include making use of the skills and size of the industry by ordering total systems of a power plant rather than individual components and involving industry as consultants for several jobs, which were done in-house in the earlier days. The paper summarizes Indian experience of the last five decades and what is planned for the future. (author)

  9. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  10. A multi-purpose rural development programme for coastal regions utilising solar energy and the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.; Sastry, J.S.

    A project primarily designed to meet the energy and fresh-water requirements of isolated coastal communities is presented. It will also help to increase the production of salts and marine chemical and fish (by aquaculture). The design involves...

  11. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: Is physical activity more "programmable" than food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mecha...

  12. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces. PMID:24080620

  13. Do African and European energy stakeholders agree on key energy drivers in Africa? Using Q methodology to understand perceptions on energy access debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses Q methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on how best to address energy issues in Africa. We sampled a group of stakeholders involved in various energy sub-sectors to uncover perspectives on how to achieve and promote access to modern energy, energy efficiency and renewable energy in Africa, whether the perceptions could be correlated to educational or geographical background and implications such patterns could have on policies and current dialogues. We found that all stakeholders agree on the need to prioritise sustainability but had different views on how to achieve sustainable energy for all in Africa, depending on the relevance given to each energy driver. Stakeholders could be categorised into four groups: (I) preference of large-scale high-impact projects; (II) supporters of targeted sectoral solutions with preference for small-scale technology and microfinance; (III) supporters of centralised solutions with preference for grid extension, and (IV) supporters of local entrepreneurship with scepticism about centralised solutions. The results show that differences in stakeholders’ perceptions can be associated with respondents’ educational but not geographical background. This implies that dialogues on energy in Africa should focus on inter-disciplinary understanding while further examining the trans-continent consensus that appears to have been established. - Highlights: • We use Q-methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on energy issues in Africa. • We assess whether background results in different perceptions among stakeholders. • We identify four main factor groups and only one group supports grid extension. • Results challenge assumptions that African and European viewpoints differ. • More interdisciplinary dialogue is needed while supporting geographic consensus

  14. Japan [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has shown tremendous economic growth in the post-war period and is now one of the world's leading industrial countries. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves and is the second-largest net importer of crude oil and largest net importer of liquefied natural gas in the world. Including nuclear power, Japan is only 16% energy self-sufficient (neglecting uranium imports). Japan's total primary energy demand in 2007 was 514 Mtoe. Oil is the most consumed energy resource in Japan (45% as of 2007), although its share of total energy consumption has strongly declined from 57% in 1990. Coal, with 22% (versus 17% in 1990), continues to account for a significant share of total energy consumption, although 99% of the coal must be imported. Natural gas (16%) and nuclear power (13%) are increasingly important sources. Total electricity production in Japan amounted to 1123 TW.h in 2007, with the largest share of 35% (up from 20% in 1990) from natural gas. The share of nuclear power is 32%, followed by coal (28%), oil (19%), hydro (9%) and other renewables (3%).

  15. Design of energy-efficient buildings using interaction between Building Simulation Programme and Energy Supply Simulations for District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Nagla, Inese

    demand density for which the connection to low-energy district heating networks is cost-effective and energy efficient. By using a dynamic energy simulation program for buildings it is possible to analyze the influence of the human behaviour for the building and link the results to the simulation program...... for district heating networks. The results show that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher peak loads than expected according to reference values in standardized calculation of energy demand pattern in energy-efficient buildings. The consequence is that in order to get the full...... that there is a large potential for distributing energy in areas with energy efficient buildings. As a measure for the feasibility of district heating, the linear heat density can be used as a representative value, and the results show that it is possible to supply heat with low-energy district heating networks...

  16. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. Swedish country study report. Covering the EKO-Energi programme. With case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaagstroem, Jonas; Aastrand, Kerstin; Helby, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The VAIE research project is concerned with voluntary agreements for improvement of industrial energy efficiency in five European countries. This national report deals with the Swedish EKO-Energi agreements. It includes case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing. The first chapter presents the principal aspects of the Swedish EKO-Energi programme, explains the selection of companies for case studies, and summarises the results of the national study. The chapter shows the EKO-Energi programme to be directed at a fairly exclusive part of Swedish industry, namely environmental front-runners striving for EMAS or ISO 14001 certification. It provides them with paid energy audits and with marketing support. It requires them to establish an energy management system, i.e. to include energy efficiency issues in their certification process. The agreements are 'soft' in the sense that they address mainly organisational issues, are based much on trust in the companies own dedication to improvement, and are very informal in the monitoring. On the balance, the EKO-Energi programme would seem to be a small, but reasonably effective programme, contributing particularly to such organisational developments as are important for long-term trends in industrial energy efficiency. The second chapter provides a brief introduction to the whole VAIE project and outlines the methodology of the study, explained in more detail in a separate report. The third chapter describes the progress of the EKO-Energi programme from policy formulation to implementation, and assesses a number of hypotheses concerning this process. Support is found for the hypotheses (a) that voluntary agreements tend to exclude the influence of third parties, (b) that they tend to continue the logic of previous policies, and (c) that expected short term energy savings tend to be very close to the baseline scenario. The fourth chapter describes how agreements with individual companies are made

  17. Securing the energy supply in Baden-Wuerttemberg. The energy programme of the Land's government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawe, J. (Ministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Mittelstand und Verkehr Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Energie, Technologie und Wirtschaftsordnung)

    1976-03-01

    The government of the Land has adopted an energy program that pays particular attention to the Land's peculiarities. It is concluded that not autarky but diversity is to be aimed at. Reducing the share of petroleum with regard to primary energy is an important point. The necessity to build nuclear power plants for the energy supply is pointed out, and possible sites for such facilities as well as the problems of the operational safety of these plants are discussed. Attention is directed to the employment of nonconventional energy sources and ways of conservation in energy consumption, e.g., that associated with the construction of buildings. (4 tables; with refs.)

  18. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozório Rodrigo; Van Ginneken Vincent; van den Thillart Guido; Verstegen Martin; Verreth Johan

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  19. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van, CJJM Kees; Thillart, van den, G.; M.W.A. Verstegen; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  20. Electric energy gun technology: status of the french-german-netherlands programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, W.J.; Jamet, F.

    1999-01-01

    Research and technology development is being performed jointly in six subprograms. Next to operational aspects and system studies, railgun, coilgun and electrothermal gun launch is investigated. To power these future gun weapon systems, research on both energy storage, switching, pulse forming netwo

  1. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) we

  2. A digitizer based compact digital spectrometer for ion beam analysis using Field Programmable Gate Arrays and various energy algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Markus; Reinert, Tilo

    2013-08-01

    We report on the implementation of a compact multi-detector fully digital spectrometer and data acquisition system at a nuclear microprobe for ion beam analysis and imaging. The spectrometer design allows for system scalability with no restriction on the number of detectors. It consists of four-channel high-speed digitizer modules for detector signal acquisition and one low-speed digital-to-analog converter (DAC) module with two DAC channels and additional general purpose inputs∕outputs to control ion beam scanning and data acquisition. Each digitizer module of the spectrometer provides its own Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as digital signal processing unit to analyze detector signals as well as to synchronize the ion beam position in hard real-time. With the customized FPGA designs for all modules, all calculation intensive tasks are executed inside the modules, which reduces significantly the data stream to and CPU load on the control computer. To achieve an optimal energy resolution for all detector∕preamplifier pulse shape characteristics, a user-definable infinite impulse response filter with high throughput for energy determination was implemented. The new spectrometer has an online data analysis feature, a compact size, and is able to process any type of detector signals such as particle induced x-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, or scanning transmission ion microscopy. PMID:24007105

  3. Municipal programs of photovoltaic energy development; Les programmes municipaux de developpement du photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This study presents some remarkable actions carried out in several European municipalities for the promotion and development of photovoltaic applications: installation of solar cells on public buildings, integration of the photovoltaic energy in the urban plan, application in the transportation sector, programs of public information, of promotion, of incitation, of financing, solar electricity trade, promotion of the 'green current'. After a presentation of the general situation of photovoltaic energy in Europe, and of its development in France, nine case-forms present the experience of nine selected European cities in this domain (Amersfoort (NL), Barcelona (ES), Braedstrup (DK), Karlsruhe (DE), Lausanne (CH), Mataro (ES), Muenchen (ES), Palermo (IT), Zurich (CH)). (J.S.)

  4. Expressing determination: From ENS programme 'Women and nuclear energy' to WIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIN is an international association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application and willing to devote time to public information. It is established as non-profit making. WIN'S working language is English. WIN aims to contribute to objectively informing the public, especially women, on nuclear energy and radiation, in particular by: meeting regularly to exchange ideas and experiences between countries' WIN information groups, establishing country WIN groups in nuclear countries as widely as practical, supporting each other across borders, working out shared information techniques and information materials for international use. WIN is open to female nuclear and radiation professionals and academics as well as communications specialists, from all over the world, pledged to adhere to the goals of this Charter. The first WINFO Quarterly Newsletter of Women in Nuclear has been published

  5. Economic Instruments for a Socially Neutral Nationl Home Energy Efficiency Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Dresner and Paul Ekins

    2004-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was conducted under the project 'The Social Impacts of Environmental Taxes: Removing Regressivity', funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation under its Prograamme on Environment and Social Concerns. The project is investigating the socil implications of environmental txtes and charges in realtion to four environment issues - the household use of energy, water and transport, and the generation of waste. The is a report of the component on the household use of...

  6. Effect of South African beef production systems on post-mortem muscle energy status and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frylinck, L; Strydom, P E; Webb, E C; du Toit, E

    2013-04-01

    Post-slaughter muscle energy metabolism meat colour of South African production systems were compared; steers (n=182) of Nguni, Simmental Brahman crossbreds were reared on pasture until A-, AB-, or B-age, in feedlot until A-AB-age. After exsanguination carcasses were electrically stimulated (400 V for 15 s). M. longissimus dorsi muscle energy samples were taken at 1, 2, 4 and 20 h. Post-mortem samples for meat quality studies were taken at 1, 7 and 14 days post-mortem. Production systems affected muscle glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-P, lactic acid, ATP, creatine-P glycolytic potential (P0.5) water holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner Bratzler shear force. Muscle energy only affected muscle contraction of the A-age-pasture system (shortest sarcomere length of 1.66 μm vs 1.75 μm highest WBS of 6 kg vs 5 kg 7 days post-mortem). PMID:23305833

  7. Small scale energy systems for developing countries: the intermediate technology development group power programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenkel, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Projects currently under development are described and activities and results to date are summarized. Background material is presented to emphasize the significance of the work of this group to provide suitable energy sources for the developing countries. Specific projects described include: (1) windpumps suitable for irrigation or bore-hole pumping; (2) micro-hydroelectric systems using electronic load control to make electricity available in remote rural areas; (3) micro-aerogenerators (small wind powered electricity generators capable of charging batteries); (4) small scale solar powered pumping systems for small farm irrigation; (5) river current turbines suitable for lifting water from rivers to farmlands for irrigation; (6) biomass fueled steam engines to be used for production of electricity (5 to 50 kW) for local manufacture and use in rural areas; (7) improved wood burning stoves (fuelwood is the primary energy source for over 90% of the people in developing countries); and (8) use of the Humphrey Pump (operating on biogas) for irrigation of small farms. In all projects emphasis has been to make quality equipment which is simple enough to manufacture locally. Other energy activities are reviewed briefly and plans for future developments are discussed. (MJJ)

  8. 2006-2007 Academic training programme: QCD and high energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 7, 8, 9 May 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500 on 7 and 8 May, Council Chamber on 9 May QCD and high energy nuclear collisions D. Kharzeev, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA Six years ago, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven started colliding heavy nuclei at record center-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV/nucleon. Very soon, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will push the energy of the ions to an astounding 5 TeV/nucleon. What can be learnt from the experiments at these machines? What do we know about the physics of super--dense matter already? I will argue that heavy ion accelerators bring us to the new frontiers of physical knowledge by creating strong color fields and very high densities of partons, at which qualitatively new phenomena emerge. I will also discuss the cross-disciplinary implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and connections to condensed matter physics.

  9. 2006-2007 Academic training programme: QCD and high energy nuclear collision

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 7, 8, 9 May QCD and high energy nuclear collisions D. Kharzeev, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500 on 7 and 8 May, Council Chamber on 9 May Six years ago, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven started colliding heavy nuclei at record center-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV/nucleon. Very soon, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will push the energy of the ions to an astounding 5 TeV/nucleon. What can be learnt from the experiments at these machines? What do we know about the physics of super--dense matter already? I will argue that heavy ion accelerators bring us to the new frontiers of physical knowledge by creating strong color fields and very high densities of partons, at which qualitatively new phenomena emerge. I will also discuss the cross-disciplinary implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and connections to condensed matter physics.

  10. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003; Programme 'Solaire actif - Chaleur et Stockage de chaleur'. Activites et projets en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadorn, J.-C. [Base Consultants, Geneva (Switzerland); Renaud, P. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD

  11. Energy Research 2006 - Overview; Recherche energetique/Energie-Forschung 2006. Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme/Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2006 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and fundamentals of energy economics. Under the topic of efficient energy use, new planning tools and a building component catalogue are mentioned along with new developments in building technology. In the traffic area, energy-optimisation of components and drive systems are mentioned as are electric bikes and a taxi system running on tracks. High-temperature superconductors, permanent magnet motors along with alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. New electricity grid systems and energy hubs are reported on. In the heat pump area, hot-water preparation, quality assurance and magnetic heat pumps are listed. Combustion topics reviewed include large diesel engines and catalytic oxidation in gas turbines. The new 'Power Station 2020' program is introduced with combined heat and power stations and efficient gas turbines. Fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage are looked at, as are process integration topics in the industrial area. Renewable energy topics described include design software and testing systems for solar heating systems, thin-film photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy and solar production of hydrogen. Biomass and wood-fuel topics are covered, including the gasification of biomass. Cost reduction in small-scale hydro schemes is reported on as are hydropower schemes using drinking water and waste water. Geothermal energy and deep-heat mining are reported on, as is the use of geothermal probes for heating and cooling. Research and field testing done in the wind-energy area and the social acceptance of such installations are presented. In the nuclear energy area, safety and waste disposal issues are covered, as are a future reactor generation, safety

  12. Wind energy and spatial planning procedures; La programmation spatiale des projects eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Wind turbines projects have been increasing, but some are very conflicted. May be it is a reason why some local authorities have to deal with different point of view, above the only energy question and including local specificity. To give local authorities the possibility to be implicated and to be in control of wind projects in their territory, wind spatial planning should permit to choose suitable areas and to optimize wind power development. In this context this synthesis presents the wind spatial planning in Finistere (France), the french regulation, some international experiences (Danish, Flemish, Walloon region, Dutch) and the different approaches of spatial planning. (A.L.B.)

  13. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author)

  14. Discussion of a high-energy mission for solar eruptions in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Eduard; MacKinnon, Alexander; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Vilmer, Nicole; Green, Lucie M.; Matthews, Sarah A.

    In this paper we emphasize the effect of a self-induced electric field on the distributions of electron beams during their precipitation into flaring atmospheres and their hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission. For the beam precipitation the time-dependent Fokker-Planck approach is applied by taking into account collisional and Ohmic losses in a converging magnetic field with different level of convergence. The energy range of beam electrons covers from 12 keV to 1.2 MeV, for HXR emission angle-dependent relativistic cross-sections are considered, for MW the effects of radiative transfer of ordinary and extra-ordinary waves are also taken into account. We compare the effects of self-induced electric field on the HXR and MW emission and polarization in flares. We also produce some recommendation for future interpretation of the simultaneous HXR and MW observations.

  15. ENER European network for Energy Economics Research. Final report. Thematic Network (ENERGIE Programme), European Commission, DG Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.

    2004-11-15

    Objectives of the Forum of the European Network for Energy Economics Research ENER: to bring to debate latest research results based on both qualitative and quantitative analysis (modelling analysis results) in fields concerning the relationship of energy, climate change and economy to relevant stakeholders in policy, industry, academia and NGOs in foru forums; to strengthen the links between national centres in energy/environment, policy and economics research, in particular with Eastern European countries, in view of their accession to the European Union, and with Switzerland. The Network thus expands links which have been previously growing among EU centres of competence in energy economics research to the EU accession countries and close neighbours; to use the network as a sprinboard for collaborative research on a European scale which will as the final objective of the Network overpass the limited activities proposed in the current frame. (orig.)

  16. New energy technologies. Research program proposition; Nouvelles technologies de l'energie. Proposition de programme de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the most promising program propositions of research and development and the public financing needed for their realization. The concerned technologies are: the hydrogen and the fuel cell PAN-H, the separation and the storage of the CO{sub 2}, the photovoltaic solar electricity, the PREBAT program of the building energy recovery and the bio-energies. (A.L.B.)

  17. Energy Policies of South Africa. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive study of the South African energy sector provides policy analysis and recommendations, with detailed descriptions and data for all forms of energy. Issues such as energy supply and demand, efficiency and the environment are also examined. The IEA conducted this review at the request of the South African Government, which is preparing a new energy policy in support of its Reconstruction and Development Programme to promote social equity, economic growth and environmental sustaining. The report also identifies investment opportunities and areas for technical assistance in the energy field. (author). 21 figs., 59 tabs., 8 maps

  18. A quantitative assessment of safety culture as part of the national programme on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper seeks to give practical value to the concept of Safety Culture, proposing a method that may be used to judge the effectiveness of Safety Culture in all phases of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper describes the quantification of the Safety Culture assessment on statistical basis. The safety culture assessment is based on the IAEA ASCOT (Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizing Team) Guidelines. This Procedural Guide, used as an instrumental tool in addition to 'ASCOT Guidelines', could improve the ASCOT reviews and permit to give more accurate and objective conclusions at the end of these reviews. It would also reveal areas needing improvements, giving an overall rating of the Safety Culture level, which could be compared with a new result after implementing some corrective measures. This method could be applied in all phases of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (mining, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage, conditioning of spent fuel, final disposal of spent fuel, heavy water production, transport, etc.) and should be an all embracing characteristics which, when prevailing in a satisfactory measure, would eliminate accidents and reduce incidents to insignificant levels. Included as an Annex to the National Program on Nuclear Energy, the proposed method could contribute to the improvement of Safety Culture in all phases of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and at all levels. (author)

  19. ADS National Programmes: France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies related to nuclear reactors and radioactive waste started at the French National Centre for Scientific research, CNRS, as a result of the French law on radioactive waste that was published in 1991. They were initially organized around the programme PACE (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle Electronucléaire = physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle), which became PACEN (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle et production d’Energie Nucléaire = Physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear energy) in 2006. Research on accelerator driven systems was from the beginning part of this programme. This research is mainly funded by the National Institute for Nuclear end Particle Physics (IN2P3) of CNRS and within the EURATOM European programmes (FP5, 6 and 7). The programme took place in several stages, and covered various scientific fields, benefitting from expertise of CNRS in the field. More specifically, it aimed and still aims to: – Test and verify the feasibility and design of the ADS concept, in terms of neutronics, physics of materials, design of the accelerator and tests of its prototypical components that have been built (or are at present under construction); – Measure and-or improve nuclear data related to radioactive waste transmutation. Today, most of the activities in support to ADS development carried out by CNRS focus on accelerator developments, GUINEVERE (Generator of Uninterrupted Intense NEutron at the lead VEnus REactor) experiment, ADS core studies, deployment scenarios and nuclear data measurements. The CEA R&D programmes on ADS are mainly focused on the European project EUROTRANS of the 6th Framework programme (2005–2010) and continued in the FREYA project of the 7th Framework Programme

  20. Status report on the implementation of the integrated energy and climate protection programme of the German government; Statusbericht zur Umsetzung des Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramms der Bundesregierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Diana; Wachsmann, Ulrike

    2011-04-15

    The German government has committed itself to a 40 percent reduction of climate-relevant gases by 2020, as compared to 1990. In 2007, the government presented an integrated energy and climate protection programme (IEKP) with a catalogue of measures to achieve this goal. The IEKP was to be revised from 2010 by monitoring every two years. If the monitoring were to show that the CO2 reduction goal could not be achieved by the measures taken, suggestions will be made on how to improve CO2 reduction technologies. This study, carried out on behalf of the Federal Minister of Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety, presents a data base for this monitoring. It is based on work carried out by the Federal Environmental Office, the BMU, and other institutions. (orig.)

  1. Wholesomeness and Public Health Research in the United States Atomic Energy Commission Food Irradiation Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the biological safety of foods which are of interest to the Atomic Energy Commission's irradiated food program, studies have been sponsored by the Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine since 1961. Wholesomeness, microbiological and biochemical studies have been undertaken with a view to complementing data derived from developmental, economic and technological research studies sponsored by the Commission's Division of Isotopes Development. When these aspects appear feasible for specific low-dose irradiated foods, studies are initiated to provide relevant data required by the United States Food and Drug Administration before final judgements can be made on petitions for unlimited human consumption. Toxicity studies on several species of animals which are fed diets containing up to 35° (dry solids basis) of the irradiated food in question have been included in this program. Investigations of two years duration on animals (rats, dogs and chickens) provide data concerning food consumption, growth rate, enzyme systems, haematology, gross pathology and histopathology. Shorter-term studies of a confirmatory nature on two animal species (rat and dog) are employed in certain cases when the irradiated food in question is sufficiently related to foods which have previously undergone long-term toxicity studies. Results to date of chronic toxicity studies on soft-shell clams and subacute toxicity studies on strawberries, apples, pears, sweet cherries, apricots, plums and onions are discussed. Microbiological studies have been concentrated primarily on potentially pathogenic organisms. Studies have been in progress to evaluate carefully the conditions governing radiation and heat resistance, sporulation, outgrowth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum Type E. The natural incidence of Type E organisms in certain marine products and ocean environments is being investigated. Findings in the microbiological studies are discussed. Studies to date have

  2. Fruitful symbiosis: Why an export bundled with wind energy is the most feasible option for North African concentrated solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of generating electricity in North Africa using concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) has been around for some time now but has recently gained momentum through the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the formation of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. This paper argues that while the large-scale deployment of CSP in North Africa does not seem economically attractive for either European or African institutions or countries on their own at present, combining domestic use and electricity exports could be profitable for both parties. A detailed economic portfolio covering both solar and wind power plants can achieve competitive price levels, which would accelerate the diffusion of solar technology in North Africa. This portfolio could be financed partially by exporting electricity from solar thermal plants in North Africa via HVDC interconnections to European consumers. Sharing the costs in this way makes it possible to generate solar electricity for the domestic market at a reasonable cost. Some of the electricity produced from the solar power plants and wind parks in North Africa is sold on European energy markets in the form of a long-term contracted solar-wind portfolio, which would qualify for support from the financial incentive schemes of the European Member States (e.g. feed-in tariffs). This transfer of green electricity could help to meet the targets for energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the EU Member States as the new EU Directive of 2009 opened the European electricity market to imports from third states. - Research highlights: → This paper describes a feasible approach to financing a larger deployment of CSP in North Africa. → The proposed portfolio includes local consumption and electricity export to Europe. → Bundling wind with solar power as a business model for exporting solar electricity. → Prices of the solar-wind mix are competitive with other renewable energy sources. → Scenario outlook for the North African CSP

  3. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarises the fast reactor research carried out at the Netherlands Energy Research Centre during the year 1981. The neutron and fission product cross sections of various isotopes have been evaluated. In the fuel performance programme, some preliminary results are given and irradiation facilities described. Creep experiments on various stainless steel components are reported

  4. Monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's 1992 report on its programme of monitoring radioactive substances is presented. Site operators' returns are verified and the report provides independent data on the environmental impact of authorized disposal of radioactive wastes. Radiation doses which may have been received by members of the public, fall well below the International Commission for Radiological Protection's (ICRP) recommended annual doses. (UK)

  5. Programme Energy and CO2 and Year Plan 2013; Programma Energie en CO2 en Jaarplan 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekharst, P.; Medema, D.; Dijkshoorn, A.

    2012-10-15

    Less energy, less CO2 emissions and use of renewable energy sources,are important aspects in the sustainable development of horticulture, strengthening its competitiveness and image. Carbon neutral production and transport is needed to really be sustainable. The program describes an approach for the period 2013-2016, giving concrete results for the year 2013 [Dutch] Minder energiegebruik, minder CO2 uitstoten en meer hernieuwbare energiebronnen inzetten; dat zijn belangrijke aspecten in een duurzame ontwikkeling van de tuinbouw, het versterken van haar concurrentiekracht en imago. Klimaatneutraal produceren en vervoeren is uiteindelijke nodig om echt duurzaam te zijn. Het programma beschrijft een aanpak voor 2013 t/m 2016, waarbij voor 2013 de gewenste resultaten concreet worden benoemd.

  6. CASINDO Programme Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K.; Bole-Rentel, T.; Saidi, R. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Netherlands, Leusden (Netherlands); Winarno, Oetomo Tri [Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Permana, Iman [Technical Education Development Centre, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2012-06-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. CASINDO stands for Capacity development and strenghtening for energy policy formulation adn implementation of sustainable energy projects in Indonesia.

  7. The energy-political programmes of the parties in the State Parliament of Sachsen-Anhalt prior to the State election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first in a series of articles taking a close look at the essential statements in the energy and environmental policy programmes of the politically relevant parties and comparing them with one another. The series begins with the political programmes of the parties represented in the State Parliament of Sachsen-Anhalt (where an election is forthcoming on June 26, 1994), as submitted to the editor of this journal in answer to his inquiry. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of the most important geographical and energy-economic data and the range of political parties in this State Parliament in order to illustrate the boundary conditions. (orig./UA)

  8. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  9. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  10. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Lagou, Vasiliki; Gutin, Bernard; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake s

  11. An international peer review of the biosphere modelling programme of the US Department of Energy's Yucca mountain site characterization project. Report of the IAEA International Review Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has a project for characterizing the site of a facility for disposing of radioactive waste located at Yucca Mountain Nevada, USA (the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project). This Project has developed an approach for assessing the future potential impact of any releases of radionuclides to the biosphere from a potential disposal facility sited at Yucca Mountain The DOE requested the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to organize an independent international expert review of the assessment methodology being used in its biosphere modelling programme. The IAEA accepted the request in the context of its statutory obligation to provide for the application of its established international standards of safety for the protection of health, at the request of a State, to any of that State's activities in the field of atomic energy. The terms of reference of the peer review were to review the biosphere assessment methodology being used for the total system performance assessment of the potential disposal facility. The main purpose was to analyze critically the proposed rationale and methodology and to identify consistencies and inconsistencies between methods being used in the frame of the Project and those established in international standards or in international programmes such as the IAEA's Biosphere Modelling and Assessment Programme (BIOMASS). This report presents the consensus view of the international experts convened by the IAEA for carrying out the review

  12. Carbon emissions, energy consumption and output: A threshold analysis on the causal dynamics in emerging African economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the recent global economic downturn, attention has gradually shifted towards emerging economies which have experienced robust growth amidst sluggish growth of the world economy. A significant number of these emerging economies are in Africa. Rising growth in these economies is associated with surging demand for energy to propel the engines of growth, with direct implications on emissions into the atmosphere. Further, these economies are constantly being shaped by series of structural reforms with direct and indirect effects on growth, demand for energy, etc. To this end, this paper examines the causal dynamics among energy use, real GDP and CO2 emissions in the presence of regime shifts in six emerging African economies using the Gregory and Hansen (1996a). J. Econ. 70, 99–126 threshold cointegration and the Toda and Yamamoto (1995). J. Econometrics. 66, 225–250 Granger causality techniques. Results confirm the presence of regime shift effects in the long run inter-linkages among energy use, real GDP and CO2 emissions in the countries considered, thus indicating that structural changes have both economic and environmental effects. Hence, integration of energy and environmental policies into development plans is imperative towards attaining sustainable growth and development. - Highlights: • The paper examines the causal dynamics among output, energy demand and carbon emissions in the presence of regime shifts. • Regime shift have significant effects on the nexus among energy use, real GDP and CO2 emissions. • Results suggest that structural changes in selected countries have both economic and environmental effects. • Integration of energy and environmental policies into development plans is desirable

  13. Programmable Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

    2011-01-01

    A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

  14. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  15. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Duvier, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Qin, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  16. PROGEOTHERM - National program for the development of geothermal energy in Switzerland - Final report; PROGEOTHERM - Programme national de developpement de la geothermie en Suisse - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the current situation with respect to the use of geothermal energy in Switzerland and the problems faced. Action to be taken is examined. The report proposes that specialised further education, including the setting up of a Master of Advanced Studies course at the University of Neuchatel and support for courses at Universities of Applied Sciences. Research and development in the geothermal area and support for pilot and demonstration installations, new machinery and exploration methods are proposed. Also, political, organisational and financial aspects of the support programme are discussed.

  17. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  18. Edoardo Amaldi's letter concerning conclusions about the furture European High-Energy accelerator, the base of pyramid programme, Actual needs in the near future and possible recommendations for the future

    CERN Document Server

    European Committee for Future Accelerators

    1966-01-01

    Edoardo Amaldi's letter concerning conclusions about the furture European High-Energy accelerator, the base of pyramid programme, Actual needs in the near future and possible recommendations for the future

  19. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2005; Energie-Forschung 2005/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview reports for the year 2005 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings, traffic, vehicles and accumulators, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, process engineering, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, nuclear safety and nuclear waste disposal, regulatory nuclear safety research, nuclear fusion and energy economy basics. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, the introduction of energy standards for buildings, labelling, component catalogues, passive dwellings, high-performance insulation systems, sustainable cities, 'Minergie' buildings, the use of solar energy are mentioned. In the building technologies area, electricity consumption, fuel cells and daylighting were looked at, as were airing, ventilation and hot-water preparation. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic-related projects reported on include financial incentives for energy-efficient vehicles, the EU's 'cleaner Drive' project, infrastructures for gas fuels, gas-fuelled buses and various mobility projects. A review of drive systems is presented, including hybrid systems and a hydro-pneumatic recuperation system. Projects on small and lightweight vehicles are reviewed, including projects on bicycles and weather protection. The record-breaking PAC-Car project is noted. Developments concerning trolley-buses and electric cars as well as a driverless cabin-vehicle running on rails are noted. Accumulators and 'Zebra' batteries are noted. Electrical topics include high-temperature superconductors, thermo-electricity, power storage and

  20. Study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a tailored energy balance programme for recent retirees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, A.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Kwak, L.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    Background - People in transitional life stages, such as occupational retirement, are likely to gain weight and accumulate abdominal fat mass caused by changes in physical activity and diet. Hence, retirees are an important target group for weight gain prevention programmes, as described in the pres

  1. Energy research programme 'Combustion 2008-2011'; Energieforschungsprogramm 'Verbrennung' fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, S.

    2009-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swiss combustion research programme for the period 2008-2011. The importance of combustion as an important process for the transformation of various energy carriers into useful forms of energy is noted. Also, the authors note that the burning of fossil fuels uses up a valuable resource and produces CO{sub 2} and fine dust. Swiss combustion research is noted as being internationally recognised. The report discusses improved research methods and instruments, increasing system efficiency, the reduction of emissions and the use of various energy carriers. The six main activities for the period 2008-2011 are introduced. Also national and international co-operation is noted. Technical and economic goals are also discussed, as is the funding of combustion research.

  2. ISOLDE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Fedosseev, V; Lynch, K M; Grob, L K; Herfurth, F; Scheidenberger, C; Geppert, C; Gorges, C; Ratajczyk, T; Vogel, S; Munch, M K; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J J A; Lecesne, N; Bouzomita, H; Grinyer, J; Marques moreno, F M; Parlog, M; Pedroza, J; Ghetta, V; Lozeva, R; Guillemaud mueller, D S; Cottereau, E; Cheikh mhamed, M; Tusseau nenez, S; Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Smith, A G; Fitzpatrick, C; Dominik, W M; Karny, M; Ciemny, A A; Nyman, G H; Thies, R M A; Lindberg, S K G; Langouche, G F; Delaure, B J P; Mayet, P; Ory, G T; Kesteloot, N J K; Papuga, J; Dehairs, M H R; Callens, M; Domnanich, K A; Richter, D; Lutter, R J; Wiehr, S; Tengblad, O; Nacher gonzalez, E; Jungclaus, A; Ribeiro jimenez, G; Marroquin alonso, I; Cal gonzalez, J; Paziy, V; Salsac, M; Murphy, C; Podolyak, Z F; Bajoga, A D; Butler, P; Pritchard, A; Steer, A N; Fox, S P; Wadsworth, B A; Truesdale, V L; Al monthery, M; Hass, M; Guttormsen, M S; Badea, M N; Calinescu, S; Cederkall, J A; Zemlyanoy, S; Golovkov, M; Wu, C; Harrichunder, S; Ncube, M; Gerten, R F; Lehnert, J; Gladnishki, K A; Pospisil, S; Datta pramanik, U; Benzoni, G; Fedorov, D; Molkanov, P; Pfeiffer, B; Griesel, T; Wehner, L W; Mikkelsen, M; Recchia, F; Smith, J F; Kelly, C M; De melo bandeira tavares, P M; Vieira, J M; Martins da silva, M A; Lima lopes, A M; Mader, J; Kessler, P; Laurent, B G; Schweikhard, L C; Marx, G H; Kulczycka, E; Komorowska, M; Da silva, M F; Goncalves marques, C P; Baptista peres, M A; Welander, J E; Coeck, S; Ryssens, W A M; Knoops, G; Vanbuel, J; Reiter, P; Miller, C; Martin sanchez-cano, D; Wiens, A; Blazhev, A A; Braun, N; Cappellazzo, M V; Birkenbach, B; Gerst, R; Dannhoff, M F; Sithole, M J; Bilgier, B; Nardelli, S; Vetter, U; Araujo mendes, C M; Valencia marin, E; Pantea, E; Hessberger, F P; Leduc, A J; Mitsuoka, S; Carbonari, A W; Buchegger, F J; Garzon camacho, A; Stachura, M K; Stora, T; Marsh, B A; Thiboud, J A; Antalic, S; Stahl, C; Bauer, C; Thurauf, M; Maass, B; Sturm, S; Boehm, C; Ways, M; Heylen, H; Riisager, K; 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Revill, J P; Andreev, A; Yavuzkanat, N; Kumar, V; Zamfir, N - V; Deleanu, D; Jeppesen, H B; Pain, S D; Stracener, D W; Matousek, V; Venhart, M; Birova, M; Li, X; Stuchbery, A E; Lellep, G M; Chakraborty, S; Leoni, S; Chupp, T; Yilmaz, C; Severin, G; Garcia ramos, J E; Hadinia, B; Mc glynn, E; Monteiro de sena silvares de carvalho, I; Friedag, P; Koos, V; Meot, V H; Pauwels, D B; Jancso, A; Srebrny, J; Alves, E J; David bosne, E; Dexters, W M M; Velten, P; Kalkuehler, M; Albers, M; Bharuth-ram, K; Akkus, B; Hemmingsen, L B S; Pedersen, J T; Dos santos redondo, L M; Rubio barroso, B; Kozlov, V; Mokhles gerami, A; Bernardo da silva, E; Unzueta solozabal, I; Schell, J; Szybowicz, M; Lassen, J; Johnston, K; Miyazaki, A; Macko, M; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Bonig, E S; Ignatov, A; Paschalis, S; Schilling, M; Habermann, T; Von hahn, R; Minaya ramirez, E E; Manea, V; Karthein, J; Moore, I D; Wang, Y; Saastamoinen, A J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Stolze, S M; Clement, E; Dijon, A; Shornikov, A; Lienard, E; Gibelin, J D; Pain, C; Canchel, G; Simpson, G S; Latrasse, L P; Forest, D H; Billowes, J; Flanagan, K; Strashnov, I; Binnersley, C L; Simpson, J; Morrall, P S; Grant, A F; Charisopoulos, S; Lagogiannis, A; Bhattacharya, C; Olafsson, S; Tornqvist, H T; Heinz, A M; White iv, E R; Vermote, S L; Courtin, S; Marechal, F; Randisi, G; Rajabali, M M; Lannoo, B J M; Frederickx, R; De coster, T J C; Roovers, N; De lemos lima, T A; Haller, S; Rizzi, M; Reichert, S B; Bonn, J; Thirolf, P G; Garcia rios, A R; Gugliermina, V M; Cubero campos, M A; Sanchez tembleque, V; Benito garcia, J; Senoville, M; Mountford, D J; Gelletly, W; Alharbi, T S T; Wilson, E; Rigby, S V; Andreoiu, C; Paul, E S; O'neill, G G; Harkness, L J; Wraith, C; Van esbroeck, K; Wadsworth, R; Cubiss, J G; Doherty, D T; Harding, R; Vaintraub, S; Mandal, S K; Hadynska-klek, K; Scarpa, D; Hoff, P; Syed naeemul, H; Borcea, R; Balabanski, D L; Marginean, R; Rotaru, F; Rudolph, D; Fahlander, C H; Chudoba, V; Naidoo, D; Veselsky, M; Kliman, J; Raisanen, J A; Dietrich, M; Maung maung than, M M T; Reed, M W; Danchev, M T; Ray, J; Roy, M; Hammen, M; Capponi, L; Veghne csatlos, M M; Fryar, J; Da silva fenta, A E; Mirzadeh vaghefi, S P; Trindade pereira, A M; De pinho oliveira, G N; Bakenecker, A; Tramm, C; Germic, V; Morel, P A; Kowalczyk, M; Matejska-minda, M; Ringvall moberg, A; Kana, T; Vermeeren, B R M; Dockx, K; Mantovan, R; Fransen, C H; Radeck, F; Schneiders, D W; Steinbach, T; Vibenholt, J E; Magnussen, M J; Stevnhoved, H M; Comas lijachev, V; Dasenbrock-gammon, N M; Perkowski, J; Matveev, Y; Garcia borge, M J; Molholt, T E; Srnka, D; Dlouhy, Z; Beck, D; Homm, I; Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Probst, M B; Kaiser, C J; Papadakis, F; Peura, P J; Greenlees, P T; Auranen, K; Delahaye, P; Traykov, E K; Perez loureiro, D; Mery, A A; Couratin, C; Tsekhanovich, I; Lunney, D; Gaulard, C V; Althubiti, N A S; Mottram, A D; Das, S K; Van de walle, J; Mazzocchi, C; Jonson, B N G; Woehr, A; Lesher, S R; Zuber, K T; Koudriavtsev, I; De witte, H J; Van den bergh, P A M; Raabe, R; Depuydt, M J F; Radulov, D P; Elseviers, J; Reynders, K L T; Sels, S M C; Verlinde, M; Delombaerde, L; De maesschalck, D; Tarasava, K; Gernhaeuser, R A; Weinzierl, W; Wendt, K; Achtzehn, T; Gottwald, T; Schug, M; Rossel, R E; Dominguez reyes, R R; Briz monago, J A; Koester, U H; Bunce, M R; Bowry, M D; Nakhostin, M; Shearman, R; Cresswell, J R; Joss, D T; Gredley, A; Groombridge, D; Siem, S; Weterings, J A; Renstrom, T; Szpak, B T; Luczkowski, M J; Ghita, D; Bezbakh, A; Bollmann, J; Bhattacharya, P; Roy, S; Rahaman, M A; Wlodarski, T; Carvalho soares, J; Barzakh, A; Werner, V R; Schertz, F; Froemmgen, N E; Liberati, V; Foy, B E; Weinheimer, C P; Zboril, M; Figuera, P; Simon, R E; Popescu, L A; Czosnyka, T; Miranda jana, P A; Buescher, J S L; Plociennik, W A; Ruchowska, E E; Chiara, C J; Eberth, J H; Thomas, T; Thole, P; Queiser, M T; Lo bianco, G; D'amico, F; Muller, S; Sanchez alarcon, R M; Tain enriquez, J L; Orrigo, S E A; Orlandi, R; Plazaola muguruza, F C; Lepareur, N G; Wildner, E; Kowalska, M; Malbrunot, S; Slezak, M; Roeckl, E; Schrieder, G H; Ilieva, S K; Koenig, K L; Amoretti, M A; Lommen, J M; Fynbo, H O U; Weyer, G O P; Koldste, G T; Madsboll, K; Jensen, J H; Nieminen, A M; Reponen, M; Villari, A; Thomas, J; Saint-laurent, M; Sorlin, O H; Carniol, B; Pereira lopez, J; Grevy, S; Plaisir, C; Marie-jeanne, M J; Georgiev, G P; Etile, A M; Le blanc, F M; Verney, D; Stefan, G I; Assie, M; Suzuki, D; Guillot, J; Vazquez rodriguez, L; Campbell, P; Deacon, A N; Ware, T; Flueras, A; Xie, L; Banerjee, K; Piersa, M; Johansson, H T; Schwarz, S; Welker, A; Krauth, M R; Perrot, F; Aumont, J; Sferrazza, M; Van duppen, P L E; Versyck, S; Dehaes, J; Bree, N C F; Neyskens, P; Martinez palenzuela, Y; De groote, R P; Carlier, L M F; De schepper, S; Dewolf, K W A; Kabir, L R; Garcia ruiz, R F; Khodery ahmad, M A; Zadvornaya, A; Xu, Z; Smolders, P; Krastev, P; Rapisarda, E; Reber, J A; Mattolat, C F; Raeder, S; Habs, D; Martinez perez, T; Fraile prieto, L M; Vidal, M; Perez liva, M; Calvo portela, P; Ulla pedrera, F J; Domingo pardo, C; Morales lopez, A I; Wood, R T; Lalkovski, S; Page, R; Petri, M; Barton, C J; Nichols, A J; Vermeulen, M J; Bloor, D M; Henderson, J; Wilson, G L; De angelis, G; Buerger, A; Klintefjord, M L; Fornal, B A; Marginean, R; Sava, T; Suvaila, R; Lica, R; Costache, C; Mihai, R; Ionescu, A; Baeck, T M; Masenda, H; Sedlak, M; Koskelo, O K; Kyaw myat, K M; Ganguly, B; Goncalves marques, J; Cardoso, S; Seliverstov, M; Niessen, B D; Gutt, L E; Chapman, R; Spagnoletti, P N; Lopes, C; De oliveira amorim, C; Batista lopes, C M; Araujo, J; Schielke, S J; Daugas, J R; Gaudefroy, L; Chevrier, R; Szunyogh, D M; Napiorkowski, P J; Wrzosek-lipska, K; Wahl, U; Catarino, N; Pereira carvalho alves de sequeira, M; Decoster, S J; Porobic, T; Walters, W; Hess, H E; Holler, A; Bettermann, L; Geibel, K; Taprogge, J; Lewandowski, L T N; Manchado de sola, F; Das gupta, S; Thulstrup, P W; Heinz, U; Neidherr, D M; Gumenyuk, O; Peaker, A R; Wakabayashi, Y; Roder, J; Abrahams, K J; Mach, H A; Souza ribeiro junior, I; He, J; Giles, T J; Dorsival, A; Kalaninova, Z; Venos, D; Kraemer, J; Saha, S; Neugart, R; Eronen, T O; Kreim, K D; Heck, M K; Goncharov, M; Julin, R J; Jakobsson, E H U; Eleon, C; Achouri, N L; Fontbonne, C M; Alfaurt, P; Kusoglu, A; Wilkins, S G; Brown, A R; Imai, N; Pomorski, M J; Janiak, L; Nilsson, T; Stroke, H H; Stanja, J; Dangelser, E; Heenen, P; Mallion, S N; Diriken, J V J; Ghys, L H L; Khamehchi, M A; Van beveren, C; Gins, W A M; Bouma, J T; Mcnulty, J F; Berger, C J; Ohlert, C M; Schwerdtfeger, W; Becerril reyes, A D; Perea martinez, A; Martinez perez, M C; Margerin, V; Rudigier, M; Alexander, T D; Patel, Z V; Hammond, N; Wearing, F; Patel, A; Jenkins, D G; Debernardi, A; Giacoppo, F; Tveten, G M; Krolas, W A; Stanoiu, M A; Rickert, E U; Ter-akopian, G; Cline, D; Riihimaeki, I A; Simon, K D; Wagner, F E; Turker, M; Neef, M H; Jakubek, J; Vagena, E; Bottoni, S; Nishimura, K; Correia, J; Rodrigues valdrez, C J; Ostrowski, A N; Hallmann, O; Scheck, M; Wady, P T; Lane, J; Krasznahorkay, A J; Kunne sohler, D; Meaney, A J; Baptista barbosa, M; Hochschulz, F; Roig, O; Houngbo, D; Behan, C C; Kargoll, S; Kemnitz, S; Redondo cubero, A; Dirkx, D; Tallarida, G; Kaczarowski, R; Finke, F; Linnemann, A; Altenkirch, R; Saed-samii, N; Ansari, S H; Dlamini, W B; Adoons, V N; Ronning, C R; Guadilla gomez, V; Herlert, A J; Judge, S M; Catherall, R; Lettry, J; Lindroos, M; Wenander, F J C; Madurga flores, M; Zakoucky, D; Catchen, G L; Noertershaeuser, W; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Shubina, D; Murray, I M; Pancin, J; Delaunay, F; Poincheval, J J L; Audirac, L L; Gerbaux, M T; Aouadi, M; Sole, P G P; Fallot, M P; Onillon, A; Duchemin, C; Formento cavaier, R; Audi, G; Lau, C; Martin, J A; Barre, N H; Berry, T A; Procter, T J; Farooq-smith, G J; Bladen, L K; Axiotis, M; Muto, S; Jeong, S C; Hirayama, Y; Korgul, A B; Minamisono, K; Bingham, C R; Aprahamian, A; Bucher, B M; Huyse, M L; Himpe, P; Ferrer garcia, R; Sambi, S; Budincevic, I; Neven, M; Bomans, P; Romano, N; Maugeri, E A; Klupp, S C; Dehn, M H; Heinke, R M; Maira vidal, A; Vedia fernandez, M V; Ibanez garcia, P B; Bruyneel, B J E; Materna, T; Al-dahan, N; Alazemi, N; Carroll, R J; Babcock, C; Laird, A M; Eleme, Z; Dhal, A; Valiente dobon, J J; Sahin, E; Goergen, A; Maj, A; Bednarczyk, P A; Borcea, C; Negoita, F; Suliman, G; Marginean, N M; Sotty, C O; Negret, A L; Nae, S A; Nita, C; Golubev, P I; Knyazev, A; Jost, C U; Petrik, K; Strisovska, J; Vaeyrynen, S A; Dracoulis, G D; Rainovski, G I; Uher, J; Fernandez dominguez, B; Chakraborty, P; Avigo, R; Galaviz redondo, D; Castro ribeiro da silva, M; Bernards, C W; Falahat, S; Lekovic, F; Dorrer, H J; Derkx, X; Angus, L J; Sandhu, K S; Gregor, E; Byrne, D J; Haas, H; Lourenco, A A; Sousa pereira, S M; Esteves de araujo, J P; Sousa, J B; De melo mendonca, T M; Tavares de sousa, C; Guerreiro dos santos oliveira custodio, L M; Da rocha rodrigues, P M; Yamaguchi, T; Thompson, P C; Rosenbusch, M; Wienholtz, F; Fischer, P; Iwanicki, J S; Rusek, K M; Hanstorp, D; Severijns, N; Vanpoucke, B R S; Finlay, P E J; Park, S H; Warr, N V; Doornenbal, P C; Imig, A; Seidlitz, M; Moschner, K; Vogt, A; Kaya, L; Martel bravo, I; Orduz, A K; Serot, O; Litvinov, Y; Bommert, M; Hensel, S; Markevich, V; Nishio, K; Ota, S; Matos, I; Zenkevich, A; Picado sandi, E; Forstner, O

    2002-01-01

    The experiments aim at a broad exploration of the properties of atomic nuclei far away from the region of beta stability. Furthermore, the unique radioactive beams of over 60~elements produced at the on-line isotope separators ISOLDE-2 and ISOLDE-3 are used in a wide programme of atomic, solid state and surface physics. Around 300 scientists are involved in the project, coming from about 70 laboratories. \\\\ \\\\ The electromagnetic isotope separators are connected on-line with their production targets in the extracted 600 MeV proton or 910~MeV Helium-3 beam of the Synchro-Cyclotron. Secondary beams of radioactive isotopes are available at the facility in intensities of 10$^1

  3. Effect of thermal energy storage in energy consumption required for air conditioning system in office building under the African Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgalil Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the African Mediterranean countries, cooling demand constitutes a large proportion of total electrical demand for office buildings during peak hours. The thermal energy storage systems can be an alternative method to be utilized to reduce and time shift the electrical load of air conditioning from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, the Hourly Analysis Program has been used to estimate the cooling load profile for an office building based in Tripoli weather data conditions. Preliminary study was performed in order to define the most suitable operating strategies of ice thermal storage, including partial (load leveling and demand limiting, full storage and conventional A/C system. Then, the mathematical model of heat transfer for external ice storage would be based on the operating strategy which achieves the lowest energy consumption. Results indicate that the largest rate of energy consumption occurs when the conventional system is applied to the building, while the lowest rate of energy consumption is obtained when the partial storage (demand limiting 60% is applied. Analysis of results shows that the new layer of ice formed on the surface of the existing ice lead to an increase of thermal resistance of heat transfer, which in return decreased cooling capacity.

  4. Advances in Energy Research in Switzerland in 2000; Energie-Forschung 2000/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2000 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings and hot-water systems, accumulators and traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, combustion technologies, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy, small hydropower, nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal, nuclear safety, nuclear fusion and basics for the energy economy. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, an emphasis was placed on environmental issues with an eco-inventory for energy systems. Also, further work done on the use of grass-fibres for insulation is noted, as are passive solar systems and new developments in highly efficient insulation systems. In the building technologies area, thermo-active building components and various ventilation systems are looked at. Fuzzy-logic based neuronal networks for detecting errors in building services are noted. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic topics reported on include the impact of two-wheel concepts on mobility, lightweight body technologies, efficient drive systems, fuel cell drive technologies, accumulators and supercaps as well as various pilot and demonstration projects. Electrical topics include distribution and flywheel energy storage, high-temperature superconductors, as well as power consumption in computer applications and electrical machines. In the ambient heat and heat-pump area, projects concerning refurbishment, scroll compressors, intermediate injection, small ammonia heat-pumps, environment-compatible refrigerants are noted as are developments in the combined heat and power area, including optimisation software

  5. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2005; Energie-Forschung 2005/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview reports for the year 2005 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings, traffic, vehicles and accumulators, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, process engineering, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, nuclear safety and nuclear waste disposal, regulatory nuclear safety research, nuclear fusion and energy economy basics. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, the introduction of energy standards for buildings, labelling, component catalogues, passive dwellings, high-performance insulation systems, sustainable cities, 'Minergie' buildings, the use of solar energy are mentioned. In the building technologies area, electricity consumption, fuel cells and daylighting were looked at, as were airing, ventilation and hot-water preparation. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic-related projects reported on include financial incentives for energy-efficient vehicles, the EU's 'cleaner Drive' project, infrastructures for gas fuels, gas-fuelled buses and various mobility projects. A review of drive systems is presented, including hybrid systems and a hydro-pneumatic recuperation system. Projects on small and lightweight vehicles are reviewed, including projects on bicycles and weather protection. The record-breaking PAC-Car project is noted. Developments concerning trolley-buses and electric cars as well as a driverless cabin-vehicle running on rails are noted. Accumulators and 'Zebra' batteries are noted. Electrical topics include high-temperature superconductors, thermo-electricity, power storage and

  6. Energy as a tool for sustainable development for African, Caribbean and Pacific countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy plays a critical role in sustainable human development. It impacts on poverty, population, health, the environment, investment in industrial and agricultural development, foreign exchange and even security; it also has a strong gender implication. Policies aimed at providing energy services in a sustainable manner open doors to the achievement of a wide array of other development goals. However, the manner in which the world currently produces and consumes energy is unsustainable. A key challenge is to incorporate strategies to limit the potential negative impact of human activity on the global climate. Recognising these issues, national governments, bilateral co-operation agencies, and international development institutions have made efforts to promote the provision of energy services in ways which contribute to sustainable development. However, a number of barriers continue to limit the adoption of existing options. Building on the 1997 UNDP publication, Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges, the present report analyses the energy situation of two particular country groupings of global interest, Sub-Saharan Africa and ACP Small Island Developing States. It goes on to identify the actions required by different role-players to increase the adoption of sustainable energy options in these two groups. This publication is the result of a joint EC/UNDP initiative which aims to intensify the global dialogue on sustainable energy issues and to provide a basis for future concrete cooperation activities. It is the intention of the report to support developing countries in implementing more effectively the objectives of Agenda 21, and to contribute to the follow up to the Rio Earth Summit and the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in preparation for its 9th Session in 2001. Coming at a critical time in the work of the European Commission, with the ongoing negotiation of a new framework development agreement to replace Lome IV, the report is an

  7. ADS National Programmes: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a preliminary design developed in 1998, based on the Energy Amplifier concept proposed by CERN, a first configuration of a lead-bismuth Eutectic cooled Experimental ADS (LBE-XADS) was worked out in the period 1999–2001, under the aegis of MURST, by a group of Italian organizations led by Ansado Nucleare, with the aim of assessing the feasibility of a small sized (80 MWth) ADS. At the end of 1997 a joint effort of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) led to the approval of a national programme by MURST (Minister for University and Scientific and Technological Research) named TRASCO (TRAsmutazione SCOrie) aiming at the study of physics and technologies needed to design an ADS for radioactive waste transmutation. The programme consisted of research subprogrammes on accelerator, neutronics, thermalhydraulics analysis, beam window technology, and material technology and compatibility with Pb and Pb-Bi. At now, most of the activities in support to the ADS development carried out at national level are part of EU-funded Projects. These activities are complemented by the programme agreement (AdP -Accordo di programma), signed between ENEA and the Ministry of Economic Development, which provides in general a range of activities aimed at the development of sustainable nuclear fission systems. Several universities and the national industry are involved, besides ENEA, in the activities

  8. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  9. Conventional energy supply and impacts in African cities; L'approvisionnement en energie traditionnelle et impacts dans les villes africaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2002-03-01

    Before discussing supplies of conventional energy in sub-Sahara, one must consider certain information and important facts. In each country, the supplies in conventional energy are moving within a holistic frame with inter sectoral links between energy and the other problems encountered by national economies: forestry, agriculture, livestock production, demography, urbanization, poverty. In this light, the author indicated it might be wise to take into account a few major facts that underlay the Urban Demand in Domestic Combustibles before devising sustainable solutions. It was explained that in most of the African countries located South of the Sahara, there was a trend toward greater urbanization and the movement of refugees. In large part, these trends are the result of poverty, conflicts, or the degradation of the environment. Therefore, it follows that energy consumption is concentrated in cities. In countries such as Burkina Faso or Zambia, a large proportion of urban dwellers still rely on biomass to meet their culinary needs, as well as heating and other tasks. Urbanization occurred in an anarchic manner, and the forests that used to encircle cities are fast disappearing, leaving in their wake pollution. In addition, the supply sources of biomass are farther than ever. Nowadays, the supply of wood energy for Dakar, the capital of Senegal, extends over an area covering 500 kilometres, rather than the 100 kilometres it required thirty years ago. Wood energy in cities is considered to be the major cause of deforestation. Health problems such as asthma are caused by the smoke emanating from the fires used to cook meals. A few solutions are beginning to emerge, linked to the presence of youth and women in the cities, as well as sufficient manpower to implement the solutions. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Energy, protein, and zinc nutriture of rural African children in relation to some anthropometric indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, E.L.; Gibson, R.S.; Osei-Opare, F.; Opare-Obisaw, C.; Thompson, L.U. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Ghana, Legon (Ghana) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-03-11

    Heights, weights, arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thicknesses of 66 Malawian and 148 Ghanaian preschool children were measured during 3 seasons. Their seasonal energy, protein, Ca, Zn, dietary fiber and phytate intakes were estimated from 3-day weighed records, using analyzed and literature food composition values. Seasonal hair Zn concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses, The mean annual intakes for Malawian compared to Ghanaian children were higher for energy protein, and Zn. Cereals contributed a higher proportion of the total energy intake in the Malawian compared to the Ghanaian diets. A higher percentage of the Malawian children had height-for-age Z-scores below {minus}2SD, but a lower percentage had weight-for-height Z-scores below {minus}1SD compared to their Ghanaian counterparts. These differences may, in part be related to the high cereal intakes of the Malawian children.

  11. Energy supply for African populations not connected to the grid: diagnosis, solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the supply of domestic fuels in cities and electrification of rural or suburban areas are the poor relations in energy policies of developing countries, the author first proposes a diagnosis of these both issues. He proposes an overview of the historical evolution by discussing the effects of demographic growth and economic and financial crisis. He analyses some characteristics of the concerned population: geographical distribution, energy sources, interaction between urban and rural areas. He highlights the importance and challenges of the off-network energy supply: demographic, economic, social, environmental, and climatic aspects. In the second part, the authors addresses possible solutions by distinguishing biomass (for domestic, craftsmanship and small industry applications) and electrification (for public lighting, television, telephony, and low power motorization). Thus, he first addresses issues related to biomass and some other fuels: management and growth of wood fire production and improvement of its exploitation, measures for biomass saving, energy sources of substitution such as gas. Then, he discusses the possibilities and perspectives of rural centralised and decentralised electrification

  12. Implementing the South African free basic alternative energy policy: a dynamic actor interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohlakoana, Nthabiseng

    2014-01-01

    The majority of households without grid electricity in South Africa are located in low-income rural and urban areas. Being located in the remote rural areas makes it expensive to extend the grid and often locks such households into energy poverty where they are forced to use traditional fuels which

  13. Methods for the application of programmable logic devices in electronic protection systems for high energy particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis was realised within the framework of the Doctoral Student programme at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research CERN, which is situated near Geneva. The aim of this thesis was to develop a method for reliable rmware implementation and to use that method to implement a new rmware for the Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system. That system relies heavily on the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and it is one of the key machine protection systems of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The conception of the SMP hardware originates from the fully tested Beam Interlock System (BIS) being a result of another PhD thesis [1]. For that reason the reliable SMP hardware was preserved unchanged. The rst version of the SMP was ready for the LHC startup in the year 2008. Nevertheless the quality of the SMP rmware was objectionable. There were new requirements and therefore the SMP speci cation was extended. On that occasion it was decided that the existing SMP rmware will not be continued and that it...

  14. Methods for the Application of Programmable Logic Devices in Electronic Protection Systems for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Todd, Benjamin

    The present thesis was realised within the framework of the Doctoral Student programme at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research CERN, which is situated near Geneva. The aim of this thesis was to develop a method for reliable firmware implementation and to use that method to implement a new firmware for the Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system. That system relies heavily on the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and it is one of the key machine protection systems of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The conception of the SMP hardware originates from the fully tested Beam Interlock System (BIS) being a result of another PhD thesis. For that reason the reliable SMP hardware was preserved unchanged. The first version of the SMP was ready for the LHC startup in the year 2008. Nevertheless the quality of the SMP firmware was objectionable. There were new requirements and therefore the SMP specification was extended. On that occasion it was decided that the existing SMP firmware will not be continued and ...

  15. VOLUNTARY WORK AMONG IMMIGRANTS IN HELSINKI : THE ROLES OF AFRICANS AND AFRICAN-EUROPEANS ASSOCIATION (AFAES RY)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodeji, Sunday Abel

    2013-01-01

    Ayodeji Sunday Abel. Voluntary work among immigrants in Helsinki, The roles of Africans and African-Europeans Association (AFAES RY). Langauge: English. Spring 2013. 52 pages. 3 appendixes. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree: Programme in Social Services. Bachelor of Social Services. ...

  16. 2009 Building law congress. Energy saving programme and current legislative developments. Partners in dialogue; Baurechtstage 2009.Energieeinsparungsprogramm und aktuelle Rechtsentwicklung. Partner im Gespraech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The declared political will to achieve considerable savings in primary energy use in existing as well as newly constructed buildings has led to a number of new legal regulations that are of concern to investors, property developers and architects. The present 84th volume of the series ''Partners in dialogue'' therefore presents in compact yet comprehensive form a discussion and in-depth investigation of current legal issues arising from the energy saving programme. It furthermore deals with the Securitisation Law and the amendments to the German Construction Contract Procedures. The volume also offers an overview of current jurisdiction in civil and public building law as well as laws concerning property developers, architects and engineers.

  17. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Buxton Christiana; Hagan John E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of con...

  18. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  19. A study on the framework for selecting core R and D programmes in Energy Technology Roadmap by the DEA approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Kon; Mogi, Gento; Kim, Jong Wook

    2007-07-01

    South Korea is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world because of the poor country of natural resources such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas. It is essential to solve the energy difficulty of secure supply and demand of national energy. We established the energy technology roadmap to prepare for the next 10 years. We clustered 3 core technological sectors such as technology for high oil prices, the United nations framework for climate change, and the hydrogen economy. But we didn't prioritize the weights of energy technology development in energy technology roadmap. To allocate the finite resources efficiently, we cluster the preferred groups and non-preferred groups by the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. Through the scientific decision making approach, we can allocate R and D capacity, budget, and infrastructures efficiently to produce outstanding R and D outputs. (auth)

  20. Into Africa: How Talisman Energy pumps oil and money out of an African dictatorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The story behind the headlines accusing Talisman Energy Inc., headquartered in Calgary, of tacitly aiding the government of Sudan in its fratricidal war against its own people that cost more than a million lives since it began 16 years ago, is told. The company denies the charges, insisting that drilling for oil is not the reason for the civil war or for the atrocities, or that the company takes sides in the civil war. Under pressure by shareholders and government, Talisman promised to exert pressure to ensure that the money generated by Talisman's activities will be expended on hospitals and on road construction, and that Talisman will work to promote peace in Sudan. These claims have been made at the 1999 annual meting of Talisman by the company chairman addressing the shareholders, contradicting a recent statement by a senior member of the Sudanese government saying that they will use oil revenues to build more tanks and weapons to continue the war. Talisman's problems highlight the difficult choices facing companies that want to operate in conflict zones. Despite long-running civil wars such as Angola, Sierra Leone, Algeria, Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, these countries continue to attract capital from Canada and other western countries. There are rich rewards for those willing to take risks, but there is rising protest and increasing questioning of the underlying morality of doing business with oppressive governments. While Talisman strenuously claims neutrality and tries hard to convince its critics that all Sudanese benefit from the oil wealth, there is substantial evidence from various parts of Africa that resource wealth often serves to prolong conflict by reinforcing authoritarian regimes. The report provides a first-hand account of the situation in Sudan and cautions shareholders of Talisman and other resource companies investing in civil war-torn countries to pay close attention to the quality of information they are given by those

  1. The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on GDP (gross domestic product) growth and the financial development in thirty Sub Saharan African Countries. The panel model was used in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. The results showed that energy consumption had played an important role to increase both economic growth and the financial development in the investigated economies but with the consequence of high po llution. This study recommended that these countries should increase energy productivity by increasing energy efficiency, implementation of energy savings projects, energy conservation, and energy infrastructure outsourcing to achieve its financial development and GDP growth and to increase their investment on energy projects to achieve the full energy potential. -- Highlights: ► The impact of energy consumption, CO2 emission on GDP and the financial development in the SSA countries was investigated. ► The panel model was implied in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. ► The results show energy consumption increased economic growth and the financial development but with higher pollution.

  2. Caught between necessity and feasibility : The effects of Rwanda’s Biogas Programme on energy expenditure and fuel use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); L. Pellegrini (Lorenzo); L. Tasciotti (Luca)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDependence on biomass, especially wood, to meet domestic energy needs raises several socio-environmental concerns. In contrast, cattle manure, which may be used to generate biogas, is considered a cleaner and cheaper source of energy. Despite the existence of several initiatives to promo

  3. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  4. Not Merely a Matter of Academics: Student Experiences of a South African University as Study-Abroad Destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, R. J.; Lemmer, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programmes attract considerable numbers of American college students; however, very few select an African country as their study-abroad destination. This article explores the experiences of American undergraduates who made the uncommon choice of a South African university as destination for a mid-length immersion type programme. The…

  5. Cost analysis of measures in the integrated energy and climate programme (IECP); Wirtschaftliche Bewertung von Massnahmen des integrierten Energie- und Klimaprogramms (IEKP). Wirtschaftlicher Nutzen des Klimaschutzes. Kostenbetrachtung ausgewaehlter Einzelmassnahmen der Meseberger Beschluesse zum Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fleiter, Tobias [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2008-08-15

    The main objective of the study made by the project team was to analyse the energy and climate programme measures with respect to their ecological and economic effects. The study concentrated on a bundle of particularly important measures within the total package. The savings are estimated from a total cost perspective in which the additional investments for (possibly) more expensive efficiency technologies and technologies for using renewable energies are set against the saved costs for fossil energy (cost-benefit analysis). However, this is not done from a macroeconomic perspective since, e.g. feedback effects via prices and income are not considered; these should be examined in more detail in follow-up research. The overall result is that, with annual investments of 24 billion euro in climate protection, Germany triggers energy savings of 29 billion euro based on the year 2020. These savings are supported by programme costs (transfer costs) of only 2.5 billion euro annually (this sum includes the surcharges from renewables and CHP which constitute the biggest share). It is worth investing in climate protection in Germany. (orig.)

  6. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanbin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA and African-American (AA youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (P = 0.01, weight (P = 0.03 and waist circumference (P = 0.04, with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05, or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05. No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.

  7. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  8. "African Connection."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  9. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  10. The Dual Promise of Green Jobs: A Qualitative Study of Federally Funded Energy Training Programmes in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the policy literature on green jobs and green jobs training in the USA and to present findings of a qualitative study on the start-up of two Energy Training Partnerships (ETP) funded by the US Department of Labour to train workers for green jobs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes a review…

  11. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: Particle Physics Foundations of Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Inflation (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Particle Physics Foundations of Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Inflation (1/3), by Dr. Edward (Rocky) Kolb (University of Chicago).   Wednesday, May 9, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 500-1-001 - Main Auditorium ) Ninety-five percent of the present mass-energy density of the Universe is dark.  Twenty-five percent is in the form of dark matter holding together galaxies and other large scale structures, and 70% is in the form of dark energy driving an accelerated expansion of the universe.  Dark matter and dark energy cannot be explained within the standard model of particle physics.  In the first lecture I will review the evidence for dark matter and the observations that point to an explanation in the form of cold dark matter.  I will then describe the expected properties of a hypothetical Weakly-Interacting Massive Particle, or WIMP, and review experimental and observational approaches to test the hypothesis.  Finally, I will discus...

  12. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: Draft for the plan of management for bio-energy. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: The electricity companies' programme for gasification of coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish power companies have, since the middle of the 80's carried through a technology development effort for the use of bio-fuels in power (and dual-purpose power) plants. This note concerns the current status of the development and a sketch for an action programme for future effort. Straw is the largest unexploited potential. The use of bio-fuels does not produce so much carbon dioxide, but on the other hand biomass supply can fluctuate. Biofuels are also difficult to stoke, and expensive. Close co-operation between agriculture and forestry is necessary and risks are high for the involved sectors. It must be possible to use bio-fuels combined with coal to secure a sturdy and economic energy production, it is necessary to have a stable energy and industrial policy to maintain interest in the long term development effort, the contrasts of interest between natural gas and bio-fuels on the decentralized thermal power market must be clarified and the prices of bio-fuels must be made competitive by making supply and subsidies more effective. The main areas for future development are the bio-fuel resources, logistics and economy, straw in central power plants, gasification of coal and biomass, bio-fuels in decentralized cogeneration plants, biogas plants, conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels etc. A close co-ordination of ELSAM/ELKRAFT's development activities and cooperation between organizations in Denmark and abroad should be aimed at. (AB)

  13. UNESCO's Ethics Education Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2008-01-01

    Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching throu

  14. Political economy of African uranium and its role in international markets. Final report. International energy studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of uranium development in Africa is briefly summarized. Today there are 4 major uranium producing countries in Africa: Gabon, Niger, Namibia, and South Africa. These nations have the possibility of political instability. In addition, the uranium market has undergone a series of radical changes over the past decade. How these African nations have responded to this changing market, and how their roles in the international market relate to domestic political and economic factors are the topics of this report

  15. Manual for the classification and prioritization of risks due to major accidents in process and related industries. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated areas wide approaches to risk management. The Inter-Agency Programme brings together expertise in health, the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. This is one of a series of publications intended to be issued on behalf of the four participating UN organizations. This is the first revision of the original report, distributed in December 1993. The revision was undertaken in the light of experience with the original edition and was prompted by the wish to add the results of a practical case study and some new developments. 13 figs, 23 tabs

  16. The programme benefits of improving project team communication through a contact centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bond-Barnard, T. J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A South African national programme to repair government infrastructure uses a contact centre (or call centre to facilitate and manage communication. An important question is: How does the contact centre benefit the programme and its projects? This study discusses the findings of a survey that quantified the benefits of the programme when the communication between team members in the programme was improved by using a contact centre. The results show that, by using a contact centre to improve the communication between project team members, their perception of communication effectiveness, quality of project deliverables, service delivery, and customer satisfaction of the programme dramatically increases.

  17. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  18. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  19. Human Resource Development in a Newcomer Country: MNPC’s Experience as a Dedicated Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concluding remarks: The establishment of MNPC as a fully dedicated NEPIO facilitates a focused drive towards implementation of a nuclear energy development program for Malaysia. Now, 3 years after its establishment, MNPC will continue to spearhead and coordinate collaborative national efforts towards enabling a well-informed Government decision on the option of using nuclear power post-2020. Nuclear Power Infrastructure Development Plan (NPIDP) is being prepared by Consultant engaged by MNPC and expected to be completed in Dec 2014 Professionals including stakeholders involved with nuclear power planning and programmeimplementation, could also serve as a pool of experts & personnel to staff relevant future organisations needed for NPP development

  20. The Role of a Research Reactor in the National Nuclear Energy Programme in Vietnam: Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, Vietnam has only one research reactor - Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) - with nominal power 500 kW which main purpose is training, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis and basic research. During operation more than 25 years, the research reactor played a very important role in the development of the nuclear infrastructure and provided numerous products and services. However, due to the limitation of neutron flux level, the out-of-date design of the experimental facilities and the ageing of the reactor facilities, this research reactor cannot meet the increasing user's demands. Therefore, building a new multipurpose research reactor of high power (10 to 20 MW) is essential to increase nuclear potential of the country, to meet the requirements of energy and non-energy related applications, creating staff for nuclear industry. The main role of a new research reactor is to serve the nuclear power development program, promote the application of nuclear science and technology, and training scientific and operational staff for the future nuclear facilities. (author)

  1. Measuring the effect of loyalty programmes on a leading pet food brand / Suné Basson

    OpenAIRE

    Basson, Suné

    2014-01-01

    Loyalty programmes, used as a tool to improve brand loyalty among consumers, have grown in popularity in the South African business environment. Loyalty programmes are essential in understanding customers and to keep customers involved while promoting a brand simultaneously. Although loyalty programmes are also being utilised in the pet food industry, information of the impact it has had on brand loyalty of pet food brands are limited. It is for this reason that the loyalty ...

  2. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  3. NDA National Graduate Programme 'nucleargraduates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to outline the NDA National Graduate Programme (nuclear graduates). The NDA has a remit under the Energy Act (2004) 'to maintain and develop the skills for decommissioning and nuclear clean-up'. Although current research is now being reviewed, there is significant evidence to suggest that the age profile in the Site Licence Companies is skewed towards older workers and there is likely to be a skill shortage in 3-5 years. As nuclear clean-up is a national issue; skill shortages also become a national issue in a very real sense. In addition, evidence suggests that the industry needs to be constantly challenged in order to achieve its targets for decommissioning. The NDA has a unique position under the Act. It is both a strategic overseer and direct employer. To this end the 'National Graduate Programme' is aligned to both the NDA's previous succession plans and the needs of the industry. Industry needs leadership that challenges the status quo and moves the UK nuclear industry to become best in class; Industry needs a dedicated to programme to address skills shortages and difficult to recruit areas such as, but not exclusively, estimators, schedulers, contract managers, site engineers, decommissioning technicians, safety monitors; The NDA has indicated a 'commercial and politically savvy' cohort is required to meet its own internal challenges and to ensure sustainability in its own workforce, and to be sensitive to the needs of customers and suppliers alike; Need to create a more diversified workforce in the nuclear industry and also plan for new skills evolving from research and development breakthroughs; Need to ensure that Tier 1, 2, 3 and 4 contractors invest in the leadership and skills for the future. World Class - delivery will be benchmarked against UK based multinational companies who operate in a global graduate attraction and development marketplace. The graduates targeted will be from leading institutions and will have a blend of

  4. ALICE pp physics programme

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The physics programme of the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC comprises besides studies of high-energy heavy-ion collisions measurements of proton-proton interactions at unprecedented energies, too. This paper focuses on the global event characterisation in terms of the multiplicity distribution of charged hadrons and mean transverse momentum. These bulk observables become accessible because the detector features excellent track reconstruction, especially at low transverse momenta. The measurement of strange hadrons is of particular interest since the strange-particle phase-space was found to be suppressed beyond canonical reduction at lower center-of-mass energies and the production mechanism of soft particles is not yet fully understood. Here we benefit in particular from particle identification down to very low transverse momentum, i.e. 100 - 300 MeV/c, giving access to spectra and integrated yields of identified hadrons. Equipped with these features, ALICE will play a complementary role w.r.t. other LHC exper...

  5. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status. PMID:25265504

  6. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status.

  7. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  8. The Tunisian standards and labelling programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunisia has recently implemented a standards and labelling programme for household appliances and other energy using equipment. This programme, which is the fruit of six years labour supported by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and executed by l'Agence Nationale pour la Maitrise de l'Energie (ANME), led to the issue of energy labelling and minimum energy efficiency standards regulations for refrigerators in 2004. This paper reports on the design and implementation of the programme that not only serves as a role model for how such programmes can be conducted in developing countries, but also matches or exceeds the design and implementation of similar programmes in developed countries. Findings are presented on the following elements: consumer research used to design the Tunisian energy label, the establishment and accreditation of national test facilities, the energy performance certification, verification and compliance process, the development of refrigerator energy efficiency and labelling criteria, public communications and outreach strategy projected programme impacts Results are also presented from a detailed and sophisticated refrigerator techno-economic energy engineering analysis that provided much of the analytical basis for the choice of labelling and efficiency standards thresholds. As a result of its careful design and implementation it is forecast that by 2030 the programme will have saved 3.4 Mt of CO2 emissions at a cost to the GEF of just 20 USc/tonne. The cost of conserved electricity for Tunisian consumers is projected to be less than 1 USc/kWh, which compares very favourably with the current tariff of 7.4 USc/kWh

  9. Coherent energy and environmental system analysis. A strategic research project financed by The Danish Council for Strategic Research Programme Commission on Sustainable Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, H. (ed.); Hvelplund, F.; Vad Mathiesen, B. (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The main focus of this project has been A) to further develop and integrate existing tools and methodologies of environmental life cycle assessment and energy system and market analysis into coherent energy and environmental analysis tools. B) to apply such integrated tools and methodologies to the analysis of future sustainable energy systems with an emphasis on: 1) how to integrate the transport sector including considerations of limitations in biomass resources; 2) how to develop future power systems suitable for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources; and 3) how to develop efficient public regulation in an international market environment. It is found that the transition from the present energy system dominated by fossil fuels to a system dominated by renewable energy sources requires significant changes in existing policies on both supply and demand sides. In order to succeed, such change requires the system based on renewables to be supported by strong and efficient energy conservation. In Denmark, wind power and biomass are expected to be the two dominant resources in the short and medium term perspectives. In order to ease the pressure on wind and biomass resources, energy conservation becomes essential and so does the inclusion of contributions from additional sources such as solar and geothermal energy. The change requires infrastructure where intermittent renewable energy sources can be managed in such a way that energy is available at the right time and in the right amount for the consumers. A main challenge for the transition planning is to obtain an efficient coordination between investments in the electricity, transportation, and heat sectors. The policy instruments include new systems of taxes, subsidies, tariffs, and other economic conditions in order to obtain an optimal effect. One main problem is to assure an energy-efficient use of low-temperature sources from CHP, waste incineration, industrial surplus heat and geothermal

  10. Guidelines for integrated risk assessment and management in large industrial areas. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) within the framework of the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated area wide approaches to risk management. An Inter-Agency Programme, which brings together expertise in health the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management, was established. The Inter-Agency Programme on the assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems aims at promoting and facilitating the implementation of integrated risk assessment and management for large industrial areas. This initiative includes the compilation of procedures and methods for environmental and public health risk assessment, the transfer of knowledge and experience amongst countries in the application of these procedures and the implementation of an integrated approach to risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. The UN organizations sponsoring this programme have been involved for several years in activities aimed at assessment and management of environmental and health risks, prevention of major accidents and emergency preparedness. These Guidelines have been developed on the basis of experience from these activities to assist in the planning and conduct of regional risk management projects. They provide a reference framework for the undertaking of integrated health and environmental risk assessment for large industrial areas and for the formulation of appropriate risk management strategies

  11. The quality of Environmental Management Programmes (EMPRs) within the coal mining industry in South Africa / Casper Joubert

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations negatively impact the environment and, as a result, South African legislation requires that, as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment, an Environmental Management Programme (EMPRs) be developed and implemented to manage all the impacts identified. The Coal Mining Sector was selected for this research because of the important role it plays within the South African economy. In this research, the quality of Environmental Management Programmes within the Coal Mining Sector ...

  12. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  13. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  14. Synthesis of Vaermeforsk's research programme 'Crops from field to energy'; Syntes av Vaermeforsks forskningsprogram 'Groedor fraan aaker till energi'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Gunnarsson, Carina; Roennbaeck, Marie; Olsson, Johanna

    2010-06-15

    Vaermeforsk and the Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have jointly run the research programme 'Crops from field to energy'. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture for combustion and heat and power production in Sweden. About 20 projects have studied different parts of the chain from cultivation, harvest and storage to combustion and recycling of ash to farmland for agricultural fuels (straw, hemp, Reed Canary Grass and short rotation willow crops (Salix)). The aim of this report has been to compile and synthesise progress made during the programme and realization of its aims, as well as to identify the need of further research. The most important progress and conclusions made during the programme are: Cultivation - More knowledge and concrete advice concerning planting and growth of Salix, as well as on suitable length of harvest season, which enables planting cost reductions and increased yields. Increased knowledge on cultivation of Reed Canary Grass and combined cultivation with leguminous plants. Harvest and logistics - Comparisons and costs for different alternatives for harvest, handling and logistics has been produced for all of the agricultural fuels, both via theoretical and practical efforts, which can serve as a basis for direct measures as well as continued research. Processing/combustion/ash - It is possible to produce briquettes made from Reed Canary Grass and peat. New knowledge on combustion of Reed Canary Grass with different boilers is produced. It is now recommended as a fuel for co-combustion with wood and peat in large scale plants. Recommendations on co-combustion of Reed Canary Grass and Salix with peat have also been put forward, based on combustion tests. Experience from Denmark on large scale combustion of straw and production of high quality straw has been compiled. Additional costs that may arise when using agricultural fuels

  15. Procurement for market transformation for energy-efficient products. A study under the SAVE-programme[SAVE = Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report summarises the findings from the SAVE study, 'Procurement for Market Transformation for Energy Efficient Products', focusing on the possibility of executing co-operative procurement activities at the European level. The conclusions are based upon findings from 36 market studies carried out in nine European countries regarding four different products: induction motors, solar-energy systems for water heating, office lighting systems, and combined fridge-freezers, as well as practical experience from about 30 procurements carried out by NUTEK in Sweden, and the experience of the IEA DSM Implementing agreement annex III 'Co-operative Procurement of Innovative Technologies'. The study concludes that co-operative procurement is a promising instrument for consideration in combination with other instruments for future energy-efficiency policy at the EU level. By seeking to transform the European market in its totality, the current prevailing differences between national markets can be softened contributing to the completion of a single European market and providing a basis for a more integrated market transformation approach. However, carrying out the process at the EU level is complex and it therefore needs careful designing in order to be successful. A main barrier to measures of this kind being implemented is the lack of experience, and therefore trust in the process as such, which is why further practical experience on both a national and international level is needed. To encourage member states to participate and co-operate whatever the form chosen, the study suggests that concrete and active support from the Commission is an important signalling effect, since the importance of energy efficiency on the political agenda differs considerably between countries that, furthermore, are more or less flexible when it comes to adopting new policy instruments.

  16. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  17. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  18. REHABILITATION PRACTICAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana KRANJC JOLDIKJ

    Full Text Available Centre for Education and Rehabilitation of Physi­cally Handicapped Children and Adolescents Kamnik (Zavod za usposabljanje invalidne mlad­ine Kamnik; hereinafter: ZUIM perform verified or state-ap­proved programme the Rehabilitation practical pro­gramme. The programme is intended for all those young people, who have completed primary school education, but cannot continue regular schooling in secondary school pro­grammes. The programme con­sists of several equivalent parts: education, practical work, train­ing work, health, therapeutic, psychologi­cal, and other activities. For every beginner in the first month of education members of the operative team create an individualized programme, which in­cludes individualized school work, individualized training programme, and other expert activities. The programme can last for 6 years maximum, it can however be completed earlier, when the op­erative team feels the training is no longer neces­sary. Pro­gress of a young person is what matters the most, and if there is no progress, the training is brought to an end. Training of young people in the Rehabilitation practical programme is only the be­ginning. The country will have to start considering social enter­prises, which are found elsewhere in the world, for example in Scandinavian countries and in the USA.

  19. Electricity production from wind energy: world situation and the French program EOLE 2005; Production d'electricite par energie eolienne: situation dans le monde et programme francais EOLE 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electricite de France [ed.] [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-07

    The wind electricity world market shows at present an important development stage characterized by an annual increase rate of 20% to 30%. The total installed power in the world reached the value 7,200 MW in November 1997 and, according to forecasts, it could increase fivefold up to 2005. For France's high wind potential sites, namely the DOM-TOM and in Corsica, where the electricity production is more expensive than in inland France, this energy production mode approaches the threshold of competitiveness with other production means. The program EOLE 2005 (targeting 250 to 500 MW from wind turbines to be installed in France until 2005), launched in 1996 by EDF in collaboration with ADEME, on request of public authorities, is thought to implement this demand. The sections of the report are titled as following: - An energy used by man from long time ago; - Momentous developments of the wind power technology since eighties; - From wind turbines of some hundreds kW to 3 MW, based on robust technologies and newly devised methods; - Wind energy becomes equally interesting from economic viewpoint but for which applications?; - This option presents some drawbacks; - Which is the wind potential economically acceptable if the mentioned constraints are taken into account?; - The wind generators will be installed on sea near seashores; - An outstanding change in this field in France since 1996: the programme EOLE 2005; - 35 selected projects of 125,3 MW total power; - Future. The electricity production from wind energy seems promising particularly for the countries that have not resorted to either nuclear energy or hydropower options and which possess important wind resources.

  20. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  1. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  2. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  3. Areas and programmes of technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooperation between the Atomic Energy Commission of Costa Rica, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, has permitted to carry out programmes and projects which agree with the national objectives of development. In the areas of environmental hydrology; physical sciences and chemistry; industry and geological sciences; health and animal production; biological sciences, agriculture and alimentation; scientific and technical information. (author)

  4. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  5. Programs and instruments of the energy policy and climate policy. EEG versus emissions trading?; Programme und Instrumente der Energie- und Klimapolitik. EEG versus Emissionshandel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafhausen, Franzjosef [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The fundamental question behind the theme of the contribution under consideration is as old as the independent environmental policy in Germany. The battle undulates between fundamentally different schools. On the one side, there are representatives of a one-dimensional theory in which a single instrument is sufficient to solve a defined problem. On the other hand, there is the thesis that the existing obstacles and barriers have such a wide range of expression that one instrument is not sufficient to overcome all hurdles. This position advises the use of adjusted combinations of instruments in order to realize comprehensive and very ambitious targets. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on (a) the main reasons for the use of a combination of instruments; (b) the targets of the German climate protection policy; (c) the energy concept of the Federal Government.

  6. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  7. The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy – a South African perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Barnard

    2012-01-01

    It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In ter...

  8. United States programme on partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The United States Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle R and D programme has been redirected over the past year. Rather than pursuing design and construction of current technologies for recycling components of used nuclear fuel in fast reactors, the programme is evaluating or re-evaluating all options for long-term sustainable fuel cycles. Strategies for open, modified open and fully closed fuel cycles are under development. In addition, with the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project, the programme is evaluating options for used fuel storage, transportation and permanent disposal of high-level waste. The Fuel Cycle R and D programme will develop and demonstrate advanced technologies in order to prepare for commercial deployment of a sustainable fuel cycle by 2050. (authors)

  9. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  10. Network virtualization and programmability

    OpenAIRE

    Colle, Didier; Jooris, Bart; Gurzi, Pasquale; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2010-01-01

    We present network virtualization (building virtual or logical networks over a physical infrastructure) and network programmability (allowing the network operator to at least control the network but more fundamentally to define its behavior) concepts.

  11. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  12. Elukestva õppe programm : Erasmus+

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Erasmus+ programm liidab senised koostööprogrammid „Euroopa elukestva õppe programm“, „Euroopa Noored“ ning Euroopa komisjoni rahvusvahelised kõrgharidusprogrammid. Elukestva õppe programmi 2013 kokkuvõte

  13. The perceived benefits for Turkey adopting nuclear energy, and the lessons learned from the attempts made to introduce a nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was formed in 1957. It had two major objectives. It aimed at promoting nuclear energy to make the maximum contribution to world energy needs. And it aimed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Turkey became an IAEA Member State in 1957, a year after the establishment of the Turkish Atomic Energy Commission which later was re-established as the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK). TAEK is a governmental organization and has served as a driving force for all institutions enhancing and broadening the fields of interest thereby fostering nuclear oriented activities in many spheres. Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Corporation (TEAS) was a state owned enterprise established for the performance of services for production and transmission of electrical energy in conformity with general economy and policies of the State under the Decree of Board of Ministers. Interaction with the Agency and Technical Co-operation in particular became a very essential component of the widespread programme within the general framework of nuclear applications in the country. Most of the assistance to Turkey was related to nuclear applications. Turkey had been trying for many years to establish a comprehensive energy development plan where nuclear power shall have an important share. Turkey has tried to launch a nuclear power plant project in Akkuyu three times in 1976,1983 and 1993 and these attempts have ceased in a couple of years, because of some 'surrounding reasons'. Integration of the nuclear power plants into the grid system of Turkey will bring the following profits: Long-term reliability of the plant (around 40 years of life-time); Introducing a diverse fuel into the Turkish electricity production system beside fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and fuel oil; With only one fuel loading, months of reliable operation from the aspect of fuel; During operation, environmentally friendly behaviour of the plant

  14. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    George Korir; Manu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external component...

  15. Stay Safe Programme

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. This child abuse prevention study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Stay Safe Programme in training unscreened 7 and 10 year old children in personal safety skills. Subsidiary aims were to evaluate the programme's impact on children's self-esteem and parents' and teachers' knowledge and attitudes of relevance to child abuse and protection. Method. Changes in safety knowledge and skills and self-esteem of 339 children who participated in the Stay Safe Program...

  16. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  17. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  18. Challenges in setting up a PET programme - South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography has over the last two decades been established as an important modality in Nuclear Medicine, especially in the management of oncology patients. In most parts of the developed world it is accepted as an integral part of the standard of care for many patients. The growth was even faster since the introduction of PET-CT devices. In the developing world the expansion of PET facilities has been considerably slower, and in some regions no PET facilities are available. Numerous factors may be responsible for this phenomenon. As in the developed world, health care contraction and reform is also imminent in South Africa. There are numerous constraints to the development of PET in South Africa. In contrast to the developed world, it took very long to establish PET facilities in South Africa, with the first facilities only established in late 2005, primarily in the private sector. Presently there are five private PET-CT facilities, with more expected in the near future. In the public sector the development is much slower. One PET-CT camera has been delivered, but is not yet functional, while two more will be installed soon. PET imaging is developing rapidly elsewhere in the world. Hence health technology reviews performed one or two years ago are lagging behind. The time is ripe for a breakthrough with providing an organised national service for PET, also in South Africa. This technology development should be regarded as a necessity, and part of strategic planning of the National Department of Health. Numerous aspects of the recommendations of the Intercollegiate Standing Committee on Nuclear Medicine in the UK are also applicable in South Africa and can be used by all role players in the field. It is already clear from the current private practices that implementation of the technique is heavily influenced by reimbursement restrictions. These should also be addressed in collaboration with the health funders in South Africa, to ensure the viability of PET in the public and private sector

  19. The tuberculosis challenge in a rural South African HIV programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Graham S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.

  20. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  1. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  2. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  3. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  4. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  5. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a well-structured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities. (author)

  6. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R B Grover; R R Puri

    2013-10-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a wellstructured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities.

  7. ADS National Programmes: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German R&D programme for ADS development is related to the partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. This programme is implemented mainly by the three national research centres belonging to the Helmholtz Association, i.e. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in cooperation with the Technical University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR). The main purpose of this R&D programme is the prospect to manage the high level radioactive waste such as to reduce the burden on a final repository. P&T does not eliminate the need for a final repository whatever the strategy, but it allows the reduction of the radio-toxicity associated with radioactive waste, the increase of the repository capacity as a consequence of the reduction of masses to be stored and their associated residual heat load. Different fuel cycle scenarios to implement P&T can be envisaged. These scenarios have been evaluated to identify the impact of P&T on the characteristics, number and deployment pace of the installations of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fuel fabrication, storage etc). Almost all activities conducted in the R&D programme are embedded in European and international projects and initiatives. In the following more details on the relevant components of the R&D programme are summarized

  8. International Programmes on ADS: IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA recognizes that there are four major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world’s energy mix: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind IAEA’s activity in the area of innovative transmutation reactor technology development and, in particular, Accelerator Driven Systems. The framework for all the IAEA activities in the ADS area is the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). In response to strong common R&D needs in the Member States, the TWG-FR acts as a catalyst for international information exchange and collaborative R&D. It provides a forum for exchange of non-commercial scientific and technical information, and a forum for international cooperation on generic research and development programmes on advances in fast reactors and fast spectrum accelerator driven systems. Its present members are the following 15 IAEA Member States: Belarus, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States of America, as well as 3 international organizations: ISTC, OECD-NEA, and EU (EC). As observers, the TWG-FR has welcomed Argentina and Belgium. Last but not least, the IAEA is providing the ADS Research and Development Database. It contains information about ADS related R&D programmes, existing and planned experimental facilities as well as programmes, methods and data development efforts, design studies, and so forth

  9. Technician level needs and skills development guidelines for the South African nuclear energy industry / Titus P. Mampala.

    OpenAIRE

    Nampala, Titus Pendukeni

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for electrical energy to bring about development and social change has brought about renewed interest in the use of nuclear power as one of the sources of electrical energy. The nuclear power industry has had a few decades of low activity due to previous accidents which turned the public perception against the use of nuclear as an electrical power source. The low activity has resulted in the shortage of nuclear skills as the skill previously available is now aged and abo...

  10. Should HIV and AIDS workplace programmes still be advocated in the automotive industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Liana Steenkamp; Jill von der Marwitz; Friederike Baasner-Weihs; Jacques Pietersen

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: In light of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, and in order to improve competitiveness in the South African private sector, many structures have implemented subsidised workplace programmes.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to collect baseline data regarding the knowledge, attitudes, practices and belief (KAPB) of employees in the automotive industry in relation to HIV and AIDS, in order to assess the need for HIV and AIDS workplace programmes.Motivation fo...

  11. Developing inquiry-based teaching and learning in Family Maths programme facilitators

    OpenAIRE

    Pam Austin; Paul Webb

    2007-01-01

    The inquiry-based Family Maths professional development programme, offered by the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, attempts not only to support the transformative education practices targeted by the South African National Department of Education, but also to extend them beyond the school walls to the community at large. This study investigates the extent to which this programme develops facilitators’ ability to implement inquiry-based learning. The research undertaken uses both qualit...

  12. External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Every year, a significant number of highly-skilled staff members leave the Organization and offer their talents on the European job market. CERN is launching a programme aiming to help staff members to whom the Organization cannot offer an indefinite contract in the transition towards their next employment. The programme, which is based on the establishment of a number of partnerships with potential employers in the private sector, will run on a voluntary basis. Staff members who have received confirmation that they will not be offered an indefinite contract and who are interested in availing themselves of the opportunities offered by the programme, are invited to enrol by following the procedure described at: https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=5841 Applications will be processed in the strictest confidence by the Human Resources Department and eligible profiles will then be made available to partner companies for recruitment purposes. Any subsequent ...

  13. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Korir, George

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes a series of operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series ...

  14. Energy partitioning over the West African savanna: multi-year evaporation and surface conductance measurements in Eastern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagayoko, F.; Yonkeu, S.; Elbers, J.A.; Giesen, van de N.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variability of the energy partitioning was analyzed with a combination of eddy fluxes of sensible and latent heat and weather data on intensely farmed land in the savanna area of Eastern Burkina Faso, West Africa. The analysis covers two rainy seasons (May-October 2003 and 2004), one dry se

  15. Funktionell Programmering : En framtidsprognos

    OpenAIRE

    Holmer, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Trenden inom systemutveckling och programutveckling går mot ett mer användande av multi programmeringsparadigmer. Funktionell programmering har fått mer uppmärksamhet på senare tid och utvecklingen tycks över lag gå än mer åt det deklarativa hållet där programmeraren fokuserar mer på vad som skall utföras och inte lika mycket på hur. Under en tid har det objektorienterade paradigmet varit dominerande, kommer det vara så i framtiden? Funktionell programmering skiljer sig från imperativ program...

  16. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  17. A programmer's geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, Adrian

    1983-01-01

    A Programmer's Geometry provides a guide in programming geometric shapes. The book presents formulas and examples of computer representation and coding of geometry. Each of the nine chapters of the text deals with the representation and solution of a specific geometrical problem, such as areas, vectors, and volumes. The last chapter provides a brief discussion on generating image through a computer. The codes presented in the book are written in FORTRAN 77. The text will be of great use to programmers who are working on projects that involve geometric calculations.

  18. Cultural Sustainability of African Canadian Heritage: Engaging Students in Learning, the Past, the Present and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research is cultural sustainability of African Canadian heritage. Research literature informs us that engaging youth in educational programmes at the local level is fundamental to sustainability discussions. Furthermore, students must be actively engaged in their African Canadian past, present and future education. However, there…

  19. Determining the climate impact of the German government's Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP) and proposing a plan to continuously monitor its climate impact. Summary; Ermittlung der Klimaschutzwirkung des Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramms der Bundesregierung IEKP und Vorschlag fuer ein Konzept zur kontinuierlichen Ueberpruefung der Klimaschutzwirkung des IEKP. Zusammenfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fleiter, Tobias [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2012-02-15

    In August 2007, key elements for an Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP) were adopted in the so-called Meseberg Decisions. This programme will contribute towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Germany by 40 % by the year 2020. The Meseberg Decisions were implemented in two packages, which mainly contain legislative amendments and support measures. On 5 December 2007 the German cabinet presented a comprehensive package of 14 laws and regulations which the German Bundestag passed on 6 June 2008 (IEKP I). This is in addition to the measures already in place such as the KfW programme (building refurbishment programme to reduce CO{sub 2}, the ''special energy efficiency programme for SMEs'' etc.). A second package with further legislative proposals (IEKP II) was made public on 18 June 2008. Thus essential elements of the Meseberg Decisions of 2007 are already being implemented. Moreover, there are other measures of the Meseberg programme which are relevant in an EU or in an international framework. What contribution the climate protection instruments enacted under IEKP will really make to this goal must be evaluated on the basis of the concrete design (and in future the concrete implementation), in order to provide policy-makers with decision-making support when further developing climate protection policy. The Integrated Energy and Climate Programme foresees that every two years the federal government should account for the emission reductions achieved thereby and the impacts of the individual measures (programme monitoring). The present research project was conducted in preparation for this objective. Specifically, the project should meet the following goals: 1. To assess how the Meseberg Decisions of August 2007 have been implemented in specific, effective instruments at national or European level (qualitative evaluation of each instrument and the total package). 2. To create a monitoring plan for comprehensive, regular evaluation

  20. Stake and limit of nuclear energy on the respect of social, cultural and economic rights of African people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the capacities of energy production generates economic, social and cultural progress. However the energy production, especially that related to nuclear power, comprises many risks for man and his environment. These risks are primarily related to safety and health. In the developing countries like Burkina Faso, the nuclear engineering is used in the field of socio-economic and cultural development, and is beneficial to agriculture, medicine, the breeding, the research and management of water resources. The use of this nuclear engineering must however be subjected to the safety standards in the prospect of minimizing dangers such as accident risks, the stealing of sealed sources or its use by unqualified people. Its use should also be done in line with respecting human rights according to the convention on the complementary repair of damages. That would help reduce considerably the impacts of the use of nuclear engineering on human rights relating to public health, the environment and to the food

  1. Educational Programme in Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of a malicious act involving nuclear or other radioactive material is a continuing worldwide threat. Available data indicate circumstances in which nuclear and other radioactive material are vulnerable to theft, are uncontrolled, or are in unauthorized circulation. States must establish sustainable security measures to prevent such acts and to protect society from nuclear terrorism. Appropriate training and education at all levels and in all relevant organizations and facilities can play a major role in this process. There is increased interest in nuclear applications. Many States have expressed interest in expanding or introducing nuclear power in their country as a result of their own assessment of their energy supply needs, because of climate change, and development requirements. The projected increase in the demand for nuclear energy will increase the number of nuclear reactors worldwide and, consequently, the amount of nuclear material in use. Possible malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material are a real threat. These developments are mirrored by an increase in the use of nuclear techniques in non-power applications. As a result, the need for experts in the area of nuclear security has become of great importance, and both universities and students have shown an increasing interest in nuclear security specialities. In September 2005, the Board of Governors approved a Nuclear Security Plan covering the period 2006-2009. This emphasized, inter alia, the importance of human resource development to assist States in building capacity to establish and maintain appropriate nuclear security to prevent, detect and respond to malicious acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material. The Nuclear Security Plan envisages the development of guidance for an educational programme in nuclear security that could be used by all States. In pursuit of this goal, this publication has been developed to provide advice and assistance to

  2. Key United States programmes for the security of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses key US programme activities related to the security of radioactive sources, including both domestic and international programmes; the US Department of Energy-Nuclear Regulatory Commission joint report and findings; and critical partnerships for future efforts to preclude terrorist attacks using radioactive sources. (author)

  3. Mexican medfly programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This film tells the story of the fight against and final extinction of the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Mexico. By producing billions of high quality sterile flies in the Medfly reproduction and sterilization laboratory in the province of Chiapas and releasing them over infested areas, the Moscamed Programme succeeded in eradicating this pest from Mexico in 1982

  4. Kulturalistische Unternehmensethik : ein Programm

    OpenAIRE

    Hanekamp, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    "Das Programm einer kulturalistischen Unternehmensethik wird vorgestellt. Es gründet auf einem philosophischen Ansatz, der sich als instrumentalistisch, kontextualistisch, transsubjektivistisch und individualistisch charakterisieren lässt. Hinsichtlich der ethischen Grundlagen werden starke Thesen durch den Rekurs auf eine kontextualistisch-normative Anthropologie vermieden." (Autorenreferat)

  5. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  6. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  7. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  8. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  9. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 30 January 2007, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2007 until 31 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74484/74128

  10. En model for programmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Dette undervisningsmateriale beskriver en model for, hvordan programmer er opbygget. Materialet er skrevet til brug i det gymnasiale forsøgsfag Informationsteknologi. Seneste version af dette undervisningsmateriale kan findes på http:// www.imhotep.dk. Tak til Elisabeth Husum for en kritisk...

  11. Energy from waste - a synthesis report. A review of research projects in the Swedish Energy Agency's programme 'Energy from waste' 2000-2003; Energi ur avfall - syntesrapport. En sammanstaellning av forskningsprojekten bedrivna inom ramen foer Energimyndighetens program 'Energi ur avfall' aar 2000-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Anna [Linkoeping Univ. (SE). Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies] (comp.)

    2005-11-15

    This review describes the projects active during the years 2000-2003. Types and volumes of waste in Sweden: Consumption waste is waste from use of goods and services. Examples of consumption waste are household waste, non-branch specific industrial waste, building and demolition waste, park and garden waste, sludges from purification plants and private sewage. Production waste is generated in industry and agriculture. In 1998 Statistics Sweden performed a mapping of waste volumes and management in Sweden. This year 9.805 M tons consumption waste and 19.680 Mton production waste (excluding mine wastes) were generated. Since then, waste volumes have increased with 2-3%/year. Local communities, public sector and private waste management companies handled 7.7 M tons of waste for biologic processing, incineration with heat recovery or disposal, of these, 5.7 M tons are appreciated to have been combustible and other organic waste. In the programme, the subject 'System studies' comprised three projects: 'Systems analysis of energy recovery from waste', 'Robust strategies for recovery of energy from waste', and 'Waste as fuel - An integrated study of the energy- and waste management system'. The subject area 'Incineration and gasification' included the following projects: 'Catalytic combustion of gasified waste', 'Gas cleaning in energy recovery from waste using new technology', 'Catalytic decomposition of chars in gasified waste', 'Cocombustion of biofuel and sorted household waste - Full scale trials Bjurholm', 'Incineration of waste - a review of research and development work', 'Energy from waste through gasification and direct combustion of the gas', 'Carbonate stabilization of RDF-ashes', 'Stabilization of ashes from incineration of waste in fluidized bed boilers', 'Dioxins and other environmental toxins i fly ashes and slags from

  12. Radiative effects of African dust and smoke observed from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, John E.; McGill, Matt; Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Hu, Yongxiang; Hlavka, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Cloud and aerosol effects have a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget in the tropical Atlantic because of the spatial and temporal extent of desert dust and smoke from biomass burning in the atmosphere. The influences of African dust and smoke aerosols on cloud radiative properties over the tropical Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for the month of July for 3 years (2006-2008) using colocated data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aqua satellites. Aerosol layer height and type can be accurately determined using CALIOP data through directly measured parameters such as optical depth, volume depolarization ratio, attenuated backscatter, and color ratio. On average, clouds below 5 km had a daytime instantaneous shortwave (SW) radiative flux of 270.2 ± 16.9 W/m2 and thin cirrus clouds had a SW radiative flux of 208.0 ± 12.7 W/m2. When dust aerosols interacted with clouds below 5 km, as determined from CALIPSO, the SW radiative flux decreased to 205.4 ± 13.0 W/m2. Similarly, smoke aerosols decreased the SW radiative flux of low clouds to a value of 240.0 ± 16.6 W/m2. These decreases in SW radiative flux were likely attributed to the aerosol layer height and changes in cloud microphysics. CALIOP lidar observations, which more accurately identify aerosol layer height than passive instruments, appear essential for better understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions, a major uncertainty in predicting the climate system.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on the proximate composition, energy values, and levels of some toxicants in African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeike, Eugene N; Omubo-Dede, Tina T

    2002-01-01

    The effects of heat treatments on the proximate composition, energy content, and levels of some antinutritional factors in brown and marble-colored African yam bean (AYB) seed flours were investigated. In raw brown and marble-colored AYB seed flours; moisture content, dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, total carbohydrate and caloric value did not differ significantly at the 5% level. Autoclaving and cooking slightly increased the moisture level. Crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents were decreased by autoclaving and were further decreased by cooking. The decrease was not, however, considerable for the AYB that is not eaten raw and whose full nutritional potential as a legume can be derived only when heat treated, as previous reports have indicated for legume seeds. The levels of the toxicants were generally higher in the raw brown AYB compared to the marble-colored, and were generally reduced by both autoclaving and cooking. In the most commonly available and consumed marble-colored AYB, autoclaving at 121 degrees C, 15 psi for 20 min decreased cyanogenic glycosides by 46%, oxalate by 48.9%, tannin by 15.0%, saponin by 14.8% and trypsin inhibitors by 61.3% while cooking for 3.5 hours in tap water decreased these toxic factors by 66.5%, 70.3%, 72.2%, 48.7%, and 86.0%, respectively. The results indicate that for raw samples, varietal difference did not significantly affect nutrient composition though the toxicants were generally higher in the brown AYB than the marble-colored. Autoclaving decreased both nutrient value and the level of toxicants in the two seed types; values were further reduced by cooking. Of the toxicants, trypsin inhibitor was found to be the most heat-labile and of the heat treatment methods, cooking to tenderness is recommendable.

  14. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  15. Implementation evaluation of the business process services incentive programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonceba Mashalaba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation evaluation of the business process services (BPS incentive programme undertaken by the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti and the Department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME as part of the 2012/2013 National Evaluation Plan. The evaluation started on 31 October 2012 and the final report was approved on 17 May 2013. The evaluation covers the period from the inception of the programme in January 2011 to December 2012. The BPS incentive programme was implemented to stimulate the business process sector which contributes to economic growth largely through employment creation. The main objectives of the programme are to attract investment and create employment opportunities through offshoring activities. Twenty-six indicators across the five Development Assistance Community (DAC evaluation criteria were developed. A multi-method approach was undertaken to collect data for each of the indicators. The key findings relate to the operation of the programme and a number of suggestions were made as to how to strengthen it. Overall 3807 jobs have been created through the BPS programme during the period under review. Estimated total investment provided by firms is approximately R2.7 billion. Amongst others, the study recommended that the design of the programme be reviewed and extended, potentially to a five-year period in order to maintain the competitiveness of South Africa as a business process off shoring destination. It is essential to address the skills shortage to ensure the growth and sustainability of the South African BPS industry and finally the uptake of the incentive programme.

  16. Field Epidemiology Training Programmes in Africa - Where are the Graduates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukanga David

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current shortage of human resources for health threatens the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. There is currently limited published evidence of health-related training programmes in Africa that have produced graduates, who remain and work in their countries after graduation. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that the majority of graduates of field epidemiology training programmes (FETPs in Africa stay on to work in their home countries--many as valuable resources to overstretched health systems. Methods Alumni data from African FETPs were reviewed in order to establish graduate retention. Retention was defined as a graduate staying and working in their home country for at least 3 years after graduation. African FETPs are located in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. However, this paper only includes the Uganda and Zimbabwe FETPs, as all the others are recent programmes. Results This review shows that enrolment increased over the years, and that there is high graduate retention, with 85.1% (223/261 of graduates working within country of training; most working with Ministries of Health (46.2%; 105/261 and non-governmental organizations (17.5%; 40/261. Retention of graduates with a medical undergraduate degree was higher (Zimbabwe 80% [36/83]; Uganda 90.6% [125/178] than for those with other undergraduate qualifications (Zimbabwe 71.1% [27/83]; Uganda 87.5% [35/178]. Conclusions African FETPs have unique features which may explain their high retention of graduates. These include: programme ownership by ministries of health and local universities; well defined career paths; competence-based training coupled with a focus on field practice during training; awarding degrees upon completion; extensive training and research opportunities made available to graduates; and the social capital acquired during training.

  17. UKAEA underlying research programme annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in fundamental research is essential to the success of an organisation such as Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Technology whose business is the selling of Research and Development (R and D) and the services relating to it. Such research supplies the scientific understanding that underpins the technical expertise of the organisation, develops new skills and techniques, and stimulates technical innovation. The resulting scientific and technical excellence is the hall-mark of a major contract R and D organisation. Fundamental research in the AEA is co-ordinated through the Underlying Research Programme. This Report describes progress made during the financial year 1988/89 within all Technical Areas of the Programme, and additionally summarises the AEA's Underlying Research on the Safe Integral Reactor design and on 'Cold Fusion'. Highlights of recent technical achievements within the Programme are described in a separate brochure. (author)

  18. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  19. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels;

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...

  20. Understanding Non-Traditional PhD Students Habitus--Implications for PhD Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of vast changes in doctoral education and the emergence of non-traditional doctoral programmes, this paper investigates the habitus of non-traditional PhD students at a South African university. Bourdieu's conceptual tool of habitus informed the study. In-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 non-traditional…

  1. An E-Learning Collaborative Environment: Learning within a Masters in Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Natheem

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about e-learning as a form of adult education. It is based on the experiences of South African students, describes and analyses group interaction in an intercontinental Masters in Adult Education Programme which uses a computer electronic platform as the primary medium for learning and teaching. The article…

  2. Bioergia Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of Finland's Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Bioergia Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  5. Pharmacovigilance programme of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvan Vivekanandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs through pharmacovigilance is vital to patient safety and rational prescribing. In India, Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO initiated Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI to report ADRs through ADRs monitoring centres in India. Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC is functioning as National Coordination Centre (NCC for PvPI. The ADRs are reported to NCC through VigiFlow by various centres are evaluated and committed to Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden. The potential benefit of the PvPI is aimed to reducing or eliminating a harm of medicine. Continuous efforts of the healthcare professionals and the patients are expected to make this as one of the most successful and effective programmes. The present article updates the status and future plan of PvPI.

  6. Empowerment of Bilingual Education Professionals: The Training of Trainers Programme for Educators in Multilingual Settings in Southern Africa (ToTSA) 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Carol; Pluddemann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a South Africa-based training programme in multilingual education for African educators and assesses its potentially transformative effects on participants. Based on a range of data collected during four course runs, as well as an e-mail survey of past participants, the authors explore how the programme has supported…

  7. Mortality and morbidity among HIV type-1-infected patients during the first 5 years of a multicountry HIV workplace programme in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. van der Borght; P. Clevenbergh; H. Rijckborst; P. Nsalou; N. Onyia; J.M. Lange; T.F. Rinke de Wit; M.F.S. van der Loeff

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an HIV workplace programme in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The international brewing company, Heineken, introduced an HIV workplace programme in its African subsidiaries in 2001. Beneficiaries from 16 sites in 5 countries were eligible. H

  8. The Mathematica programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Roman E

    1994-01-01

    The Mathematica Programmer covers the fundamental programming paradigms and applications of programming languages. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters. Part 1 begins with an overview of the programming paradigms. This part also treats abstract data types, polymorphism and message passing, object-oriented programming, and relational databases. Part 2 looks into the practical aspects of programming languages, including in lists and power series, fractal curves, and minimal surfaces.This book will prove useful to mathematicians and computer scientists.

  9. Programmable mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin; van Hecke, Martin

    2014-10-24

    We create mechanical metamaterials whose response to uniaxial compression can be programmed by lateral confinement, allowing monotonic, nonmonotonic, and hysteretic behavior. These functionalities arise from a broken rotational symmetry which causes highly nonlinear coupling of deformations along the two primary axes of these metamaterials. We introduce a soft mechanism model which captures the programmable mechanics, and outline a general design strategy for confined mechanical metamaterials. Finally, we show how inhomogeneous confinement can be explored to create multistability and giant hysteresis.

  10. Dilemmas and paradoxes of capacity building in African higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Jensen, Stig; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses and reflects on the dilemmas and paradoxes of capacity building in African higher education by drawing on the findings of the case-based chapters in the book. The collection confirms the importance of using geography of knowledge as an approach for understanding how capacity...... a common exploration of knowledge diversity. This exploration of knowledge diversity is important for higher education both in Africa and in the Global North....... building influences and affects African academics, institutions and degree programmes. The chapters also illustrate how reflexivity and positionality can be important tools for highlighting the power relations inherent in capacity building. In this chapter we discuss the three interwoven dilemmas...

  11. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology. PMID:27058370

  12. A new video programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    "What's new @ CERN?", a new monthly video programme, will be broadcast on the Monday of every month on webcast.cern.ch. Aimed at the general public, the programme will cover the latest CERN news, with guests and explanatory features. Tune in on Monday 3 October at 4 pm (CET) to see the programme in English, and then at 4:20 pm (CET) for the French version.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-...

  13. Biomass programme: Overview of the 2006 Swiss research programme; Programm Biomasse. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done within the framework of the Swiss biomass research programme in 2006. The programme concentrates on the efficient conversion of biomass into heat, electrical power and motor fuels. Projects concerned with the optimisation of processes are reported on, including low-particle-emission systems, control systems for bivalent heating installations, use of demanding biomass fuels, combined pellets and solar heating systems and the elimination of ammonia emissions. In the material flow area, measurement campaigns, organic pollutants in compost, the effects of fermented wastes in agriculture and methane losses in biogas conditioning are reported on. New conversion technologies are reviewed, including hydro-thermal gasification, plant-oil fuelled combined heat and power units, flameless burners and catalytic direct liquefaction. In the area of basics, studies and concepts, eco-balances and life-cycle analyses are reported on; the production of synthetic natural gas and the influence of combustion particles are discussed and decentralised power generation from solid biomass is reported on. National and international co-operation is reviewed. The report is concluded with a review of eight pilot and demonstration projects, a review of work to be done in 2007 and a list of research and demonstration projects.

  14. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries'' are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs

  15. Presentation of the national program for the improvement of the energy efficiency; Presentation du programme national d'amelioration de l'efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This paper is the presentation of the energy mastership national program. It deals with the actions leading to the development of the enterprises and household demand, the increase of the actions in favor of the energy, the actions in the transportation sector, the actions in the habitat domain, the mastership of the energy consumption for the industrial and service sector industries, the renewable energies development, the ADEME devices. (A.L.B.)

  16. Incentives for Improving Energy Efficiency When Renovating Large-Scale Housing Estates: A Case Study of the Swedish Million Homes Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Grange; Lovisa Högberg; Hans Lind

    2009-01-01

    Sweden has adopted ambitious energy savings objectives for buildings, but at the current rate of energy efficiency investments the objectives are unlikely to be reached. In this article we report the early findings of how real estate owners reason and act in energy efficiency investment decisions. Based on the results from interviews with the real estate companies, the companies have been divided into four ideal types that illuminate the differences in energy efficiency ambition and strategie...

  17. Report on the Third Conference on Energy and Nuclear Power in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability, accessibility and affordability of energy continue to be the main challenges for the majority of African countries. Energy accessibility varies widely in Africa. Concerns over energy security, climate change and environmental impacts are compounding the situation. Several African countries have therefore begun to reconsider the nuclear option with a view to establishing long-term sustainable energy supplies. Nuclear was one of the most reliable technologies for electricity generation in the world today, able to generate large amounts of energy with minimal environmental impacts. The high cost of electricity for example in Kenya continued to be a challenge and the country was spending large amounts on the fuel cost adjustment associated with the use of thermal plants. Access to reliable energy sources was a critical component of all facets of socio-economic growth.The IAEA assisted member states in developing their national energy strategies through technical cooperation programmes, the primary means by which the IAEA provided assistance to member states.The aim of the 3. Conference on Energy and Nuclear Power in Africa was to provide a forum to discuss priorities and concerns related to energy and nuclear power, and further strengthen coordination with interested and relevant regional bodies/organizations in introducing nuclear power in Africa. The conference also aimed at offering a networking opportunity for countries considering the introduction of the nuclear option in their energy strategy. The major thematic areas for consideration were: Challenges of sustainable energy development in Africa; National and regional energy planning for nuclear power development; Legal and nuclear safety and security considerations; Leadership and management of a nuclear power programme; Funding and financing of a nuclear power programme in its early stages; and Regional networking for nuclear power programme development.

  18. Research programme on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  19. Incentives for Improving Energy Efficiency When Renovating Large-Scale Housing Estates: A Case Study of the Swedish Million Homes Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Grange

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweden has adopted ambitious energy savings objectives for buildings, but at the current rate of energy efficiency investments the objectives are unlikely to be reached. In this article we report the early findings of how real estate owners reason and act in energy efficiency investment decisions. Based on the results from interviews with the real estate companies, the companies have been divided into four ideal types that illuminate the differences in energy efficiency ambition and strategies; the Strict Profit Maximizing Company, the Little Extra Company, the Policy Led Ambitious Company and the Administration Led Ambitious Company. The different strategies will determine how the companies respond to incentives to invest in energy efficiency, and affect the overall result in the energy efficiency work. The ideal types hence are important to have in mind when designing policies to increase energy efficiency.

  20. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m3. On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m3/a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  1. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  2. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  3. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  4. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  5. Materials in solar thermal collectors - International cooperation within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency; Material i plana termiska solfaangare - Internationellt samarbete inom ramen foer IEAs solvaermeprogram under 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Bo; Moeller, Kenneth; Andersson, B.L.; Andersson, Ingemar

    1998-12-31

    Efforts made during 1998 by the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute within the framework of the international working group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors` of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency are briefly reviewed. Research work deals with a) durability and life-time assessment of solar absorber coatings, b) methods for characterization of micro climate for materials in flat plate solar collectors, and c) antireflecting coatings and transparent polymeric materials for solar thermal applications. Results of the work include a) recommended methods for assessment of durability of solar absorber surfaces, b) methods for characterization of climate inside of solar collectors for the purpose of durability testing, and c) methods for testing the mechanical properties and weatherability of antireflecting coatings and transparent polymeric cover plate materials 15 figs, 5 tabs

  6. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  7. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  8. The ELENA Programme in the Province of Chieti - A Public Private Partnership Best Practice Improving Energy Efficiency of Buildings and Public Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Fecondo

    2015-09-01

    To date, the most relevant Project outcomes consist 87 municipalities involved, a structured database of energy audit and data about 144 buildings and about 46,000 public light points. Moreover, an effective engagement of public and private stakeholders, lays the foundation for a strong Energy Performance Contract framework able to leverage financing based on minimun guaranteed energy savings of 20% in respect to baseline values.

  9. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  10. Flexible programmable logic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchinson, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierson, Lyndon G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  11. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    OpenAIRE

    Andy eQuindeau; Dietrich eHesse; Marin eAlexe

    2014-01-01

    We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8])O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us...

  12. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  13. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  14. Progress in Programmable Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Cuntala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic devices (PLD are situated on important place among microelectronic components thanks to the continuing technological development of semiconductor components, due to new architectures and new approaches to digital systems design. Software design of various complicated digital systems becomes advantageous article of many firms. The Department of Electronics and Electrotechnology pays pemanent attention to mentioned components in application field. The collective of authors wants in this article point out on possibilities of design of digital system using the PLD. The paper plan contains the following basic parts: Technological aspects that influence development of configurable logic devices, Methodology od design and implementation and Flexibility of PLD interface.

  15. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  16. The 'energy transitions' programmes in Europe (out of France). Progress status and impact on the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined some opposite characteristics of the electricity market which is opened in some respects, and protected in others, and shown how the European regulation has become inappropriate, this document proposes an overview of energy transition policies in different European countries. It more precisely describes the German example with its four main steps of evolution (phasing out nuclear, definition of an energy mix to compensate this phasing out, definition of development objectives for renewable energies, and projection to 2050 with the Energy Concept), its current achievements in terms of evolution of energy mix and levels which are to be reached by 2050, and its contradictions and difficulties: costs and notably hidden costs of intermittent energies, solar and wind overproduction with bad consequences for the market, industrial setback in the solar array sector, implications in territorial organisation in relationship with energy production, social transfers, evolution of public opinion. Other European experiences are briefly presented (Spain, Italy, and Great-Britain) and the global European situation is briefly described. Some questions are raised and some recommendations are made in conclusion

  17. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  18. ADS National Programmes: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the MYRRHA project development. MYRRHA is an accelerator driven, multi purpose fast neutron spectrum facility for R&D, cooled by a lead-bismuth eutectic. SCK•CEN has started the MYRRHA project as a national programme with several national & international bilateral collaboration agreements; the project has now evolved as an European integrated project in the frame of the IPEUROTRANS (European Commission, Sixth Framework Programme). The MYRRHA ‘Draft-2’ predesign file (completed in the early 2005) has been proposed to the partners as a basis for the XT-ADS machine. After a detailed investigation of potential alternatives, the MYRRHA concept (for the subcritical core, the primary coolant system, the accommodation of experimental rigs, the reactor vessel and the spallation target) has been kept with some modifications to achieve the XT-ADS objectives. The most recent version of the XT-ADS design was presented in the 2007 TWG meeting

  19. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  20. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  1. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  2. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  3. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve

  4. Macroeconomic aspects of the French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear programme is a boost both to economic and industrial activity and to research and development: it provides 120 000 jobs in France and has a positive influence on the national economic situation. After illustrating this statement, the author draws up a balance sheet for the nuclear industry, demonstrating the positive contribution of this form of energy compared with the results which would have been obtained by a different policy founded on electricity derived from coal

  5. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  6. Reading the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  7. Outreach services to improve access to health care in South Africa: lessons from three community health worker programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Goudge, Jane; Thomas, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In South Africa, there are renewed efforts to strengthen primary health care and community health worker (CHW) programmes. This article examines three South African CHW programmes, a small local non-governmental organisation (NGO), a local satellite of a national NGO, and a government-initiated service, that provide a range of services from home-based care, childcare, and health promotion to assist clients in overcoming poverty-related barriers to health care. Methods: The compa...

  8. Integrating adolescent girls' voices on sexual decision making in the Life Orientation Sexuality Education Programme / Ronél Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Ronél

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research study was to find out how adolescent girls engage in the process of sexual decision making in order to make recommendations for the development and presentation of the current Life Orientation Sexuality Education Programme in South African schools. As the results of this study are aimed at providing guidelines for the development and presentation of this specific programme, a qualitative interpretive descriptive research design was used, because this type of research ...

  9. Climate Ambassador Programmes in Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Stine Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    Some Danish municipalities have developed ambassador programmes which generate environmental and climate change mitigation efforts in local public administrations and institutions. This chapter analyses the characteristics and experiences of four ambassador programmes now operating...... in the municipalities of Furesø, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Frederiksberg and Hvidovre. Two of the ambassador programmes presented here focus primarily on climate change mitigation initiatives, and two have a broader focus on sustainable development. Important elements for the impact of these programmes are the networking among...

  10. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  11. Calls for proposals for Indirect IDT Action within the specific (Euratom) Research and Training Programme on Nuclear Energy (2002-2006); Convocatorias de propuestas de accion indirecta de IDT dentro del progrma especifico (Euratom) de investigacion y formacion sobre energia nuclear (2002-2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The official diary of the European Union C 273 of 14 November, 2003, published the Calls for Indirect IDT Action for the Euratom Research and Training Programme on Nuclear Energy. The complete text of these Calls are reproduced in page 29. (Author)

  12. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  13. INDUSTRIAL RISK Programme development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INC-DTCI ICIS Rm. Valcea conducts basic and applied research among which there is the INDUSTRIAL RISK Programme that comprises studies of risk analysis and evaluation at objectives and activities in zones were risk factors are in operation, factors leading potentially to natural or technological disasters. The risk analysis and evaluation methodology proposed is a follow-up of the action plan for risk reduction in industry. The risk management refers to risk and its components assessment and identification of places where improvements are to be introduced. The risk analysis and evaluation model was developed for installations in chemical industry and are also applicable for the installations of heavy water production by H2O-H2S isotopic exchange. The risk studies supply information necessary in making decisions, aiming at preventing the operation incidence and reducing their consequences

  14. KNOWLEDGE BASE OF PROJECT MANAGERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN ICT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Hans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research study is two-fold: Firstly, to establish the knowledge base of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. Secondly, to establish whether project management as a discipline is regarded as an important profession in the South African ICT Sector. The paper based on a questionnaire analyses and discusses the knowledge base of project managers of ICT organisations listed on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE as well as the perceived importance of project management in the South African ICT Sector. The project managers lack some project management knowledge base in some of the nine categories of competencies. This confirms some of the findings by Rwelamila (2007 that project management training programmes offered by institutions of higher learning in South Africa are skewed. This paper also established that the organisations in the South African ICT Sector recognise project management as an important profession. The lack of some project management fundamental knowledge base by project managers necessitate that the organisations concerned should implement some of the following: review project management training programmes and implement mentoring and coaching programmes. This article reveals the knowledge base gaps of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. It also reveals whether project management is regarded as an important profession by organisations in the South African ICT Sector. It complements another research study done by Rwelamila (2007 in South Africa. It is directed to the South African organisations in the ICT Sector as well as institutions of higher learning in South Africa that offer project management training programmes.

  15. Production of high specific activity (195m) Pt-cisplatinum at South African Nuclear Energy Corporation for Phase 0 clinical trials in healthy individual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevaart, Jan Rijn; Wagener, Judith; Marjanovic-Painter, Biljana; Sathekge, Mike; Soni, Nischal; Zinn, Christa; Perkins, Gary; Smith, Suzanne V

    2013-01-01

    Platinum agents continue to be the main chemotherapeutic agents used in the first-line and second-line treatments of cancer patients. It is important to fully understand the biological profile of these compounds in order to optimize the dose given to each patient. In a joint project with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation and the Nuclear Medicine Department at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation synthesized and supplied (195m) Pt-cisplatinum (commonly referred to as cisplatin) for a clinical pilot study on healthy volunteers. Enriched (194) PtCl2 was prepared by digestion of enriched (194) Pt metal (>95%) followed by thermal decomposition over a 3 h period. The (194) PtCl2 was then placed in a quartz ampoule, was irradiated in SAFARI-1 up to 200 h, then decay cooled for a minimum of 34 h prior to synthesis of final product. (195m) Pt(NH3 )2 I2 , formed with the addition of KI and NH4 OH, was converted to the diaqua species [(195m) Pt(NH3 )2 (H2 O)2 ](2+) by reaction with AgNO3 . The conversion to (195m) Pt-cisplatinum was completed by the addition of concentrated HCl. The final product yield was 51.7% ± 5.2% (n = 5). The chemical and radionuclidic purity in each case was >95%. The use of a high flux reactor position affords a higher specific activity product (15.9 ± 2.5 MBq/mg at end of synthesis) than previously found (5 MBq/mg). Volunteers received between 108 and 126 MBq of radioactivity, which is equivalent to 6.8-10.0 mg of carrier cisplatinum. Such high specific activities afforded a significant reduction (~50%) in the chemical dose of a carrier cisplatinum, which represents less than 10% of a typical chemotherapeutic dose given to patients. A good manufacturing practice GMP compliant product was produced and was administered to 10 healthy volunteers as part of an ethically approved Phase 0 clinical trial. The majority of the injected activity 27.5% ± 5.8% was excreted

  16. Diversifying the secondary school curriculum: The African experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifuna, Daniel N.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses some African experiences in the diversification of secondary education, which is taken to mean curriculum change in a practical or vocational direction. This approach is intended to provide a wider set of future career options than is offered in the more uniform academic curriculum. The diversification policy has generally been seen as a solution to a number of economic and social problems facing the independent African countries, notably the increasing youth unemployment and the escalating costs of formal education. Studies which have so far been carried out have, however, revealed that diversification programmes have not met the intended objectives, although there is sustained interest in vocationalising formal education. Problems which commonly face these programmes include high unit costs, an absence of clarity in aims and objectives, a shortage of qualified teachers and the low status of vocational subjects as viewed by the students and the community. For future development, it is suggested that diversification programmes be reorganised to relate to more realistic goals through wider community participation and through the work-orientation of post-school training programmes.

  17. Programmable architecture for quantum computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Charbon, E.; Wang, B.

    2013-01-01

    A programmable architecture called “quantum FPGA (field-programmable gate array)” (QFPGA) is presented for quantum computing, which is a hybrid model combining the advantages of the qubus system and the measurement-based quantum computation. There are two kinds of buses in QFPGA, the local bus and t

  18. An automatic bibliography indexing programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Morris

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple FORTRAN IV programme, designed for a small computer, for author and key-word indexes to bibliographic records is described, and examples of output are given. It is com­pared with some other systems. Suggested improvements to the programme are given.

  19. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  20. TRIGLAV - a computer programme for research reactor calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persic, A.; Ravnik, M.; Slavic, S.; Zagar, T. (J.Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia))

    1999-12-15

    TRIGLAV is a new computer programme for burn-up calculation of mixed core of research reactors. The code is based on diffusion model in two dimensions and iterative procedure is applied for its solution. The material data used in the model are calculated with the transport programme WIMS. In regard to fission density distribution and energy produced by the reactor the burn-up increment of fuel elements is determined. (orig.)

  1. Outlook for the IAEA's technical co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the following subjects: - the IAEA's programmes; - the technical co-operation programme; - past trends in the TC programme; - new initiatives in TC; - TC programme profile; - perspectives for the future. The major programmes conducted by IAEA are concerning: - nuclear power and fuel cycle; - nuclear applications; - nuclear, radiation and waste safety, nuclear verification and security material; - management of technical co-operation; - policy making, coordination and support. In relation with the IAEA role in development process the author presents the legal framework for TC, the programme structure, and programme areas, resources, budgets, cycle, approval and implementation. Two plots regarding the recipients with and without NPP's are displayed for the period 1980-1994. Also, according to the status of the member states (without and with nuclear power programme) the programme priorities are presented. For the first case these are: radiation and waste safety, food and agriculture, water resources management human health and nutrition, human resources development, environmental protection and industrial applications. For the second case there are mentioned: radiation and nuclear safety, nuclear power operation and maintenance management, radioactive waste management, environment protection and sustainable energy options. Concerning the regional distribution the following figures are given for 1997: West Asia, 9%; Europe, 18%; Inter-regional, 11%; Africa, 24%; Latin America, 21%; East Asia and Pacific, 17%. In conclusion, the hope is expressed that the value of Technical Co-operation Programme would be seen not only in the successful transfer of technology but also, in the way that the nuclear technologies may satisfy demands for sustainable development by having a lasting impact on the life of the majority in a cost effective and environmentally sound manner

  2. The French electro-nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the French electro-nuclear programme is to meet a quarter of the national energy demand by 1985, and 35 to 50% by 2000. Why such a high percentage and how can it be achieved. Although the need to begin replacing hydrocarbons in the long term has become obvious to everybody - since reserves are limited and the time required for adaptation is long - the urgency for such a reshuffle is highly dependent on the country considered. Some countries can wait, while others cannot: the latter is true of France in particular. Of all the industrialized countries, France is that with the lowest energy characteristics and where the foreseeable energy savings are the most limited, and whose dependence on energy is among the heaviest - 75% of energy supplies are imported. Neither the classical resources nor the 'new' ones will enable more than a quarter of the cumulative needs to be covered by 2000. To slow down the exponential growth of hydrocarbon needs, the utilization of nuclear energy is the only reliable and competitive solution in keeping with the problem. The utilization of nuclear energy will result in a reduction in the cost of electricity, considerable currency savings, and a decreased dependence on energy. Moreover, its competitiveness will facilitate the access of electricity to the domestic heating market as well as to new industrial markets. In the longer term, nuclear steam might also be developed despite the economic difficulties raised by the installation of steam networks. Based on first achievements followed by a series of orders for nuclear boilers with similar characteristics, it has become possible to create a strong industrial group and to obtain satisfactory prices. In parallel, the CEA has built up a fuel cycle industry and, in liaison with EDF and the industrial sector, has prepared the future growth of breeder reactors. Staff training programmes have been implemented in order to prepare the teams responsible for operating the new

  3. Nuclear power training programmes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of nuclear power in Spain is developing very rapidly. At present 1.1GW(e) are installed in Spain and this is expected to increase to 8GW(e) in 1980 and to 28GW(e) in 1990. Spanish industry and technology are also rapidly increasing their participation in building nuclear stations, in manufacturing the necessary components and in the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. All of this requires properly trained personnel, which is estimated to become approximately 1200 high-level technicians, 1100 medium-level technicians and 1500 technical assistants by 1980. This personnel is trained: (a) in engineering schools; (b) in the Nuclear Studies Institute; (c) in the electric companies with nuclear programmes. The majority of the high-level engineering schools in the country include physics and basic nuclear technology courses in their programmes. Some of them have an experimental low-power nuclear reactor. The Nuclear Studies Institute is an official organism dependent on the Nuclear Energy Commission and responsible, among other subjects, for training personnel for the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy in the country. The electric companies also participate in training personnel for future nuclear stations and they plan to have advanced simulators of PWR and BWR type stations for operator training. The report deals with the personnel requirement forecasts and describes the training programmes. (author)

  4. Building infrastructure for new nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, more than sixty countries have indicated that they are considering or launching nuclear power programmes. It has been more than a decade since a country commissioned its first nuclear power plant. In meantime, the global nuclear community has faced greater concerns about safety, security and non-proliferation, resulting in increased international obligations and a greater expectation for transparency and openness regarding nuclear power programmes. Many of these 'nuclear newcomers' are turning to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to understand the implications of the nuclear power option and to receive advice about how to proceed with implementing a national programme. In response to growing demand for assistance, the IAEA developed a comprehensive, phased approach to establishing the infrastructure necessary to support a national nuclear power programme. This 'Milestones' approach is described in Nuclear Energy Series Guide NG-G-3.1 'Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power' (2007). From establishing the national position and legal framework to nuclear safety, security and safeguards, the Milestones covers 19 issues that need to be addressed. This approach also places special emphasis on the need for involvement of the Government, utility, industry, academic, and other stakeholders in a national decision-making process. The IAEA is also helping 'newcomers' to better understand its Safety Standards, which were written from the perspective of operating nuclear power programmes. A new safety guide is in development which provides a Road-map to the safety standards and identifies the standards that are relevant for each phase consistent with the Milestones. Several countries in the Europe region are working with the IAEA to understand the issues associated with a nuclear power programme in preparation for making a knowledgeable commitment. The starting points and approaches vary widely: some are European

  5. Radiation protection programme progress report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress report of the radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out in 1988 under contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. Results of more than 350 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: Radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; Behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; Nonstochastic effects of ionizing radiation; Radiation carcinogenesis; Genetic effects of ionizing radiation; Evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure a safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  6. Integration of Information Communication Technologies (Icts in The Distance Education Bachelor of Education Programme, Makerere University, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. FRASER

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Dr. This article reports on the problems experienced by the Department of Distance Education, Makerere University, Uganda with the B.Ed. (External programme with specific reference to the technology needs and expectations of the programme. With a total enrolment of nearly 3,500 students in 2003, this programme was one of the largest distance education programmes for teachers in the country. It was therefore important to establish what technologies the stakeholders of this programme had access to, what technologies they believed could be used for the programme and for what purpose, and finally what prerequisites should be put in place for this technology to work. The article reports on the availability of and access to ICTs, access to telecommunications and sources of funding for ICTs in the distance education programme. The authors also looked critically at a number of prerequisites thought to enhance the effectiveness of ICTs in the B.Ed. (External programme from an African perspective hoping that the integration of ICT in the programmes would lift the distance education mode of delivery of these programmes from a classical first and second generation, to a third generation level of operation.

  7. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 6 & 8 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Energy isn’t Everything: CERN’s Fixed Target Niche Prof. John DAINTON / Cockcroft Institute & Liverpool University, UK Fixed target physics at CERN remains an essential part of the Laboratory’s scientific programme and horizon. In recent years fixed target and decay physics using CERN’s unique accelerator and beam facilities has continued to enable unique experiments to be undertaken. An overview is presented of the status of this physics and, wherever appropriate, of its future. LECTURE SERIES 7 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – TH Auditorium – Bldg. 4-3-006 A rich revenue from the use of radioactive beams and radioactive targets: recent highlights from the nTOF and ISOLDE facilities 9 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 The fifth decade of ISOLDE: HIE-ISOLDE Professor Mark HUYSE, Leuven University, BE The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE is a facility dedicated to the production of a...

  8. ADS National Programmes: Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on accelerator driven systems (ADS), which be used as burners of long lived radioactive waste accrued due to operation of thermal reactors, first of all, minor actinides (MA), are carried out in some Russian research institutes (ITEP, SSC RF - IPPE, VNIIEF, JINR, RSC KI, IYaI RAN, OKB ‘GIDROPRESS’, VNIITF etc.). These researches are mainly connected with studying physical processes existing in ADS and their parameters and with design studies and substantiation of experimental ADS facilities. One of the most important directions of researches is the acquirement of quite precise and reliable nuclear data on MA with reference to conditions existing in ADS. Now a coordinated programme of researches on measurement and estimation of nuclear data for 22 isotopes of U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm, Bk and Cf in neutron energy range from 0.05 eV up to 30 MeV has been prepared. Development of different variants of ADS has put a task of comparison of their efficiency as burners of MA

  9. The BGAN extension programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  10. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  11. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 3 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. FAYARD, O. ULLALAND Presentation of the Summer Student Programm 10:15 - 12:00 L. MAIANI Introduction to CERN (1&2/2) 14:00 - 15:00 G. Stevenson Radiation Protection (Council Chamber, bldg.503) Thursday 4 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (1&2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (1/5) Friday 5 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (3&4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 Discussion Session Monday 8 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (1/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (2/5) 11:15 - 12:00 M. FRANKLIN Classic Experiments (1/3) 14:00 - 15:00 M. LINDROOS Isolde 15:30 - 16:30 M. LINDROOS Visit of the Experiment Tuesday 9 july 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (2/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Part...

  12. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  13. FPGAs for software programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Hannig, Frank; Ziener, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book makes powerful Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and reconfigurable technology accessible to software engineers by covering different state-of-the-art high-level synthesis approaches (e.g., OpenCL and several C-to-gates compilers). It introduces FPGA technology, its programming model, and how various applications can be implemented on FPGAs without going through low-level hardware design phases. Readers will get a realistic sense for problems that are suited for FPGAs and how to implement them from a software designer’s point of view. The authors demonstrate that FPGAs and their programming model reflect the needs of stream processing problems much better than traditional CPU or GPU architectures, making them well-suited for a wide variety of systems, from embedded systems performing sensor processing to large setups for Big Data number crunching. This book serves as an invaluable tool for software designers and FPGA design engineers who are interested in high design productivity through behavi...

  14. Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Date Time Title Speaker 05/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Presentation of the Summer Student Programme F. CERUTTI Information on Computing Rules D. HEAGERTY Workshops presentation O. ULLALAND 10:15 - 11:00 Introduction to CERN J. ENGELEN 11:15 Film on CERN 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (1/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 7/07/2006 09:15 - 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (2/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (3/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 12:00 Detectors (1-2/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discussion Session 11/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (4/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 11:00 Detectors (3/5) O. ULLALAND 11:15 - 12:00 Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/4) P. CHOMAZ P. CHOMAZ 10:15 - 11:00 Accelerators (5/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 11:15 - 12:00 Detectors (4/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discus...

  15. Summer Student Lecture Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 More Information DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 7 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Fayard, O. Ullaland, D. Heagerty (CERN) Programme Presentation Workshops presentation Information on Computing Rules 10:15 - 11:00 R. Aymar (CERN) Introduction to CERN (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 J. Engelen (CERN) Introduction to CERN (2/2) 15:00 - 16:30 H. Menzel (CERN) An Introduction to Radiation Protection DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Thursday 8 july 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (1/2) DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Friday 9 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (3/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 P....

  16. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Sect...

  17. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Secti...

  18. Scientific Programme Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  19. The preparation of a reference material of South African zirconium concentrate from Richards Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the preparation of a South African zirconium concentrate as an inernational reference material. The procedure for the selection of preferred values is outlined. Eleven laboratories contributed to the analytical programme, and 7 elements have been asssigned preferred values

  20. Seeing History: Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" Painting and Pan-African Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Maureen G.

    2010-01-01

    Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" (2004) is an acrylic painting that depicts 24 portraits of leading poets of the African Diaspora. Commissioned by Dr Joanne Gabbin, English professor and director of the Furious Flower Poetry Center at James Madison University, the painting is part of a larger programme of poetry education. The…

  1. Reformatting the hard drive of South African education for the knowledge economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Davis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available South African education system needs reformatting in order to produce employable graduates. By introducing educational gaming into the formal learning programmes, the nature and quality of learning can be enhanced to create the innovative professionals need for the new knowledge economy.

  2. "Disappearance" and Feminist Research in the South African Academy of Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Following a global trend in humanities since the mid-1970s, South African humanities faculties began to include formal programmes in gender and sexualities studies from the mid-1990s on. While the immediate post-flag democratic era encouraged intellectual concentration on diverse questions of power and knowledge, the new century saw a decline in…

  3. Reformatting the hard drive of South African education for the knowledge economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Davis

    2009-01-01

    South African education system needs reformatting in order to produce employable graduates. By introducing educational gaming into the formal learning programmes, the nature and quality of learning can be enhanced to create the innovative professionals need for the new knowledge economy.

  4. Building capacity for sustainable research programmes for cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Isaac; Martin, Damali N; Williams, Makeda J; Adebamowo, Clement; Bhatia, Kishor; Berling, Christine; Casper, Corey; Elshamy, Karima; Elzawawy, Ahmed; Lawlor, Rita T; Legood, Rosa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Odedina, Folakemi T; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olopade, Christopher O; Parkin, Donald M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ross, Hana; Santini, Luiz A; Torode, Julie; Trimble, Edward L; Wild, Christopher P; Young, Annie M; Kerr, David J

    2014-05-01

    Cancer research in Africa will have a pivotal role in cancer control planning in this continent. However, environments (such as those in academic or clinical settings) with limited research infrastructure (laboratories, biorespositories, databases) coupled with inadequate funding and other resources have hampered African scientists from carrying out rigorous research. In September 2012, over 100 scientists with expertise in cancer research in Africa met in London to discuss the challenges in performing high-quality research, and to formulate the next steps for building sustainable, comprehensive and multi-disciplinary programmes relevant to Africa. This was the first meeting among five major organizations: the African Organisation for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC), the Africa Oxford Cancer Foundation (AfrOx), and the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) of Brazil, France and the USA. This article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of this meeting, including the next steps required to create sustainable and impactful research programmes that will enable evidenced-based cancer control approaches and planning at the local, regional and national levels.

  5. UK DTI wind programme area - review and current priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wind Energy programme commenced in 1979 initially to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the technology. Since that time the programme has progressed from research, development and assessment to commercial deployment. It now provides a technology push to complement the market pull created by the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). Over 280 MW of capacity has now been commissioned. The wind energy programme, is based upon a five year strategy in common with other DTI renewable energy technologies, which were outlined in Energy Paper 62. The programme has four key aims: 1. To encourage the uptake of wind energy. 2. To encourage internationally competitive industries to develop and utilise capabilities for the domestic and export markets. 3. To quantify environmental improvements and disbenefits associated with wind energy. 4. To manage the programme effectively. During the mid 1980s and early 1990s the programme concentrated on technology development and demonstration, which has helped to establish UK expertise in wind energy. Non-technical barriers such as planning have been addressed but are now largely for the industry to resolve. The development of wind turbine technology and related components is aimed at meeting the challenge of both the domestic and world markets. The ability of the DTI programme to meet these challenges is partly dependent on the technical ability and commercially acumen of British companies and partly on the level of support offered by Government. The programme budget has fallen from Pound8.7M/year in 1992/93 to current level of Pound1.4M/year and is yet to fall further. It should be stressed that the decline in budgets followed a review of the Renewables Programme in 1995 which affected all technologies. The wind programme budget was reduced substantially at that time which resulted in a revision of priorities. Continued support for market enablement measures was reduced partly because the industry, supported by the NFFO

  6. Energy research programmes on hydrogen and fuel cells for the period 2008 - 2011; Energieforschungsprogramme Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellen fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, A.; Luzzi, A.; Spirig, M.

    2007-12-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the concept for research in Switzerland in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells for the period 2008 - 2011. The starting position is noted with a short review of the vision of a 'hydrogen economy'. The present-day production of hydrogen for non-energetic purposes is noted and the current state-of-the-art is discussed. The potential in Switzerland for the production of hydrogen and the use of fuel cells is discussed, as are research efforts and pilot projects in these areas. Private and public expenditure in the area is reviewed. The aims and the focal points of research during the period 2008 - 2011 are discussed, as are potentials both in Switzerland as well as world-wide. Further topics dealt with include system integration and hydrogen storage, service life, reliability and cost factors.

  7. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  8. Analysis of the election programmes of Dutch political parties 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term environmental impacts of election programmes of political parties in the Netherlands were assessed, focusing on economic development, demographic developments, new-construction projects, spatial planning, energy consumption and conservation, energy and climate policy, 'greening' of taxes, sustainable development

  9. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  10. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  11. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  12. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  13. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  14. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  15. CERN openlab Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 30 March 2012.   The openlab Summer Student Programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 8 weeks at CERN, during the period June to September 2012, to work with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire the students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN related high-throughput computing. Study tours to external companies and universities as well as to CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit www.cern.ch/openlab-students for more information.

  16. CERN openlab summer student programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 31 March 2013.   The openlab summer student programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 9 weeks at CERN, during the period from June to September 2013, working with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN-related high-throughput computing. Study tours of external companies and universities as well as of CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit the CERN openlab website for more information.

  17. The internationalisation of postgraduate programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming Kobberøe; Andersen, Ole K.; Bak, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    for the international students are presented and discussed in terms of e.g. the teamwork situation, professional and cultural differences. A student enrolment programme, implemented through the provision of scholarships, jointly paid by government and industry funds is presented...

  18. Dietary Fat Intake among Urban, African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Di NOIA, JENNIFER; Schinke, Steven P.; Contento, Isobel R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined commonly consumed high-fat food sources to estimate dietary fat intake among 314 urban, African American adolescents (mean age (SD) = 12.57 (.98) years; 66% female; 91% African American non-Hispanic; and 9% African American Hispanic). Youths’ fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Most (77%) participants had diets very high in fat (i.e., 40% to 50% of energy). Mean frequencies of consumption revealed youths’ preferences for the following high-fat food items:...

  19. Implementing the South African additive manufacturing technology roadmap - the role of an additive manufacturing centre of competence

    OpenAIRE

    Du Preez, Willie Bouwer; De Beer, Deon J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Product Development Association of South Africa (RAPDASA) expressed the need for a national Additive Manufacturing Roadmap. Consequentially, the South African Department of Science and Technology commissioned the development of a South African Additive Manufacturing Technology Roadmap. This was intended to guide role-players in identifying business opportunities, addressing technology gaps, focusing development programmes, and informing investment decisions that would enable local c...

  20. North Korea's nuclear power programme revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of the nuclear programme in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) was revealed in May 1992: reports on the country's facilities were handed to the International Atomic Energy Agency and an Agency group visited Korea on a ''familiarisation visit''. DPRK's nuclear programme had been the subject of speculation for some time. While the country had signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty and two facilities were already under IAEA safeguards - a research reactor and a critical facility, both at the Institute of Nuclear Physics - there were a number of indicators that DPRK was pursuing a nuclear programme aimed at military use. The new openness was prompted by a number of factors including discussions on closer relations with South Korea. DPRK signed a comprehensive Safeguards Agreement on 30 January 1992. On the familiarisation visit by the IAEA director general in May the DPRK revealed nuclear facilities in operation or under construction at five sites. At Pakchon and Pyongsan: each site housed a uranium mine and uranium-ore concentration plant. At Pyongyang: the two facilities already under safeguards at the Institute of Nuclear Physics; and a sub critical facility at Kim Il Sung university. At Nyongbyon: a fuel fabrication plant; an 5MWe experimental power reactor, in operation; a 50MWe prototype power reactor under construction; and a facility ultimately intended as a reprocessing plant, but described by North Korea, because of its unfinished state, as a laboratory. At Taechon: a 200MWe power reactor under construction. (author)

  1. The first African School of Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    The first African School of Physics (ASP2010), a new physics school that will combine scientific learning and technology transfer, is to be organized in South Africa with the support of various institutes and laboratories from Europe and the US. Christine Darve, the head organizer and an accelerator engineer from Fermilab currently working in CERN's Technology Department, provides some insight into the programme's mission.   Christine Darve was previously the secretary of a ‘Physics Without Borders’ meeting in Sarajevo, an experience that fuelled her passion to help the less fortunate to benefit from developments in science. After meeting Steve Muanza, a physicist of Congolese descent who visited Fermilab in 2004, she initiated steps to organize a physics school that would bring scientific learning and technology transfer from European and American institutes to Africa. A physicist at IN2P3, the Centre de Physique des Particules in Marseilles, Muanza is the director of this fi...

  2. Getting African climate change research recognised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Fatima; Anderson, Simon; Ayers, Jessica

    2011-11-15

    Across Africa, programmes such as the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa initiative are investigating what it means for countries and communities to effectively adapt to climate change, and how this can be achieved in practice. But research results are not always recognised by policymakers or the global research community — in part because they are not visible within the traditional hallmark of scientific scholarship and credibility, peer-reviewed literature. Greater efforts are required to encourage African scientists to engage in the peer-review process and give their research the credibility it needs to convince decision makers that robust scientific findings support the solutions offered. At the same time, decision makers themselves must find ways of assessing and making use of robust research outside the peer-review arena.

  3. The MERLIN programme: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MERLIN rig at the Northern Research Laboratories, Springfields, was intended to investigate the deformation behaviour of Zircaloy fuel rod cladding under conditions approximating those of a large break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). In this rig, an assembly of electrically heated fuel rod simulators (6x6 cluster) was subjected to a temperature transient simulating that predicted to occur in a LOCA, including the initiation of bottom reflooding at a suitable stage. The main aim of the MERLIN programme was to investigate the extent of sub-channel blockage produced during clad deformation under conditions of high mechanical restraint, in two phase cooling conditions. The programme was to consist of four test bundles, the final two of which would be used for ballooning experiments in which high sub-channel blockage would be produced by a suitable choice of test conditions. A major part of the programme was to provide validation data for reactor accident codes used in the CEGB clad ballooning safety case for Sizewell B. This report, one of a series which describes the programme in detail, is an overview of the MERLIN programme. It provides background, summarises those reports which discuss the programme in detail and draws attention to those areas where useful information has been obtained. (author)

  4. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  5. Solar-assisted district heating systems: The Solarthermie 2000-programme; Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung: Programm Solarthermie-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottner, V. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Projekttraeger Biologie, Energie, Umwelt (BEO)

    1998-12-31

    In Germany, utilisation of solar energy for thermal energy supply has a considerable technical and economic potential in terms of substitution of fossil fuels and reduction of CO{sub 2} emission. If appropriate technologies are used, solar-assisted district heat supply systems can be a cost-efficient concept for thermal utilisation of solar energy. The BMBF -programme `Solarthermie 2000` supports a number of pilot and demonstration plants in order to test and develop the most promising systems and storage facilities under real conditions. Long-term measuring programmes generate reliable data on thermal performance and cost of the plant concepts and create a solid basis for a technical and economic evaluation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Nutzung von Solarenergie fuer die Waermeversorgung bietet in Deutschland ein grosses technisches und wirtschaftliches Potential zur Substitution fossiler Energietraeger und Reduzierung der CO{sub 2} Emissionen in die Atmosphaere. Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermesysteme stellen unter guenstigen technischen Bedingungen ein kostenguenstiges Konzept der thermischen Nutzung der Solarenergie dar. In dem BMBF-Programm Solarthermie-2000 werden Pilot- und Demonstrationsanlagen gefoerdert, so dass die aussichtsreichsten System- und Speicherkonzepte in der Praxis erprobt und gezielt weiterentwickelt werden koennen. Mit Langzeit-Messprogrammen werden belastbare Werte der thermischen Leistung und Kosten der Anlagenkonzepte ermittelt und eine zuverlaessige Grundlage fuer die technisch-wirtschaftliche Bewertung geschaffen. (orig.)

  6. Human papillomavirus infection in Rwanda at the moment of implementation of a national HPV vaccination programme

    OpenAIRE

    Ngabo, Fidele; Franceschi, Silvia; Baussano, Iacopo; Umulisa, M. Chantal; Snijders, Peter J F; Uyterlinde, Anne M.; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Tenet, Vanessa; Gatera, Maurice; Binagwaho, Agnes; Clifford, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Rwanda that, in 2011, became the first African country to implement a national vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods: To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2508 women aged 18–69 years from the general population in Kigali, Rwanda, during 2013/14. 20 % of women were HIV-positive. Samples were used for liquid-based cytolog...

  7. Employment creation through public works programmes and projects in South Africa: Experiences and potentials

    OpenAIRE

    W. D. Thwala

    2008-01-01

    Purpose/objectives: The aim of this article is to look at the experiences, problems and the potential contribution of employment creation programmes in alleviating the unemployment problem in other African countries through the construction of public infrastructure through the use of labour-intensive methods. The article then describes the problems and experiences that have been encountered in South Africa in relation to employment creation through the construction of public infrastruct...

  8. The evaluation of a frame-of-reference training programme for intern psychometrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdi Mulder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The use of assessment centres (ACs has drastically increased over the past decade. However, ACs are constantly confronted with the lack of construct validity. One aspect of ACs that could improve the construct validity significantly is that of assessor training. Unfortunately untrained or poorly trained assessors are often used in AC processes. Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate a frame-of-reference (FOR programme to train intern psychometrists as assessors at an assessment centre. Motivation of study: The role of an assessor is important in an AC; therefore it is vital for an assessor to be able to evaluate and observe candidates’ behaviour adequately. Commencing with this training in a graduate psychometrist programme gives the added benefit of sending skilled psychometrists to the workplace. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach was implemented, utilising a randomised pre-test-post-test comparison group design. Industrial Psychology postgraduate students (N = 22 at a South African university were used and divided into an experimental group (n = 11 and control group (n = 11. Three typical AC simulations were utilised as pre- and post-tests, and the ratings obtained from both groups were statistically analysed to determine the effect of the FOR training programme. Main findings: The data indicated that there was a significant increase in the familiarity of the participants with the one-on-one simulation and the group discussion simulation. Practical/managerial implications: Training intern psychometrists in a FOR programme could assist organisations in the appointment of more competent assessors. Contribution/value-add: To design an assessor training programme using FOR training for intern psychometrists in the South African context, specifically by incorporating this programme into the training programme for Honours students at universities.

  9. CERN's Fixed Target Primary Ion Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, Django; Axensalva, Jerome; Bellodi, Giulia; Blas, Alfred; Bodendorfer, Michael; Bohl, Thomas; Cettour-Cave, Stephane; Cornelis, Karel; Damerau, Heiko; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Fabich, Adrian; Ferreira Somoza, Jose; Findlay, Alan; Freyermuth, Pierre; Gilardoni, Simone; Hancock, Steven; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Jensen, Steen; Kain, Verena; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Michet, Alice; O'Neil, Michael; Pasinelli, Sergio; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Tranquille, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The renewed availability of heavy ions at CERN for the needs of the LHC programme has triggered the interest of the fixed-target community. The project, which involves sending several species of primary ions at various energies to the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron, has now entered its operational phase. The first argon run, with momenta ranging from 13 AGeV/c to 150 AGeV/c, took place from February 2015 to April 2015. This paper presents the status of the project, the performance achieved thus far and an outlook on future plans.

  10. The Dutch nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering Services Ltd. has, in fulfillment of its contractual commitment to the Dutch Industrial Council for Energy and Environment Technology (IREM), investigated the broad capability of the Dutch industry in playing a major role in the supply of goods and services for the construction of nuclear plants in the Netherlands. The findings are summarized in this document. 5 tabs

  11. Country programme review. Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Mongolia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; mineral resources; nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics and instrumentation; human health; radiation protection; water resources and nuclear energy. 1 tab

  12. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  13. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  14. Deepening African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese President Hu Jintao has just embarked on his state visits to eight African countries that will take him to both the northern and southern tips of the continent. This is his first trip abroad this year, and also his third visit to Africa

  15. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  16. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  17. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  18. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  19. Indian nuclear power programme – Past, present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S A Bhardwaj

    2013-10-01

    The country is facing energy shortages at present for the connected load. A large population even now does not have access to electricity. As the economy expands and the population increases, the country will need to generate even more power to meet the growing demand. Resources of energy are experiencing constraints to meet the current demand. The generating capacities in the country are underperforming at present because of fuel supply constraint. Analysis in the Energy Policy document hints that conventional fuel resources will begin to exhaust by middle of the century. All these indicate that for India to be able to meet its growing demand, nuclear and solar power could provide energy security in the long term. The first stage of commercially successful nuclear power programme has indicated that country has command on the technology through its own R&D base built since the beginning of establishing Department of Atomic Energy. On this strength it could withstand the technology denial regime for years. The second stage (Fast Breeder Reactor) programme has been initiated. Given the scientific and technological capability demonstrated so far, the technology required for optimizing the second stage programme and launching the third stage programme can be developed to assure long term energy security at the desired capacity.

  20. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  1. The relationship between demographic variables and leisure perceptions of selected South African first year university students / J.T. Weilbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbach, Johannes Theron

    2013-01-01

    Participation in campus leisure and recreation programmes can provide university students with various benefits, but the provision of effective leisure programmes are complicated by the changes that have taken place in the demographic composition of the student population attending South African universities. Increases in the proportion of black students attending university, and decreases in the proportion of white students means that current students possibly exhibit leisure behaviours that...

  2. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Singh; S V L S Rao; Rajni Pande; T Basak; Shwetha Roy; M Aslam; P Jain; S C L Srivastava; Rajesh Kumar; P K Nema; S Kailas; V C Sahni

    2007-02-01

    At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) lines match the beam from the ion source to RFQ and from RFQ to DTL respectively. Design of these systems has been completed and fabrication of their prototypes has started. Physics studies of the 20{1000 MeV part of the Linac are also in progress. In this paper, the present status of this project is presented.

  3. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, Rajni; Basak, T.; Roy, Shweta; Aslam, M.; Jain, P.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Kumar, Rajesh; Nema, P. K.; Kailas, S.; Sahni, V. C.

    2007-02-01

    At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) lines match the beam from the ion source to RFQ and from RFQ to DTL respectively. Design of these systems has been completed and fabrication of their prototypes has started. Physics studies of the 20-1000 MeV part of the Linac are also in progress. In this paper, the present status of this project is presented.

  4. Challenges in meeting biomass energy needs in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2001-07-01

    Biomass energy represents conciderable potential for West Africa. However, the traditional methods of tapping into this biomass have not only had grave consequences for the environment, but have only been able to partially resolve the crucial issue of how to sustainably supply households with domestic fuels. Nevertheless, recent progress made in the improvement of technologies enhancing biomass energy provides a glimpse at interesting perspectives fostering the modernisating and better assesment of the biocombustible and biofuel industries. Reflection conducted over these past years by a group of African experts, brought together around the ASG at the instigation of the RPTES Programme and founded on a new approach to forest resource management, illustrates the attention public powers are granting increasingly to biomass energy, which had been relegated to the back burner for so long, to the benefit of more 'conventional' energy sources. Considering the complexity of biomass energy issues, and their direct links to poverty, it is evident that isolated actions will never succeed in solving the problems currently faced. Thus it is essential to promote regional collaboration and partnerships for more effective actions and to capitalise on experiences, with the aim of ensuring sustainable development for the continent of Africa. Today, given the economic potential of more than US$6 billion generated by African forests, this implies the introduction of sustainable strategies which will result in increasing incomes and improving welfare in general. West Africa, masthead of the continent, will certainly not be an isolated case. Consequently, vigorous action supporting the sustainable management of natural resources as part of poverty alleviation programmes should be undertaken post-haste, in compliance with the Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community. (au)

  5. Focused training programmes for solving growth problems of very small businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the various types of focused training programmes that should be designed for eliminating or preventing small business growth problems. To help achieve this main objective, the following secondary goals are identified : To highlight the role and nature of entrepreneurial training. To identify possible focused training programmes for solving very small business problems. To determine how training programmes should be structured to target very small business growth problems. To explore which other method(s, besides training programmes could be uitilised for solving very small black business entrepreneurs' growth problems. To provide trainers with guidelines in designing focused training programmes for solving very small business problems.Problem investigated: South African entrepreneurs have a poor skills record, which inhibits small business growth. The needs of a business changes as the business grows, resulting in growing pains for the very small business entrepreneur. Successful entrepreneurs are not necessarily academically inclined and often learn in a more dynamic, non-linear environment, therefore various specific focused training programmes need to be designed that can assist very small business entrepreneurs in eliminating or preventing small business growth problems.Methodology: A qualitative study was done, in which an empirical survey was conducted by means of a series of in-depth interviews with ten very small black business entrepreneurs.Findings: The empirical results identified seven types of training programmes focusing on financial management computer training, operations management, people management, marketing management, management and investment management. Other training programmes indicated were stress management, time management and security management. Within each of these types of training programmes specific focus areas were identified.Value of the

  6. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  7. African perspectives on the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The papers, which are all written from an African perspective, are an important contribution to the debate surrounding the relevance and applicability of the Clean Development Mechanism in Africa. In addition to sector-specific discussions on the prospects for CDM in the energy, transport, industry and forestry sectors, various authors have attempted to tackle complex issues related to the instituional design of CDM, its mode of operation, participatory implementation and methodological questions such as baselines and additionality. (au)

  8. New Euratom research programme 2002-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    The European Union funded research is carried out under two distinct programmes; the European Community Framework Programme (EC Programme) covering research, technological development and demonstration activities; and the Euratom Framework Programme covering research and training activities in the nuclear sector. The contents, funding and timetable of the sixth Euratom Framework Programme (FP6) are shortly reviewed in this paper. The European Union (EU) FP6 for the years 2002 - 2006 starts at the beginning of the year 2003.

  9. Efficient Design of OFDMA-Based Programmable Wireless Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah SFA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for efficient spectrum management, programmable wireless radios can potentially play a key role in shaping our future spectrum use. In this paper, we consider the design of low-power programmable wireless radios based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA. To meet the demands of higher data rate communications, we split OFDMA symbols carrying multiuser data across several noncontiguous bands of available spectrum. To relax power consumption in analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, we use a programmable narrowband RF front end comprising of programmable synthesizers and fixed low-pass filters. To perform digital baseband signal processing in an energy efficient manner, we propose efficient designs for the fast Fourier transform (FFT and inverse FFT (IFFT modules. Our designs of the FFT/IFFT modules reduce power consumption and chip area, and are capable of handling the dynamic nature of spectrum in programmable radios. To recover data that falls within the transition band of the filters, we propose a combiner similar to maximal ratio combiner. We also present the complete design of programmable wireless radios in accordance with the IEEE 802.22 (draft standard.

  10. Efficient Design of OFDMA-Based Programmable Wireless Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Tewfik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for efficient spectrum management, programmable wireless radios can potentially play a key role in shaping our future spectrum use. In this paper, we consider the design of low-power programmable wireless radios based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA. To meet the demands of higher data rate communications, we split OFDMA symbols carrying multiuser data across several noncontiguous bands of available spectrum. To relax power consumption in analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, we use a programmable narrowband RF front end comprising of programmable synthesizers and fixed low-pass filters. To perform digital baseband signal processing in an energy efficient manner, we propose efficient designs for the fast Fourier transform (FFT and inverse FFT (IFFT modules. Our designs of the FFT/IFFT modules reduce power consumption and chip area, and are capable of handling the dynamic nature of spectrum in programmable radios. To recover data that falls within the transition band of the filters, we propose a combiner similar to maximal ratio combiner. We also present the complete design of programmable wireless radios in accordance with the IEEE 802.22 (draft standard.

  11. Evaluation of the FWF Doctoral Programme (DK Programme)

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker, Brigitte; Kottmann, Andrea; Meyer, Susanne; Brandl, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    In the winter term 2013 a total of 27,634 doctoral students were enrolled at Austrian universities and a total of 2,165 students obtained a doctoral degree; thereof 204 (9.4%) students graduated in a PhD Programme. In total 7,158 doctoral students were employed at Austrian universities in 2012. These numbers include those doctoral students with temporary positions who were funded by competitive means, as provided by the funding programmes of the FWF. In total the FWF as the most important fun...

  12. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  13. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  14. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  15. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  16. Comparison of programme MOBY-DICK with nodal programmes on benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we compare programme MOBY-DICK (which is diffusion difference programme) with nodal programmes no two-dimensional hexagonal benchmark problems for the VVER-type reactors (published by Chao and Shatilla). Nodal results are partly from one's own programme NODRAM and partly from literature. There is presented dependence on lattice pitch by difference programme and influence of boundary conditions (Author)

  17. The US Advanced Fuel Cycle Programme: Objectives and Accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For approximately a decade, the United States Department of Energy has been conducting an advanced fuel cycle programme, presently named the Fuel Cycle R and D Program, devoted to lessening both the environmental burden of nuclear energy and the proliferation risk of accumulating used nuclear fuel. Currently, the programme is being redirected towards a science based, goal oriented focus with the objective of deploying successfully demonstrated technology in the 2040-2050 time frame. The present paper reports the key considerations of the science based research approach, the elements of the technical programme and the accomplishments in fast reactor research and development, the goal of which is to improve the primary issues that have inhibited fast reactor introduction in the past, namely, economics and safety. (author)

  18. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  19. Assessing the energy potential in the South African industry: A combined IDA-ANN-DEA (Index Decomposition Analysis-Artificial Neural Network-Data Envelopment Analysis) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcomes from a diversity of models need to be deliberated by policy makers of developing countries to evaluate the methods of the decision-making. Various energy models have been employed in energy studies. These models include IDA (index decomposition analysis), ANN (artificial neural network) and DEA (data envelopment analysis). This paper presents a technique based on the strengths of the mentioned energy models to assist policy makers and stakeholders in industrial energy management. Changes in energy consumption patterns can be attributed to three factors, i.e. activity, structure and intensity effects. Our investigation is based on these factors. The study successfully combines IDA, ANN and DEA for an appraisal of energy consumption of 11 energy intensive industrial sectors of South Africa between 1971 and 2008 for possible industrial energy saving. - Highlights: • Energy specific to developing countries pose challenges to energy policy modelers. • The research contributes to a better analysis of energy use in an integrated model. • The integrated model relies on activity, structure and intensity as inputs

  20. The 30 kW research reactor facility in Ghana: Past, present and future programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) is a small, simple, reliable and safe reactor design and constructed by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). GHARR-1 adopts the pool-tank structure and employs highly enriched uranium as fuel, light water as moderator and coolant, metal beryllium as reflectors. The reactor is cooled by natural convention. The rated maximum thermal power of GHARR-1 is 30 kW; the corresponding neutron flux is 1.0x1012 cm-2s-1. The refueling mode of the reactor is to totally change the old core with a new one, the lifetime being more than ten years. Since the commencement of operation of the low-flux miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) in 1995, a significant number of research and development in the field of neutron activation analysis have taken place. During its 12 years of operation, after the first criticality, the reactor has been used as a neutron source for research, teaching and training to support several graduate and post graduate careers for students from universities in Ghana and the West African sub-region. Owing to the stable flux of the reactor and rapid proliferation in utilization, several analytical techniques have been developed. As a national neutron source reactor facility, Ghana's MNSR also known as GHARR-1 is now successfully utilized in various areas of neutron activation analysis (NAA), teaching, research and training. The GHARR-1 application in neutron activation analysis included: (i) Food analysis; (ii) Heavy metals determination in environmental samples; (iii) Determination of major, minor and trace elements in geological samples; (iv) And mineral prospecting among others. The educational programmes in place at the center are teaching and learning in nuclear engineering, nuclear physics, nuclear and radiochemistry and other related fields. The paper will focus on the past and current status of GHARR-1 with respect to utilization and management and future programmes to enhance its uses in the fields of teaching

  1. The Danish bioenergy programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m{sup 3} reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  2. Swiss photovoltaics programme - 2005 overview; Programm Photovoltaik, Ausgabe 2006. Ueberblicksbericht 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the work done as part of the 2005 research programme. It presents the programme's main points of focus, discusses the work done and the results obtained. Areas covered include solar cell technology, solar modules and building integration, system technology as well as further projects connected with photovoltaics. Also, international co-operation is discussed. Further, several pilot and demonstration projects (P+D) are presented. Lists of all research and development projects and pilot and demonstration projects are supplied. Work done at several institutions in Switzerland and at leading commercial companies is described. Some particularly successful P+D projects are looked at more closely.

  3. Swiss photovoltaics programme - 2005 overview; Programme photovoltaique, edition 2006. Rapport de synthese 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the work done as part of the 2005 research programme. It presents the programme's main points of focus, discusses the work done and the results obtained. Areas covered include solar cell technology, solar modules and building integration, system technology as well as further projects connected with photovoltaics. Also, international co-operation is discussed. Further, several pilot and demonstration projects (P+D) are presented. Lists of all research and development projects and pilot and demonstration projects are supplied. Work done at several institutions in Switzerland and at leading commercial companies is described. Some particularly successful P+D projects are looked at more closely.

  4. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Guatemala, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3 million of Agency support received, Guatemala ranks 46th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. Almost three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (72%), followed by training (15%) and expert services (13%). Seventy-eight per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (21%) and assistance in kind (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (37%), agriculture (28%), nuclear medicine (16%) and hydrology (8%). The remaining 11% were shared by general atomic energy development, nuclear raw materials, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear safety

  5. PUBLISHING SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOLARSHIP IN THE GLOBAL ACADEMIC COMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Elizabeth

    2015-09-20

    South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that 'speak to the student', and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context.

  6. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  7. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  8. Algorithmique et langages de programmation

    OpenAIRE

    Arsac, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Dans les débuts de l'informatique, un cours de programmation consistait essentiellement en une description des organigrammes, comme représentation graphique de la structure d'un programme (tellement embrouillée qu'il fallait bien en passer par là), et la liste des instructions d'un langage : les constantes entières s'écrivent avec des chiffres sans point décimal ni partie exposant, un identificateur... l'instruction LIRE, etc. Pour le reste, l'apprenti programmeur devait se débrouiller tout s...

  9. Accelerator Neutrino Programme at FERMILAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator neutrino programme in the USA consists primarily of the Fermilab neutrino programme. Currently, Fermilab operates two neutrino beamlines, the Booster neutrino beamline and the NuMI neutrino beamline and is the planning stages for a third neutrino beam to send neutrinos to DUSEL. The experiments in the Booster neutrino beamline are miniBooNE, SciBooNE and in the future microBooNE, whereas in the NuMI beamline we have MINOS, ArgoNut, MINERVA and coming soon NOA. The major experiment in the beamline to DUSEL will be LBNE. (author)

  10. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  11. Global Geospace Science Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George; Shawhan, Stanley; Calabrese, Michael; Alexander, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Program, an element of the international Solar Terrestrial Physics Program dedicated to the study of the global plasma dynamics of the solar-terrestrial environment, is discussed. Past research on the injection of solar wind ions into the magnetosphere and on the detection of ions in the terrestrial ring current of both solar wind and ionospheric origins is reviewed, showing its relevance for the GGS program. Research on the interplanetary magnetic field, the auroral electrojet, the outer magnetosphere, the geomagnetic tail, the ionospheric electric field and the related electron precipitation is also addressed. The results demonstrate that the solar wind and the ionsophere both contribute to the magnetospheric particle population. Unanswered questions regarding hot plasma sources, transport processes, energy storage in the magnetic field, and energization of plasmas are discussed. The relevant mission strategy, instrumentation, theory and modeling, and data collection are addressed.

  12. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  13. The H{sub 2}E program wants to open the way to a sustainable energy; Le programme H{sub 2}E veut ouvrir la voie a une energie durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-01-15

    The H{sub 2}E program, which represents an investment of about 200 millions of euros during 7 years in research and technology, aims at manufacturing an hydrogen-sustainable and competitive energy line. The research effort will deal particularly with the development of innovating techniques for the production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources, for the storage of hydrogen and the industrialization of fuel cells. (O.M.)

  14. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V; Sardi, Marina L

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  15. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  16. THE POTENTIAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SOUTH AFRICAN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Greef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the most commonly used Knowledge Based Systems (KBS's called Rule Based Systems, presents some benefits of using these systems if the application warrants their attention and provides an over-view of current R&D as well as industrial systems already implemented. Areas of manUfacturing that could use KES's within the South African context are suggested. A research programme investigating the use of KBS's in robotics in progress at the University of Stellenbosch demonstrating a number of useful properties associated with programming Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques using logic programming, is discussed.

  17. The Programme for Fast Reactor Development in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper highlights the status and perspectives on the development of nuclear energy based on fast reactor and closed fuel cycle technologies in the Russian Federation. Information is presented on the new Federal Target Programme 'Nuclear Power Technologies of a New Generation for the Period 2010-2015 and the Outlook to 2020'. (author)

  18. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  19. Development of Seasonal Storage in Denmark:Status of Storage Programme 1997-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    National survey on seasonal (thermal, large-scale) storage activities in Denmark. A storage programme under the Danish Energy Agency. Programme background, objectives, activities, projects and results.Technologies presented: Pit water storage, gravel water storage with pipe heat exchangers, lining materials for pit and lid designs.

  20. Electrochemically Programmable Plasmonic Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Zhiping; Fan, Jonathan A

    2016-07-26

    Plasmonic antennas are building blocks in advanced nano-optical systems due to their ability to tailor optical response based on their geometry. We propose an electrochemical approach to program the optical properties of dipole antennas in a scalable, fast, and energy-efficient manner. These antennas comprise two arms, one serving as an anode and the other a cathode, separated by a solid electrolyte. As a voltage is applied between the antenna arms, a conductive filament either grows or dissolves within the electrolyte, modifying the antenna load. We probe the dynamics of stochastic filament formation and their effects on plasmonic mode programming using a combination of three-dimensional optical and electronic simulations. In particular, we identify device operation regimes in which the charge-transfer plasmon mode can be programmed to be "on" or "off." We also identify, unexpectedly, a strong correlation between DC filament resistance and charge-transfer plasmon mode frequency that is insensitive to the detailed filament morphology. We envision that the scalability of our electrochemical platform can generalize to large-area reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces for on-chip and free-space applications.