WorldWideScience

Sample records for african energy programme

  1. Natural convection solar crop dryers in Kenya: Theory and practical application. African Energy Programme research report series no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African Energy Programme (AEP) was established by the Commonwealth Science Council (CSC) to strengthen Africa's scientific and technical capabilities to develop and utilise the continent's enormous renewable energy resources to assist its socio-economic development. The AEP was conceived at a regional workshop held at Arusha, Tanzania in 1979, at which African researchers met to share their experiences of and explored the feasibility of establishing a collaborative regional R and D programme to develop and adapt technologies appropriate to the specific needs of the participating countries. The AEP researchers accorded the highest priority to seeking solutions to the energy problems of Africa's predominantly rural populations and identified eight project areas as the nodes for regional collaborative research and development: 1. Biogas for rural development; 2. Wood/Charcoal production and utilisation; 3. Solar crop drying; 4. Solar thermal heating and cooling; 5. Wind electricity generation; 6. Wind water pumping; 7. Resources Assessments; 8. Energy policy and planning. The primary goal of the AEP activities were to develop indigenous national capabilities to enable the examination and application of technological solutions appropriate to the unique problems and socio-cultural environments of each country. However, the severe limitations on expertise and the broad similarity of many of the critical problems favoured regional R and D cooperation around common techniques and methodologies in each project area. This work has made a significant contribution to Science and Technology. Prior to this work there was no detailed information in natural convection solar dryers. This work has exposed a number of critical design factors which must be considered in order to design an efficient dryer. Buoyancy-induced pressure inside the dryer, problems of multiple radiative heat exchange in the heater and cooling effects of wind have been studied in detail. The final dryer

  2. Biogas research and development in Mauritius. African energy programme research report series no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken primarily with a view to investigate the potential of biogas systems in Mauritius and consequential implications. At the very outset it was clear that biogas systems such as the KVIC model producing biogas at the rate of 0.2 digester volume of gas per day and involving high capital investment would not be economically viable. Thus, it was decided to look into the possibility of developing digesters with better performance and requiring at the same time lower capital investment. Several laboratory studies were carried out to determine gas production characteristics and the influence of various parameters, namely temperature, dilution, particle size, starter culture, retention time etc., on gas yield. These were followed by investigations on the design of pilot scale digesters and gas holders. The SAT-1 model, above ground metallic digester with floating gas holder, was finally developed and operated successfully at the University. This model is currently being tested in the field. This model constructed of metal with an external black emulsion coating makes use of solar energy to heat up the system. The slurry temperature of 27 to 35C is maintained during the day resulting in a yield of above 0.5 digester volume of gas per day. Comparative economic analysis gives the SAT-1 model a marginal edge over kerosene stove. The attractiveness of this model could be further enhanced by reduction of duty on the construction material. Concurrent to the development of the project, appropriate infrastructure and man power resources were built up. The dissemination of biogas technology both in Mauritius and the neighbouring islands could now be envisaged without any major problems. (author)

  3. South African History Online's Education Programme.

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Varushka

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines South African History Online as a NGO that focuses on the enhancement of history especially at school level. The advent of digital and social media platforms has changed the way scholars learn and the way they perceive their world. The book, paper and journals should no longer provide the exclusive model for historical knowledge to be passed on. With this in mind, SAHO has developed a comprehensive online programme that focuses on the current curriculum a...

  4. The South African National Accelerator Centre and its research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    An overview of the South African National Accelerator Centre and its research activities is given with emphasis on medium energy nuclear physics and nuclear data measurements for medical use. Also presented is a preliminary result of {sup 40}Ca(p,p`x) spectrum measurement for 392 MeV which has been carried out at RCNP, Osaka University, under the South Africa-Japan collaborative programme. (author)

  5. GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site

  6. The South African energy sector: issues and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Describes aspects of the South African energy sector including: energy policy; energy supply and demand; the role of coal in the South African economy; electricity consumption and the electrification programme; liquid fuels; natural gas; uranium; renewable energy; and the environmental implications. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Potential use and performance studies of solar crop driers in Mauritius. African Energy Programme research report series no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoculture has in the past, been the norm in agriculture in Mauritius. However under a recent policy of self reliance, there has been a move to multi-crop culture. Under this policy it has been decided to release, in the first instance, 800 hectares of the best arable land for the production of food crops. This decision, coupled with further increase in intense cultivation of crops in the interrow space of the 80,000 hectares of sugar cane fields, will make the need for crop drying more and more indispensable. As the present oil bill of MuR 25 million in precious foreign exchange, for crop drying only is already too much the country could afford, the need for solar drying remains the only other alternative. The Government's Plan of Action calls for immediate action on at least 10 major crops, among which maize is the single most important. The major land holders who will participate in the programme of agricultural diversification will normally use the established artificial drying process. However the 1200 small scale farmers who will also be called upon to contribute their share will obviously not be able to afford such an expensive process and open air or sun drying remains the only resort for them. However sun drying methods have several major constraints not least of which is the inability to dry down to the safe moisture content for subsequent storage. For example, sun-dried maize will only reach a minimum of 15 to 16% moisture and must be further dried artificially at a cost of about MuR 200 per tonne to attain the 12% moisture for storage. It is apparent that the use of solar driers would generate a higher income, through a reduction in post-harvest losses and a saving in drying cost, to these small scale farmers. This, in turn, would act as an impetus to grow more food for self-reliance, if not for export. This research work was, therefore, undertaken with the aim of fulfilling the needs of small-scale farmers. The objectives of the project were to

  8. Four African Nations Agree to Water Management Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seeking to improve their management of water resources, four northeast African nations today agreed at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to establish a long-term framework for utlizing a key underground water system. Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan signed a Strategic Action Programme (SAP) that aims to optimize the equitable use of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, a huge water resource that lies beneath the four nations. The SAP also commits the countries to strengthen and build upon a previously existing regional coordination mechanism, in part by establishing a new Joint Authority for the Nubian Aquifer System. The Programme lays the groundwork for improving cooperation among the four arid nations and for strengthening their capacity to monitor and manage the aquifer effectively. With growing populations and decreasing water availability from other sources in the region, the aquifer is under mounting pressure. Removing water without a clear understanding of transboundary and other implications threatens water quality and has the potential to harm biodiversity and accelerate land degradation. The agreement resulted from a joint Technical Cooperation project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the IAEA. ''I congratulate all involved on this significant achievement,'' said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. ''Water is a key resource, and effective management and use of such water resources is essential for the future. The agreement of the Strategic Action Programme is the result of real cooperation between the four States, the Agency and UNDP-GEF. I am confident that this Programme will be a success and will benefit the people of the region. This positive project experience benefits strengthened and expanded cooperation between the IAEA and the UNDP-GEF.'' ''UNDP would like to congratulate the

  9. Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection. While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  10. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  11. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization.......In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization....

  12. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization.

  13. Renal impairment in a rural African antiretroviral programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessells Richard J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little knowledge regarding the prevalence and nature of renal impairment in African populations initiating antiretroviral treatment, nor evidence to inform the most cost effective methods of screening for renal impairment. With the increasing availability of the potentially nephrotixic drug, tenofovir, such information is important for the planning of antiretroviral programmes Methods (i Retrospective review of the prevalence and risk factors for impaired renal function in 2189 individuals initiating antiretroviral treatment in a rural African setting between 2004 and 2007 (ii A prospective study of 149 consecutive patients initiating antiretrovirals to assess the utility of urine analysis for the detection of impaired renal function. Severe renal and moderately impaired renal function were defined as an estimated GFR of ≤ 30 mls/min/1.73 m2 and 30–60 mls/min/1.73 m2 respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratio (OR of significantly impaired renal function (combining severe and moderate impairment. Co-variates for analysis were age, sex and CD4 count at initiation. Results (i There was a low prevalence of severe renal impairment (29/2189, 1.3% 95% C.I. 0.8–1.8 whereas moderate renal impairment was more frequent (287/2189, 13.1% 95% C.I. 11.6–14.5 with many patients having advanced immunosuppression at treatment initiation (median CD4 120 cells/μl. In multivariable logistic regression age over 40 (aOR 4.65, 95% C.I. 3.54–6.1, male gender (aOR 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.39–2.56 and CD4 Conclusion In this rural African setting, significant renal impairment is uncommon in patients initiating antiretrovirals. Urine analysis alone may be inadequate for identification of those with impaired renal function where resources for biochemistry are limited.

  14. Rural Energy Development Programme-Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On 16 Auguest 1996 the Rural Energy Develoment Programme (REDP) was initiated with the aim of improving livelihoods of rural people and pressrving the environment through the promotion of rural energy systems. The Programme is run by the United Nations Deelopment Programme and His Majesty's Government of Nepal.

  15. The FAO programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAO proposal for a long-term Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was presented to the World Food Conference in November 1974. A recommendation was adopted that the programme should be implemented as a matter of urgency and should receive high priority in the FAO programme of work and budget. Following recommendations of support by FAO statutory bodies the preparatory phase, which led to implementation of a large-scale programme, was launched in 1980

  16. Cost Effective Ways of Implementing Nuclear Power Programme in African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.1 Energy Poverty Energy Poverty is a term for a lack of access to electricity, heat or other forms of power. This more than often refers to the situation of peoples in the developing world. According to the records of the International Energy Agency (IEA), a detailed country-by-country database estimated that in 2009 the number of people without access to electricity was 1.4 billion or 20% of the world's population. Some 85% of those people live in rural areas. According to, current forecasts suggest the world will see an increase in global energy consumption of over 50% by 2030 with 70% of this growth in demand expected to come from developing countries. There is therefore the need to seek for a way of meeting this need within the time frame and doing so at an affordable price or rather with the most efficient allocation of resources. Nuclear energy can play a role in providing increased access to affordable energy in many parts of the world. There are growing concerns all over the world about energy security. This is partially due to the instability in the price of fossil fuel and to the political instability of most of the oil rich regions of the world. There arises therefore a need for means of meeting the increasingly growing energy demands of the nations while cutting down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. 1.2 The African Situation Presently, the only country on the African continent that has operational nuclear power plants is South Africa. South Africa has two nuclear power plants. Koeberg- 1 and Koeberg-2. Koeberg-1 started operation in 1984 and Koeberg-2 in 1985. Both are 900 MW(e) PWRs. The remaining nations across Africa are dependent largely on either hydro power plants, thermal or gas or a combination of both. However, there has been an increase in interest in nuclear electricity in a number of African countries. The list includes countries like Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Namibia, e.tc. These are countries whose economies are

  17. Teaching journalism or teaching African journalism? Experiences from foreign involvement in a journalism programme in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Skjerdal, Terje S

    2011-01-01

    Journalism programmes across the African continent have different attitudes to the issue of universal vs.
    local values in journalism. This article discusses the issue in light of a post-graduate journalism
    programme that opened at Addis Ababa University in 2004. In its 5-year implementation phase, the
    programme engaged educators from Europe and North America in addition to local instructors. Thus, one
    could expect a potential conflict between Wester...

  18. VTT Energy launches new ALWR programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VTT Energy and other Finnish organisations have carried out development activities on various advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) for some time. To broaden cooperation between different partners and make participation in international research programmes in this field easier, VTT Energy launched a four-year ALWR research programme in January 1998

  19. Teaching journalism or teaching African journalism? Experiences from foreign involvement in a journalism programme in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Skjerdal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Journalism programmes across the African continent have different attitudes to the issue of universal vs.
    local values in journalism. This article discusses the issue in light of a post-graduate journalism
    programme that opened at Addis Ababa University in 2004. In its 5-year implementation phase, the
    programme engaged educators from Europe and North America in addition to local instructors. Thus, one
    could expect a potential conflict between Western and Ethiopian approaches to journalism. However, on
    the basis of experiences with the Addis Ababa programme, the present study questions the assumed
    dichotomy between Western and Ethiopian (or African journalism discourses. Tensions did indeed come
    to the fore when the programme was planned and implemented, but they were defined by determinants
    such as professional background and personal preferences of the instructors involved rather than by
    geographical and cultural origin.

  20. Planning the Social Studies Programme for the Contemporary African Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaohwo, J. Okpako

    1989-01-01

    Identifies characteristics of a viable social studies program for African nations, urging multidisciplinary and integrated approaches. Offers a cyclical framework for planning a curriculum which includes defining the problem, setting objectives, identifying methods of implementation, evaluation, and regeneration. (LS)

  1. Policy Pathways: Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection.While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  2. "Views from the Nano Edge": Women on Doctoral Preparation Programmes in Selected African Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the conceptual views of "critical mass", alongside micro experiences, of women, at a practice level, on a doctoral preparation programme which was implemented within the South African Development Community (SADC) and Ethiopian contexts. At the strategising level of policies, insufficient attention has been paid to the…

  3. Developing a Cancer Prevention Programme for African-American Daughters and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Jackson, Dawnyéa; Rosemond, Tiara N.; Best, Alicia L.; Williams, Leah R.; Carlos, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how nominal group technique was used to inform the development of a breast and cervical cancer awareness programme for African-American adult daughters and mothers. Design: A qualitative approach using nominal group technique. Setting: A mid-sized city in the Southern USA. Method: Nominal group technique was used with 30…

  4. The Refuge: An After-School Care Programme for African-American Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuason, Ma. Teresa; Marcetic, Andjela; Roberts, Shavaun; Stuart, Karly; Rearick, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The Refuge is an after-school care programme in the southeastern USA that caters to the academic and psychological needs of impoverished African-American children. This study evaluated the Refuge through interviews with staff, small group discussions with children and persistent observation. By evaluating the after-school care services they…

  5. Energy programme of the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some basic remarks on energy supply as an economic and political challenge the German energy policy of the individual sectors is explained and corroborated by corresponding data. The appendix gives a new pre-assessment of the energy supply of the F.R. of Germany until the year 1995. Some additional graphs and tables contribute to a clear survey of this development. The programme contains a new confession on the promotion of nuclear energy and on the continuation of the recent energy policy in the fields of natural gas, coal and petroleum as well as some suggestions on the demand-oriented development of district heat and of renewable energies. (UA)

  6. Energy economics basics - Emphasis programme 2004 - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the work done within the framework of the interdisciplinary energy economics programme on scenarios and instruments for energy policy-making and economics, as well as on social and environmental aspects. The report reviews the emphasis and goals of the next phase of the programme for the period 2004 - 2007. A research road map is discussed that is to identify promising technologies that will provide a substantial contribution to meeting the goal of creating the so-called '2000-Watt Society'. The road map is to also help identify technologies that provide socio-economic advantages and identify bottlenecks and restraints on the propagation of energy-efficient technologies in the building and transport areas

  7. The current wind energy programme in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Italy, the main activities in the field of wind energy are carried out by two state-owned organizations, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board), and two major wind turbine generator manufacturers, Alenia/WEST and Riva Calzoni, within the framework of a national programme which is supervized by the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. The work currently under way concerns both wind power plant siting and the development and testing of Italian-made wind turbine generators ranging from 5 to 1500 kW in power. In addition, programmes aimed at constructing wind-farms made up of medium-sized machines (200-400 kW) have recently been launched

  8. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  9. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  10. The international atomic energy agency's programme on inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has been promoting international activity and collaboration related to the use of inertial fusion confinement schemes for energy production for many years. Thorough review of inertial fusion research and a detailed analysis of future prospects has been conducted. Inertial Fusion Energy is now approaching the turning point in the long history from physics oriented research to fusion energy oriented development. The programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency reflects, to some extent, this development

  11. IEA Energy Training Capacity-building Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The IEA has carried out training activities in energy-related areas from its origins as an agency, with the Emergency Response Exercises (ERE), designed to prepare member countries for oil supply disruption through a set of specially prepared drills simulating crisis conditions. The globalisation of world energy markets in recent years and the wider engagement of the IEA beyond its members have expanded this role, as demand for training instruction has increased. In response, the IEA has created the Energy Training and Capacity-Building Programme, which, through seminars and workshops, secondments and internships, will offer training in the methods and standards that make IEA work in a wide range of energy-related areas, including statistics, the international standard for objective policy recommendations.

  12. Infrastructure and other considerations to launch nuclear power programme: The case of sub-sahara African developing countries like Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-Saharan countries are new to launch a nuclear power (NP) programme. If they are interested to consider this technology, they should be highly committed to develop the required basic infrastructure in stages; and should conduct important activities that need to be completed in phases. This include longer than 100 years of maintaining a sustainable national infrastructure throughout its operation, decommissioning and waste disposal. The major challenges to launch a NP programme in these countries are; lack of funding, inadequate technical know-how, lack of information on the available resources, low grid capacity of nations, lack of required organizations and physical component of the infrastructure. However, there are also encouraging aspects such as commitment to expand electric supply to rural areas, strategic shift to diversify energy sources, availability of uranium (thorium) reserves, availability of basic regulatory infrastructure in radiation protection and nuclear safety, and enhanced regional and international economic cooperation. In conclusion, the high level of poverty in Sub-Saharan countries mainly is due to lack of adequate energy and its poor coverage. It is vital to assert here that provision of sustainable and sufficient amount of energy in the region can greatly advance development, alleviate poverty and ensure stability. Besides, to come out of this cyclic challenge; countries based on regional economic cooperation and ideals of African Union, should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and commonly invest to launch NP programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements

  13. West African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines a ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested with assistance from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Initial results from the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Planning (EREP) model for continental ECOWAS countries show that the share of renewable technologies in the region could increase from the current 22% of electricity generation to as much as 52% in 2030, provided that the cost of these technologies continues to fall and fossil fuel prices continue to rise. In this scenario, nearly half of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 would be with renewable technologies. Analysis using EREP – along with a similar model developed for Southern Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  14. Service Quality and Students' Satisfaction with the Professional Teacher Development Programmes by Distance Mode in a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduaran, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between seven factors that described dimensions of education service quality and overall service quality on one hand, and students' satisfaction with the professional teacher development programmes by distance mode in a South African University on the other. We sought to find out whether students enrolled…

  15. Developments in the UK Department of Energy's wind energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Department of Energy's wind energy research and development programme has been underway since 1977 and during this period a wide range of studies has been carried out aimed at assessing the potential of wind energy for contributing to UK energy needs. A number of prototype machines have been built, tested and monitored and a comprehensive underlying research programme has matured. In 1988 plans were announced jointly with the Central Electricity Generating Board (since split into National Power and PowerGen) for an experimental wind farm programme to investigate the environmental, technical and economic issues associated with the operation of wind energy systems. Additional information on these topics seems likely to arise from the increase in interest by other wind farm developers as a result of the privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry (particularly the commitment of the UK Government to the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation) which could lead to the installation of several other wind farms. This paper reports on the progress in exploiting wind energy in the UK. (Author)

  16. Energy technology programmes 1993-1998. Evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    In the late 1980s Finland`s Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) initiated a series of research and development (R and D) programmes in the field of energy technology. Subsequently, in 1993, it launched a further suite of eleven Energy Technology Programmes scheduled to run over the period 1993-1998. Aimed at the development of efficient and environmentally sound energy technologies intended to be competitive in the international marketplace, the programmes sought to involve the research, industrial and public sectors in some FIM 1.2 billion of research and development activity. The technology areas spanned: Combustion and gasification techniques Bioenergy, Advanced energy systems and technologies (e.g. wind, solar energy), Fusion, Energy and environmental technology, Energy and the environment in transportation, Energy use in buildings, Energy in steel and metal production, Energy in paper and board production, District heating, Electricity distribution automation. In early 1995, the Technology Development Centre of Finland (Tekes) assumed responsibility for the funding, management and administration of the programmes. As the final year of activities began, Tekes commissioned Technopolis to assemble a team to conduct a major review of all eleven programmes over the course of 1998. The broad aim of the exercise was to review the experience of the eleven technology R and D programmes and to make suggestions for the future. In particular, the intention was to cover a number of distinct levels. Most important were the Programme and Portfolio levels. At the individual Programme level, the review was to comment on the relevance, calibre and impact of programmes, concentrating in particular on the following: Relevance - were programme and project level goals in line with Finnish interests and comparable agendas in other countries; Efficiency - how well were the programmes implemented and managed; Quality - how did the scientific and technological quality of the work

  17. South African CSP projects under the REIPPP programme - Requirements, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relancio, Javier; Cuellar, Alberto; Walker, Gregg; Ettmayr, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Thus far seven Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) projects have been awarded under the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP), totalling 600MW: one project is in operation, four under construction and two on their way to financial close. This provides an excellent opportunity for analysis of key features of the projects that have contributed to or detracted from the programme's success. The paper draws from Mott MacDonald's involvement as Technical Advisor on the seven CSP projects that have been successful under the REIPPPP to date as well as other global CSP developments. It presents how various programme requirements have affected the implementation of projects, such as the technical requirements, time of day tariff structure, economic development requirements and the renewable energy grid code. The increasingly competitive tariffs offered have encouraged developers to investigate efficiency maximising project configurations and cost saving mechanisms, as well as featuring state of the art technology in their proposals. The paper assesses the role of the project participants (developers, lenders and government) with regards to these innovative technologies and solutions. In our paper we discuss the status of projects and the SA market, analysing the main challenges and opportunities that in turn have influenced various aspects such as technology choice, operational regimes and supply chain arrangements.

  18. A sport management programme for educator training in accordance with the diverse needs of South African schools / Johannes Jacques Vosloo

    OpenAIRE

    Vosloo, Johannes Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In school sport the professionalisation of sport has reached the domain of school sport as a grassroots incubator for sporting talent and for providing positive experiences that might lead to lifelong engagement in physical activity. This has inevitably led to the development of specialised human resources required to manage school sport. In the South African context, despite the existence of a variety of sport management programmes, there is a need for continuously updated and adapted progra...

  19. Promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization in HIV/AIDS programmes: lessons and curricular tools from a South African intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail; de Wet, Jacques; Bonell, Christopher Philip; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Proynk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Morison, Linda; Porter, John D H; Busza, Joanna; Watts, Charlotte; Hargreaves, James R

    2011-06-01

    The development of critical consciousness is seen as a key stage in communities increasing levels of dialogue about priority problems and effecting structural change for health. However, relatively little research identifies concrete methods for programmes to build critical consciousness. We examined how a South African structural intervention used critical consciousness as a tool for prevention of intimate partner violence and HIV infection. We collected qualitative data in the form of in-depth interviews with managers, trainers, and participants of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity intervention (IMAGE) in rural South Africa. The data were analysed through a coding structure developed in QSR NVivo. We draw practical lessons from IMAGE to guide other HIV programmes aiming to promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization. This research suggests that specific curricular tools can work towards critical consciousness and that mobilization efforts in future programmes can be strengthened by including individual and collective efforts by participants. PMID:20965911

  20. Energy market opening and the national energy programme in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia is now moving fast toward market opening, at least in the electricity sector, due to the new Energy Law adopted in 1999. The Energy Law defines the main energy policy directions, including the sustainable development criterion. It also calls for the preparation of a National Energy Programme (NEP) to be adopted by the Parliament. According to the Law, local governments are expected to prepare local energy concepts, in line with the NEP and space planning decisions. Two most difficult challenges for national energy policies are: opening of the electricity market and meeting the Kyoto Protocol targets in the reduction of greenhouse gasses. The success of the energy sector reform depends on the fine-tuning of various instruments: market structuring and state interventions. The immediate concern for the sector in the secondary legislation, the fifty regulations that the Energy Law calls for. These regulations have to be prepared well before the date of internal electricity market opening on April 15th, 2001. The institutional structure to be established should be adapted for international competition that will start in electricity and gas no later than January 1st, 2003. It is expected that the NEP, to be prepared by spring of the year 2001, will propose complementary development strategies to cope with partially conflicting targets. Four groups of criteria shall be applied to compare the alternatives: security of supply, competitiveness of the society, preserving the space and environment quality and social cohesion. It is expected that energy market opening, not a final goal by itself, can be instrumental for the improvement of the energy sector performance on all accounts. (author)

  1. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc E Coffeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  2. Real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to perform a real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme. Strategic value of thermonuclear fusion technology is estimated here based on the expected cash flows from construction and operation of fusion power plants and the real options value arising due to managerial flexibility and the underlying uncertainty. First, a basic investment option model of Black-Scholes type is being considered. Then, a fuzzy compound real R and D option model is elaborated, which reflects in a better way the multi-stage nature of the programme and takes into account the imprecision of information as one of the components of the overall programme uncertainty. Two different strategies are compared: 'Baseline' corresponding to a relatively moderate pace of fusion research, development, demonstration and deployment activities vs. 'Accelerated' strategy, which assumes a rapid demonstration and massive deployment of fusion. The conclusions are drawn from the model calculations regarding the strategic value of fusion energy R and D and the advantages of accelerated development path. - Research highlights: → Real options analysis of fusion R and D, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) programme. → ENPV of fusion RDDD programme is calculated using stochastic probabilistic simulation. → Fusion RDDD programme exhibits substantial positive real options value: Euro 245 billion. → Fuzzy compound real option valuation method provides more robust results.

  3. A proposed programme for energy risk research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report consists of two parts. Part I presents an overview of technological risk management, noting major contributions and current research needs. Part II details a proposed program of energy research, including discussions of some seven recommended projects. The proposed energy risk research program addresses two basic problem areas: improving the management of energy risks and energy risk communication and public response. Specific recommended projects are given for each. (Auth.)

  4. Canada's voluntary industrial energy conservation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, C.A. Jr.

    1979-07-01

    The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)

  5. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  6. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue

  7. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thollander, Patrik; Danestig, Maria; Rohdin, Patrik [Linkoeping University, (Sweden). Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering

    2007-11-15

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue. (author)

  8. VTT Energy`s new gasification and pyrolysis technology programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E. [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    The publicly funded gasification and pyrolysis research activities of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) have been integrated into three-year programme, known as PROGAS, to promote Finnish gasification and pyrolysis R and D and improve contacts with companies that utilize these technologies. The programme will focus on applied technical research and on process and equipment development carried out with industry

  9. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  10. Energy Technology Programmes 1993-1998. Intermediate report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Tekes energy technology research programmes were launched in 1993. The aim is to produce innovative solutions that are efficient, environmentally sound and widely - even globally - applicable. Now Tekes manages a total of 12 energy technology research programmed. Research programmed form a network linking academia and industry. Total funding for the energy technology programmed during the years 1993-1998 is estimated at some FIM 1.5 billion, about half of which will be put up by the Tekes and the rest by the industry. Funding by the Ministry of Trade and Industry covers the first full-scale applications (demonstrations) resulting from the research and development activities. Finnish technology is front-ranking in the efficient use of energy, combustion technology, renewable energy sources and environmental technology. In this report the results and the research activities of the separate programmes is presented and discussed

  11. Localisation strategy for the South African nuclear power programme / Alden Willem Johan van Wyk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyk, Alden Willem Johan

    2012-01-01

    Through this study, a strategy for the localisation and development of the South African nuclear industry was developed. As background, the Korean localisation experience was investigated, along with international recommendations regarding nuclear localisation, and South African governmental policies. This research was used as foundation for the formulation of a localisation strategy. The possibility of using localisation and nuclear industry development as a means to address governmental soc...

  12. Programme Review Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A South African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Gertruida M.

    2004-01-01

    All educators should reflect on and assess the quality of their teaching and their learning programmes. Such reflection is the subject of this article. The focus is on higher education (HE) with particular emphasis on distance learning institutions. A particular educational programme is considered, namely a course-work Master's degree in…

  13. The West African monsoon: Contribution of the AMMA multidisciplinary programme to the study of a regional climate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, T.; Janicot, S.; Redelsperger, J. L.; Parker, D. J.; Thorncroft, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The AMMA international project aims at improving our knowledge and understanding of the West African monsoon and its variability with an emphasis on daily-to-interannual timescales. AMMA is motivated by an interest in fundamental scientific issues and by the societal need for improved prediction of the WAM and its impacts on water resources, health and food security for West African nations. The West African monsoon (WAM) has a distinctive annual cycle in rainfall that remains a challenge to understand and predict. The location of peak rainfall, which resides in the Northern Hemisphere throughout the year, moves from the ocean to the land in boreal spring. Around the end of June there is a rapid shift in the location of peak rainfall between the coast and around 10°N where it remains until about the end of August. In September the peak rainfall returns equatorward at a relatively steady pace and is located over the ocean again by November. The fact that the peak rainfall migrates irregularly compared to the peak solar heating is due to the interactions that occur between the land, the atmosphere and the ocean. To gain a better understanding of this complex climate system, a large international research programme was launched in 2002, the biggest of its kind into environment and climate ever attempted in Africa. AMMA has involved a comprehensive field experiment bringing together ocean, land and atmospheric measurements, on timescales ranging from hourly and daily variability up to the changes in seasonal activity over a number of years. This presentation will focus on the description of the field programme and its accomplishments, and address some key questions that have been recently identified to form the core of AMMA-Phase 2.

  14. Human Resources Development for Jordan’s Nuclear Energy Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan's HRD strategy: • Utilize Jordan’s academic infrastructure: – 25 Universities (10 public & 15 private); – 35 Community Colleges (15 public & 20 private). • Build on existing programmes and establish new ones to support Nuclear Energy Programme. • Nuclear Education in Jordan: – B. Sc. Nuclear Engineering at Jordan University of Science & Technology (JUST); – M. Sc. Nuclear Physics at University of Jordan, Yarmouk University and Al-Balqa Applied University. • Scholarships for M. Sc. and Ph. D in Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Science from Universities outside Jordan: – United States, Russia, France, Japan, China, Korea. Utilization of JSA and JRTR; • Vendor supplied training; • Support through Nuclear Cooperation Agreements; • IAEA Technical Cooperation; • Development of a Jordan-Specific Qualification and Certification Programmes; • Specialized Training in International Codes & Standards: – Transition to JNRC Developed/Adopted Standards, Codes, Regulations

  15. Caribbean alternative energy programme project proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third report to follow the Project Group Meeting on ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES, Barbados, September, 1977. It consists of summaries of projects proposals identified at the Meeting. The first two reports have been previously circulated. The first CSC(77)AER-1 covers the background, proceedings and recommendations resulting from the meeting as well as containing a brief outline of the project proposals. The country papers and technical papers that were presented at the meeting or served as background material, form the second report, CSC(77)AER-2. Copies of the first two reports can be obtained on request to the Commonwealth Science Council. Projects with potential for making significant progress in the short term have been marked with an asterisk

  16. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    OpenAIRE

    Kielmann Karina; Fielding Katherine; Hamilton Robin; Charalambous Salome; Dahab Mison; Churchyard Gavin J; Grant Alison D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs) and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existen...

  17. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-01-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the ‘local sustainability assumption’ is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 ye...

  18. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezroukikh, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  19. The Wind Energy programme - SFOE Research Programme 2000 - 2003; Programm Wind. Konzept BFE-Forschungsprogramm 'Wind' 2000 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R.

    2001-07-01

    This document, issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the concept behind the Swiss wind energy programme. The first part of the report discusses the origins and development of the wind energy programme in Switzerland, discussing the importance of wind energy and policy matters associated with its promotion. The experience gained during the previous research programmes is reviewed. The degree to which targets were reached, promotional activities, the central government's own wind energy activities and the results of a programme evaluation are discussed. Lists of projects that have been realised and activities that have been carried out are presented and positive and negative influences on development are noted. A second part is dedicated to the goals of the wind energy programme in terms of target figures for the year 2010 and the strategies chosen to reach these goals, including pilot and demonstration projects (P and D) and promotional activities. Details of the P and D programme including lists of wind-power projects to be supported, the priorities that have been set and information and further education that is to be provided, are given. New activities in the wind power area such as the development of new type of wind turbine especially suited to alpine conditions are discussed. The role of the Swiss Association for Wind Energy 'Suisse Eole' as a network-partner in the wind energy programme is discussed. An appendix provides details of wind energy projects in Switzerland, market partners and customers. The results of a survey made of wind energy activities at Swiss institutes of higher education are presented.

  20. Energy demand management in selected African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis contains five empirical papers that contribute to the energy demand management literature on Africa. It investigates the following policy issues – business cycle and energy conservation, government fuel subsidies and energy efficiency, economic growth and environmental quality, structural effects in parameters, the transition between energy efficiency and energy inefficiency, forecast of energy demand, shifts in demand behaviour, and the persistence profile of energy demand to sho...

  1. The Primate Habituation Programme, Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Fuh Neba, Terence; Feistner, Anna; Todd, Angélique

    2014-01-01

    Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), including Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (DNNP), are located in SW Central African Republic (CAR) and are managed by the government and WWF. DSPA is CAR’s largest remaining nearly intact forest block and known for its outstanding biodiversity, including most of CAR's gorillas (G. g. gorilla). In 2012, DNNP, and its neighbouring NPs, were designated a World Heritage Site, the Sangha Tri-National complex (TNS) – classified as an exceptional priority area for we...

  2. Productivity assessments in small ruminants improvement programmes. A case study of the West African Dwarf Goat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the suitabilit

  3. Reflecting on a Leadership Development Programme: A Case Study in South African Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skeritt, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development in higher education is of vital importance to South Africa's future. We present a case study that focuses on a leadership development programme (LDP) through action learning and action research (ALAR) for women academics in South Africa during 2000 and 2001. It identifies the effects of the LDP on participants five years…

  4. Real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednyagin, Denis [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 18, CH-1015 (Switzerland); EIC Partners AG, Seefeldstrasse 19, 8008 Zurich (Switzerland); Gnansounou, Edgard [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 18, CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper aims to perform a real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme. Strategic value of thermonuclear fusion technology is estimated here based on the expected cash flows from construction and operation of fusion power plants and the real options value arising due to managerial flexibility and the underlying uncertainty. First, a basic investment option model of Black-Scholes type is being considered. Then, a fuzzy compound real R and D option model is elaborated, which reflects in a better way the multi-stage nature of the programme and takes into account the imprecision of information as one of the components of the overall programme uncertainty. Two different strategies are compared: 'Baseline' corresponding to a relatively moderate pace of fusion research, development, demonstration and deployment activities vs. 'Accelerated' strategy, which assumes a rapid demonstration and massive deployment of fusion. The conclusions are drawn from the model calculations regarding the strategic value of fusion energy R and D and the advantages of accelerated development path. (author)

  5. A pilot sterile insect release programme to suppress codling moth in South African apple and pear orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    distribution of laboratory-reared moths, in conventional and pheromone treated orchards has been assessed over a period of 20 weeks. Results indicate that locally produced moths are competitive. The determination of the costs and benefits associated with the integrated use of SIT is central to the pilot programme. Initial estimates of production costs indicate that the treatment of an orchard with sterile moths is comparable to the cost of codling moth pheromone disruption. The benefits accrued by the use of SIT over a number of seasons will be determined. The programme is financially supported by the South African Apple and Pear Producers Association, the IAEA and the participating farms. The total costs for the first year of operation are approximately USD 100,000. The local fruit industry has insisted on the rapid commercialization of the programme if it proves to be financially viable. (author)

  6. SwissEnergy - The follow-up programme to 'Energy 2000'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the basic ideas behind the 'SwissEnergy' energy policy programme which follows on from the 'Energy 2000' action programme. The first part of the report discusses the need for the programme and reviews the experience gained during the 'Energy 2000' programme. The degree to which targets were reached, co-operation issues and the results of an evaluation are discussed. Further sections are dedicated to the goals of SwissEnergy in terms of target figures for the year 2010 and the strategies chosen to reach these goals. The various areas addressed by the programme such as building, industry, traffic, public authorities, new energy technologies and renewable energy are examined. The legal basis of measures to be taken and the instruments proposed for use are discussed. These include agreements with the various actor-groups involved as well as promotional measures, regulations and certificate systems. Finally, the organisation and co-ordination of the federal and cantonal authorities as well as private organisations and agencies is discussed and methods for the supervision and evaluation of action taken under the programme are described

  7. DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme. Annual report FY05/06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK government supports The New and Renewable Energy Programme as part of its energy policy. This report describes the work managed by Future Energy Solutions (FES), which is part of that programme, during the financial year 2005-2006. The research programme includes biofuels, energy storage, fuel cells, photovoltaics, wave energy and wind energy. Non-research tasks managed by the FES include networks, publications and workshops. Figures for expenditure on the various projects are given

  8. How can the quality of South African environmental management programmes be determined? / Ebenhaezer van Schalkwyk.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Schalkwyk, Ebenhaezer

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) lies the focus of identification and assessment of predicted impacts, with the management actions (i.e. Environmental Management Programmes) (EMPr) often being described only in illustrative terms. In order to promote effective Environmental Management (EM) it is important that the management actions arising from EIAs are clearly defined and translated into a good quality EMPr. The thesis had three aims, (1) to determine what is regard...

  9. Contrasting predictors of poor antiretroviral therapy outcomes in two South African HIV programmes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Robin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many national antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes encourage providers to identify and address baseline factors associated with poor treatment outcomes, including modifiable adherence-related behaviours, before initiating ART. However, evidence on such predictors is scarce, and providers judgement may often be inaccurate. To help address this evidence gap, this observational cohort study examined baseline factors potentially predictive of poor treatment outcomes in two ART programmes in South Africa, with a particular focus on determinants of adherence. Methods Treatment-naïve patients starting ART were enrolled from a community and a workplace ART programme. Potential baseline predictors associated with poor treatment outcomes (defined as viral load > 400 copies/ml or having discontinued treatment by six months were assessed using logistic regression. Exposure variables were organised for regression analysis using a hierarchical framework. Results 38/227 (17% of participants in the community had poor treatment outcomes compared to 47/117 (40% in the workplace. In the community, predictors of worse outcomes included: drinking more than 20 units of alcohol per week, having no prior experience of chronic medications, and consulting a traditional healer in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 15.36, 95% CI 3.22-73.27; aOR 2.30, 95%CI 1.00-5.30; aOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.00-5.19 respectively. Being male and knowing someone on ART were associated with better outcomes (aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.74; aOR 0.44, 95%CI 0.19-1.01 respectively. In the workplace, predictors of poor treatment outcomes included being uncertain about the health effects of ART and a traditional healer's ability to treat HIV (aOR 7.53, 95%CI 2.02-27.98; aOR 4.40, 95%CI 1.41-13.75 respectively. Longer pre-ART waiting time (2-12 weeks compared to Conclusion Baseline predictors of poor treatment outcomes were largely unique to each programme, likely reflecting

  10. Nurse educators’ experiences of case-based education in a South African nursing programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity M. Daniels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape experienced an increase in student enrolments from an intake of 150 students to 300 students in the space of one year. This required a review of the teaching and learning approach to ensure that it was appropriate for effective facilitation of large classes. The case-based education (CBE approach was adopted for the delivery of the Bachelor of Nursing programme in 2005.Aim: The aim of the study was to explore nurse educators’ experiences, current practices and possible improvements to inform best practice of CBE at the nursing school in the Western Cape.Methods: A participatory action research method was applied in a two day workshop conducted with nurse educators in the undergraduate nursing programme. The nominal group technique was used to collect the data.Results: Three themes emerged from the final synthesis of the findings, namely: teaching and learning related issues, student issues and teacher issues. Amongst other aspects, theory and practice integration, as well as the need for peer support in facilitation of CBE, were identified as requiring strengthening.Conclusion: It was concluded that case-based education should continue to be used in the school, however, more workshops should be arranged to keep educators updated and new staff orientated in respect of this teaching and learning approach.

  11. Factors influencing retention in care after starting antiretroviral therapy in a rural South African programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom H Boyles

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of patients with HIV in Africa has improved with the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART but these successes are threatened by low rates of long-term retention in care. There are limited data on predictors of retention in care, particularly from rural sites. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis of outcome measures in adults from a rural HIV care programme in Madwaleni, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The ART programme operates from Madwaleni hospital and seven primary care feeder clinics with full integration between inpatient and outpatient services. Outreach workers conducted home visits for defaulters. RESULTS: 1803 adults initiated ART from June 2005 to May 2009. At the end of the study period 82.4% were in active care or had transferred elsewhere, 11.1% had died and 6.5% were lost to follow-up (LTFU. Independent predictors associated with an increased risk of LTFU were CD4 nadir >200, initiating ART as an inpatient or while pregnant, and younger age, while being in care for >6 months before initiating ART was associated with a reduced risk. Independent factors associated with an increased risk of mortality were baseline CD4 count 6 months before initiating ART and initiating ART while pregnant were associated with a reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS: Serving a socioeconomically deprived rural population is not a barrier to successful ART delivery. Patients initiating ART while pregnant and inpatients may require additional counselling and support to reduce LTFU. Providing HIV care for patients not yet eligible for ART may be protective against being LTFU and dying after ART initiation.

  12. Energy 2000 Investment Programme - Effects on the economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of an evaluation made of the Energy 2000 Investment Programme which was launched to stimulate the economy and help meet Switzerland's goals in the energy sector. The aims of the evaluation and the methods used are discussed. The implementation of the programme, which provided financial support for energy-relevant projects implemented by private persons and institutions, is described and comments are made on the results obtained in the various regions of Switzerland. Further, the problems encountered, such as the economic situation, the shortage of energy consultants in western Switzerland, the short time available for the programme's implementation and the limited possibilities of spreading information in the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning sector are discussed. Also, the so-called 'go-along' effect - the unintentional support of projects that would have been realised anyway - is described. The positive results of the programme - in particular the correct and efficient implementation of those projects it supported - are mentioned. The last part of the report describes the impact of the programme on the Swiss economy, the consumption and use of energy and on the environment and presents appropriate figures

  13. French Atomic Energy Commission Decommissioning Programme and Feedback Experience - 12230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiberteau, Ph.; Nokhamzon, J.G. [French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission CEA/DEN/DADN Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    Since the French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission (CEA) was founded in 1945 to carry out research programmes on use of nuclear, and its application France has set up and run various types of installations: research or prototypes reactors, process study or examination laboratories, pilot installations, accelerators, nuclear power plants and processing facilities. Some of these are currently being dismantled or must be dismantled soon so that the DEN, the Nuclear Energy Division, can construct new equipment and thus have available a range of R and D facilities in line with the issues of the nuclear industry of the future. Since the 1960's and 1970's in all its centres, the CEA has acquired experience and know-how through dismantling various nuclear facilities. The dismantling techniques are nowadays operational, even if sometimes certain specific developments are necessary to reduce the cost of operations. Thanks to availability of techniques and guarantees of dismantling programme financing now from two dedicated funds, close to euro 15,000 M for the next thirty years, for current or projected dismantling operations, the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division has been able to develop, when necessary, its immediate dismantling strategy. Currently, nearly thirty facilities are being dismantled by the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division operational units with industrial partners. Thus the next decade will see completion of the dismantling and radioactive clean-up of the Grenoble site and of the facilities on the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. By 2016, the dismantling of the UP1 plant at Marcoule, the largest dismantling work in France, will be well advanced, with all the process equipment dismantled. After an overview of the French regulatory framework, the paper will describe the DD and R (Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation) strategy, programme and feedback experience inside the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division. A special feature of dismantling

  14. French Atomic Energy Commission Decommissioning Programme and Feedback Experience - 12230

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission (CEA) was founded in 1945 to carry out research programmes on use of nuclear, and its application France has set up and run various types of installations: research or prototypes reactors, process study or examination laboratories, pilot installations, accelerators, nuclear power plants and processing facilities. Some of these are currently being dismantled or must be dismantled soon so that the DEN, the Nuclear Energy Division, can construct new equipment and thus have available a range of R and D facilities in line with the issues of the nuclear industry of the future. Since the 1960's and 1970's in all its centres, the CEA has acquired experience and know-how through dismantling various nuclear facilities. The dismantling techniques are nowadays operational, even if sometimes certain specific developments are necessary to reduce the cost of operations. Thanks to availability of techniques and guarantees of dismantling programme financing now from two dedicated funds, close to euro 15,000 M for the next thirty years, for current or projected dismantling operations, the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division has been able to develop, when necessary, its immediate dismantling strategy. Currently, nearly thirty facilities are being dismantled by the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division operational units with industrial partners. Thus the next decade will see completion of the dismantling and radioactive clean-up of the Grenoble site and of the facilities on the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. By 2016, the dismantling of the UP1 plant at Marcoule, the largest dismantling work in France, will be well advanced, with all the process equipment dismantled. After an overview of the French regulatory framework, the paper will describe the DD and R (Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation) strategy, programme and feedback experience inside the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division. A special feature of dismantling operations at the CEA

  15. Sustainable energy systems and the EURATOM research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are at a turning point in European research. With the launch of the EU's 7th Framework Programme, committing some Euro 53 billion of public funds to the European research effort over the next 7 years, Europe has finally woken up to the importance of Research and Development in the realisation of the most fundamental objectives defining the Union: growth, competitiveness, and knowledge. At the same time, and with strong links to growth and competitiveness but also to environmental protection, the Union is in the throws of an intense debate on future energy policy and climate change. Part of the research budget, some would say too small a part, is earmarked for energy - in particular the technological aspects of low carbon systems such renewables. This effort, together with measures to improve the EU's security and independence of supply, are essential if Europe is to respond effectively to solve the future energy conundrum. But where does nuclear fit in all this? What will the Union be doing in the area of nuclear research? Indeed, does nuclear figure at all in the long-term plans of the Union? Through the EURATOM part of the Framework Programme, the EU is maintaining important support to up-stream research in the area of advanced reactor technologies. This effort is being coordinated at the global level through EURATOM's membership of the Generation-IV International Forum. Though EU research in this field still has its critics among the Member States, and despite the relatively small sums currently committed, the leverage effect of current actions is significant and this is set to grow in the future. The imminent setting up of a Strategic Energy Technology Plan, as part of the European Commission on-going activities in the field of energy policy, and the feedback from independent experts in the Advisory Group on Energy and the EURATOM Scientific and Technical Committee all point to following conclusions: EU support for research on advanced nuclear fission

  16. United States Atomic Energy Commission Radiation Processing of Foods Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current progress of the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Radiation Processing of Food Programme, with emphasis on the clearance of such foods for general human consumption, product development, facility design, process conditions and economics, and commercial aspects are discussed. Semi-production processing for a number of products has now become feasible. The goal is to test laboratory data under near-commercial-scale process conditions, and to obtain cost data. Either completed, or nearing completion are semi-production facilities capable of processing various foods in quantities of thousands of pounds per hour. Among them are the Marine Products Development Irradiator, the Mobile Gamma Irradiator and the Grain Products Irradiator, for bulk and packaged grain. Plans for a Hawaiian Development Irradiator are also discussed. Activities in the United States, which are related to the commercialization of radiation processing of foods, including the use of radiation for processing fresh fish and fruits, sterilized meats and other food products, are discussed. For example, a project is under way in which several agencies of the United States Government are attempting to establish a co-operative programme with industry, aimed at the development of a pilot-plant meat irradiator. These efforts are directed towards the establishment of a large facility operated by industry which would: (a) provide necessary radiation-sterilized meats for the armed services; (b) establish process conditions and economics; and (c) introduce some of the product into the civilian economy, for commercial purposes. (author)

  17. Infrastructure and Other Considerations to Launch Nuclear Power Programme: The Case of Sub-Sahara African Developing Countries like Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends in the world's population and energy use during the past decades show dramatic increases; and the demand for electricity, mainly from developing countries, is expected to increase more rapidly than the demand for other forms of energy. Besides, concern of climate change led to the need for production of significant amount of 'safe and clean' energy which in turn favours to nuclear option. Other alternative renewable sources like solar and wind can assist but currently they are short of supplying the required high energy demand either economically or/and in substantial amount. Nuclear option therefore remains a possible (developed) technology to fill this energy gap; and many countries including developing one show interest to make use of this energy source. In this paper the economic situations and energy production of six East Africa Sub-Saharan developing countries, with total population of 240 million were assessed, and 6.8% and 2.9% average GDP and population growth respectively registered in the last four years; however, their energy production in 2008 (est.) was 17.662 billion kWh, which is the least in the world. The contribution of inadequate energy and its poor coverage in hampering development, increase poverty and unstability were also analyzed. To come out of this cyclic challenge; it is recommended that countries based on regional economic cooperation should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and cooperate to invest commonly or unilaterally to launch Nuclear Power Programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements. It is also noted that the best candidate to start NP programme in these countries would be the worldwide dominant water cooled reactors. However, for countries with low grid capacity and to carry out projects in remote areas which are far-away from national grid systems or to desalinate water, considerations for smaller

  18. Programme of studies. Vol. 3: Energy. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the reports on studies carried out by different institutions. Their titles are: 1. Overall economic impact of strategies for cutting down emissions, 2. Analysis of obstacles to, and steps towards, the realization of CO2 emission reduction targets, 3. Future regulatory framework, especially for line-transmitted energy, in support of climate protection targets, 4. Conceptual study for a further-education and market introduction programme ''Efficient and economical use of electricity'', 5. Perspectives and consequences of the completion of the internal European market, especially the stepwise establishment of a European power market, and of international conventions (in particular with a view to climate protection) for a policy aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 6. Concept for, and valuation of, economic relations with developing countries, the Commonwealth of independent states (CIS), and eastern Europe with the aim of cutting down greenhouse gases, as well as population projections for united Germany to the year 2100 - with special regard to migrations. (orig.)

  19. The F4E programme towards fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy (F4E) is a legal entity located in Barcelona, created in April 2007 for a period of 35 years by the Council of the European Union, in the frame of the Euratom Treaty. F4E has three main objectives: (i) to provide the Euratom’s contribution to ITER, acting as the European Domestic Agency; (ii) to support fusion research and development initiatives through the Broader Approach Agreement, signed by Euratom and Japan, a fusion energy partnership which will last for 10 years, being the EU contribution mainly implemented by the donor countries: France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Switzerland and Belgium; and (iii) to contribute towards the construction of demonstration fusion reactors. This paper describes the F4E programme that is being carried out aiming at fulfilling the above mentioned objectives. Particular attention is given to the research and development activities that have been carried out by the Euratom Fusion Programme in order to provide the in-kind contributions to the ITER project. Most of the physics and technologic developments are well beyond the present knowledge and/or state-of-art in alpha-particle physics, instability mitigation and control, vacuum technology, superconducting magnets, plasma facing components, divertor, heating and current drive, diagnostics, real-time plasma control, remote handling and breeding blanket. The status of the main BA projects (IFMIF EVEDA, IFERC and JT60-SA) is also reported. Finally the F4E governance and organization are described as well as the complex interfaces with ITER International Organization and the Domestic Agencies of the other ITER Parties. (author)

  20. Energy research 1998. The programme leaders` status reports; Energie-Forschung 1998. Recherche energetique 1998. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Rapport de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voirol, C. [ed.; Dubal, L. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    This report is a collection of the annual reports written by the 20 energy research programme leaders of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy about their activities in 1998. There is also a report of the Energy Research Coordinator reviewing the progress achieved in 1998. Finally, the organisation of the Swiss energy research is shortly presented, and useful addresses are given

  1. Views on Finnish energy technology programmes. Environmentally viable results for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannus, S.; Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Finland`s exports of energy technology have been growing dynamically over the past few years and they have now exceeded net imports of oil. Highly efficient technology has not only been applied to the national energy economy but also exported to more than 140 other countries. Finnish skills in this field are the result of many traditional factors: the cold climate, long distances between towns, energy-intensivity industry and the lack of fossil fuels in Finland. In addition to these geographical and natural factors, Finnish expertise in energy has been radically influenced by especially favourable organizational and institutional conditions: the mechanisms for competition in the domestic marketplace ant strong networking both in Finland and abroad. The small home market has also been a stimulus for exports. Finland`s potential new subdivisions of energy fields include automation and IT for energy production systems, which is based on strong Finnish expertise and success in information technology. Another new field with potential is photoelectric systems, an area in which Finland is already well placed on the market. The extensive utilization of solar energy in northern latitudes calls for the seasonal storage of energy. The use of hydrogen as a means of storing solar power has been studied with good results in the NEMO 2 Technology Programme. In addition Finland put great emphasis on renewable energy sources like biomass, combustion processes and environmental technologies related to the energy sector. Harvesting and utilisation of biomass has been studied in the national BIOENERGIA programme. Combustion processes have been studied in the LIEKKI 2 programme. A variety of different energy related environmental technologies have been studied in the S1HTI 2 programme

  2. Energy and environment at a crossroads - perspectives from the social studies of the SAMRAM research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leading abstract. The research programme SAMRAM was carried out by the Research Council of Norway in 1996-2000. The present book contains twelve articles based on the results of the programme. The articles are grouped in three main sections: (1) The energy markets - environmental effects, innovation and consumption, (2) Energy and environmental policy - international relations and national instruments, (3) Instruments of the energy- and environmental policy - motivation and behaviour

  3. South Africa [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa has only small deposits of oil and natural gas and relies on coal production for most of its energy needs. South Africa's economy is structured around large scale, energy-intensive mining and primary minerals industries having a high commercial primary energy intensity. The supply of primary energy in 2007 was 128 Mtoe at a growth rate of 4.4 %/a. The main shares were given by coal (68%), crude oil (19%), renewables (8%), nuclear (3%) and natural gas (2%). South Africa accounts for a major fraction of the CO2 emissions of the whole continent. Due to its large coal deposits, South Africa is one of the cheapest electricity suppliers in the world. The main reason is its coal based power generating capacity, whose share is 79% (of ∼40 GW(e)), followed by crude oil (10%), renewables (6%), nuclear (3%) and natural gas (2%). Eskom Holdings Ltd, the State owned power utility that supplies 95% of South Africa's electricity, is planning to increase the current generation capacity of 40 GW by 4%/a to 80 GW by 2025. The power supply crisis in January 2008, which forced shutdowns at mines, has accelerated recognition of the need to diversify the energy mix, such as with nuclear power and natural gas, as well as various forms of renewable energy. Starting in 1984, the national utility ESKOM has been successfully operating the Koeberg nuclear power station consisting of two 900 MW(e) PWR units which generated ∼6.5% of the electricity needs. In addition, ESKOM has been pursuing the project of modular HTGRs for electricity production to meet the demand of its growing economy. In 2007-2008, the demand for electricity in South Africa started to exceed supply when the economy was growing and, at the same time, existing plants went out for maintenance. As a result, ESKOM and the South African Government decided to request proposals for new nuclear capacity and to expand the nuclear component in the energy supply mix of the country. In the strategic plan for the

  4. The role of the African Development Bank in energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sharp increases in the oil price in 1973 and 1979 devastated the economies of the petroleum-importing countries of sub-Saharan Africa, which were compelled to divert significant portions of their foreign exchange earnings to meet huge and burgeoning energy import bills. The economic shocks induced by the oil price triggered wide-scale internal and external disequilibria, demonstrated by deteriorating trade balances and large and growing current account deficits. The prolonged slump in the prices of primary commodities, combined with frequent droughts, ensured that economic retrogression persisted during the 1980s. Rapid accumulation of external indebtedness resulted in the build-up of an onerous debt-servicing burden that further aggravated the balance of payments situation. The 1980s were characterized by a substantial fall in the standards of living of the average African and deterioration in both physical and institutional infrastructures. (Author)

  5. The ''100 000 Daecher'' programme for promotion of solar energy applications of the German federal government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of Germany's environmental and energy policy goals, and in order to boost applications of the photovoltaic energy conversion technology in the housing sector, the federal government in the beginning of 1999 has launched the biggest ever programme for promotion of solar energy systems in buildings. The interest-free loans or subsidies granted to building owners under this programme of the federal ministry of economics and technology (BMWT) are backed by the Kreditanstalt fuer Wiederaufbau (KfW). the article explains the objectives of the programmes and implementing procedures and conditions. (orig./CB)

  6. Final Report: African Power/Energy and Environmental Development Plan, July 1, 1994 - August 21, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, John M.

    1999-08-21

    In 1994 AEF signed a Cooperative Agreement with DOE to address a program called the African Power /Energy and Environmental Development Plan. The Program initially addressed five area: (1) Historical Black Colleges and Universities Energy/Environmental Program; (2) The Department of Energy and United States Private Industry Africa Program; (3) The Annual United States Energy Study Tour; (4) South African Training Program, and (5) South African Environmental Program. The programs were implemented in conjunction with DOE, institutions, agencies and the private sector support in the USA and within African nations. AEF has worked with government and technical representatives from 13 African nations and expanded the program to address sponsorship of South African students in Historical Black Colleges and Universities, supporting DOE trade missions through participation and planning, and giving presentations in the U.S., and Africa regarding business opportunities in the African energy sector. The programs implemented have also opened doors for the US private sector to seek business opportunities in Africa and for African nations to gain exposure to US products and services.

  7. Policies and programmes on new and renewable energy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New and Renewable Energy Programme aims at accelerating the promotion and commercialization of new and renewable energy systems. In pursuit of this goal, the Programme has the following policies: (a) pursue the large-scale use of new and renewable energy sources (NRSE), (b) enhance energy self-sufficiency through continuous exploration, development and exploitation of indigenous energy sources and (c) encourage greater private sector investment and participation in all energy activities. The strategies to be implemented include the intensification of R and D and the demonstration of technologically feasible and socio-environmentally acceptable NRSE; the institutionalization of area-based energy planning and management for NRSE; the encouragement of a favourable market environment for manufacturers, suppliers and users of NRSE; the promotion of commercially viable energy sources such as solar and wind energy, and continuing applied R and D for less-advanced technologies such as ocean thermal and wave energy conversion, fuel cells and municipal wastes. The sub programmes of the New and Renewable Energy Program are as follows: The technology sub programme aims at developing economically viable NRSE to levels of technical maturity at which NRSE can compete commercially with conventional energy; The commercialization sub programme envisages the creation of a favourable market environment to encourage private sector investment and participation in NRSE projects and activities; The promotion sub programme attempts to heighten public awareness of NRSE; The area-based energy sub programme is a mechanism for accelerating the promotion and commercialization of new and renewable energy systems at the regional and subregional levels using a decentralized, area-based approach. (author)

  8. Devising and carrying out an evaluation of the Energy 2000 programme of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of the Swiss programme 'Energy 2000' (1990-2000) has been subjected to a systematic and continuous evaluation by independent experts. Between 1991 and 1999 various aspects of the programme have been investigated in some 50 scientific investigations. The results are summarized in this book. On one hand we present a differentiated picture of the causal connections between the most significant legal measures and voluntary actions. On the other hand we draw conclusions for the future Swiss energy policy, well aware of the fact that the translation of experiences from the past into the future may be affected considerably by new boundary conditions. The book is divided into three parts: In the first part the organisational frame of the programme is presented, and the question is addressed whether the basic principles formulated in shaping the programme have turned put to be appropriate. In the second part the knowledge resulting from the evaluations of the efficacy of the legal measures, the conflict solving discussion groups, and the actions initiated by the nine departments of the programme, is reviewed. In the third part the results of the evaluations are combined and conclusions are drawn for the shaping of the follow-up programme for the coming decade. In addition Hans-Luzius Schmid, assistant director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and director of the 'Energy 2000' programme presents some of his considerations on the longer term development of Switzerland's energy policy and on the role of his office

  9. The comparison and coordination of national policies and programmes in the energy research and development sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventory of programmes and expenditures in the field of energy research and development, which are financed from the public sector funds of the Member States and of the European Communities (1974-1976)

  10. Energy coppice, reserves and bioenergy. The theoretical base of Estonia's energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia's resources of bioenergy may be divided into three groups: natural vegetation (forests, shrublands, peat bogs, reedbeds, etc.), arable lands (agricultural crops, alder coppices, energy forests), industrial by-products and waste which can be used for energy production (residues from forest and the pulp industry, sawdust, biogas, etc.). Bioenergy resources may be characterized by three parameters: energy content (MWh/ha), energetic potential (maximum energy content of vegetation by the end of one growth cycle), change (increase or decrease) in the energy content of vegetation (MWh/ha per year). An area of interest may be divided into vegetation units and each unit should be evaluated from at least four aspects - bioenergetic value, other economical value (e.g. in forests the value of timber, game resources, berries, etc.), environmental value, cultural value. Possibilities of implementing the bioenergy programme are discussed. (author)

  11. Review on Malaysia's national energy developments: Key policies, agencies, programmes and international involvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, Shing Chyi; Oh, Tick Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    This paper aims to present a review on Malaysia's national energy developments by looking at various angles in terms of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Energy demand and consumption by sectors are presented as well as the fuel mix in electricity generation. Key energy policies implemented from the incorporation of Malaysia's national oil company, Petronas in 1974 until the National Green Technology Policy 2009 and a future policy will be addressed. The roles of key players as well as important agencies in energy development are briefly presented. Key programmes in energy development such as Malaysian Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, Small Renewable Energy Power Programme and Building Energy Efficiency Programme are discussed as well as successful initiatives from the programmes. Malaysia's international involvements towards reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon emissions especially Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol are highlighted. As a conclusion, Malaysia is aware of its role in formulating its national energy development policies, sensitive towards the country's development towards the environment and utilization of energy resources as well as conscientious and responsive towards the call for sustainable development in promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency. (author)

  12. The Heart of the Matter: Methodological Challenges in Developing a Contemporary 257-269 Reading Programme for Monolingual Lexicography, from the Perspective of the Dictionary Unit for South African English

    OpenAIRE

    Leela Pienaar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: This article argues the importance of the reading programme as the pivotal issue inthe lexicographic process. It is essentially a practical article which outlines strategies for developingand implementing a reading programme for monolingual lexicography. The arguments are informedby theory, together with an examination of the data-collection procedures followed by theDictionary Unit for South African English (DSAE) and a survey of current practice in major Englishdictionary...

  13. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielmann Karina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existence of HIV or of one's own positive status, use of traditional medicines, speaking a different language from the HSP, alcohol use, being away from home, perceived severity of side-effects, feeling better on treatment and long waiting times at the clinic. The key facilitators were social support, belief in the value of treatment, belief in the importance of one's own life to the survival of one's family, and the ability to fit ART into daily life schedules. Conclusion Given the reported uncertainty about the existence of HIV disease and the use of traditional medicines while on ART, despite a programme emphasising ART counselling, there is a need to find effective ways to support adherence to ART even if the individual does not accept biomedical concepts of HIV disease or decides to use traditional medicines. Additionally, providers should identify ways to minimize barriers in communication with patients with whom they have no common language. Finally, dissatisfaction with clinical services, due to long waiting times, should be addressed.

  14. Strategies for Achieving Healthy Energy Balance Among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Groesbeck P. Parham, MD; Isabel C. Scarinci, PhD

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Low-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1) their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2) t...

  15. Great Britain Smart Meter Role-Out Programme:Appraisal of Cost & Benefits for Energy Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Man Man

    2010-01-01

    By the end of 2008, UK government announced its intention to make smart meter roll-out a mandate. Energy suppliers have been given the instruction to have smart meter installed in all household in Great Britain by 2020, and are expected to bear substantial costs for this programme. The objective of this study is to discuss the costs and benefits involved in this programme from suppliers’ perspective by identifying the cost and benefit (the cost reduction part which is quantifiable) items i...

  16. 'Motor challenge' pilot programme; Motor Challenge Pilotprogramm. Schweizer Teilnahme im SAVE-Programm: pilot actions for motor systems industrial energy use challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a pilot project associated with the Motor Challenge Programme (MCP) initiated by the European Commission (Transport and Energy Committee). The programme is briefly described, which aims to improve the efficiency of electrical motors used in industrial compressed-air, pump and ventilator systems as well as in comprehensive motor driven systems. Switzerland's participation in this pilot project is examined, which was concluded after a period of two years when the Motor Challenge Programme itself was launched in February 2003. The mechanisms of the programme are described, whereby companies may become involved in the programme either as partners (users of drive systems) or as endorsers (suppliers, planners, etc., of such systems). Experience gained with two companies in Switzerland - a food processing group and a major chemical pulp producer - who participated in the programme is presented. Efficiency potentials of around 3 GWh/a were identified; these represent a high proportion of the estimated total of 18 GWh/a in the overall programme. A follow-up project is proposed that is to provide detailed information and initiate further efficiency projects in order to encourage other companies to participate in the MCP programme.

  17. SIHTI 2 - Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1993 of the research programme. Project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SIHTI 2 research programme on energy and environmental technology, established by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, is concentrating on areas of environmental technology that are vital to Finland or in which Finns can engage in pioneering research. The promotion of product development within the environmental technology industry produces solutions for reducing the emissions of the energy sector. It is also a way of boosting Finland's share of the world market for such technology. The objectives of the programme are to cut down harmful emissions, recycle raw materials, reduce the amount of byproducts and wastes and achieve a greater utilization of wastes. In addition, an objective is to create basic information about the effects of environmental protection technology for the other research programmes financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The development of internationally comparable research, monitoring and measurement methods creates a basis for wide-ranging international cooperation. The programme, to be carried out in 1993 - 1998, is in part a continuation of the previous SIHTI programme. New areas of research are environmental problems connected with energy in the forest and base metal industries as well as the systematic development of life-cycle analyses. This publication is yearbook 1993 of the programme. It contains the project reports of the research and joint development projects and information about the participating institutions

  18. Training and manpower development for nuclear energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to train and develop the adequately qualified manpower in the areas of nuclear science and technology. Various options were introduced by the science departments, based on the existing facilities within the university. Twenty final year students were selected annually to attend a summer school in reactor physics and technology at the Karlsruhe Institute for Nuclear Research in West Germany. Also, there was approval for an annual recruitment quota of twelve graduate assistants for the nuclear project. Fifty qualified students were trained for various courses in nuclear science and technology both in the country and abroad. There had been graduates in nuclear science and technology courses up to the doctorate degree level. Part of efforts in the manpower has been directed towards the acquisition of adequate equipment for the teaching laboratories. The establishment of a training center in nuclear technology at Ahmadu Bello University and at University of Ife can only be considered as the zero phase in the nuclear programme of Nigeria. Funding of the nuclear programme must be guaranteed. It is also suggested that the nuclear project be allocated sufficient foreign exchange to meet all its commitments. (A.S.)

  19. Renewable Energy Programmes in India: Status and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy sources and technologies have potential to provide solutions to the long-standing energy problems being faced by the developing countries. The renewable energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy and fuel cell technology can be used to overcome energy shortage in India. To meet the energy requirement for such a fast growing economy, India will require an assured supply of 3-4 times more energy than the total energy consumed today. The renewable energy is one of the options to meet this requirement. India is increasingly adopting responsible renewable energy techniques and taking positive steps towards carbon emissions, cleaning the air and ensuring a more sustainable future. In India, from the last two and half decades there has been a vigorous pursuit of activities relating to research, development, demonstration, production and application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors. In this paper, efforts have been made to summarize the availability, current status, major achievements and future potentials of renewable energy options in India. This paper also assesses specific policy interventions for overcoming the barriers and enhancing deployment of renewable energy devices for the future. (author)

  20. Advanced energy systems and technologies research in Finland. NEMO-2 Programme Annual Report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced energy technologies were linked to the national energy research in the beginning of 1988 when energy research was reorganised in Finland. The Ministry of Trade and Industry established several energy research programmes and NEMO was one of them. Major objectives of the programme were to assess the potential of new energy systems for the national energy supply system and to promote industrial activities. Within the NEMO 2 programme for the years 1993-1998, research was focused on a few promising technological solutions. In the beginning of 1995, the national energy research activities were passed on to the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The NEMO 2 programme is directed towards those areas that have particular potential for commercial exploitation or development. Emphasis is placed particularly on solar and wind energy, as well as supporting technologies, such as energy storage and hydrogen technology. Resources have been focused on three specific areas: arctic wind technology, wind turbine components, and the integration of solar energy into applications (including thin film solar cells). In Finland, the growth of the new energy technology industry is concentrated on these areas. The turnover of the Finnish industry has been growing considerably due to the national research activities and support of technology development. The sales have increased more than 10 times compared with the year 1987 and is now over 300 million FIM. The support to industries and their involvement in the program has grown considerably. In this report, the essential research projects of the programme during 1996-1997 are described. The total funding for these projects was about 30 million FIM per year, of which the TEKES's share was about 40 per cent. The programme consists of 10 research projects, some 15 joint development projects, and 9 EU projects. In case the research projects and joint development projects are acting very closely, the description of the project is

  1. Advanced energy systems and technologies research in Finland. NEMO-2 Programme Annual Report 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Advanced energy technologies were linked to the national energy research in the beginning of 1988 when energy research was reorganised in Finland. The Ministry of Trade and Industry established several energy research programmes and NEMO was one of them. Major objectives of the programme were to assess the potential of new energy systems for the national energy supply system and to promote industrial activities. Within the NEMO 2 programme for the years 1993-1998, research was focused on a few promising technological solutions. In the beginning of 1995, the national energy research activities were passed on to the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The NEMO 2 programme is directed towards those areas that have particular potential for commercial exploitation or development. Emphasis is placed particularly on solar and wind energy, as well as supporting technologies, such as energy storage and hydrogen technology. Resources have been focused on three specific areas: arctic wind technology, wind turbine components, and the integration of solar energy into applications (including thin film solar cells). In Finland, the growth of the new energy technology industry is concentrated on these areas. The turnover of the Finnish industry has been growing considerably due to the national research activities and support of technology development. The sales have increased more than 10 times compared with the year 1987 and is now over 300 million FIM. The support to industries and their involvement in the program has grown considerably. In this report, the essential research projects of the programme during 1996-1997 are described. The total funding for these projects was about 30 million FIM per year, of which the TEKES`s share was about 40 per cent. The programme consists of 10 research projects, some 15 joint development projects, and 9 EU projects. In case the research projects and joint development projects are acting very closely, the description of the project is

  2. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  3. Introducing the Resources and Energy Analysis Programme (REAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Alistair; Wiedmann, Thomas; Barrett, John; Minx, Jan; Scott, Kate; Dawkins, Elena; Owen, Anne; Briggs, Julian; Gray, Ian

    2010-02-15

    REAP is a highly sophisticated model that helps policy makers to understand and measure the environmental pressures associated with human consumption. It can be used at the local, regional and national levels and generates indicators on: - Carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions measured in tonnes per capita; - The Ecological Footprint required to sustain an area in global hectares per capita; - The Material Flows of products and services through an area measured in thousands of tonnes. REAP contains several unique features and has applications in a wide range of policy areas including transport, housing and planning. The programme's powerful scenario tool models the impacts of policy and creates plausible scenarios of the future. These scenarios can be set against targets or compared to alternative futures based on different trends or assumptions

  4. Peer Review and the Dilemmas of Quality Control in Programme Accreditation in South African Higher Education: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Michael; Naidoo, Devika

    2011-01-01

    The paper scrutinises the dynamics and the nature of peer review in the programme evaluation and accreditation process within the context of diverse individual and institutional legacies in South Africa. It analyses the peer review process and highlights the contestation at political, policy and epistemological levels. The paper argues that,…

  5. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  6. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  7. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS theme meeting on chemistry in atomic energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pivotal role played by chemistry in all the stages of atomic energy programme, right from mineral exploration, materials processing, fuel fabrication, coolant, control and structural materials, reactor chemistry, fuel recycling and actinide partitioning to radioactive waste management, has been explicitly demonstrated in the last few decades. The discoveries and developments in chemical sciences that have contributed to the formulation and successful implementation of our nuclear programme are enormous. It is to the credit of all our colleagues of Department of Atomic Energy to reckon the chronology of mile stones in our programme and how they place our nation on the global map of nuclear energy. The theme meeting on Chemistry in Atomic Energy Programme is an outcome of the thinking of some of our colleagues in BARC to take stock of the accomplishments made hitherto and to prepare a roadmap to meet the challenges of future advanced reactor regimes, while safeguarding the strategic interests of mankind. It is not out-of-context to record here that India, with its rich experience, is poised to play a major role in the global nuclear power programme, through bilateral international collaborations as well as on the platform of IAEA. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Measurement of the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS intervention programme on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the South African Polise Service employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cherian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if there was any change in the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the South African Police Service’s (SAPS employees of Limpopo province after attending the HIV/AIDS intervention programme. From a population of (N=108 employees, those who attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop participated as experimental group (n=51 while those who attended the suicide prevention and disability workshop as control group (n=57. Random sampling method was used to select the above sample. Both workshops were conducted at various places in Limpopo Province. Pre-tests were administered before the workshops while the post-tests were administered after the workshops. The results were analysed using 2 (Group: Experimental versus Control Group x 2 (Time: Pre-test versus Post-test, a repeated measure Analyses of Variances (ANOVA. The findings showed that there was a significant change in HIV/AIDS knowledge after employees have attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop. There was however no significant change in attitude and behaviour after the HIV/AIDS awareness programme. The study recommends that a one day workshop is not enough to change attitude and behaviour. It also recommends that a follow up in the form of delayed post-test is required to investigate if the behaviour of the members who promised to change positively had actually changed as behaviour changes cannot manifest in a one day workshop. This can also serve as a suggestion for further research.

  9. WHEN RELEVANCE DECENTERS CRITICALITY: THE CASE OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL CRIME, VIOLENCE AND INJURY LEAD PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Seedat

    2010-01-01

    Following the formal demise of political apartheid in SouthAfrica in 1994, critical and community-centred psychologistshave tended to obtain relevance through alignment with thetenets of social justice and the larger democratic project. Thisarticle draws on the experiences of the Crime, Violence andInjury Lead Programme (CVI) to illustrate how particularformulations of scientific and social relevance function tomarginalize criticality and critical scholarship. The authorsuggests that relevanc...

  10. Research in the field of energy: the priorities of framework programme V and the main trends of the new framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features and priorities of the 5th European Framework Programme are discussed. The first action include quality of life and management of living resources; user friendly information society; competitive and sustainable growth and energy, environment and sustainable development (environment, energy and nuclear energy). The key actions are as follows: for environment - sustainable management and quality of water, global change, climate and biodiversity, sustainable marine ecosystems; for energy - cleaner energy systems, including renewable, economic efficient energy; for nuclear energy - controlled thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission. The priorities of strategic importance to the EU are management of greenhouse gases emissions and climate change; exploiting of the potential of new ICTs in energy RTD including e-science issues; socio-economic research related to energy technologies and their impact; international co-operation, co-ordination with MS research programmes and EU wide research networks; pre-normative research of interest at EU level

  11. Regional initiatives to scale-up energy access for economic and human development: Lessons learned from the East African community and the economic community of West African States. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents the experience of two African Regional Economic Commissions (RECs) - East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - who, with assistance from the UNDP, have moved towards developing and implementing regional strategies to increase access to modern energy services (UNDP, 2006a). The Johannesburg consensus: access to energy underpins development and poverty reduction The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) includes an emerging international consensus on the role of energy in sustainable development: 1) Energy services are an essential input to economic development and social progress, notably to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Energy services are necessary for successful implementation of almost all sectoral development programmes, notably revenue generating activities, health, education, water, food security, agricultural development, etc. Increased access to energy fuels economic growth and poverty reduction. 'The lack of modern fuels and electricity in most developing countries entrenches poverty, constrains the delivery of social services, limits opportunities for women, and erodes environmental sustainability' (UN-Energy, 2005). 2) Under current economic conditions, provision of energy services to poor populations in many developing countries is not attractive to market actors. Experience in the decades before and after Johannesburg had amply demonstrated the positive and negative aspects of a purely market based approach to the provision of energy services. On the positive side, in the power sector for instance, privatization and deregulation had in many cases reduced expenditure of public funds in support of money losing public utilities. However, on the negative side, these attempts only rarely achieved improvement in the quality or reliability of service in urban areas (see Chapter 3). In almost no cases had they achieved improvement in the rates of access to electricity in rural

  12. Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy-efficiency programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Campbell, Nina

    2011-06-15

    The International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency Unit (EEU) has begun a new programme of work on innovative energy-efficiency policies for mitigating fuel poverty. The IEA's current research focuses on the potential for low-income weatherisation programmes to address poor housing quality -- the main driver of fuel poverty -- as well as innovative methods for financing and evaluating such programmes. A common problem is that the energy-saving benefits accruing to fuel-poor households barely offset the investment required, suggesting a weak return on government spending. However, these investments have additional co-benefits for participants as well as for energy providers, property owners, local communities and society as a whole. This first IEA workshop focused on methods for incorporating the range of co-benefits into evaluation of low-income weatherisation programmes. The presentations given by top experts in the fuel poverty field are summarised in this report, along with conclusions and proposals for further research.

  13. Trend report Energy Research Subsidy programme (2005-2008). A report on the most important trends and effects since the start of the Energy Research Subsidy (EOS) programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 the Energy Research Subsidy programme (EOS) was launched in the Netherlands. In four years' time about 500 projects were realized thanks to contributions from EOS. This report provides an overview of the main trends and effects of EOS in the period 2005-2008. One of the main conclusions is that a number of technologies have developed from invention level to market-ready level thanks to the EOS programme. The main trends since the start of EOS are: Increasing confidence of investors in EOS spearheads; increasing activity in EOS spearheads; Spearheads shifting to investment and exploitation schemes; EOS contributes to a solid patent position of Dutch parties; EOS contributes to European research.

  14. A new energy future for South Africa: The political ecology of South African renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupa, Joel, E-mail: jkrupa@mstar-ca.com [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Burch, Sarah [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Renewable energy remains a contested topic in South Africa. This paper argues that South Africa can build on the momentum surrounding its introduction of a feed-in tariff by enacting policies that may, if given adequate funding and political effort, allow the country to be a world leader in renewable energy. Given a variety of renewable energy policy options for moving forward, a majority of stakeholders consulted in this study strongly prefer the development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster, in which government develops coordinated policy mechanisms that attract renewable energy manufacturers, over three other policies suggested by the authors. Interviews with key informants that play critical roles in this decision-making process suggest that there are reasons to remain cautiously optimistic about the country's renewable energy future while cognizant of the challenges that must still be overcome. Opportunities for a low carbon renewable energy transition in South Africa include the prevalence of broad stakeholder consultation, facilitated by civil society, and an innovative policy development context. Significant impediments also exist, however, and include pervasive social issues such as poverty and political inertia, along with the ongoing difficulties facing renewable energy technologies in reaching grid parity with inexpensive and abundant South African coal. - Highlights: > Numerous opportunities exist for a low carbon energy transition in South Africa. > Stakeholders in study prefer development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster. > Significant impediments still exist, including grid parity, poverty, and inequality.

  15. A new energy future for South Africa: The political ecology of South African renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy remains a contested topic in South Africa. This paper argues that South Africa can build on the momentum surrounding its introduction of a feed-in tariff by enacting policies that may, if given adequate funding and political effort, allow the country to be a world leader in renewable energy. Given a variety of renewable energy policy options for moving forward, a majority of stakeholders consulted in this study strongly prefer the development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster, in which government develops coordinated policy mechanisms that attract renewable energy manufacturers, over three other policies suggested by the authors. Interviews with key informants that play critical roles in this decision-making process suggest that there are reasons to remain cautiously optimistic about the country's renewable energy future while cognizant of the challenges that must still be overcome. Opportunities for a low carbon renewable energy transition in South Africa include the prevalence of broad stakeholder consultation, facilitated by civil society, and an innovative policy development context. Significant impediments also exist, however, and include pervasive social issues such as poverty and political inertia, along with the ongoing difficulties facing renewable energy technologies in reaching grid parity with inexpensive and abundant South African coal. - Highlights: → Numerous opportunities exist for a low carbon energy transition in South Africa. → Stakeholders in study prefer development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster. → Significant impediments still exist, including grid parity, poverty, and inequality.

  16. 24. IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Programme and Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fosters the exchange of scientific and technical results in nuclear fusion research through its series of Fusion Energy Conferences. The 24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2012) aims to provide a forum for the discussion of key physics and technology issues as well as innovative concepts of direct relevance to fusion as a source of nuclear energy. With a number of next-step fusion devices currently being implemented - such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in Cadarache, France, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Livermore, USA - and in view of the concomitant need to demonstrate the technological feasibility of fusion power plants as well as the economical viability of this method of energy production, the fusion community is now facing new challenges. The resolution of these challenges will dictate research orientations in the present and coming decades. The scientific scope of FEC 2012 is, therefore, intended to reflect the priorities of this new era in fusion energy research. The conference aims to be a platform for sharing the results of research and development efforts in both national and international fusion experiments that have been shaped by these new priorities, and thereby help in pinpointing worldwide advances in fusion theory, experiments, technology, engineering, safety and socio-economics. Furthermore, the conference will also set these results against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and a fusion power plant in general, and will thus help in defining the way forward. With the participation of international organizations such as the ITER International Organization and EURATOM, as well as the collaboration of more than forty countries and several research institutes, including those working on smaller plasma devices, it is expected that this conference will, as in the past, serve to identify possibilities and means for a

  17. A study of the effects of the programme 'Energy 2000' on the Swiss market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study's summary of the effects of the programme 'Energy 2000' set up by the Swiss government along with its regional counterparts and the Swiss industry in response to the energy policy article in the Swiss Constitution adopted by a referendum in 1990. The question was whether 'Energy 2000' has an influence on the market, and especially whether the principles of the market economy, which any governmental promotion programme has to comply with, have been effectively obeyed. The study has been done in the course of the 9th year of 'Energy 2000', which aims at promoting energy conservation and renewable energy sources. The study focuses on the work-out of an analytical project able to estimate the interventions' consequences of the State on the market, from a point of view of economy and law. The authors present recommendations applicable to a follow-up programme beginning 2001, after the completion of 'Energy 2000'. The report also includes a response of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy to the formulated recommendations and, more generally, to the whole content of the report

  18. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Danish Ministry of Energy has granted financial aid to the preparation of a feasibility study necessary for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora.The overall objectives of the Feasibility Study are to: establish new efficient power capacity in the south-west region of Poland, increase the energy efficiency, reduce the impact on the environment, utilise the local natural gas available which cannot be used in the national gas grid and reduce the costs of energy supply.The specific objective of this feasibility study is to obtain the best possible financing of the erection of a new CPH plant in Zielona Gora. The plant shall be designed to utilise the local resources of natural gas and to supply heat to the district heating grid in accordance with long-term planning strategies. (EHS)

  19. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  20. Abu Dhabi: human resource development for nuclear energy programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 14-18 March 2010, the city of Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates, hosted the International conference on the development of human resource for introduction and expansion of nuclear energy programs. The conference was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with Foratom and other organisations. The plenary session was dedicated to discussions on key topics of the conference, such as the current status and issues of staffing in the nuclear energy industries in the IAEA member nations, national strategies for development of human resource for nuclear energy, as well as the need for global efforts in that area. Russian representatives made several reports: about education of nuclear professionals in Russia, in particular in MEPhI (a list of facilities available to make training, especially the full-scale and analytical simulators, was presented); a report discussed the role of the international nuclear portal www. atomic-energy.ru in attracting and developing the potential of young nuclear professionals; an interactive presentation was made describing the experience that VNIIAES has in the creation and upgrades of systems for personnel training for nuclear power plants, use of simulators, systems of distant learning and computerized training systems

  1. Programme of studies. Vol. 3: Energy. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the reports on studies carried out by different institutions. The titles are: 1. Joint analyzing grid; 2. Technic-economic analysis of the potentials for cutting down energy consumption, harnessing fossil energy sources and curbing emissions of climate-relevant trace gases from fuel combustion in the new federal laender; 3. Potentials for and costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial and household fire-places; 4. Empirical check of the possibility and costs of saving energy and enhancing energy- use efficiency in already existing buildings and new ones; 5. Assessment of the cost of carrying out thermal insulation on the shells of buildings; 6. Establishment and verification of the potentials for, and costs of, cutting down greenhouse gas emissions through industrial power-and-heat cogeneration; 7. Establishment and verification of the potentials for, and costs of, cutting down greenhouse gas emissions through power-and-heat cogeneration for district and short-distance heat supply and 8. Integrated overall strategies for cutting down greenhouse gas emissions due to fuel combustion (2005/2020) (including data compilation - results of scenarios). (orig.)

  2. A tentative programme towards a full scale energy amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1996-01-01

    We present a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier (EA), following the conceptual design of Ref. [1]. Unlike the presently on going CERN experiments, reaction rates will be sufficiently massive to permit demonstrating the practical feasibility of energy generation on an industrial scale and to tackle the complete family chains of [1] the breeding process in Thorium fuel, [2] the burning of the self-generated Actinides, [3] the Plutonium (higher Actinides) burning of spent fuel from ordinary Reactors and [4] Fuel reprocessing/regeneration. The accelerator must provide a beam power which is commensurate to the rate of transformations which are sought. No existing accelerator can meet such a performance and a dedicated facility must be built. We describe an alternative based on the superconducting cavities (SC) now in standard use at the LEP \\[e^+-e^-\\] collider which is scheduled to terminate its operation by year 200 After this time, with reasonable modifications, the fully opera...

  3. Energy economics basics - Emphasis programme 2004 - 2007; Schwerpunktprogramm EWG 2004 bis 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzwiller, L.

    2005-07-01

    This report from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the work done within the framework of the interdisciplinary energy economics programme on scenarios and instruments for energy policy-making and economics, as well as on social and environmental aspects. The report reviews the emphasis and goals of the next phase of the programme for the period 2004 - 2007. A research road map is discussed that is to identify promising technologies that will provide a substantial contribution to meeting the goal of creating the so-called '2000-Watt Society'. The road map is to also help identify technologies that provide socio-economic advantages and identify bottlenecks and restraints on the propagation of energy-efficient technologies in the building and transport areas.

  4. India's nuclear energy programme and future power need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critics of the recently negotiated 123 Nuclear Agreement between India and the United States of America often cite its retrograde effects on India's longstanding policy of non-alignment in foreign relations. The major part of this article will, therefore, is devoted to various aspects of DAE's performance, areas and problems that need more attention, their future plan on stepping up the production of nuclear energy by a big factor beyond their indigenous reach, and the consequent imperative and compulsion of opening the doors to the international market for bulk purchases. India's access to the international market for nuclear energy was barred because of our refusal to sign the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT). Hence, when George Bush, ex-President of U.S.A., offered to sign a bilateral treaty with India, opening the door for nuclear and other strategic co-operation, the offer was welcome by the DAE and the Government of India with open arms. However, obligations under the rules of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), of which India is a member, still required applying to the Body for their approval so that India could approach the Consortium of nuclear supplier countries for their agreement to do business with India without raising any hindrance arising from NPT and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

  5. French alternative energies and atomic energy commission decommissioning programme and feedback experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) was founded in 1945 to carry out research programs on use of nuclear, and its application. France has set up and run various types of installations: research or prototypes reactors, process study or examination laboratories, pilot installations, accelerators, nuclear power plants and processing facilities. Some of these are currently being dismantled or must be dismantled soon so that the DEN, the Nuclear Energy Division, can construct new equipment and thus have available a range of R and D facilities in line with the issues of the nuclear industry of the future. Since the 1960's and 1970's in all its centers, the CEA has acquired experience and know-how through dismantling various nuclear facilities. The dismantling techniques are nowadays operational, even if sometimes certain specific developments are necessary to reduce the cost of operations. Thanks to availability of techniques and guarantees of dismantling program financing now from two dedicated funds, close to 15 B-euros for the next thirty years, for current or projected dismantling operations, the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division has been able to develop, when necessary, its immediate dismantling strategy. Currently, nearly thirty facilities are being dismantled by the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division operational units with its industrial partners. Thus the next decade will see completion of the dismantling and radioactive clean-up of the Grenoble site and of the facilities on the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. By 2018, the dismantling of the UP1 plant at Marcoule, the largest dismantling work in France, will be well advanced, with all the process equipment dismantled. After an overview of the French regulatory framework, the paper will describe the DD and R strategy, programme and feedback experience inside the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division and its progress since ICEM 14 in 2011's conference in Reims. (authors)

  6. Renewable energy rural electrification. Sustainability aspects of the Mexican programme in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 20 years Mexico has been fertile ground for rural projects using renewable energy technologies. In many cases, however, sustainability aspects were either improperly handled or essentially ignored. Such was the case, for instance, with solar thermal water pumping projects, solar water desalination, and even complete 'solar towns'. Painful but important lessons were learned from such failed projects. Now, sustainability is the focal point of a current rural electrification programme with renewable energy. As of this writing, over 24,000 individual home photovoltaic lighting systems have already been installed in different regions of Mexico; another 12,000 systems are estimated to have been installed in rural areas as a result of private commercial activities; seven village-size hybrid systems (photovoltaic-wind and photovoltaic-wind-diesel) have also been implemented. With this, the Mexican renewable energy rural electrification programme stands among the largest programmes of its kind in the world today. The question of the programme's sustainability has been a major concern at the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), where activities have been under way since the start to lend it technical support. The lessons learned in the process will be discussed in this article. (author). 8 refs

  7. Strategies for Achieving Healthy Energy Balance Among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groesbeck P. Parham, MD

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLow-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1 their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2 their attitudes toward CDC’s suggested physical activity strategies, and 3 their suggestions on how to achieve CDC’s strategies within their own environment. MethodsA qualitative method (focus groups was used to conduct the study during 2005. Prestudy meetings were held with African American lay health workers to formulate a focus group topic guide, establish inclusion criteria for focus group participants, select meeting sites and times, and determine group segmentation guidelines. Focus groups were divided into two phases.ResultsAll discussions and focus group meetings were held in community centers within African American neighborhoods in the Mississippi Delta and were led by trained African American moderators. Phase I focus groups identified the following themes: overeating, low self-esteem, low income, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy methods of food preparation, a poor working definition of healthy energy balance, and superficial knowledge of strategies for achieving healthy energy balance. Phase 2 focus groups identified a preference for social support-based strategies for increasing physical activity levels. ConclusionEnergy balance strategies targeting low-income, rural African Americans in the Deep South may be more effective if they emphasize social interaction at the community and family levels and incorporate the concept of community volunteerism.

  8. Technological requisites of the magnetic fusion energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral part of magnetic fusion energy research is the development of the technologies necessary for the confinement and heating of reactor-level plasmas. Heating systems based on injecting beams of energetic neutral particles or radio-frequency waves (or both) will be required to heat plasmas to the temperatures at which fusion is self-sustaining. These systems may be used also to drive plasma currents. The magnet systems required to confine reactor-size plasmas rely on the development of effective superconductors. Safety and tritium handling concerns become important considerations in designing reactor concepts

  9. Technological requisites of the magnetic fusion energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral part of magnetic fusion energy research is the development of the technologies necessary for the confinement and heating of reactor-level plasmas. Heating systems based on energetic neutral beam particle injection or radio frequency waves (or both) will be required to heat plasmas to the temperatures at which fusion is self-sustaining. These systems may be used also to drive plasma currents. The magnet systems required to confine reactor-sized plasmas rely on the development of effective superconductors. Issues associated with safety and tritium handling concerns become important considerations in designing reactor concepts

  10. The economics of energy efficiency for the poor--a South African case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa's Reconstruction and Development Programme set ambitious goals for providing basic services to all, including housing and electrification. More efficient use of energy has the potential to socially and politically support these goals, particularly when it is targeted at low-income communities lacking adequate energy services. This paper examines the economics of energy efficiency for the urban poor from the perspective of society, utilities and poor consumers, using five example programmes. While the five energy efficiency programmes generally have significant economic and environmental benefits from a social perspective, they may not be as attractive to utilities and consumers. Also examined are the policy options for overcoming the significant barriers to energy efficiency, and ways government can bridge the gap between what is good for society and what is good for the electricity industry

  11. Activities of the Sofia EC Energy Center in the framework of the THERMIE programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Community Energy Center in Sofia is responsible for the EC implementation of the THERMIE programme. The programme's activities are promotion and dissemination of existing European technologies leading to better energy management and covering the fields of rational use of hydrocarbons, solid fuels and renewable energy sources. Application of these technologies would lead to substantial energy savings resulting in significant financial and environmental benefits. During its one-year operation the EC Energy Centre has organized and performed specific action as energy audits (food and beverage industrial units and buildings), demonstration projects (local heating control in buildings, diesel engine regulation of buses), training courses and seminars (in energy management and in space heating measuring and regulation), workshops (energy conservation in buildings, the bricks and clays sector and the food and beverage sector) and studies (wind energy potential, 'clean' coal technologies potential). Some of these actions have had very encouraging results showing potential energy savings of the order of 10-20% just by application of simple measures and with small additional investment. The activities of the EC Energy Centre in the coming year aimed at electricity savings along the entire line of electricity generation, transmission and consumption are outlined. (author)

  12. Work Programme 2010. Nordic Energy Regulators (NordREG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-15

    The Nordic regulators' cooperation through NordREG is based on a strong consensus and common understanding of the Nordic market. Through mutual efforts and contributions NordREG members identify areas of work that can create added value for the Nordic electricity market. NordREG works by exchanging information and views, mapping and analysing energy market issues and by delivering statements and reports for harmonisation and improvement. In this, the regulators aim at identifying areas where NordREG can take joint action to influence Nordic or European electricity market development. NordREGs key focus in 2010 is the work towards a common Nordic retail market and the emphasis is on promoting a legal and institutional framework that supports this goal

  13. Energy prices and the promotion of energy conservation. A background study for energy conservation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prices of fuels in the international markets affect the development of consumer prices of energy in Finland. In the near future no factors can be foreseen, which would cause major increases in the prices of oil, coal or gas. It can thus not be expected that increased fuel prices would motivate more efficient energy conservation. In international comparison, consumer prices of energy have been relatively low in Finland. This applies especially to electricity. After the removal of price controls, energy prices have been determined by the markets. The influence of the public authorities in energy pricing is put into effect through taxation. The price of energy has a fairly small effect on energy consumption in a short term, but longer term effects are more significant. Energy products are faxed in all western countries. (orig.)

  14. Energy research 2004 - Overview; Recherche energetique / Energie-Forschung 2004. Rapport de synthese des chefs de programme / Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2004. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energies, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, combustion, fuel cells and in the process engineering areas. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning solar heating and cooling, energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small-scale hydro, geothermal energy and wind energy are presented. Work being done on nuclear safety and disposal regulations as well as controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  15. The trials and tribulations of the Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) launched the Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) in 2004 but discontinued it during the 12th Five Year Plan, starting in 2012, after a series of unexpected challenges. Planners structured the program so that a village energy committee (VEC) ran a decentralized village program involving biomass gasifiers, straight vegetable oil (SVO) systems, biogas plants, and improved cookstoves. This suite of technologies was intended to produce electricity and thermal energy to meet the “total energy requirements” of rural communities. At the end of January 2011, a total of 79 VESP projects were sanctioned in 9 states and 65 of these projects were fully commissioned, yet more than half were not operational. The MNRE envisaged that the VESP would provide energy services to eradicate poverty, improve health, reduce drudgery, enhance education, raise agricultural productivity, create employment, generate income, and reduce migration. However, VESP projects have had limited success, and the trials and tribulations of the VESP offers important lessons for policymakers launching rural energy programs in India and other developing economies. - Highlights: ► The Village Energy Security Programme attempted to achieve village energization in rural India. ► The VESP was intended combat poverty, improve health, reduce drudgery, and accomplish other social goals. ► VESP provides important lessons for policymakers launching rural energy programs

  16. Bioenergy research programme results on the harvesting of energy wood; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelman tuloksia energiapuun korjuusta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, S.

    1999-07-01

    The six-year-long Bioenergy Research Programme, which ended at the end of 1998 has been assessed to have been among the best energy-technology programmes carried out concurrently under the auspices of TEKES. The concrete results obtained have for their part contributed to the powerful increase in the use of fuelwood and small-diameter trees (logging residues) on logging sites in Finland. The competitiveness of energy wood improved greatly thanks to the technology developed in the course of the programme and the concurrent changes in taxation implemented. The expenditures goal of the research programme as regards the large-scale production of chipped small-diameter trees (logging residues) was set at FIM 45 per MWh. This can be achieved when using the harvesting methods developed in connection with the research programme for logging- residue chips involving truck-, logging-strip- or landing-based chipping and short forest-haulage distances in relatively easy harvesting conditions. The development objective as regards small-scale production of fuelwood was to reduce production costs by 20 % of what they were in 1992. This was the assignment given to the TTS-Institute and machine manufacturers. The objective was achieved in the production of a chopped firewood and longwood chips. The savings in costs were achieved by mechanising the felling of longwood using new harvester heads and by using feeder-equipped chopping machines to do the chopping. The objective in the forest haulage of logging residues was achieved by using trailers developed at the TTS-Institute. (orig.)

  17. ETRR - Energy-efficient buildings and building components. Final report on the energy research programme 1988-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarimaa, J.; Hyttinen, R.; Immonen, K. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Building Material Lab.

    1993-12-31

    The research programme on energy-efficient buildings and building-components (ETRR) examines construction methods by which the use of energy can be made more efficient so that the performance requirements set for buildings - such as the indoor climate conditions - will be fulfilled. In addition, the programme sets out ways in which the energy utilization by different types of buildings can be made more efficient through a combination of solutions applied to the buildings` external envelopes and building services technologies. The key results of the research programme include low-energy house concepts produced both for new buildings and for existing buildings. Solutions are presented, both for single-family houses and for apartment blocks, by which energy consumption can be reduced by 25 %, 50 %, 75 % and more than 75 % of present levels. The results have been put into practice in test building projects, which have been carried out so far in new building, especially in the form of single-family house experimental projects. The experimental building has been done in the framework of company projects in the programme. Of the ways of saving energy in the building`s external envelope, windows yield the highest potential, both in new building and in renovation work. Transparent insulating materials are technically a potential way of making a structure`s energy utilization more efficient. Solutions based on transparent insulating materials are mostly too expensive at present compared with the benefits attained. It is technically possible to make buildings in such a way that external, purchased energy is not required for heating them

  18. Advanced concepts for waste management and nuclear energy production in the EURATOM fifth framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the objectives of the research projects on Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of long lived radionuclides in nuclear waste and advanced systems for nuclear energy production in the key action on nuclear fission of the EURATOM Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) (1998-2002). As these FP5 projects cover the main aspects of P and T, they should provide a basis for evaluating the practicability, on an industrial scale, of P and T for reducing the amount of long lived radionuclides to be disposed of. Concerning advanced concepts, a cluster of projects is addressing the key technical issues to be solved before implementing High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) commercially for energy production. Finally, the European Commission(tm)s proposal for a New Framework Programme (2002-2006) is briefly outlined. (author)

  19. Advanced concepts for waste management and nuclear energy production in the EURATOM 5. framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the objectives of the research projects on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides in nuclear waste and advanced systems for nuclear energy production in the key action on nuclear fission of the EURATOM 5. Framework Programme (FP5) (1998-2002). As these FP5 projects cover the main aspects of P and T, they should provide a basis for evaluating the practicability, on an industrial scale, of P and T for reducing the amount of long-lived radionuclides to be disposed of. Concerning advanced concepts, a cluster of projects is addressing the key technical issues to be solved before implementing high-temperature reactors (HTRs) commercially for energy production. Finally, the European Commissions proposal fora New Framework Programme (2002-2006) is briefly outlined. (authors)

  20. The Department of Energy's nuclear R and D programmes [United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Consultation Document reviews how the United Kingdom Department of Energy's nuclear R and D programmes support the Government's nuclear policy and reaches preliminary conclusions about their future direction. It describes the changes the Department has adopted, and is proposing, to ensure that it is better informed about the nuclear R and D it commissions and that the work is carried out cost-effectively. The areas of research reviewed are: safety; radiological protection; safeguards; reactor technology; fusion; decommissioning and waste management. (author)

  1. Evaluation of energy potential of Municipal Solid Waste from African urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    SCARLAT NICOLAE; MOTOLA VINCENZO; DALLEMAND Jean-Francois; MONFORTI-FERRARIO Fabio; MOFOR Linus

    2014-01-01

    Energy is a critical issue for Africa, where large number of people does not have access to energy and often rely on the traditional use of biomass. Energy recovery from waste can play a role in minimizing the impact of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) on the environment with the additional benefit of providing a local source of energy. This study was carried out to assess, at the African level, the role which waste could play in providing energy to citizens and provides an estimate of the total p...

  2. Development of charcoal retort pilot plant in Zambia. African Energy Programme research report series no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical report discusses the theoretical and experimental work which has been undertaken in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of charcoal retort model prototypes. Optimum operating conditions have been established at an initial temperature of 350 deg. C and stabilisation time of 5 hours. From the technical point of view, the project is viable since as per set objectives, charcoal is being produced at a higher conversion efficiency of around 40% and the by-products in the form of pyroligenous liquor and tar are recovered. As expected, the analysis shows that the model is uneconomic since the technological price of the products exceeds that of the selling price of products. However, the increase in the size of the retort chamber by eighteen renders the prototype economically viable. The report also discusses further work such as continuation of the testing of the retort to establish concretely the optimum operating conditions, determination of the reliability and durability of the retort and evaluation of the quality of charcoal produced, which has been recommended. Based on the results from the retort model and preliminary financial analysis, an economic analysis on the value of by-products from wood distillation is undertaken. The analysis shows that there is a reasonable market of by-products, (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) to warrant processing of the pyroligenous liquor, and subsequent setting up of a small scale distillation plant. Using the same results from the retort model, a charcoal retort plant with a 10m3 retort chamber capacity is designed. In the design of the retort chamber, various considerations are undertaken such as stress calculations of the retort chamber on the support legs, furnace, piping and distribution chamber design, and their associated heat losses. Basing on the amount of heat required to complete the carbonisation process and heat losses from the system, a suitable furnace size and air blower are selected. The latter is to ensure that effective combustion takes place in the furnace. For the purpose of condensing smoke, emanating from the retort chamber, into a pyroligenous liquor, a heat exchanger is designed. During the design, most of the parameters which were unknown from theoretical consideration, were obtained from experimental analysis of the retort model. Finally, based on actual costs of materials for construction of the pilot plant, including buildings, a financial analysis of the pilot plant is undertaken. The analysis indicates that a second version of two retort chambers of 10m3 each being supplied with heat from one furnace is economically attractive. Further improvement in the financial analysis is obtained through sale of both charcoal and pyroligenous liquor. It is recommended that construction of the plant be completed, vigorously tested and commissioned before commercialisation can be undertaken. (author)

  3. Enabling innovations in energy access: An African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional energy technologies and deployment approaches cannot be relied upon to eliminate energy poverty in Africa. Innovations in energy access are necessary. Previous attempts at introducing and scaling up innovative solutions do not sufficiently address dynamic and structural determinants of success. This limits their actual performance as scalable drivers of innovations in technology, policy and institutions. Using technological innovation systems theory, we demonstrate a practical approach to assess the sustainability of innovations in energy access, and develop a framework to guide energy policy makers, clean energy entrepreneurs and energy-development researchers. - Highlights: ► Innovative technologies and policies are needed to expand energy access. ► TIS approach can guide the formulation and deployment of sustainable energy innovations. ► Learning by exploring and doing are the keys to entrepreneurial success. ► Lack of infrastructure and institutional frameworks are major barriers to innovations. ► Government intervention is needed to eliminate barriers to innovations.

  4. Energy supply and use in a rural West African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over three billion people live in the rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. Often rural households have many unmet energy needs, including cooking, lighting, heating, transportation, and telecommunication. Designing solutions to meet these needs requires an understanding of the human, natural, and engineered systems that drive village energy dynamics. This paper presents the results of a novel study of energy supply and use over a one year period in an isolated rural village of 770 people in Mali. Quantitative data and narrative descriptions from this study portray village energy supply and use. Annual village energy use is 6000 MJ cap−1 yr−1. Domestic energy needs account for 93% of village energy use. Wood is the primary energy source and provides 94% of the village energy supply. Approximately 98% of the wood is used for domestic consumption. The uses of wood in the home are cooking (52.2%), heating water (22.2%), space heating (19.1%), and other activities (6.5%). This paper also reports variations in energy usage over the period of a year for a broad range of domestic, artisan, transport, and public energy uses. -- Highlights: ► Village energy supply and use is driven by human, natural, and engineered systems. ► Village energy use varies by 250% between the hot and cold seasons. ► Domestic wood consumption accounts for 92% of village energy. ► Solar PV cells and batteries supply power to pumps, lights, and personal electronics. ► Every household uses multiple energy sources to meet basic needs.

  5. Technical Session: Germany. Legal Issues Associated with Preparing for a Nuclear Energy Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing and implementing a national programme for the civilian use of nuclear energy means embarking on the use of a Janus-faced form of energy. We all know that nuclear energy implies both extraordinary benefits and extraordinary risks. This fact requires a legal framework appropriate to cope with both elements of nuclear power. Legislators and State authorities have to establish a sound balance between risks and benefits. That is not at all an easy task. While excluding or limiting risks requires severe legal control mechanisms, the benefits can only fully be enjoyed if the legal framework ensures freedom of research and of economic and industrial development including the guarantee of property ownership and of investments. Combining both opposite poles seems like trying to square the circle. In case of a conflict between promotion and protection, there is no doubt that the protection against nuclear risks has to prevail. Therefore this aspect of nuclear law will be mainly dealt with in this presentation. Establishing a legal framework to tame the hazards of nuclear energy is a much more challenging task for law-makers than providing a legal basis for promoting the use of nuclear energy. With regard to the promotion of nuclear energy, States enjoy a broad range of discretion and may use a great number of legal and non-legal instruments to support the development of a nuclear programme. From a legal point of view, promoting nuclear energy does not require a specific regime. However, it does require a specific regime to control the risks of nuclear energy. States preparing for a nuclear energy programme have to be aware that the use of nuclear energy is not an exclusively national matter. In particular the risk associated with nuclear energy extends beyond national borders. Using the benefits also needs international cooperation in many fields including, e.g., research or fuel supply. Today a network of multilateral and bilateral international treaties exists

  6. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  7. Quality assurance and quality control programme in the personal dosimetry department of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) programme was applied to the personal monitoring department (TLD based) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission. This programme was designed according to the recommendations of international bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission. This paper deals with the presentation of the QA/QC programme which includes administrative data and information, technical checking of the equipment, acceptance tests of new equipment and dosemeters, issuing and processing of the dosemeters, dose evaluation, record keeping and reporting, traceability and reproducibility, handling of complaints, internal reviews and external audits. (author)

  8. Kyoto Mechanisms and the Sustainable Development of the African Energy Sector. The Case of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the African countries have been attending the Conference of Parties where the Kyoto mechanisms were being discussed and adopted, especially parties agreed in Marrakech on the principles of implementing the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that is of interest for developing countries. The Kyoto protocol requires Annex I parties to reduce their GHG emissions below their 1990 emissions level by an average of 5,2% in the period 2008 - 20012. Satisfying this ultimate objective of the UNFCC will require collective efforts by all nations. African countries are willing to take part to actions combating climate change if they also satisfy their development goals. One of these goals is the sustainable development of their energy sector. The aim of this paper is to analyze the Cameroon's case and to enlighten the possible influence of the CDM on adopting cleaner development of the African energy sector, compared to past practices. Three renewable energy routes are examined in the Cameroon context : biomass gasification, anaerobic digestion of industrial, agricultural and urban waste, small hydro plants. For each energy route regarding the production of electricity, the resource potential is evaluated and the Cost benefit analysis (CBA) and Life cycle analysis (LCA) are performed. The yearly potential of GHG emissions reduction is hence quantified and its influence on different electricity system planning scenarios estimated

  9. Status of the United States Department of Energy's site remediation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper provides an overview of the status of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) site closure activities and a case study on closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), concentrating on recent changes in management of the US programme and the resulting lessons learned. Over the past year, the USDOE has been changing fundamentally the way it manages its Environmental Management or cleanup programme.This programme is responsible for the cleanup of 114 sites across the United States of America.About US $6.7 billion each year are spent to manage sites, safeguard nuclear materials, dispose of waste in numerous operating low level waste disposal facilities and to manage a transuranic waste geological repository, remediate extensive surface and groundwater contamination, and deactivate and decommission thousands of excess contaminated facilities.The fundamental change is in focusing efforts on risk reduction and site closure rather than maintaining the status quo, which has lengthy closure schedules and increasing life-cycle cost estimates. The USDOE is taking lessons learned from successful projects, such as the RFETS, and applying those lessons to the entire cleanup programme. At the RFETS, a risk-based management approach is being adopted, which applies effective contracting strategies and an overall sense of urgency to produce performance that serves the interest of the workers, the public and other stake holders. The goal is to replicate this success at other sites being closed. In February 2002, the USDOE completed a comprehensive review of the Environmental Management programme, entitled the Top-to-Bottom Review.The review found numerous structural and institutional problems and identified specific remedies. The report urged the programme to transform its mission from managing risk to eliminating risk. Some of the problems and recommendations include improving contract strategy and management; moving to an accelerated

  10. The United States Atomic Energy Commission Programme of Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear materials management as conceived by the US Atomic Energy Commission is defined and its development traced from 1943 to the present time. The general programme is outlined and its principal features discussed. Emphasis is placed on administration of those portions of the USAEC programme which pertain to the development and maintenance of quantity data, the establishment of internal controls and the evaluation of performance. The current techniques whereby transfer data are recorded and processed within the USAEC are discussed in some detail, as are the techniques for presentation of material balance reports which periodically summarize the transactions and the results of operations. The techniques used by the USAEC to ascertain the effectiveness of the nuclear materials management programmes of its operating contractors are also discussed. In addition to material being held by contractors which operate USAEC-owned plants and laboratories, there are large quantities of special nuclear material held under a wide variety of financial and administrative arrangements, e.g. under lease, private ownership, under contract with the USAEC where the user is financially liable for losses, as well as those where the risk of losses is taken by the USAEC. This divergence of circumstances causes significant variation in the emphasis and approach used by the AEC and this variation is noted. A brief summary of unresolved problem areas concludes the presentation. (author)

  11. Wii Tennis Play for Low-Income African American Adolescents’ Energy Expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Exergames, which are video games that require gross motor activity, are popular activities that produce energy expenditure. Seventy-four low-income African American 12- to 18-year-old adolescents were randomly assigned to a 30-minute condition: 1) solitary Wii tennis exergame play against virtual peers; 2) social Wii tennis exergame play against a real peer; or 3) control group with sedentary computer activity. Adolescents were tested for caloric expenditure after exposure to treatment condit...

  12. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  13. Annual Report 2003. Research programme 'Electricity' of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work done in 2003 in the various research areas covered by the Swiss Electricity Research programme. Work done in the programme's five main areas - electricity transport and storage, high-temperature superconductivity, energy and information technologies, drives and electric motors, and appliances is reviewed. In the electricity transport and storage area an agreement with the Swiss Association of Electricity Producers (VSE) on the transfer of findings was made and the focus of work was set on decentralised systems. Also, the use of compressed-air storage systems was looked at and the AC corrosion of pipelines was examined. Swiss participation in an IEA Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme for Assessing the Impact of High-Temperature Superconductivity on the Electric Power Sector is mentioned, as is the market potential of superconductive current limiters. A total of 8 institutions and industries are involved in theoretical or practical research in the area of high-temperature superconductors. Information and communications technologies are reviewed, including work on energy-efficient EDP server management. Work in other areas summarised includes lighting and uninterruptible power-supplies and work on the energy consumption of process control units. In the electrical drives area, work is summarised in various areas ranging from an industry agreement on the energy-efficiency of motors through to the optimisation of compressed-air systems and energy-efficient gearless drives. Efficient hotel minibars, the energy-efficiency potential in the area of water dispensers and the energy-efficiency potential of hot beverage dispensers used in the area of staff catering and the standby consumption of household appliances are just a few of the topics dealt with. Co-operation with Swiss institutions and international organisations such as the IEA is reviewed. Implementation work in the

  14. The Lund Monte Carlo programme for high energy interactions between hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In high energy hadron-nucleus and hadron-hadron collisions low Psub(T) is the dominating feature, not explained by QCD and related to quark confinement. Nevertheless QCD inspired formulations have been used to explain low Psub(T) interactions. Experimentally observed features like cascades are still not fully explained and we do not know when and in what way the hadronization take place. We present a Monte Carlo programme for ultra relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions where we let the projectile nucleon rescatter inside the target nucleus, get excited and then fragment according to the Lund fragmentation scheme for particle production. (Author)

  15. 2000-2006 National Wood Energy Programme. 2000-2005 Activities Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005 was marked by key decisions which were taken with the aim of developing the biomass sector as a substitute for fossil fuels. Indeed, to achieve the ambitious objectives for renewable sources of energy set out by the July 2005 Energy Policy Orientation Programme (POPE), we must make great use of biomass, particularly to increase by 50% the share of renewable thermal energy between now and 2010 and to enable biofuels to represent 7% of all fuels used at the same date. To a lesser extent, and in conjunction with heat production, the share of biomass in renewable electricity production also needs to rise. Both the resource and key supply players are there and are ready to get organised in order to rise to these challenges. There is an abundant supply of agricultural and forest by-products. More than sixty companies organise and deliver heating wood. More than 300 government and professional promotion, regulatory, PR, finance, equipment construction and operation, research and engineering organizations are involved in this market. The strategic and economic context is highly favourable in the light of laws, directives and international agreements aiming to combat greenhouse gas emissions, but also due to the structural pressure on the price of fossil fuels. Wood energy, as a renewable energy source, has an important role to play in this context of growth. Furthermore, the wood energy sector should be developed using an exemplary sustainable development approach, which means that all the economic, social and environmental effects are taken into account. In order to comprehensively assess the sector's environmental impact, a full chapter of this report presents the work and programmes set up by ADEME to reduce pollutant emissions produced by biomass combustion, particularly from private households. Moreover, consultation and dialogue between those involved must be widened in order to enable all wood users to benefit from 'best forest use' which will be a key

  16. Anaemia and zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy in paediatric antiretroviral programmes in the IeDEA Paediatric West African Database to evaluate AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna A Renner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART containing zidovudine (ZDV recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines. We estimated the risk of severe anaemia after initiation of a ZDV-containing regimen in HIV-infected children included in the IeDEA West African database. Methods: Standardized collection of data from HIV-infected children (positive PCR<18 months or positive serology ≥18 months followed up in HIV programmes was included in the regional IeDEA West Africa collaboration. Ten clinical centres from seven countries contributed (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal to this collection. Inclusion criteria were age <16 years and starting ART. We explored the data quality of haemoglobin documentation over time and the incidence and predictors of severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dL per 100 child-years of follow-up over the duration of first-line antiretroviral therapy. Results: As of December 2009, among the 2933 children included in the collaboration, 45% were girls, median age was five years; median CD4 cell percentage was 13%; median weight-for-age z-score was−2.7; and 1772 (60.4% had a first-line ZDV-containing regimen. At baseline, 70% of the children with a first-line ZDV-containing regimen had a haemoglobin measure available versus 76% in those not on ZDV (p≤0.01: the prevalence of severe anaemia was 3.0% (n=38 in the ZDV group versus 10.2% (n=89 in those without (p<0. 01. Over the first-line follow-up, 58.9% of the children had ≥1 measure of haemoglobin available in those exposed to ZDV versus 60.4% of those not (p=0.45. Severe anaemia occurred in 92 children with an incidence of 2.47 per 100 child-years of follow-up in those on a ZDV-containing regimen versus 4.25 in those not (p≤0.01. Adjusted for age at ART initiation and first-line regimen, a weight-for-age z-score ≤−3 was a strong predictor associated with a 5.59 times risk of

  17. Research on nuclear energy within the European Commission Research Framework Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategic goal of the 5th EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) is to help exploit the full potential of nuclear energy in a sustainable manner, by making current technologies even safer and more economical and by exploring promising new concepts. The programme covers nuclear fusion, nuclear fission and radiation protection. Part of the programme on nuclear fission and radiation protection is being implemented through ''indirect actions'', i.e. research co-sponsored (up to 50% of total costs) and co-ordinated by DG RESEARCH of the European Commission (EC) but carried out by external public and private organisations as multi-partner projects. The budget available for these indirect actions during FP5 (1998-2002) is 191 MEuro. The programme covers four different areas: safety of existing reactors, including plant life management, severe accident management and development of evolutionary systems; safety of the fuel cycle, including radioactive waste management and disposal, partitioning and transmutation and decommissioning of nuclear installation; safety of future systems, including new or revisited reactor or fuel cycle concepts; radiation protection and radiological sciences, including both basic radiobiology and radiophysics and issues connected to the application of radiation protection. After the first calls for proposals of FP5, which were evaluated in 1999 about 140 research projects have been selected for funding and is now in the process of starting. In parallel the research projects that were supported in the 4th Framework Programme (1994 - 1998) are coming to an end, and being reported, at the same time as the first thoughts on the 6th FP are discussed.An important new component for the future research in Europe is the concept of a European Research Area (ERA). The purpose of ERA is to create better overall framework conditions for research in Europe. Some of the concepts being discussed in this context are networking of centres of excellence, a

  18. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 5: straw, poultry litter and energy crops as energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  19. The validation of a measure of organisational energy in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Derman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Previous research has highlighted the need to examine the relationship between people and organisations. This perspective facilitates the study of organisational energy.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to validate a measure of organisational energy in the South African context and to investigate whether there are differences in organisational energy as perceived by employees based on their demographic characteristics and lifestyle variables.Motivation for the study: Managing energy in organisations is important as it drives motivation, powers teamwork, fosters creativity and gives organisations a competitive edge (Schiuma, Mason & Kennerley, 2007. Limited empirical research currently exists on the phenomenon of energy in organisations.Research design/approach method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design, with a convenience sample (N = 520 of employees in a South African financial institution. The researchers administered the EnergyScapes Profile.Main findings: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a one-factor structure for the EnergyScapes Profile. The scale, labelled organisational energy, showed acceptable internal consistency. The researchers found statistically significant differences in the organisational energy levels of employees based on age, tenure, geographical region, relaxation, hypertension and diabetes, depression or psychosis.Practical/managerial implications: The research provides valuable insight for practicing managers about understanding the concept of organisational energy and encourages leaders to question the energy of their employees.Contribution/value-add: The insight the researchers gained by studying the concept of organisational energy contributed in a unique way and showed the importance of considering organisations as dynamic and interactive with the people that work for them.

  20. Fission cross-section requirements for the nuclear energy programme. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general discussion is given of the use of neutron reaction data in the nuclear energy programme and of the importance of accurate fission cross-section data. A brief summary of the neutron physics of nuclear reactors is followed by a survey of the types of fuel cycle and the fission cross-sections which are of principal interest. The use of nuclear data in reactor calculations is examined and typical target accuracy requirements for the prediction of reactor properties are summarised. Simple arguments are given to show how the accuracy of prediction of some important reactor properties depends on the accuracy of the nuclear data. The use of integral measurements to supplement energy dependent cross-section data is reviewed and a procedure outlined which has been developed for defining a combined programme of integral data and differential cross-section measurements which could meet the chosen target accuracies for a set of reactor parameters. Finally typical fission cross-section accuracy requirements are presented. (U.K.)

  1. Proposal for a coordination research programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on stable isotope tracer techniques for studies on protein-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report provides a rationale and justification for the initiation of a Coordinated Research programme to support studies using stable isotopic tracer techniques to address priority areas of human protein-energy interactions with special emphasis on the problems of human nutrition in developing countries. The Report suggests a modus for establishing such a practically oriented Coordinated Research Programme under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency with concrete suggestions for its organization and the identification of probable participants in such a programme. The likely sources of additional funding to sustain such an activity viable for a period of 4 to 5 years are also indicated. 8 refs

  2. What is the role of Financial Development and Energy Consumption on Economic Growth? New Evidence from North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohamed Salman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to test the validity of the causality between financial development and economic growth on energy consumption in three of North African countries. The study employs error coreection model and Granger causaility test to analyza a dataset for three North African countries covering a period from 1980 to 2010. The applied model is based on demand function for energy to assess the existing of causal relationship of energy with financial development, and economic growth, in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia.  Empirical results provide a positive significant relating financial development and energy consumption in Algeria, and Tunisia. On the other hand, Egypt’s results show a negative significant relationship relating energy consumption and financial development. The paper is valuable to policy makers in North African countries in their pursuit for achieving economic growth as it clarifies the urge for the financial development reforms to stimulate investment and growth. 

  3. Programmable extraction of different energy proton beam to an experimental facility in the process of injection into the IHEP synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programmable different energy proton beam extraction to an experimental facility of the IHEP under injection to the IHEP proton synchrotron is realized in the following way; after inquiry from the IHEP EF transfer to a lower extraction energy and beam extraction to EF are performed. 1 ref.; 1 fig

  4. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  5. Ghana's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paper gives the purpose of Ghana's Nuclear Programme and describes some specific research activities and peaceful applications of atomic energy in agriculture, medicine and industry. A discussion of some of the problem facing the programme concludes the Paper. (author)

  6. Accomplishments and lessons learned from the United States Department of Energy's Domestic Radiological Threat Reduction Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) recovers excess and unwanted sealed radiation sources in the USA through its Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP). The OSRP is now included in the USDOE's Global Threat Reduction Initiative announced in March 2004. The excess and unwanted sources being addressed by this effort consist of ten isotopes that either lack a permanent disposition path or are considered to present high radiological security risks. This project recently exceeded the 10 000 mark for excess sealed sources recovered for safe and secure storage. These sources consisted mainly of 241Am and 238Pu. The programme has expanded its efforts into additional radionuclides. Since 2004, the first substantial amounts of 60Co, 137Cs and 90Sr have been recovered. Commercial contractors safely removed nearly 500 of these sources from a bankrupt and abandoned Pennsylvania facility. In another action, 137Cs irradiators were removed from public schools in the New York City area. Most of these sources have been disposed of or recycled. The paper describes the USDOE's radiological threat reduction programme. (author)

  7. Technology programme SULA 2. Energy in steel and base metal production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    SULA 2 is the energy research programme of the steel and metal producing industry. Central steel and metal producing companies are Outokumpu, Rautaruukki, Imatra Steel and Fundia Wire which is a subsidiary of Rautaruukki. The priorities of the SULA 2 programme are in process development. Worthwhile areas of concentration in energy research by Finland include the following: Iron and steel production; Zinc production; The production of ferrochromium and stainless steel; The pyrometallurgical production of copper and nickel and Rolling and heat treatment of steel In addition to the steel and metal producers the following companies participate in some projects: Kuusakoski, Kumera, Fiskars Tools and BETKER. Research work is performed in the following universities and research centers: Helsinki University of Technology, Oulu University, Aabo Akademi University, Tampere University of Technology, VTT Energy and VTT Building Technology. The total number of projects in SULA 2 programme is 51. Of these 20 are research institute projects, 21 are company R and D projects and 10 are energy conservation projects funded by Ministry of Trade and Industry. The total research costs are ca. 130 million FIM. The major part of costs is carried by the participating companies, 62 % and by public funding (Ministry of Trade and Industry, TEKES, The Academy of Finland) 36 %. In six projects the objective of research was studying and inventing new production processes or equipment. Results so far are a new production process for the Tornio stainless steel plant and a new design of ore concentrate rotary dryer, which has been commercialized. The electric energy consumption of the melting shop in Tornio has decreased by 25 %, and the production capacity has increased accordingly. Considerable savings in production process energy consumption, estimable from production reports have been achieved in several projects. The total amount of estimable saving in specific energy consumption is about 900

  8. The Heart of the Matter: Methodological Challenges in Developing a Contemporary 257-269 Reading Programme for Monolingual Lexicography, from the Perspective of the Dictionary Unit for South African English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Pienaar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article argues the importance of the reading programme as the pivotal issue inthe lexicographic process. It is essentially a practical article which outlines strategies for developingand implementing a reading programme for monolingual lexicography. The arguments are informedby theory, together with an examination of the data-collection procedures followed by theDictionary Unit for South African English (DSAE and a survey of current practice in major Englishdictionary units around the world, namely the Oxford English Dictionary, the Canadian OxfordDictionary, the Australian National Dictionary Centre and the New Zealand Dictionary Centre.The reading programme for the DSAE is first defined and contextualized within its mission statement.The article then explores the challenges inherent in sampling contemporary written and spokenEnglish in the South African multilingual context. It is intended to inform the DSAE's intakepolicy, in terms of the following critical issues:

    — the definition of South African English,

    — the monitoring and selection of print, oral and electronic sources,

    — the excerpting of citations and relevant bibliographic information, and

    — the recruiting and training of readers.

    These interlinked aspects of the reading programme have crucial implications for the quality andauthority of the monolingual dictionary on historical principles.

    Keywords: READING PROGRAMME, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES, CONTEMPORARY, INTAKE, CITATIONS, STRATEGIES

    Opsomming: Die kern van die saak: Metodologiese uitdagings by die ontwikkelingvan 'n eietydse leesprogram vir eentalige leksikografie, uit dieperspektief van die Dictionary Unit for South African English. Hierdie artikelbepleit die belangrikheid van die leesprogram as die kernsaak in die leksikografiese proses. Dit ishoofsaaklik 'n praktiese artikel wat stategieë vir die ontwikkeling en implementering van 'n

  9. Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies: African Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is focused on the key drivers of energy access in North and sub-Saharan Africa which are characterized by huge discrepancies in terms of energy access to modern forms of energy. The paper points out that long term development strategies and large programmes with significant financial resources are essential to achieving substantial results in terms of energy access. The paper argues that building up the energy infrastructure (power plants, grid interconnections and small-scale decentralized energy options in rural areas.) is a pre-condition for economic growth and ultimately for energy access. It underlines that historically there is a trend towards more efficient, convenient and cost effective forms of energy. Low carbon path and above all renewable will therefore play an increasing role in the energy mix in the next couple of decades. Manufacturing of capital goods for the renewable energy industry in Africa will be a key challenge to achieving energy security economic growth and energy access. - Highlights: ► Sharp differences of energy access situation and approaches between North and Sub Saharan Africa. ► Energy infrastructure is a pre-condition to economic growth and energy access. ► Interconnections and small-scale decentralized energy schemes are a good mechanism to increasing energy access. ► However interconnections will only contribute marginally to the urban-rural energy divide. ► Manufacturing of capital goods is a key challenge to economic development.

  10. Use of wind energy in the Netherlands, part 2. The multi-annual programme for wind energy 1996-2000 TWIN-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch government would like to achieve a cleaner energy supply in the Netherlands. The target of the government is 10% saving of fossil fuels in 2020. How this can be realized is formulated in the Third White Paper on Energy Policy, published in December 1995. The use of renewable energy sources, including wind energy, plays an important part in this national policy. For the use of wind energy the government aims at a growth of the wind turbine capacity by an average of 100 MW per year, to be realized by installing wind turbines both on land and (in the longer term) offshore. This should result into a fuel saving of 33 PJ in 2007 and 45 PJ in 2020. To stimulate the use of wind energy Novem carried out the Use of Wind Energy in the Netherlands programme (TWIN) from 1991 to 1995. This programme has given a considerable impulse to the growth of wind turbine capacity in the Netherlands. Market parties have been able to complete around 250 MW up to 1996. The programme has unfortunately not resulted in an autonomous market, so the government has ordered the implementation of the TWIN-2 follow-up programme. This follow-up programme runs from 1996 to 2000 and provides a framework for the operations which Novem will be carrying out over this period in the field of wind energy. In this brochure the main elements of the programme are outlined. Also a state-of-the-art is given since the end of 1995, as well as an overview of developments in the wind energy market, and the mission, aim and targets of the TWIN-2 programme. 12 refs

  11. Applications of Atomic Energy in African economic and social development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes briefly the basic principles of nuclear techniques applied in: raw materials development, including resources inventory; power; food and agriculture, including preservation and conservation; industry; medicine and biology; water resources development; and education and training, including manpower resources. It relates these subjects to situations and problems as they are to be found in individual African countries or sub-regions of the Continent. It suggests relative priorities and reveals that applications of atomic energy can only be beneficial on an inter-sectoral basis. Certain conclusions are put forward which may be relevant to the preparation and implementation of development plans at the national level. (author)

  12. Energy efficient office buildings with passive cooling - Results and experiences from a research and demonstration programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Karsten [University Wuppertal, Pauluskirchstrasse 7, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany); Herkel, Sebastian; Pfafferott, Jens [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Loehnert, Guenter [Solidar planungswerkstatt, Forststrasse 30, 12163 Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Andreas [University Karlsruhe, Englerstrasse 7, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    To gain access to information on energy use in office buildings, the German Federal Ministry for Economy launched an intensive research and demonstration programme in 1995. In advance of the 2002 EU energy performance directive a limited primary energy coefficient of about 100 kW h m{sup -2} a{sup -1} as a goal for the complete building services technology was postulated (HVAC + lighting) for all demonstration buildings to be supported. A further condition was that active cooling be avoided. Techniques such as natural or mechanical night ventilation or heat removal by slab cooling with vertical ground pipes as well as earth-to-air heat exchangers in the ventilation system were applied. An accompanying research was established to keep track of the results and the lessons learned from about 22 demonstration buildings realized and monitored until the end of 2005. As one outcome this paper summarises the energy performance of a selection of characteristic buildings together with an overview on the summer thermal comfort situations achieved. The research program will proceed during the next five years. Detailed reports and future results may be downloaded from the internet: www.enbau-monitor.de. (author)

  13. Enhancing energy efficiency in public buildings: The role of local energy audit programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the objective of reaching the “nearly zero-energy buildings” target set by the European Union, municipalities cover a crucial role in advocating and implementing energy-efficient measures on a local scale. Based on a dataset of 322 municipalities in Northern Italy, we carried out a statistical analysis to investigate which factors influence the adoption of energy efficiency in municipal buildings. In particular, the analysis focuses on four categories of factors: (i) capacity building for energy efficiency, (ii) existing structure and competences for energy efficiency, (iii) technical and economic support for energy efficiency, and (iv) spill-over effect caused by adoption of “easier” energy-efficient measures. Our results show that capacity building through training courses and technical support provided by energy audits affect positively the adoption of energy efficiency in municipal buildings. The size of the municipal authority, the setting of local energy policies for residential buildings and funding for energy audits are not correlated with energy efficiency in public buildings, where the “plucking of low hanging fruit” often prevails over more cost-effective but long-term strategies. Finally, our results call for the need to promote an efficient knowledge management and a revision of the Stability and Growth Pact. - Highlights: • Public procurement supports the deployment of the energy efficiency of buildings. • Energy audits and other factors influence energy efficiency in public buildings. • Econometric analysis applied to data from 322 municipalities in Northern Italy. • Municipalities need to overtake the “plucking of low-hanging fruit”. • Knowledge management should be associated with removal of budget constraints

  14. Programme wood/energy 2000-2006. Activity Report for 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When ADEME launched its Wood fuel programme throughout all of France in late 1999, its aim was to guide this resource supply chain to maturity and stable development in all user sectors: domestic, multi-family housing, commercial/institutional and industrial applications. To this end the Wood fuel Programme 2000-2006 was assigned objectives and endowed with significant financial means for studies and coordination in order to support and carry out general-interest projects, piloted by ADEME. The stated goal was to replace fossil fuels, avoid carbon emissions and establish quality assurance standards for household firewood and wood-fired devices. This report makes a status of ADEME's Wood fuel programme for the 2000-2004 era: - Domestic heating: After a drop during the 1990's, figures since 1999 of sales of wood-fuel domestic heating equipment (closed heaters, glass-door fires and stoves) have shown a significant rise. On average over 30 years, wood consumption has risen to 7.2 million TOE (40 million cubic metres) per year; - Industry: It is thought there are 1000 wood-fired heaters (above 1 megawatt) used in French industry. These are found mainly in timber-based industries and in timber crushing plants. This amounts to a total power output of 2.5 gigawatts. In the primary and secondary wood processing industries, the increase in the number of wood-fired boilers and energy produced has reached 5% per year Results of a call for carbon energy projects (APEC) was 61 submitted of which 52 were selected; 9 projects pending (166.5 K of aid from ADEME); and 35 projects begun (1,649 K of aid from ADEME). - Local authority and service sector wood-fired heating systems: At the end of 2004, the number of local authority active boilers was 641, producing 430 megawatts. This is an increase of an average of 13% year on year since 2000. By the end of 2004, the target had already been met for the number of boilers being financed (1,090). By 2006 however we still need to generate a

  15. Wii Tennis Play for Low-Income African American Adolescents' Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-07-01

    Exergames, which are video games that require gross motor activity, are popular activities that produce energy expenditure. Seventy-four low-income African American 12- to 18-year-old adolescents were randomly assigned to a 30-minute condition: 1) solitary Wii tennis exergame play against virtual peers; 2) social Wii tennis exergame play against a real peer; or 3) control group with sedentary computer activity. Adolescents were tested for caloric expenditure after exposure to treatment conditions as well as on a tennis court using Actical accelerometers. Adolescents who played the social exergame against a peer expended significantly more energy than those who played alone. Both exergame groups expended more energy than the control group. Adolescents who played the social exergame also expended comparable calories to actual tennis court play during a simulated lesson. Exergames, then, could promote physical activity, thereby becoming a tool to combat the obesity crisis that is affecting many youth. PMID:24058381

  16. Quality assurance and quality control programme in the Personal Dosimetry Department of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenopoulou, V; Drikos, G; Carinou, E; Papadomarkaki, E; Askounis, P; Kyrgiakou, H; Kefalonitis, N

    2002-01-01

    A quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) programme was applied to the personal monitoring department (TLD based) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). This programme was designed according to the recommendations of international bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (CEC). This paper deals with the presentation of the QA/QC programme which includes administrative data and information, technical checking of the equipment, acceptance tests of new equipment and dosemeters, issuing and processing of the dosemeters, dose evaluation, record keeping and reporting, traceability and reproducibility, handling of complaints, internal reviews and external audits. PMID:12382742

  17. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual. PMID:25585294

  18. A clinical audit programme for diagnostic radiology: The Approach adopted by the international atomic energy agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a mandate to assist member states in areas of human health and particularly in the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment. Clinical audit is seen as an essential tool to assist in assuring the quality of radiation medicine, particularly in the instance of multidisciplinary audit of diagnostic radiology. Consequently, an external clinical audit programme has been developed by the IAEA to examine the structure and processes existent at a clinical site, with the basic objectives of: (1) improvement in the quality of patient care; (2) promotion of the effective use of resources; (3) enhancement of the provision and organisation of clinical services; (4) further professional education and training. These objectives apply in four general areas of service delivery, namely quality management and infrastructure, patient procedures, technical procedures and education, training and research. In the IAEA approach, the audit process is initiated by a request from the centre seeking the audit. A three-member team, comprising a radiologist, medical physicist and radiographer, subsequently undertakes a 5-d audit visit to the clinical site to perform the audit and write the formal audit report. Preparation for the audit visit is crucial and involves the local clinical centre completing a form, which provides the audit team with information on the clinical centre. While all main aspects of clinical structure and process are examined, particular attention is paid to radiation-related activities as described in the relevant documents such as the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, the Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and related equipment and quality assurance documentation. It should be stressed, however, that the clinical audit does not have any regulatory function. The main purpose of the IAEA approach to clinical audit is one of promoting quality improvement and learning. This paper describes the background to

  19. A clinical audit programme for diagnostic radiology: the approach adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, K; Järvinen, H; Butler, P; McLean, I D; Pentecost, M; Rickard, M; Abdullah, B

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a mandate to assist member states in areas of human health and particularly in the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment. Clinical audit is seen as an essential tool to assist in assuring the quality of radiation medicine, particularly in the instance of multidisciplinary audit of diagnostic radiology. Consequently, an external clinical audit programme has been developed by the IAEA to examine the structure and processes existent at a clinical site, with the basic objectives of: (1) improvement in the quality of patient care; (2) promotion of the effective use of resources; (3) enhancement of the provision and organisation of clinical services; (4) further professional education and training. These objectives apply in four general areas of service delivery, namely quality management and infrastructure, patient procedures, technical procedures and education, training and research. In the IAEA approach, the audit process is initiated by a request from the centre seeking the audit. A three-member team, comprising a radiologist, medical physicist and radiographer, subsequently undertakes a 5-d audit visit to the clinical site to perform the audit and write the formal audit report. Preparation for the audit visit is crucial and involves the local clinical centre completing a form, which provides the audit team with information on the clinical centre. While all main aspects of clinical structure and process are examined, particular attention is paid to radiation-related activities as described in the relevant documents such as the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, the Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and related equipment and quality assurance documentation. It should be stressed, however, that the clinical audit does not have any regulatory function. The main purpose of the IAEA approach to clinical audit is one of promoting quality improvement and learning. This paper describes the background to

  20. Swiss energy research programme on solar heat and storage for 2008-2011; Programme de recherche energetique. Chaleur solaire et stockage pour la periode 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadorn, J.-C.

    2009-07-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the research programme on solar heat and heat storage for the years 2008 - 2011. This document presents some aspects of the solar thermal market in 2007, summarizes the main solar thermal technologies for buildings and sketches the main topics of the 'Solar Heat and Heat Storage' research programme. Research and development issues looked at focus mainly on the heating and cooling of buildings. The research and development issues for solar thermal technologies during the period 2008-2011 include improved performance and durability of solar collectors and components, new coatings for solar collectors based on nano-materials as well as simplified and standardised systems for solar heating and cooling. Building Integration and integration in existing heating systems and long-term work with a focus on new materials for storing heat for use in residential buildings are discussed. Also, calculation methods and simulation tools are examined. Pilot and demonstration projects are reviewed.

  1. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 3: converting wood fuel to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  2. Scoping study on SADC energy sector carbon market potential; SADC = Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-22

    This study shows that, while there is a certain degree of institutional and project development capacity in the region and significant Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) potential, very little of this potential is currently being tapped. National institutional structures are mostly very new, understaffed, and working in isolation from each other. There are ongoing national CDM capacity building programmes in several SADC countries that will address barriers and develop projects at a national level, but there are also regional opportunities that these programmes will not address. For some of large scale project opportunities such as landfill gas, industrial energy use, fugitive emission and transport, a national approach is required because these projects depend on local industrial base, regulatory environment, and are also large enough that the carbon revenue can cover the transaction costs. There are a few key areas that should be addressed, however, at a regional level: Energy trade and power development: any low carbon power projects that are developed to serve regional energy needs and displace coal fired power can only receive carbon credits if the baseline is a regional power grid rather than just a national grid. This is also true for large scale energy efficiency projects in countries that have only hydropower - these would not receive any carbon credits unless there is justification for a regional grid definition that includes fossil fuel fired power stations.Small scale projects: While the total potential for small scale renewables may not be large in terms of tonnes of CO{sub 2} mitigated, the local development impacts of distributed renewable energy and energy efficiency projects are very large. For these projects to be implemented at a large enough scale to recoup the transaction costs of project development, a regional approach is critical. The CDM 'Programme of Activities' (PoA) approach is ideally suited for such regional small scale energy

  3. CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade: A South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of trade liberalisation on environmental conditions has yielded significant debate in the energy economics literature. Although research on the relationship between energy consumption, emissions and economic growth is not new in South Africa, no study specifically addresses the role that South Africa's foreign trade plays in this context. A surprising fact given trade is one of the most important factors that can explain the environmental Kuznets curve. This study employs recent South African trade and energy data and modern econometric techniques to investigate this. The main finding of interest in this paper is the existence of a long run relationship between environmental quality, levels of per capita energy use and foreign trade in South Africa. As anticipated per capita energy use has a significant long run effect in raising the country's CO2 emission levels, yet surprisingly higher levels of trade for the country act to reduce these emissions. Granger causality tests confirm the existence of a positive bidirectional relationship between per capita energy use and CO2 emissions. Whilst the study also finds positive bidirectional causality between trade and income per capita and between trade and per capita energy use, it appears however that trade liberalisation in South Africa has not contributed to a long run growth in pollution-intensive activities nor higher emission levels. - Highlights: • A long run relationship between CO2 emissions, levels of energy use and trade in SA. • Per capita energy has a significant long run effect in raising SA's CO2 levels. • Trade reduces CO2 emissions through stimulating technological innovations. • Positive bidirectional causality between per capita energy use and CO2 emissions. • Bidirectional causality between trade and income and trade and energy use

  4. Energy research programme on photovoltaics for the 2008 - 2011 period; Energieforschungsprogramm Photovoltaik fuer die Jahre 2008 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2008-09-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the Swiss Energy Research Programme on Photovoltaics for the period 2008 - 2011. The programme is to continue the tried and tested concept of previous years and will involve all the important players in the Swiss photovoltaics area. The report reviews the situation at the international level and the situation in Switzerland. Future developments are discussed. Financing aspects are looked at and the main focal points for the period are listed, including solar cells, solar modules and building integration, electrical system technology, international co-operation and pilot and demonstration projects. In a chapter on national co-operation, competence centres and industry are looked at and co-operation with other Swiss federal and cantonal institutions as well as with private institutions and the electricity industry is reviewed. Operational aspects of the programme such as project submission and assessment, project management and controlling are discussed. Information and communication work, including seminars, conferences and the Internet are discussed. The report is concluded with lists of research and development projects as will as pilot and demonstration projects, references and internet links. Appendices include a review of photovoltaic technologies, an extract from the Swiss Energy Research Concept for 2008 - 2011, a review of the various factors and competencies involved and an overview of international programmes and networks.

  5. Storage exploratory project. Energy program. Final report; Projet exploratoire Stockage. Programme Energie. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Y. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble, UMR 5529 INPG/UJF - CNRS, ENSIEG, 38 - Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Ozil, P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), ENSEEG, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Cheron, Y. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, CNRS, 31 - Toulouse (France); Multon, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Information et des Systemes et Applications des Technologies de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE), 94 - Cachan (France); Carillo, S. [Centre Interuniversitaire de recherche et d' Ingenierie sur les Materiaux (CIRIMAT), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory project was the analysis of the most efficient possibilities of electric power storage. It was limited to the electrochemical storage, the lead batteries which behavior is not completely characterized, the flywheel energy storage and the development of simulation. This report presents the results of the works. (A.L.B.)

  6. Renewable energies in the Middle East and North African Region: can private-public partnerships address existing barriers and risks?

    OpenAIRE

    Komendantova, N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite ambitious energy policy targets and available resource potentials deployment of renewable energies in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region is mainly supported by public funding. Volumes of foreign direct investment (FDI) going into the renewable energy projects in the region are minimal. Evidence suggests that existing risks for investment and how these risks are perceived b investors is keeping back private investment or makes it more costly. This paper discusses which typ...

  7. Swiss energy research in 2008; Energie-Forschung 2008 - Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter / Recherche energetique 2008 - Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive document published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on Swiss energy research in the year 2008. The overview reports made by the programme leaders are presented. In the area of efficient energy use, programme reports are presented for the following areas: Energy in buildings, traffic, electricity technologies and their usage, networks, heat-pumps and combined heat and power, combustion technologies, power station 2020 and carbon capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen as well as process engineering. In the renewables sector, work in the following areas is reported on: Solar thermal energy and storage, photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy, biomass and wood energy, hydropower, geothermal energy and wind energy. Research in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear safety is reported on, as is research in the areas of regulatory safety, fusion and nuclear wastes. Finally, a report on energy-economics research is presented. The report is completed with a list of projects and an appendix containing details on the Swiss Energy Research Commission CORE and a list of those responsible for the various research programmes.

  8. Proceedings of the business and investment forum 'renewable energy in Africa'. A Thermie and UNESCO action; Recueil des interventions du forum d'affaires 'energies renouvelables en Afrique'. Une action du programme Thermie et de l'Unesco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    One of the objectives of THERMIE (which is the demonstration component of the Research and Technological Development JOULE-THERMIE programme of the European community in non-nuclear energy technologies) is to promote co-operation in the field of renewable energy technologies between the European Union and African countries. The World Solar Programme 1996-2005 adopted during the Harare summit (September 96) organised by UNESCO in co-operation with the European Commission, recommends a wider use of renewable energy sources, through the implementation of national high priority projects. This Business and investment Forum is an integral part of the follow-up to the World Solar Summit. Following QUITO in September 98 and HARARE in March 99, similar events will be organised in other Regions, with an ADEME co-ordination. The Forum was specifically targeted at decision and policy-makers, local authorities, investors and international co-operation agencies, industrialists, institutional representatives and programme managers working in the field of Renewable Energy. One of the main goals of this Forum is to promote investments and financing opportunities for projects using efficient renewable energy technologies, for a sustainable development in Africa. (author)

  9. Land use and land cover change as a consequence of the South African land reform programme : A remote sensing approach / Zwidofhelangani Lidzhegu

    OpenAIRE

    Lidzhegu, Zwidofhelangani

    2012-01-01

    Over 18 years after the democratic government took power in South Africa, environmental changes relevant to the land reform policies are taking place because of unintended consequences of land reform policy. This study aimed at investigating the effects of the South African land reform policy on land use and land cover change on a land restitution project in Makotopong, Limpopo province, South Africa. The study used remote sensing techniques through the analysis of Landsat TM i...

  10. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  11. 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October 2003 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES Main Auditorium bldg. 500 (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States D. Reiche / Free University of Berlin, D The aim of this lecture is to discuss the transformation of the energy sectors in the EU with the main focus on obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources. Besides the EU-15 and the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. The factors which influence renewable energy development are described as the path dependencies/starting positions in energy policy (natural conditions for the RES, availability of fossil resources, use of nuclear power), the instruments for promoting renewable energies (as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations), the economic (level of energy prices, for example), technological (i.e. grid capacity), and cognitive environment.

  12. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8–34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole−1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range. (paper)

  13. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole(-1). This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range. PMID:25078857

  14. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole-1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  15. Energy-conserving mechanisms as adaptation to undernutrition and water deprivation in the African Zebu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study designed to simulate pastoral cattle management practices on marginal and rangelands in Kenya, the physiological adaptations for energy conservation were investigated in African Zebu cattle during a period of undernutrition and water deprivation. In experimental design, the food available to cattle was restricted to 50% of maintenance, watering reduced to every 2 d and distances walked increased from 8 to 16 km/d. Restricting food for nearly 3 months resulted in a 13-14% weight loss in cattle. A 2-day watering regime did not decrease food intake. Cattle that walked the longer distances lost slightly more weight but not significantly more. There was a significant overall reduction in water requirements. Slowing water turnover is seen as adaptive in a water-limited environment. The water turnover rate was determined using the tritiated water dilution technique. Higher solar intensities increased water turnover somewhat, as did extending walking distances. The resting metabolic rate of cattle on restricted food and water was reduced to 30% below that of well-fed and daily watered cattle. This reduction in metabolic requirements would result in conserving energy in dry seasons. Cattle became more thermolabile when offered smaller quantities of food. A heat debt was incurred at night and sweating rates were regulated at low levels during the day, resulting in heat storage. It is suggested that this is a mechanism by which energy is conserved through increasing thermogenesis to maintain body temperature within the normal range

  16. Energy research 2003 - Overview; Energie-Forschung 2003 / Recherche energetique 2003. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter / Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2003. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energies, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, combustion, fuel cells and in the process engineering areas. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small-scale hydro, geothermal energy and wind energy are presented. Work being done on nuclear safety and disposal regulations as well as controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  17. The Role of Energy Dispersion in the Genesis and Life Cycle of African Easterly Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michael

    This dissertation uses energy dispersion and wave packet concepts to provide a better conceptual model of the genesis and life cycle of African Easterly Waves and to better understand the instability of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ). The existence of an upstream (eastward) group velocity for AEWs is shown based on single-point lag regressions using gridded reanalysis data from 1990 to 2010. The eastward energy dispersion is consistent with the direction of ageostrophic geopotential flux vectors. A local eddy kinetic energy (EKE) budget reveals that, early in the life cycle of AEWs, growth rate due to geopotential flux convergence exceeds baroclinic and barotropic growth rates. Later in the life cycle, EKE decay due to geopotential flux divergence cancels or exceeds baroclinic and barotropic growth. A potential vorticity (PV) budget is used to diagnose tendencies related to group propagation. Although both upstream and downstream group speeds are possible because of the reversal in the mean meridional PV gradient, upstream propagation associated with the positive poleward PV gradient dominates wave packet evolution. Analogous to the concept of downstream development of midlatitude baroclinic waves, new AEWs develop preferentially upstream of the older ones, thus providing a mechanism for seeding new waves. The usefulness of upstream development as a genesis mechanism for AEWs is demonstrated by performing a case study of the AEW which ultimately produced hurricane Alberto (2000). The case study uses the ERA-interim reanalysis combined with surface observations and TRMM data. Using a local EKE budget, we attribute its genesis to energy dispersion from a preceding AEW. After genesis, baroclinic and barotropic conversion dominated the energetics of this AEW. Some strengths and weaknesses of upstream development as a paradigm for AEW genesis are discussed with respect to other potential mechanisms. The stability of the AEJ is examined applying the concept of absolute

  18. ETRR - Energy-efficient buildings and building components. Final report on the energy research programme 1988-1992; ETRR - Energiataloudelliset rakennukset ja rakennusosat; Energiatutkimusohjelman loppuraportti 1988-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarimaa, J.; Hyttinen, R.; Immonen, K. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Building Production

    1993-12-31

    The research programme on energy-efficient buildings and building-components (ETRR) examines construction methods by which the use of energy can be made more efficient so that the performance requirements set for buildings - such as the indoor climate conditions - will be fulfilled. In addition, the programme sets out ways in which the energy utilization by different types of buildings can be made more efficient through a combination of solutions applied to the buildings` external envelopes and building services technologies. The key results of the research programme include low-energy house concepts produced both for new buildings and for existing buildings. Solutions are presented, both for single-family houses and for apartment blocks, by which energy consumption can be reduced by 25 %, 50 %, 75 % and more than 75 % of present levels. The results have been put into practice in test building projects, which have been carried out so far in new building, especially in the form of single-family house experimental projects. The experimental building has been done in the framework of company projects in the programme. Of the ways of saving energy in the building`s external envelope, windows yield the highest potential, both in new building and in renovation work. Transparent insulating materials are technically a potential way of making a structure`s energy utilization more efficient. Solutions based on transparent insulating materials are mostly too expensive at present compared with the benefits attained. It is technically possible to make buildings in such a way that external, purchased energy is not required for heating them

  19. Method for obtaining electron energy-density functions from Langmuir-probe data using a card-programmable calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a method for obtaining electron energy density functions from Langmuir probe data taken in cool, dense plasmas where thin-sheath criteria apply and where magnetic effects are not severe. Noise is filtered out by using regression of orthogonal polynomials. The method requires only a programmable calculator (TI-59 or equivalent) to implement and can be used for the most general, nonequilibrium electron energy distribution plasmas. Data from a mercury ion source analyzed using this method are presented and compared with results for the same data using standard numerical techniques

  20. Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article extends the recent findings of , , and by implementing recent bootstrap panel unit root tests and cointegration techniques to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real GDP for 12 Middle East and North African Countries (MENA) over the period 1981–2005. Our results show that in the long-run energy consumption has a positive significant impact on CO2 emissions. More interestingly, we show that real GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. However, although the estimated long-run coefficients of income and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in most studied countries, the turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. CO2 emission reductions per capita have been achieved in the MENA region, even while the region exhibited economic growth over the period 1981–2005. The econometric relationships derived in this paper suggest that future reductions in CO2 emissions per capita might be achieved at the same time as GDP per capita in the MENA region continues to grow. - Highlights: ► We study the links between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and GDP in MENA region. ► Energy consumption has a positive correlation with CO2 emissions. ► GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. ► However, the turning points are low in some cases and high in other cases. ► Thus, not all countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease CO2 emissions.

  1. THE EMBEDDEDNESS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN THE CURRICULA OF NON-BUSINESS UNIVERSITY PROGRAMMES: PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE FROM SOUTH AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES OF TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson K. Tengeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The total early stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA in South Africa is said to be extremely low compared to those of other sub-Saharan countries. This is despite the concerted efforts of the government to establish, develop and nurture entrepreneurship at all levels, especially among the youths. This calls for concern given the current state of the economy and the challenges faced by South Africa’s future generation. This paper is anchored on two theoretical frameworks to substantiate our argument for the inclusion of entrepreneurship education in the curricula of non-business programmes at universities of technology. The theoretical frameworks are the contingency organizational theory and the magnet versus radiant model. The study adopted an exploratory cross sectional research design which allowed us to collect data from a cross-section of a population: the universities of technology in South Africa. The findings suggest that only fifteen (out of the 46 of the programmes showed visible evidence of entrepreneurship/business studies in their content. Such finding implies that there is a need for entrepreneurship to be integrated into the curricula of all non-business departments if not for the sake of its perceived employment generation attributes, but for its other attributes such as innovation, and more importantly employability.

  2. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxton Christiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2% reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6% of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%, to improve performance (9.8% and to reduce fatigue (5.4%. Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  3. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 4: anaerobic digestion for biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  4. Dietary intakes assessed by 24-h recalls in peri-urban African adolescents: validity of energy intake compared with estimated energy expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Susanna Maria; Hanekom, Susanna Magrietha; Rankin, Driekie; Wright, Hester Helena; MacIntyre, U.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective: The objective of this study is to determine the relative validity of reported energy intake (EI) derived from multiple 24-h recalls against estimated energy expenditure (EE(est)). Basal metabolic rate (BMR) equations and physical activity factors were incorporated to calculate EE(est). Subjects/methods: This analysis was nested in the multidisciplinary PhysicaL Activity in the Young study with a prospective study design. Peri-urban black South African...

  5. The use of immunoassay method to improve the diagnosis of African trypanosomosis and its application to monitor disease control programmes: A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional diagnostic techniques for detecting trypanosomes in animals have been the microscopic examination of wet blood films or of thin and thick bloodsmears following fixation and Giemsa staining. The development of concentration methods such as the microhaematocrit centrifuge technique (MHCT) or the buffy coat technique (BCT) using a phase contrast/darkground microscope has improved diagnosis considerably. All these parasitological techniques are very specific (a positive result indicates the true presence of a trypanosome and few false positives are encountered), but generally lack sensitivity. However, in chronically infected animals low parasitaemias often occur, which could not be detected by the most sensitive technique, the BCT method. In 1971 the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and various applications of the technique soon proved to be highly sensitive and specific as well as reliable and flexible methods for screening large number of samples. The technique was modified for the detection of trypanosomal antigens and applied for the diagnosis of T. vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei infections in cattle. In experimental infections the test proved to be a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of animal trypanosomosis. Moreover, indications were that the test was well suited for application in developing countries. Consequently, the ELISA was transferred to the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture for distribution to various African research institutes for extensive validation under tropical conditions. 17 refs, 2 tabs

  6. The use of variable speed drives for cost-effective energy savings in South African mine cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy analysis of 20 South African mine cooling systems. • Energy savings and feasibility calculated for large-scale variable speed drive implementation. • An annual electricity saving of 144,721 MW h (32.2%) and CO2 emission reduction of 132 Mton can be realised. • Pump and fan application found more viable than chiller application. • Pilot implementation study shows pump electricity savings of 29.9%. - Abstract: An industrial energy efficiency improvement through the introduction of modern technology is an important demand-side management initiative. Cooling systems on South African mines have been identified as large electricity consumers. There is significant potential for energy efficiency improvement by the widespread introduction of variable speed drive (VSD) technology. An energy audit was conducted on 20 large mine cooling systems and potential savings and feasibility indicators were calculated. A pilot implementation study was also done on one mine to experimentally validate the estimated savings. In this paper, the results of the audit, the potential savings and the pilot study results are presented. It is shown that large-scale implementation of VSDs on mine cooling system pumps and fans is economically viable. A total annual electrical energy saving of 144,721 MW h, or 32.2%, can be achieved. An annual cost saving of US$6,938,148 and CO2 emissions reduction of 132 Mton is possible. The implementation of VSDs on mine chiller compressors will also result in large energy savings, but is not economically feasible at present. Results of the pilot study indicate an electricity savings of 29.9%. The results are important to decision makers and indicate the significant impact that widespread VSD usage on mine cooling systems can have on South African mine sustainability

  7. Status of the United States Department of Energy's nuclear fuel return programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), National Nuclear Security Administration's Remove Programme supports permanent threat reduction by eliminating stockpiles of excess weapons usable nuclear materials located at civilian sites throughout the world. This material, if stolen or diverted, poses a significant risk to U.S. and international security. In response to this potential threat, GTRI started an initiative in 2004 to accelerate efforts to recover U.S. and Soviet-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) from around the world. GTRI also is working to remove so called 'gap' nuclear materials that are outside of the scope of the existing Russian-origin and U.S.-origin HEU recovery programme. This paper summarizes the accomplishments and plans for removing and disposing of this highly dangerous material. (author)

  8. Swiss Energy Research Programme 2008 - 2011. Electricity technologies and applications; Energieforschungsprogramm 2008-2011. Elektriztaetstechnologien und -Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2008-05-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of research work done in Switzerland in the area of electricity technologies and their application. A technologies section takes a look at the conversion of heat into electricity, efficient compressed air storage and high-temperature superconductivity. In the applications area, efficient drives and motors, information technology and communication are discussed, as are electrical appliances for households and lighting. The organisation of the programme is presented and the focus of research for the period 2008 - 2011 in these areas is discussed.

  9. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in five African settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slutsker Lawrence

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IPTi delivered through EPI has been shown to reduce the incidence of clinical malaria by 20–59%. However, new health interventions can only be effective if they are also socially and culturally acceptable. It is also crucial to ensure that attitudes to IPTi do not negatively influence attitudes to and uptake of immunization, or that people do not misunderstand IPTi as immunization against malaria and neglect other preventive measures or delay treatment seeking. Methods These issues were studied in five African countries in the context of clinical trials and implementation studies of IPTi. Mixed methods were used, including structured questionnaires (1,296, semi-structured interviews (168, in-depth interviews (748 and focus group discussions (95 with mothers, fathers, health workers, community members, opinion leaders, and traditional healers. Participant observation was also carried out in the clinics. Results IPTi was widely acceptable because it resonated with existing traditional preventive practices and a general concern about infant health and good motherhood. It also fit neatly within already widely accepted routine vaccination. Acceptance and adherence were further facilitated by the hierarchical relationship between health staff and mothers and by the fact that clinic attendance had a social function for women beyond acquiring health care. Type of drug and regimen were important, with newer drugs being seen as more effective, but potentially also more dangerous. Single dose infant formulations delivered in the clinic seem to be the most likely to be both acceptable and adhered to. There was little evidence that IPTi per se had a negative impact on attitudes to EPI or that it had any affect on EPI adherence. There was also little evidence of IPTi having a negative impact on health seeking for infants with febrile illness or existing preventive practices. Conclusion IPTi is generally acceptable across a wide range of

  10. The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy – a South African perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barnard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In terms of existing energy policy in South-Africa, the interconnectivity of renewable energy and sustainable development is evident. Most notably, the White Paper on Renewable Energy of 2003 promotes increased access to affordable renewable energy in order to contribute to sustainable development. Moreover, the 2008 first review of the National Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South-Africa of 2005 states that in order for the country’s renewable energy policy to be considered sustainable, it needs to facilitate development in the social, economic and environmental spheres. Notwithstanding, attaining the goal of sustainable development depends on whether all its effecting principles are catered for in the policy developments. Accordingly, in order to ascertain whether South-African law and policy can successfully facilitate/enable sustainable development via the implementation of renewable energy, a specific methodology is proposed. In terms of the New Delhi Declaration of 2002 there are 7 principles of international law effecting sustainable development. These principles will be used as criteria in a principled assessment of South-African renewable energy law and policy in order to establish whether the goal of promoting sustainable development would be effected through the national policy developments.

  11. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  12. France [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of primary energy in France amounted to 278 Mtoe in 2005, with an average increase of 1.3%/a between 1990 and 2005. The breakdown of primary energy is 42% nuclear energy, 33% oil, 15% natural gas, 6% renewables and 4% coal. France is comparatively poor in domestic energy resources. French coal production, which was still around 40 million t/a at the end of the 1970s, was terminated in 2004. Also, domestic natural gas contributes not more than 2% of France's primary energy production. With the general objectives being to control energy demand, diversify sources of energy, increase research into energy, and provide methods of transporting and storing energy, the French energy policy has given priority to the development of a national energy supply with a strong focus on nuclear energy and renewable energies. These energies are seen to provide a reliable long term supply without GHG emissions and to ensure stable electricity prices. The first nuclear power plants built in France were gas cooled reactors and the country also participated in the OECD Dragon project. Today France is the world's second largest producer of nuclear energy (after the USA) with an electricity share of 78%. France operates 58 nuclear power stations with a total capacity of 63.2 GW. One Gen- III reactor (EPR) is currently under construction. Since nuclear energy is not always fully used, interest is growing in using excess nuclear electricity, apart from export, for hydrogen production to regulate the electricity production.

  13. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces. PMID:24080620

  14. China [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its large population and its strong economic growth in recent years, China's demand for energy is rising rapidly. Since 2003, China ranks second after the USA in the consumption of primary energy and also in the consumption of oil. China is the third largest energy producer in the world, after the USA and the Russian Federation. In 2007, China's total energy consumption was 1970 Mtoe, up from 872 Mtoe in 1990. In the period 2000-2007, the average growth rate of energy consumption was 8.9% per year. Coal makes up the bulk of China's primary energy consumption (66% in 2007) and will remain the dominant energy source in the next decades. Other energies consumed are oil (18%) and hydropower (12%). Natural gas production currently accounts for only 3%, with most reserves located far away from the demand sites. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world, which has made the country one of the world's largest emitter of GHGs. The present energy policy calls for greater energy conservation measures and a move away from coal toward cleaner energy sources including oil, natural gas, renewable energy, nuclear power and hydroelectric resources. A new energy law calls for 10% of its energy to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. China has abundant cellulosic biomass resources, with an estimated 220-380 Mtoe available for bioenergy production (e.g. ethanol, synthetic liquid fuels) each year.

  15. Evaluation of the Danish Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Programme EDDP 2007-2010; Evaluering af Energiteknologisk Udviklings- og Demonstrationsprogram EUDP 2007-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    As one of the largest recipients of energy research and development funds in Denmark, EDDP (Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Programme) is a central granting programme. The programme allocates funds to interesting and promising energy technologies that are either under development or ready to be tested in real life - also called demonstration. The 'Act on Energy Technology Development and Demonstration programme' shows that EDDP projects must contribute to meeting the energy and climate policy objectives for security of supplies, respect for the global climate and a cleaner environment and cost efficiency. These three objectives are related, which means that the projects supported in principle must contribute to several objectives. In addition, the programme shall support the further development of the Danish energy technological strategic strongholds, where prospects for Danish research and industry looks particularly favorable. With the desire to reveal which outputs EDDP actually generates, the EDDP's Board in January 2011 launched an evaluation of the EDDP's results and effects. The focus of the evaluation has particularly been to identify the programme's industrial effects and its contribution to reach the energy and climate policy objectives. The evaluation is thus an effect evaluation and not an actual programme evaluation. Participants from both completed and uncompleted projects participated in the evaluation. The evaluation reveals, therefore, both the results and effects that have already been achieved under the auspices of EDDP projects, and the results and effects which the various project participants expect to achieve in the longer term based on their project participation. In brief, the evaluation shows that: - EDDP projects are largely expected to contribute to Denmark's energy and climate policy objectives; - Satisfactory technological results are created in the projects; - Many projects also generate

  16. Power from photovoltaics. 500-roofs solar power programme sponsors renewable energy sources; Strom aus Photovoltaik. 500-Daecher-Programm foerdert erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, Lars [Schott Solar AG, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-07

    In total the greater portion by far of the photovoltaic capacity supported under the 500 Roofs Programme was provided by small systems in private households. Apart from purely quantitative expansion goals, the aim of encouraging the spread of photovoltaic technology among the population was well achieved. Aims: an attractive benefit over 20 years for each kWh and a sustainable contribution on climate protection. (orig./GL)

  17. The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) some months before the start of its particle physics programme

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    LEAR [see e.g.: H.Koziol and D. Möhl, Phys. Rep. 403-404 (2004), p.271 and references therein] and its enclosure in the PS South Hall in Jan, 1983, 4 months before the start of its particle physics programme. Visible (in red) are the 90 degree bending magnets consisting of 6 blocks each. Separated from the magnets by short straight sections are the quadrupole doublets (blue with read end-plates). The 4 long straight sections house large equipment like septa for injection/ejection, RF-cavities and later (since 1986) electron cooling and an internal target and its associated detector (JETSET experiment). Two small copper tubes spanning across the ring are coaxial lines transmitting the stochastic cooling signals from pick up to kicker. (see also photos 8205747X, 8207133, 8207541X, 8301550X,8309026X)

  18. The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) some months before the start of its particle physics programme

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    LEAR*)and its enclosure in the PS South Hall in Jan, 1983, 4 months before the start of its particle physics programme. Visible (in red) are the 90 degree bending magnets consisting of 6 blocks each. Separated from the magnets by short straight sections are the quadrupole doublets (blue with read end-plates). The 4 long straight sections house large equipment like septa for injection/ejection, RF-cavities and later (since 1986) electron cooling and an internal target and its associated detector (JETSET experiment). Two small copper tubes spanning across the ring are coaxial lines transmitting the stochastic cooling signals from pickup to kicker. (see also photos 8205747X, 8207133, 8207541X, 8309026) *)see e.g.: H.Koziol and D. Möhl, Phys. Rep. 403-404 (2004), p.271 and references therein

  19. India [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India's energy consumption has been increasing at a rapid pace in recent years due to population growth and economic development. In terms of primary energy consumption, at 595 Mtoe in 2007, despite a low per capita energy consumption rate, India ranks fifth in the world, accounting for about 3.5% of the global commercial energy demand in 2003. Until the end of the 1980s, India's energy policy was mainly based on the availability of indigenous resources. Coal, oil and natural gas are the three primary commercial energy sources. India has the world's third largest coal reserves after the USA and China; still, the existing demand exceeds the supply. Coal accounts for 41% (as of 2007) of India's total energy consumption, followed by renewables including hydroelectric power (29%), oil (24%) and natural gas (6%). Although nuclear power comprises only 1% of total energy consumption, it is expected to increase in the future. A large share of the total energy requirement is met by non-commercial energy sources, which include wood, crop residue and animal waste. But commercial energy of a much higher quality and efficiency are steadily replacing the traditional energy resources being consumed mainly in the rural sector. Of India's total energy needs, 30% are met through imports.

  20. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) we

  1. Programme of Investments for the Future: continuing and amplifying the action in favour of energy transition. Assessment 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the ADEME is to implement four Programmes of Investments for the Future (PIA) to support pre-industrial experimentations, research demonstrators or industry firsts in the fields of renewable energies and green chemistry, of tomorrow's vehicles and mobility, of smart power grids, and of circular economy, this report proposes indications of numbers of retained projects and of financial support in different specific fields, and brief presentations of objectives and realisations or projects in energy storage and the hydrogen sector (creation of a world leader in hydrogen production by hydrolysis, project of injection of hydrogen in gas networks), in renewable energies (projects of renewable marine energy), in smart grids (a smart grid tested at the scale of an area of activity), in mobility and transport (the necessity to install at a higher rate charging points for electric vehicles, cleaner ferries, improved performance in railway, an innovative electric bus in Nice), in energy and environmental efficiency (less consuming buildings, improvement of ecologic efficiency in agriculture and industry), and in circular economy and recycling (titanium recycling in aeronautics, fabrication of new tyres with old ones). The themes of the second wave of investments are finally presented, with notably a better efficiency in project instruction modalities (shorter delays, project support, ecologically and economically conditioned financing)

  2. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozório Rodrigo; Van Ginneken Vincent; van den Thillart Guido; Verstegen Martin; Verreth Johan

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  3. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van, CJJM Kees; Thillart, van den, G.; M.W.A. Verstegen; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  4. Do African and European energy stakeholders agree on key energy drivers in Africa? Using Q methodology to understand perceptions on energy access debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses Q methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on how best to address energy issues in Africa. We sampled a group of stakeholders involved in various energy sub-sectors to uncover perspectives on how to achieve and promote access to modern energy, energy efficiency and renewable energy in Africa, whether the perceptions could be correlated to educational or geographical background and implications such patterns could have on policies and current dialogues. We found that all stakeholders agree on the need to prioritise sustainability but had different views on how to achieve sustainable energy for all in Africa, depending on the relevance given to each energy driver. Stakeholders could be categorised into four groups: (I) preference of large-scale high-impact projects; (II) supporters of targeted sectoral solutions with preference for small-scale technology and microfinance; (III) supporters of centralised solutions with preference for grid extension, and (IV) supporters of local entrepreneurship with scepticism about centralised solutions. The results show that differences in stakeholders’ perceptions can be associated with respondents’ educational but not geographical background. This implies that dialogues on energy in Africa should focus on inter-disciplinary understanding while further examining the trans-continent consensus that appears to have been established. - Highlights: • We use Q-methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on energy issues in Africa. • We assess whether background results in different perceptions among stakeholders. • We identify four main factor groups and only one group supports grid extension. • Results challenge assumptions that African and European viewpoints differ. • More interdisciplinary dialogue is needed while supporting geographic consensus

  5. A programmable energy efficient readout chip for a multiparameter highly integrated implantable biosensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawito, M.; Richter, H.; Stett, A.; Burghartz, J. N.

    2015-11-01

    In this work an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for an implantable electrochemical biosensor system (SMART implant, Stett et al., 2014) is presented. The ASIC drives the measurement electrodes and performs amperometric measurements for determining the oxygen concentration, potentiometric measurements for evaluating the pH-level as well as temperature measurements. A 10-bit pipeline analog to digital (ADC) is used to digitize the acquired analog samples and is implemented as a single stage to reduce power consumption and chip area. For pH measurements, an offset subtraction technique is employed to raise the resolution to 12-bits. Charge integration is utilized for oxygen and temperature measurements with the capability to cover current ranges between 30 nA and 1 μA. In order to achieve good performance over a wide range of supply and process variations, internal reference voltages are generated from a programmable band-gap regulated circuit and biasing currents are supplied from a wide-range bootstrap current reference. To accommodate the limited available electrical power, all components are designed for low power operation. Also a sequential operation approach is applied, in which essential circuit building blocks are time multiplexed between different measurement types. All measurement sequences and parameters are programmable and can be adjusted for different tissues and media. The chip communicates with external unites through a full duplex two-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), which receives operational instructions and at the same time outputs the internally stored measurement data. The circuit has been fabricated in a standard 0.5-μm CMOS process and operates on a supply as low as 2.7 V. Measurement results show good performance and agree with circuit simulation. It consumes a maximum of 500 μA DC current and is clocked between 500 kHz and 4 MHz according to the measurement parameters. Measurement results of the on-chip ADC show a

  6. Effect of South African beef production systems on post-mortem muscle energy status and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frylinck, L; Strydom, P E; Webb, E C; du Toit, E

    2013-04-01

    Post-slaughter muscle energy metabolism meat colour of South African production systems were compared; steers (n=182) of Nguni, Simmental Brahman crossbreds were reared on pasture until A-, AB-, or B-age, in feedlot until A-AB-age. After exsanguination carcasses were electrically stimulated (400 V for 15 s). M. longissimus dorsi muscle energy samples were taken at 1, 2, 4 and 20 h. Post-mortem samples for meat quality studies were taken at 1, 7 and 14 days post-mortem. Production systems affected muscle glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-P, lactic acid, ATP, creatine-P glycolytic potential (P0.5) water holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner Bratzler shear force. Muscle energy only affected muscle contraction of the A-age-pasture system (shortest sarcomere length of 1.66 μm vs 1.75 μm highest WBS of 6 kg vs 5 kg 7 days post-mortem). PMID:23305833

  7. Socio-Economic Assessment of Fusion Energy Research, Development, Demonstration and Deployment Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Bednyagin, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Providing safe, clean and affordable energy supply is essential for meeting the basic needs of human society and for supporting economic growth. From the historical perspective, the constantly growing energy use was one of the main factors, which drove the industrialised countries to the current level of prosperity. Meanwhile, in recent decades, the issue of global energy security became a topic of increasing concern in the international policy agenda...

  8. Acceptance of energy management in medium-sized industrial firms in Hessen. Report to the IMPULS programme Hessen in Darmstadt; Akzeptanz von Energiemanagement in der mittelstaendischen Industrie in Hessen. Bericht an das IMPULS-Programm Hessen in Darmstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boede, U.; Gruber, E.; Weigert, K.

    1998-07-01

    Furthering of innovation processes in the sense of lastingly sustainable development demands recognizing existing obstacles and points where furtherance might be beneficial. The search for strategies and points of attack needs to start from existing attitudes and patterns of behaviour (commission of inquiry, 1997). This comprises implementation-oriented offers to enterprises, and offers taking needs into account. Within the framework of its energy conservation and climate protection policy, the state of Hessen furthers employment-accompanied qualification of planning and executing vocational groups as well as users in energy efficiency. The IMPULS programme of Hessen, a programme instituted by the ministry for the environment, energy, youth, family and health affairs of Hessen, organizes seminars on 'rational use of electric power' enabling decision-makers to inform themselves on energy-saving measures and to exchange their knowledge. Enterprises with a potential for in-house energy conservation have a great interest in hints and support to be rapidly transformed into action. (orig.) [German] Im Innovationsprozesse in Richtung einer nachhaltig zukunftsvertraeglichen Entwicklung zu foerdern, kommt es darauf an, vorhandene Hemnisse und Ansatzpunkte zur Foerderung zu erkennen. Die Suche nach Strategien und Ansatzpunkten muss an vorhandenen Einstellungen und Verhaltensmustern ansetzen (Enquete-Kommission, 1997). Darunter fallen auch umsetzungs- und an den Beduerfnissen orientierte Angebote fuer Unternehmen. Im Rahmen seiner Energieeinspar- und Klimaschutzpolitik foerdert das Land Hessen die berufsbegleitende Qualifikation im Energieeffizienzbereich fuer planende und ausfuehrende Berufsgruppen und fuer Anwender. Das IMPULS-Programm Hessen, eine Einrichtung des hessischen Ministeriums fuer Umwelt, Energie, Jugend, Familie und Gesundheit, bietet Entscheidungstraegern mit seinen Seminaren im Bereich 'rationelle Stromnutzung' die Moeglichkeit, sich ueber

  9. Renewable energy: RD&D priorities. Insights from IEA technology programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2006-12-19

    In order to substantially enhance the share of renewable energy technologies in the energy portfolio, it is imperative to accelerate technological advancement and subsequently reduce costs, in combination with novel applications and deployment. This outcome can be significantly supported by a range of RD and D initiatives, if properly designed and implemented. This publication reviews the current status of the renewable energy technologies portfolio and provides guidance on their mid- and long-term development. The study explores the options for the RD&D to achieve breakthroughs that will lead to large-scale markets and identifies what activities should take priority. It also looks at the benefits of increased RD&D funding in terms of technological advancement and cost improvement. It covers renewable energy technologies in the early research stage through to those that have reached a level of maturity. It also lists national renewable energy RD and D trends in IEA member countries.

  10. European Union [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union comprises highly industrialized countries with extended urban agglomerations, and therefore needs to rely on a secure and economically competitive supply of energy. As of 2007 the European Union, with 7.5% (or 496 million) of the world population, consumed 15% (1757 Mtoe) of the total energy and 18% (3325 TW-h) of the total electricity, and was responsible for 14% (4100 million t) of the total CO2 emissions. Primary energy by fuel share is 19% coal (down from 28% in 1990), 35% oil, 25% natural gas, 14% nuclear and 8% renewables. The respective electricity shares are 31% coal, 28% nuclear, 22% natural gas, 9% hydro, 6% other renewables and 3% oil. The production of oil and natural gas in the European Union has been decreasing for a few years. The situation in the European Union as projected for the next 30 years is characterized by a growing demand for energy by 2 %/a and, at the same time (after 2010), decreasing domestic energy production. In 2030, if no additional measures are taken, 70% of the energy demand will have to be covered by imports. In addition, this development will push CO2 emissions up 14% compared to the 1990 level, far off the Kyoto commitment of an 8% reduction. For these reasons, all energy options should be left open for the future. In 2007, principal energy and climate policy targets for the European Union were redefined by the European Council (the decision making organ of the European Union) to be attained by the year 2020, which are characterized by the 'three twenties': - A 20% reduction of GHGs compared to the 1990 level; - A 20% share of renewable energies of end use (compared to 8.5% at present); - A 20% efficiency of energy use.

  11. Indian experience in capacity building as a part of development of atomic energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India embarked on a programme to harness nuclear technologies for the welfare of the nation more than five decades ago and adopted an approach involving knowledge generation through research and development, disseminating the knowledge acquired to the young generation through in-house arrangement, encouraging the researchers in the university system to work on problems of interest to the nuclear industry by providing research funding, networking with the university system, collaborating with industry to upgrade their skills to take up challenging manufacturing jobs, setting up industry under the control of the Government wherever private industry was not coming forward and so on. The basic approach underlying all efforts was to tap the 'knowledge' wherever available and to upgrade the 'knowledge' by R and D. For developing new technologies and for problem solving, 'bottoms up approach' implying study of scientific basis of all issues beginning from fundamentals was used and shortcuts were avoided. This has enabled the country to be self sufficient in all aspects of nuclear fuel cycle as well as applications of radiation technology to industry, agriculture and health care. This also enabled the industry to gain skills and use the skills gained for other sectors of economy. Now that the industry in India is much more mature and the engineering education at the post-graduate level is well developed, several changes in the approach followed have been made. These include making use of the skills and size of the industry by ordering total systems of a power plant rather than individual components and involving industry as consultants for several jobs, which were done in-house in the earlier days. The paper summarizes Indian experience of the last five decades and what is planned for the future. (author)

  12. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: Is physical activity more "programmable" than food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mecha...

  13. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. United States of America [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USA uses more energy than any other country in the world. Energy consumption exceeds domestic supply, which continuously declines. Currently, 27% of the energy needs are imported, a share which will rise to 31% by 2020. In 2007, the USA consumed in total 2337 Mtoe of primary energy. An estimate of the energy use in 2008 is given. The country's largest source representing 39% of the energy demand is crude oil, of which 60% must be imported. About 66% of the oil is consumed in the transportation sector and 24% in the industrial sector, while the remainder is used for residential and commercial heating. The USA is also the largest consumer of natural gas, with 27% of the world's annual production. Natural gas is increasingly used for electricity production (almost doubled to 21% in 2007 compared to 1990) and will remain in the nearer term the fuel of choice for new electric power plants. About 16% of the natural gas consumed is imported, partly in the form of LNG. Regasification of LNG is a growing industry. Coal is the most abundantly available energy resource in the USA. About 50% of the electricity production is from coal, which is responsible for a relatively high level of pollutant emissions. The USA will need approximately 400 GW of new power generation capacity by 2020. In 2007, nuclear energy accounted for 837 TW-h or 19% of the total electricity production from the operation of 104 nuclear reactors with a capacity of 101.2 GW(e). To maintain this nuclear share, the equivalent of 30 1000 MW nuclear reactors will have to be built. Renewables are basically used for electricity production with a share of 9% (with 6% from hydro and 3% from other renewables).

  15. LVIS-2000 and ETRR Future building services and energy-efficient buildings and building components. Evaluation of the research programmes 1988-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E. [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Installationsteknik; Jensen, O. [Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Sweden); Nyberg, B.R. [Trondheim (Norway); Rechardt, T. [TR-Consulting, Helsinki (Finland); Saxhof, B. [Technical University of Danmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1991-12-31

    In October 1991 an international expert group, appointed by the Energy Department of Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) evaluated the LVIS-2000 and ETRR research programmes and their sub-projects. The evaluation was based on two interim reports and selected papers in English sent to the committee members and finally the presentations made to the committee during the visit in 1st to 4th October. Different aspects of the programmes and their sub-programmes have been evaluated: the goals and objectives, resources, expediency of results, scientific standard and dissemination of results. An important factor was also the participation in IEA and other international research activities. The committee considered the research programmes and their realization meet in general a high international standard. The quality and quantity of research reports are in good agreement with the spended resources and the expediency of results is also good for the new energy saving solutions in the building practice. Concerning the dissemination of results, in addition to the scientific papers a lot of work has been done to inform building industry and general public about the programmes and specific projects. The participation of several sub-profects to the respentive IEA research programmes was considered very valuable. Also the publishing and international dissemination of the research reports and papers in English is of high importance and should be even more effective. The main general recommendation for the future is to merge the two main research areas into one research programme dealing with the building and its systems as a unity.

  16. Canada [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has considerable natural resources and is one of the world's largest producers (ranking 5th) and exporters of energy. Since 1980, Canada's total energy production has almost doubled, reaching 486 Mtoe in 2006, while its total energy consumption has increased by only 44%. Almost all of Canada's energy exports go to the USA. In 2006, the largest source of energy consumption in Canada was oil (32%), followed by hydroelectricity (25%) and natural gas (24%). Both coal (10%) and nuclear (7%) constitute a smaller share of the country's overall energy mix. Electricity production in Canada has been dominated by hydroelectricity, with nuclear and fossil fuels holding a 15-25% share each over the past two decades. Canada has the second-largest petroleum deposits in the world (after Saudi Arabia). Its oil sands produce 1.3 million bbl/d of oil today, up from 600 000 bbl/d in 2000. But the development of oil sands projects has been sharply criticized for its impact on the environment and its intensive use of both water and natural gas. The growth in oil sands exploitation is one of the reasons that Canada has failed to contain its GHG emissions in recent years despite its commitment to do so.

  17. Technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology activities carried out by the EURATOM-ENEA Association concern the continuation of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) as well as the ITER activities coordinated by the ITER International Office and Fusion for Energy. Also included in the activities are design and RD under the Broader Approach Agreement between the EU and Japan. In order to better contribute to the programme a number of consortium agreements among the Associations are being signed. Collaboration with industries in view of their participation in the construction of ITER was further strengthened, mainly in the field of magnet and divertor components. The new European Test Blanket Facility at ENEA Brasimone was completed; the design of the ITER radial neutron camera was optimised and the performance achievable with the in-vessel viewing system was further assessed by experimental trials. Design activities for the JT-60SA magnet and power supply system as well as the design and experimental activities related to the target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility were continued. Significant work was done to define quality assurance for neutronics analyses. Mockups of the ITER pre-compression ring made in glass fibre epoxy were tested. The activities and results documented in the following illustrate ENEA's efforts to support fusion development

  18. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  19. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  20. Design of energy-efficient buildings using interaction between Building Simulation Programme and Energy Supply Simulations for District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Nagla, Inese

    demand density for which the connection to low-energy district heating networks is cost-effective and energy efficient. By using a dynamic energy simulation program for buildings it is possible to analyze the influence of the human behaviour for the building and link the results to the simulation program...... for district heating networks. The results show that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher peak loads than expected according to reference values in standardized calculation of energy demand pattern in energy-efficient buildings. The consequence is that in order to get...... results demonstrate that there is a large potential for distributing energy in areas with energy efficient buildings. As a measure for the feasibility of district heating, the linear heat density can be used as a representative value, and the results show that it is possible to supply heat with low-energy...

  1. Japan [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has shown tremendous economic growth in the post-war period and is now one of the world's leading industrial countries. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves and is the second-largest net importer of crude oil and largest net importer of liquefied natural gas in the world. Including nuclear power, Japan is only 16% energy self-sufficient (neglecting uranium imports). Japan's total primary energy demand in 2007 was 514 Mtoe. Oil is the most consumed energy resource in Japan (45% as of 2007), although its share of total energy consumption has strongly declined from 57% in 1990. Coal, with 22% (versus 17% in 1990), continues to account for a significant share of total energy consumption, although 99% of the coal must be imported. Natural gas (16%) and nuclear power (13%) are increasingly important sources. Total electricity production in Japan amounted to 1123 TW.h in 2007, with the largest share of 35% (up from 20% in 1990) from natural gas. The share of nuclear power is 32%, followed by coal (28%), oil (19%), hydro (9%) and other renewables (3%).

  2. Fruitful symbiosis: Why an export bundled with wind energy is the most feasible option for North African concentrated solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of generating electricity in North Africa using concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) has been around for some time now but has recently gained momentum through the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the formation of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. This paper argues that while the large-scale deployment of CSP in North Africa does not seem economically attractive for either European or African institutions or countries on their own at present, combining domestic use and electricity exports could be profitable for both parties. A detailed economic portfolio covering both solar and wind power plants can achieve competitive price levels, which would accelerate the diffusion of solar technology in North Africa. This portfolio could be financed partially by exporting electricity from solar thermal plants in North Africa via HVDC interconnections to European consumers. Sharing the costs in this way makes it possible to generate solar electricity for the domestic market at a reasonable cost. Some of the electricity produced from the solar power plants and wind parks in North Africa is sold on European energy markets in the form of a long-term contracted solar-wind portfolio, which would qualify for support from the financial incentive schemes of the European Member States (e.g. feed-in tariffs). This transfer of green electricity could help to meet the targets for energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the EU Member States as the new EU Directive of 2009 opened the European electricity market to imports from third states. - Research highlights: → This paper describes a feasible approach to financing a larger deployment of CSP in North Africa. → The proposed portfolio includes local consumption and electricity export to Europe. → Bundling wind with solar power as a business model for exporting solar electricity. → Prices of the solar-wind mix are competitive with other renewable energy sources. → Scenario outlook for the North African CSP

  3. Republic of Korea [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total primary energy consumption of the Republic of Korea in 2006 was 233 Mtoe (ranking ninth in the world), with 43% petroleum, 24% coal, 16% nuclear, 14% LNG, 2% renewables and 1% hydro. Energy consumption is expected to grow significantly in the future. The country lacks domestic energy resources and currently has to import 97% of its primary energy demand. The Republic of Korea is the sixth largest and fastest growing CO2 emitter of the OECD countries. The total installed electrical generation capacity is 61.4 GW(e), of which 17.5 GW(e) is from nuclear. As of 2006, 36% of the electricity was generated by nuclear, 38% by coal, 20% by LNG, 5% by petroleum and 1% by hydropower. The Republic of Korea is a small country with a high population density where the use of low-density renewable energies is limited and not a practicable solution. Commercial scale nuclear power generation started at the Kori-1 plant in 1978, and another 19 reactor units have since been built using a mixture of CANDU (4 reactors) and PWR (16 reactors) technologies. The total nuclear capacity amounts to 17.7 GW. Eight more plants are planned to come on-line in the period from 2010 to 2016, adding another 9.4 GW. According to the 'National Energy Basic Plan' of 2008, the share of nuclear in the primary energy should grow to 33% provided by 32 units. Nuclear power research in the Republic of Korea is very active with investigation into a variety of advanced reactors, including the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) small system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART), a 330 MW(th) pressurized water reactor with integral steam generators and advanced safety features, and designed for generating electricity (up to 100 MW(e)) and/or for thermal applications such as seawater desalination. Other advanced reactor concepts under development are a liquid metal fast/transmutation reactor and a high temperature hydrogen generation design.

  4. Proposal for a Federal Council decision on stipulating a research and development programme of the European Atomic Energy Community in the field of uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication deals in detail with the proposal for a Federal Council decision on stipulating a R + D programme of the European Atomic Energy Community in the field of uranium prospecting and mining (as 'Drucksache' 429/77 of the Bundesrat). (HK)

  5. Electric energy gun technology: status of the french-german-netherlands programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, W.J.; Jamet, F.

    1999-01-01

    Research and technology development is being performed jointly in six subprograms. Next to operational aspects and system studies, railgun, coilgun and electrothermal gun launch is investigated. To power these future gun weapon systems, research on both energy storage, switching, pulse forming netwo

  6. Russian Federation [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian Federation, one of the world's big energy superpowers, is rich in natural energy resources. It has the largest known natural gas reserves of any country on earth, representing 32% of the world's proven reserves. Furthermore, it has, with 157 billion t, the world's second largest coal reserves (10% of the explored coal reserves). The Russian Federation is the largest oil producer of the non-OPEC countries, and the second largest in the world after Saudi Arabia. It has the biggest oil shale reserves in Europe, equal to 35.47 billion t of shale oil. Last but not least, it possesses 8% of the proven uranium reserves. In recent years, the Russian Federation has identified the gas sector as being of key strategic importance. The share of natural gas as a primary energy source is remarkably high compared with the rest of world. Gazprom has a monopoly for the natural gas pipelines and has the exclusive rights to export natural gas, and thus controls their access to the European market. The total primary energy consumption in the Russian Federation was 665 Mtoe in 2007, down from 871 Mtoe in 1990, with 55% covered by natural gas, 20% by oil and 15% by coal. It is the world's fourth largest electricity producer after the USA, China and Japan. In 2007, it produced 1013 TW.h of electricity. Roughly 67% of the Russian Federation's electricity is generated by thermal plants, 17% by hydropower and 17% by nuclear reactors. The Russian Federation is the world's leading net energy exporter and a major supplier to the European Union. In the Russian Federation, about 40% of electric power and 85% of heat supply, mainly in cogeneration, is covered by regional power industries with power plant units of ∼300 MW(th).

  7. A digitizer based compact digital spectrometer for ion beam analysis using Field Programmable Gate Arrays and various energy algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Markus; Reinert, Tilo

    2013-08-01

    We report on the implementation of a compact multi-detector fully digital spectrometer and data acquisition system at a nuclear microprobe for ion beam analysis and imaging. The spectrometer design allows for system scalability with no restriction on the number of detectors. It consists of four-channel high-speed digitizer modules for detector signal acquisition and one low-speed digital-to-analog converter (DAC) module with two DAC channels and additional general purpose inputs∕outputs to control ion beam scanning and data acquisition. Each digitizer module of the spectrometer provides its own Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as digital signal processing unit to analyze detector signals as well as to synchronize the ion beam position in hard real-time. With the customized FPGA designs for all modules, all calculation intensive tasks are executed inside the modules, which reduces significantly the data stream to and CPU load on the control computer. To achieve an optimal energy resolution for all detector∕preamplifier pulse shape characteristics, a user-definable infinite impulse response filter with high throughput for energy determination was implemented. The new spectrometer has an online data analysis feature, a compact size, and is able to process any type of detector signals such as particle induced x-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, or scanning transmission ion microscopy. PMID:24007105

  8. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has long been interested in the use of nuclear energy for thermal power generation. After a period of apprenticeship and experiments, EDF launched a major PWR plant programme so as to reduce France's energy dependence and master generation costs. This programme, based on standardization, has achieved the desired results. It must now be adapted to suit the needs of the 21st century. For this programme, all those involved (Governmental authorities, EDF, manufacturers) were mobilized to an unprecedented extent and rigorous working methods were imposed. Experience feedback has been used to make improvements both to the installations themselves and to procedures. Results have proved satisfactory as regards nuclear safety but vigilance must be maintained. Public opinion on nuclear power is reserved we are sentenced to achieving a 'fault-free' track record, all the while mastering costs, so as to ensure the continuing use of nuclear energy. (author)

  9. Expressing determination: From ENS programme 'Women and nuclear energy' to WIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIN is an international association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application and willing to devote time to public information. It is established as non-profit making. WIN'S working language is English. WIN aims to contribute to objectively informing the public, especially women, on nuclear energy and radiation, in particular by: meeting regularly to exchange ideas and experiences between countries' WIN information groups, establishing country WIN groups in nuclear countries as widely as practical, supporting each other across borders, working out shared information techniques and information materials for international use. WIN is open to female nuclear and radiation professionals and academics as well as communications specialists, from all over the world, pledged to adhere to the goals of this Charter. The first WINFO Quarterly Newsletter of Women in Nuclear has been published

  10. Municipal programs of photovoltaic energy development; Les programmes municipaux de developpement du photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This study presents some remarkable actions carried out in several European municipalities for the promotion and development of photovoltaic applications: installation of solar cells on public buildings, integration of the photovoltaic energy in the urban plan, application in the transportation sector, programs of public information, of promotion, of incitation, of financing, solar electricity trade, promotion of the 'green current'. After a presentation of the general situation of photovoltaic energy in Europe, and of its development in France, nine case-forms present the experience of nine selected European cities in this domain (Amersfoort (NL), Barcelona (ES), Braedstrup (DK), Karlsruhe (DE), Lausanne (CH), Mataro (ES), Muenchen (ES), Palermo (IT), Zurich (CH)). (J.S.)

  11. Economic Instruments for a Socially Neutral Nationl Home Energy Efficiency Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Dresner and Paul Ekins

    2004-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was conducted under the project 'The Social Impacts of Environmental Taxes: Removing Regressivity', funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation under its Prograamme on Environment and Social Concerns. The project is investigating the socil implications of environmental txtes and charges in realtion to four environment issues - the household use of energy, water and transport, and the generation of waste. The is a report of the component on the household use of...

  12. Financing energy SMEs in Ghana and Senegal: Outcomes, barriers and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the findings of primary research carried out in Ghana and Senegal, which revisited the main assumptions behind the African Rural Energy Enterprise Development (AREED) initiative (2002–2012), and other donor-backed programmes, designed to promote small and medium-sized energy ......-backed programmes, could in turn influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability....

  13. 2006-2007 Academic training programme: QCD and high energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 7, 8, 9 May 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500 on 7 and 8 May, Council Chamber on 9 May QCD and high energy nuclear collisions D. Kharzeev, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA Six years ago, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven started colliding heavy nuclei at record center-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV/nucleon. Very soon, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will push the energy of the ions to an astounding 5 TeV/nucleon. What can be learnt from the experiments at these machines? What do we know about the physics of super--dense matter already? I will argue that heavy ion accelerators bring us to the new frontiers of physical knowledge by creating strong color fields and very high densities of partons, at which qualitatively new phenomena emerge. I will also discuss the cross-disciplinary implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and connections to condensed matter physics.

  14. 2006-2007 Academic training programme: QCD and high energy nuclear collision

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 7, 8, 9 May QCD and high energy nuclear collisions D. Kharzeev, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500 on 7 and 8 May, Council Chamber on 9 May Six years ago, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven started colliding heavy nuclei at record center-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV/nucleon. Very soon, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will push the energy of the ions to an astounding 5 TeV/nucleon. What can be learnt from the experiments at these machines? What do we know about the physics of super--dense matter already? I will argue that heavy ion accelerators bring us to the new frontiers of physical knowledge by creating strong color fields and very high densities of partons, at which qualitatively new phenomena emerge. I will also discuss the cross-disciplinary implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and connections to condensed matter physics.

  15. Energy Policies of South Africa. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive study of the South African energy sector provides policy analysis and recommendations, with detailed descriptions and data for all forms of energy. Issues such as energy supply and demand, efficiency and the environment are also examined. The IEA conducted this review at the request of the South African Government, which is preparing a new energy policy in support of its Reconstruction and Development Programme to promote social equity, economic growth and environmental sustaining. The report also identifies investment opportunities and areas for technical assistance in the energy field. (author). 21 figs., 59 tabs., 8 maps

  16. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003; Programme 'Solaire actif - Chaleur et Stockage de chaleur'. Activites et projets en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadorn, J.-C. [Base Consultants, Geneva (Switzerland); Renaud, P. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD

  17. The ERP-energy saving programme - promotion of wind energy plants in Germany; ERP-Energiesparprogramm - Foerderung von Windkraftanlagen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beland, J. [VESTAS Deutschland GmbH, Husum (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    An overview of conditions of Deutsche Ausgleichsbank that need to be fulfilled in order to obtain loans under the ERP-programme. (HW) [Deutsch] Bericht ueber die Vergabebedingungen der Deutschen Ausgleichsbank zur Kreditgewaehrung innerhalb des ERP-Programms. (HW)

  18. Wind energy and spatial planning procedures; La programmation spatiale des projects eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Wind turbines projects have been increasing, but some are very conflicted. May be it is a reason why some local authorities have to deal with different point of view, above the only energy question and including local specificity. To give local authorities the possibility to be implicated and to be in control of wind projects in their territory, wind spatial planning should permit to choose suitable areas and to optimize wind power development. In this context this synthesis presents the wind spatial planning in Finistere (France), the french regulation, some international experiences (Danish, Flemish, Walloon region, Dutch) and the different approaches of spatial planning. (A.L.B.)

  19. Energy Research 2006 - Overview; Recherche energetique/Energie-Forschung 2006. Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme/Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2006 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and fundamentals of energy economics. Under the topic of efficient energy use, new planning tools and a building component catalogue are mentioned along with new developments in building technology. In the traffic area, energy-optimisation of components and drive systems are mentioned as are electric bikes and a taxi system running on tracks. High-temperature superconductors, permanent magnet motors along with alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. New electricity grid systems and energy hubs are reported on. In the heat pump area, hot-water preparation, quality assurance and magnetic heat pumps are listed. Combustion topics reviewed include large diesel engines and catalytic oxidation in gas turbines. The new 'Power Station 2020' program is introduced with combined heat and power stations and efficient gas turbines. Fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage are looked at, as are process integration topics in the industrial area. Renewable energy topics described include design software and testing systems for solar heating systems, thin-film photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy and solar production of hydrogen. Biomass and wood-fuel topics are covered, including the gasification of biomass. Cost reduction in small-scale hydro schemes is reported on as are hydropower schemes using drinking water and waste water. Geothermal energy and deep-heat mining are reported on, as is the use of geothermal probes for heating and cooling. Research and field testing done in the wind-energy area and the social acceptance of such installations are presented. In the nuclear energy area, safety and waste disposal issues are covered, as are a future reactor generation, safety

  20. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Lagou, Vasiliki; Gutin, Bernard; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake s

  1. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author)

  2. Progress report on case studies carried out within the United Nations Development Programme for Asian Co-operation on Energy and the Environment (PACE-E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of energy-environmental planning (EEP) in the framework of the Programme for Asian Co-operation on Energy and the Environment (PACE-E) is the enhancement of the environmental perspectives in energy planning and policy making in the developing countries of Asia. Three immediate objectives can be mentioned: (1) the strengthening of energy-environmental databases in Asia; (2) the development and application of innovative and effective energy impact assessment methodologies; and (3) the identification of suitable institutional structure that will result in a more transparent treatment of energy-environmental concerns in national energy plans and in subsectoral (e.g. coal, natural gas) development strategies. In the framework of Programme Element I, three sub-activities, to be executed by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), have been proposed: the main objective of EEP1 is to strengthen the capacities of the methodologies of survey and sample design and the techniques of data processing. The main objective of EEP2 is to assist in the application of methods and tools of sectoral energy demand analysis and scenario building to evaluate energy conservation and fuel switching potentials. The EEP3 activities will consist of the review and application of methodologies and procedures for integrating environmental considerations into energy planning and policy analysis. The direct recipients of this programme will be policy makers, administrators and technicians from 20 Asian countries dealing with energy and environmental planning and management. The paper presents an overview of the implementation and first results of the various sub-activities of the EEP element of PACE-E executed by ESCAP and implemented by the Energy Planning Central Consultant Team of the Asian Institute of Technology. (author). 18 refs

  3. Carbon emissions, energy consumption and output: A threshold analysis on the causal dynamics in emerging African economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the recent global economic downturn, attention has gradually shifted towards emerging economies which have experienced robust growth amidst sluggish growth of the world economy. A significant number of these emerging economies are in Africa. Rising growth in these economies is associated with surging demand for energy to propel the engines of growth, with direct implications on emissions into the atmosphere. Further, these economies are constantly being shaped by series of structural reforms with direct and indirect effects on growth, demand for energy, etc. To this end, this paper examines the causal dynamics among energy use, real GDP and CO2 emissions in the presence of regime shifts in six emerging African economies using the Gregory and Hansen (1996a). J. Econ. 70, 99–126 threshold cointegration and the Toda and Yamamoto (1995). J. Econometrics. 66, 225–250 Granger causality techniques. Results confirm the presence of regime shift effects in the long run inter-linkages among energy use, real GDP and CO2 emissions in the countries considered, thus indicating that structural changes have both economic and environmental effects. Hence, integration of energy and environmental policies into development plans is imperative towards attaining sustainable growth and development. - Highlights: • The paper examines the causal dynamics among output, energy demand and carbon emissions in the presence of regime shifts. • Regime shift have significant effects on the nexus among energy use, real GDP and CO2 emissions. • Results suggest that structural changes in selected countries have both economic and environmental effects. • Integration of energy and environmental policies into development plans is desirable

  4. New energy technologies. Research program proposition; Nouvelles technologies de l'energie. Proposition de programme de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the most promising program propositions of research and development and the public financing needed for their realization. The concerned technologies are: the hydrogen and the fuel cell PAN-H, the separation and the storage of the CO{sub 2}, the photovoltaic solar electricity, the PREBAT program of the building energy recovery and the bio-energies. (A.L.B.)

  5. African customer is Sun King. Enormous market for solar energy in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is given in the enormous market for solar energy in Africa. Special attention is paid to one of the leaders in the market for solar energy: Free Energy Europe in Eindhoven, Netherlands. 3 refs

  6. A quantitative assessment of safety culture as part of the national programme on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper seeks to give practical value to the concept of Safety Culture, proposing a method that may be used to judge the effectiveness of Safety Culture in all phases of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper describes the quantification of the Safety Culture assessment on statistical basis. The safety culture assessment is based on the IAEA ASCOT (Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizing Team) Guidelines. This Procedural Guide, used as an instrumental tool in addition to 'ASCOT Guidelines', could improve the ASCOT reviews and permit to give more accurate and objective conclusions at the end of these reviews. It would also reveal areas needing improvements, giving an overall rating of the Safety Culture level, which could be compared with a new result after implementing some corrective measures. This method could be applied in all phases of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (mining, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage, conditioning of spent fuel, final disposal of spent fuel, heavy water production, transport, etc.) and should be an all embracing characteristics which, when prevailing in a satisfactory measure, would eliminate accidents and reduce incidents to insignificant levels. Included as an Annex to the National Program on Nuclear Energy, the proposed method could contribute to the improvement of Safety Culture in all phases of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and at all levels. (author)

  7. Status report on the implementation of the integrated energy and climate protection programme of the German government; Statusbericht zur Umsetzung des Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramms der Bundesregierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Diana; Wachsmann, Ulrike

    2011-04-15

    The German government has committed itself to a 40 percent reduction of climate-relevant gases by 2020, as compared to 1990. In 2007, the government presented an integrated energy and climate protection programme (IEKP) with a catalogue of measures to achieve this goal. The IEKP was to be revised from 2010 by monitoring every two years. If the monitoring were to show that the CO2 reduction goal could not be achieved by the measures taken, suggestions will be made on how to improve CO2 reduction technologies. This study, carried out on behalf of the Federal Minister of Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety, presents a data base for this monitoring. It is based on work carried out by the Federal Environmental Office, the BMU, and other institutions. (orig.)

  8. Wholesomeness and Public Health Research in the United States Atomic Energy Commission Food Irradiation Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the biological safety of foods which are of interest to the Atomic Energy Commission's irradiated food program, studies have been sponsored by the Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine since 1961. Wholesomeness, microbiological and biochemical studies have been undertaken with a view to complementing data derived from developmental, economic and technological research studies sponsored by the Commission's Division of Isotopes Development. When these aspects appear feasible for specific low-dose irradiated foods, studies are initiated to provide relevant data required by the United States Food and Drug Administration before final judgements can be made on petitions for unlimited human consumption. Toxicity studies on several species of animals which are fed diets containing up to 35° (dry solids basis) of the irradiated food in question have been included in this program. Investigations of two years duration on animals (rats, dogs and chickens) provide data concerning food consumption, growth rate, enzyme systems, haematology, gross pathology and histopathology. Shorter-term studies of a confirmatory nature on two animal species (rat and dog) are employed in certain cases when the irradiated food in question is sufficiently related to foods which have previously undergone long-term toxicity studies. Results to date of chronic toxicity studies on soft-shell clams and subacute toxicity studies on strawberries, apples, pears, sweet cherries, apricots, plums and onions are discussed. Microbiological studies have been concentrated primarily on potentially pathogenic organisms. Studies have been in progress to evaluate carefully the conditions governing radiation and heat resistance, sporulation, outgrowth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum Type E. The natural incidence of Type E organisms in certain marine products and ocean environments is being investigated. Findings in the microbiological studies are discussed. Studies to date have

  9. ADS National Programmes: France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies related to nuclear reactors and radioactive waste started at the French National Centre for Scientific research, CNRS, as a result of the French law on radioactive waste that was published in 1991. They were initially organized around the programme PACE (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle Electronucléaire = physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle), which became PACEN (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle et production d’Energie Nucléaire = Physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear energy) in 2006. Research on accelerator driven systems was from the beginning part of this programme. This research is mainly funded by the National Institute for Nuclear end Particle Physics (IN2P3) of CNRS and within the EURATOM European programmes (FP5, 6 and 7). The programme took place in several stages, and covered various scientific fields, benefitting from expertise of CNRS in the field. More specifically, it aimed and still aims to: – Test and verify the feasibility and design of the ADS concept, in terms of neutronics, physics of materials, design of the accelerator and tests of its prototypical components that have been built (or are at present under construction); – Measure and-or improve nuclear data related to radioactive waste transmutation. Today, most of the activities in support to ADS development carried out by CNRS focus on accelerator developments, GUINEVERE (Generator of Uninterrupted Intense NEutron at the lead VEnus REactor) experiment, ADS core studies, deployment scenarios and nuclear data measurements. The CEA R&D programmes on ADS are mainly focused on the European project EUROTRANS of the 6th Framework programme (2005–2010) and continued in the FREYA project of the 7th Framework Programme

  10. A programme for dose quality audits for high-energy radiotherapy beams in non-reference conditions in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Dose quality audits for high energy radiotherapy beams in non-reference conditions', the External Audit Group (EAG) of Argentina is running a programme in order to offer a service of TLD audits. This programme involves several steps, some of which are currently being performed: acquisition and characterization of a new PTW PCL3 reader; processing of TLD powder and determination of calibration, fading, linearity, energy and holder correction factors; dose audit in non-reference conditions, on axis and off axis, for high energy photon beams; dose audit in reference and non-reference on axis for high energy electron beams. A new reader PTW PCL3 was acquired, including a manual dispenser for TLD powder, an oven FIMEL ETT for TLD annealing, and a number of cupels to dispense the powder. The powder in use is TLD100 LiF(Mg,Ti), Rexon TLD Systems, 80-200 mesh. The characterization included the intensive operator training in loading powder in polyethylene capsules and dispensing aliquots of powder in the cupels. The cupels were weighed and a selection was made under the criteria of 2 SD in order to reduce the final uncertainty. The mass of aliquots is dependent on total mass of powder loaded in the dispenser, i. e. the mass of powder loaded in each capsule. In order to reduce the standard deviation of readings in each capsules the environmental conditions of room, the stabilization time and other requirements were established prior to starting the reading sessions. Following careful procedures, the readings showed a standard deviation of 0.6% for four readings per capsule. The annealing procedure is as recommended in the literature: 1 h at 400 deg. C and 24 h at 80 deg. C. The powder annealed is sieved using 80 and 200 mesh sieve. Fading shows a variation of 4.5% in the first 20 days with stable behaviour after this time. The linearity correction factor varies from 1.016 at 1.5Gy to 0.982 at 2.5Gy. The energy

  11. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarises the fast reactor research carried out at the Netherlands Energy Research Centre during the year 1981. The neutron and fission product cross sections of various isotopes have been evaluated. In the fuel performance programme, some preliminary results are given and irradiation facilities described. Creep experiments on various stainless steel components are reported

  12. Programme Energy and CO2 and Year Plan 2013; Programma Energie en CO2 en Jaarplan 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekharst, P.; Medema, D.; Dijkshoorn, A.

    2012-10-15

    Less energy, less CO2 emissions and use of renewable energy sources,are important aspects in the sustainable development of horticulture, strengthening its competitiveness and image. Carbon neutral production and transport is needed to really be sustainable. The program describes an approach for the period 2013-2016, giving concrete results for the year 2013 [Dutch] Minder energiegebruik, minder CO2 uitstoten en meer hernieuwbare energiebronnen inzetten; dat zijn belangrijke aspecten in een duurzame ontwikkeling van de tuinbouw, het versterken van haar concurrentiekracht en imago. Klimaatneutraal produceren en vervoeren is uiteindelijke nodig om echt duurzaam te zijn. Het programma beschrijft een aanpak voor 2013 t/m 2016, waarbij voor 2013 de gewenste resultaten concreet worden benoemd.

  13. Design of energy-efficient buildings using interaction between Building Simulation Programme and Energy Supply Simulations for District Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Nagla, Inese

    2012-01-01

    Building design must evolve from today's practice – where the individual building parts are optimized separately – into a future where the whole building, including all installed systems, is optimized by integrating innovative technologies that will furthermore make the building itself an active part of the total energy system. Integrated design is a design process informed by multidisciplinary knowledge, where different software plays an important role in the designing process. Numerous simu...

  14. Monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's 1992 report on its programme of monitoring radioactive substances is presented. Site operators' returns are verified and the report provides independent data on the environmental impact of authorized disposal of radioactive wastes. Radiation doses which may have been received by members of the public, fall well below the International Commission for Radiological Protection's (ICRP) recommended annual doses. (UK)

  15. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. Swedish country study report. Covering the EKO-Energi programme. With case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaagstroem, Jonas; Aastrand, Kerstin; Helby, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The VAIE research project is concerned with voluntary agreements for improvement of industrial energy efficiency in five European countries. This national report deals with the Swedish EKO-Energi agreements. It includes case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing. The first chapter presents the principal aspects of the Swedish EKO-Energi programme, explains the selection of companies for case studies, and summarises the results of the national study. The chapter shows the EKO-Energi programme to be directed at a fairly exclusive part of Swedish industry, namely environmental front-runners striving for EMAS or ISO 14001 certification. It provides them with paid energy audits and with marketing support. It requires them to establish an energy management system, i.e. to include energy efficiency issues in their certification process. The agreements are 'soft' in the sense that they address mainly organisational issues, are based much on trust in the companies own dedication to improvement, and are very informal in the monitoring. On the balance, the EKO-Energi programme would seem to be a small, but reasonably effective programme, contributing particularly to such organisational developments as are important for long-term trends in industrial energy efficiency. The second chapter provides a brief introduction to the whole VAIE project and outlines the methodology of the study, explained in more detail in a separate report. The third chapter describes the progress of the EKO-Energi programme from policy formulation to implementation, and assesses a number of hypotheses concerning this process. Support is found for the hypotheses (a) that voluntary agreements tend to exclude the influence of third parties, (b) that they tend to continue the logic of previous policies, and (c) that expected short term energy savings tend to be very close to the baseline scenario. The fourth chapter describes how agreements with individual companies are made

  16. The energy-political programmes of the parties in the State Parliament of Sachsen-Anhalt prior to the State election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first in a series of articles taking a close look at the essential statements in the energy and environmental policy programmes of the politically relevant parties and comparing them with one another. The series begins with the political programmes of the parties represented in the State Parliament of Sachsen-Anhalt (where an election is forthcoming on June 26, 1994), as submitted to the editor of this journal in answer to his inquiry. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of the most important geographical and energy-economic data and the range of political parties in this State Parliament in order to illustrate the boundary conditions. (orig./UA)

  17. CASINDO Programme Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K.; Bole-Rentel, T.; Saidi, R. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Netherlands, Leusden (Netherlands); Winarno, Oetomo Tri [Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Permana, Iman [Technical Education Development Centre, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2012-06-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. CASINDO stands for Capacity development and strenghtening for energy policy formulation adn implementation of sustainable energy projects in Indonesia.

  18. An international peer review of the biosphere modelling programme of the US Department of Energy's Yucca mountain site characterization project. Report of the IAEA International Review Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has a project for characterizing the site of a facility for disposing of radioactive waste located at Yucca Mountain Nevada, USA (the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project). This Project has developed an approach for assessing the future potential impact of any releases of radionuclides to the biosphere from a potential disposal facility sited at Yucca Mountain The DOE requested the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to organize an independent international expert review of the assessment methodology being used in its biosphere modelling programme. The IAEA accepted the request in the context of its statutory obligation to provide for the application of its established international standards of safety for the protection of health, at the request of a State, to any of that State's activities in the field of atomic energy. The terms of reference of the peer review were to review the biosphere assessment methodology being used for the total system performance assessment of the potential disposal facility. The main purpose was to analyze critically the proposed rationale and methodology and to identify consistencies and inconsistencies between methods being used in the frame of the Project and those established in international standards or in international programmes such as the IAEA's Biosphere Modelling and Assessment Programme (BIOMASS). This report presents the consensus view of the international experts convened by the IAEA for carrying out the review

  19. Summary of the co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes the Co-ordinated Research Programme to improve the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock (the only other vector-borne disease studied was tropical theileriosis). The main objectives of the programme were to develop and validate enzyme immunoassay methods for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis and to use these methods to monitor and improve the effectiveness of trypanosomiasis and/or tsetse control programmes in the African region. 4 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Technology Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  1. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  2. Effect of thermal energy storage in energy consumption required for air conditioning system in office building under the African Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgalil Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the African Mediterranean countries, cooling demand constitutes a large proportion of total electrical demand for office buildings during peak hours. The thermal energy storage systems can be an alternative method to be utilized to reduce and time shift the electrical load of air conditioning from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, the Hourly Analysis Program has been used to estimate the cooling load profile for an office building based in Tripoli weather data conditions. Preliminary study was performed in order to define the most suitable operating strategies of ice thermal storage, including partial (load leveling and demand limiting, full storage and conventional A/C system. Then, the mathematical model of heat transfer for external ice storage would be based on the operating strategy which achieves the lowest energy consumption. Results indicate that the largest rate of energy consumption occurs when the conventional system is applied to the building, while the lowest rate of energy consumption is obtained when the partial storage (demand limiting 60% is applied. Analysis of results shows that the new layer of ice formed on the surface of the existing ice lead to an increase of thermal resistance of heat transfer, which in return decreased cooling capacity.

  3. PROGEOTHERM - National program for the development of geothermal energy in Switzerland - Final report; PROGEOTHERM - Programme national de developpement de la geothermie en Suisse - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the current situation with respect to the use of geothermal energy in Switzerland and the problems faced. Action to be taken is examined. The report proposes that specialised further education, including the setting up of a Master of Advanced Studies course at the University of Neuchatel and support for courses at Universities of Applied Sciences. Research and development in the geothermal area and support for pilot and demonstration installations, new machinery and exploration methods are proposed. Also, political, organisational and financial aspects of the support programme are discussed.

  4. Nuclear waste management programme 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies (YJT) founded by nuclear energy producing Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management. In YJT's Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1995, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of IVO and TVO is given as required by the sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, the nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. The nuclear waste management research programme for the year 1996 and more generally for the years 1997-2000 is presented. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

  5. Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies (YJT), founded by nuclear energy producing Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima (TVO), coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management. In YJT's Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1993, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of IVO and TVO is given as required by the sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, the nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. Then the nuclear waste management research programme for the year 1993 and more generally for the years 1994-1997 is presented

  6. Nuclear waste management programme 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies (YJT), founded by nuclear energy producing Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management. In YJT's Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1994, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of IVO and TVO is given as required by the sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, the nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. The the nuclear waste management research programme for the year 1994 and more generally for the years 1995-1997 is presented. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  7. Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies (YJT), founded by nuclear energy producing Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management. In YJT's Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1992, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of IVO and TVO is given as required by the Sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, the nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. Then the nuclear waste management research programme for the year 1992 and more generally for the years 1993 - 1996 is presented. (author)

  8. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Duvier, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Qin, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  9. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  10. Energy as a tool for sustainable development for African, Caribbean and Pacific countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy plays a critical role in sustainable human development. It impacts on poverty, population, health, the environment, investment in industrial and agricultural development, foreign exchange and even security; it also has a strong gender implication. Policies aimed at providing energy services in a sustainable manner open doors to the achievement of a wide array of other development goals. However, the manner in which the world currently produces and consumes energy is unsustainable. A key challenge is to incorporate strategies to limit the potential negative impact of human activity on the global climate. Recognising these issues, national governments, bilateral co-operation agencies, and international development institutions have made efforts to promote the provision of energy services in ways which contribute to sustainable development. However, a number of barriers continue to limit the adoption of existing options. Building on the 1997 UNDP publication, Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges, the present report analyses the energy situation of two particular country groupings of global interest, Sub-Saharan Africa and ACP Small Island Developing States. It goes on to identify the actions required by different role-players to increase the adoption of sustainable energy options in these two groups. This publication is the result of a joint EC/UNDP initiative which aims to intensify the global dialogue on sustainable energy issues and to provide a basis for future concrete cooperation activities. It is the intention of the report to support developing countries in implementing more effectively the objectives of Agenda 21, and to contribute to the follow up to the Rio Earth Summit and the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in preparation for its 9th Session in 2001. Coming at a critical time in the work of the European Commission, with the ongoing negotiation of a new framework development agreement to replace Lome IV, the report is an

  11. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:26635224

  12. Study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a tailored energy balance programme for recent retirees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, A.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Kwak, L.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    Background - People in transitional life stages, such as occupational retirement, are likely to gain weight and accumulate abdominal fat mass caused by changes in physical activity and diet. Hence, retirees are an important target group for weight gain prevention programmes, as described in the pres

  13. The Italian hydrogen programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen could become an important option in the new millennium. It provides the potential for a sustainable energy system as it can be used to meet most energy needs without harming the environment. In fact, hydrogen has the potential for contributing to the reduction of climate-changing emissions and other air pollutants as it exhibits clean combustion with no carbon or sulphur oxide emissions and very low nitrogen oxide emissions. Furthermore, it is capable of direct conversion to electricity in systems such as fuel cells without generating pollution. However, widespread use of hydrogen is not feasible today because of economic and technological barriers. In Italy, there is an ongoing national programme to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This programme aims to promote, in an organic frame, a series of actions regarding the whole hydrogen cycle. It foresees the development of technologies in the areas of production, storage, transport and utilisation. Research addresses the development of technologies for separation and sequestration of CO2, The programme is shared by public organisations (research institutions and universities) and national industry (oil companies, electric and gas utilities and research institutions). Hydrogen can be used as a fuel, with significant advantages, both for electric energy generation/ co-generation (thermo-dynamic cycles and fuel cells) and transportation (internal combustion engine and fuel cells). One focus of research will be the development of fuel cell technologies. Fuel cells possess all necessary characteristics to be a key technology in a future economy based on hydrogen. During the initial phase of the project, hydrogen will be derived from fossil sources (natural gas), and in the second phase it will be generated from renewable electricity or nuclear energy. The presentation will provide a review of the hydrogen programme and highlight future goals. (author)

  14. Conventional energy supply and impacts in African cities; L'approvisionnement en energie traditionnelle et impacts dans les villes africaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2002-03-01

    Before discussing supplies of conventional energy in sub-Sahara, one must consider certain information and important facts. In each country, the supplies in conventional energy are moving within a holistic frame with inter sectoral links between energy and the other problems encountered by national economies: forestry, agriculture, livestock production, demography, urbanization, poverty. In this light, the author indicated it might be wise to take into account a few major facts that underlay the Urban Demand in Domestic Combustibles before devising sustainable solutions. It was explained that in most of the African countries located South of the Sahara, there was a trend toward greater urbanization and the movement of refugees. In large part, these trends are the result of poverty, conflicts, or the degradation of the environment. Therefore, it follows that energy consumption is concentrated in cities. In countries such as Burkina Faso or Zambia, a large proportion of urban dwellers still rely on biomass to meet their culinary needs, as well as heating and other tasks. Urbanization occurred in an anarchic manner, and the forests that used to encircle cities are fast disappearing, leaving in their wake pollution. In addition, the supply sources of biomass are farther than ever. Nowadays, the supply of wood energy for Dakar, the capital of Senegal, extends over an area covering 500 kilometres, rather than the 100 kilometres it required thirty years ago. Wood energy in cities is considered to be the major cause of deforestation. Health problems such as asthma are caused by the smoke emanating from the fires used to cook meals. A few solutions are beginning to emerge, linked to the presence of youth and women in the cities, as well as sufficient manpower to implement the solutions. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Energy supply for African populations not connected to the grid: diagnosis, solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the supply of domestic fuels in cities and electrification of rural or suburban areas are the poor relations in energy policies of developing countries, the author first proposes a diagnosis of these both issues. He proposes an overview of the historical evolution by discussing the effects of demographic growth and economic and financial crisis. He analyses some characteristics of the concerned population: geographical distribution, energy sources, interaction between urban and rural areas. He highlights the importance and challenges of the off-network energy supply: demographic, economic, social, environmental, and climatic aspects. In the second part, the authors addresses possible solutions by distinguishing biomass (for domestic, craftsmanship and small industry applications) and electrification (for public lighting, television, telephony, and low power motorization). Thus, he first addresses issues related to biomass and some other fuels: management and growth of wood fire production and improvement of its exploitation, measures for biomass saving, energy sources of substitution such as gas. Then, he discusses the possibilities and perspectives of rural centralised and decentralised electrification

  16. VOLUNTARY WORK AMONG IMMIGRANTS IN HELSINKI : THE ROLES OF AFRICANS AND AFRICAN-EUROPEANS ASSOCIATION (AFAES RY)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodeji, Sunday Abel

    2013-01-01

    Ayodeji Sunday Abel. Voluntary work among immigrants in Helsinki, The roles of Africans and African-Europeans Association (AFAES RY). Langauge: English. Spring 2013. 52 pages. 3 appendixes. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree: Programme in Social Services. Bachelor of Social Services. ...

  17. Energy research programme 'Combustion 2008-2011'; Energieforschungsprogramm 'Verbrennung' fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, S.

    2009-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swiss combustion research programme for the period 2008-2011. The importance of combustion as an important process for the transformation of various energy carriers into useful forms of energy is noted. Also, the authors note that the burning of fossil fuels uses up a valuable resource and produces CO{sub 2} and fine dust. Swiss combustion research is noted as being internationally recognised. The report discusses improved research methods and instruments, increasing system efficiency, the reduction of emissions and the use of various energy carriers. The six main activities for the period 2008-2011 are introduced. Also national and international co-operation is noted. Technical and economic goals are also discussed, as is the funding of combustion research.

  18. 2012 international year for sustainable energy for all: African Frontrunnership in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012 has been declared the “International Year for Sustainable Energy for All” by the UN. While Africa remains the most ‘underpowered’ continent, the prognosis for a brighter future is looking good, as key stakeholders (governments, private sector, civil society, and the donor community) have mobilized at an unprecedented scale to experiment with new policies, regulatory frameworks, and business models to rapidly upscale access to sustainable energy. The top-down, central grid expansion approach to increasing electricity access is very capital intensive and yet has gained considerable momentum at the expense of lower cost options that utilize decentralized off-grid solutions. A decentralized bottom-up approach could also use indigenous renewable energy sources and foster more significant linkages with livelihood opportunities in the rural un-served territories. This paper evaluates the emerging experiments through the lenses of C.K. Prahalad's “bottom of the pyramid” theory and Clayton Christensen's “disruptive technologies” perspective. Three front-runner initiatives involving new business models, innovative technologies, and institutional capacity building will be analyzed. In addition, the paper examines a regulatory policy initiative designed to stimulate clean energy investments in Ghana. Though the examples are all from Ghana, they illustrate general challenges to sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. - Highlights: ► An analysis of innovative electricity access case studies from Ghana. ► Off-grid electrification options are keys to expanding electricity access in Africa. ► Base of the pyramid strategies for rural electrification has a niche in Africa. ► International collaboration will be crucial to achieve universal electricity access.

  19. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  20. The prospective United Kingdom nuclear energy programme up to 2000 AD and the UKAEA's role and manpower requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper begins by surveying the development of the United Kingdom nuclear industry, its organization in both the public and private sectors of the economy, and changes in the numbers employed up to the present day. The possible future nuclear programme and overall manpower needs, and the UKAEA's role and manpower requirements within this programme, are outlined. Manpower problems arising from national shortages of engineers and technicians and reviews of arrangements for their education and training, and also from the pattern of historical development of the UKAEA, are described. UKAEA arrangements for formulating and implementing personnel policies, current policies for recruitment, carrier management and in-service training and their relationship to present and future needs are then discussed. The final section draws attention to UKAEA facilities for the training of staff from other organizations in the United Kingdom and from overseas. (author)

  1. Vindforsk-II. An evaluation of the Wind Energy Programme from the Industry's point of view; Vindforsk-II. En utvaerdering av programmet utifraan ett industrinyttoperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Tommy; Segerpalm, Henrik

    2008-06-15

    This evaluation of the three-year research programme Vindforsk-II has been carried out from the perspectives of industrial value perspective and scientific merit. Two international experts, Hannele Holttinen, VTT, Finland, and Martin O L Hansen, DTU, Denmark, have been responsible for the scientific evaluation. Faugert and Co Utvaerdering AB have carried out the evaluation focusing on industrial value, coordinated the two evaluations and written this report. Vindforsk-II consists of two parts, one for basic and one for applied research projects. The goal of the programme is to produce knowledge that makes the development of wind energy and grid integration easier. The programme shall contribute to a wind sector that is increasingly competitive and that wind energy significantly contributes to the Swedish energy supply. The basic research is exclusively financed by the Swedish Energy Agency, which also finances 40% of the budget for applied research projects. The remaining 60% is financed by the Swedish energy sector, through individual contracts between each company and the programme. Vindforsk-II is a national research programme for wind energy, and in this combination lies its added value to the financiers and recipients of the programme in comparison to other RandD programmes in this area. The programme is a national endeavour focusing on basic and applied wind energy research and this makes it different from other programmes such as Vindval or Elektra. The general impression is that the three programmes are complementary rather than competitors. By being a national research programme in this area, Vindforsk-II assists in highlighting the importance of wind energy. This research programme appears important and creates valuable knowledge in the areas where it is present. The programme is a welcome addition to the research activities the bigger financiers themselves carry out, and by financing the programme and being a member of its board they can influence the

  2. Changing Behaviour to Save Energy: ICT-Based Surveillance for a Low-Carbon Economy in the Seventh Framework Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Cakici, Baki; Bylund, Markus

    2014-01-01

    In research and development of information and communication technologies for sustainability, there is a strong belief that human behaviour can be monitored at the individual level to generate different signals, and that these signals can be used to influence individuals to behave differently. We analyse Seventh Framework Programme policy documents published by the European Commission, and descriptions of research projects granted funding from it, to highlight the uncritical development and a...

  3. Nuclear programme in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the energy policy covers several aspects such as issuance of regulations, standards, energy pricing incentives and disincentives, and the application of appropriate technologies. The policies and implementation of the technologies can fully be supported by the use of nuclear technology, especially toward the now popular issue concerning the environment. In view of these policies and the need to implement these policies. i.e. for the diversification of energy and environmental concern, the Department of Mines and Energy has established an Indonesian Energy Coordination Board (BAKOREN). This board has realised the importance of considering nuclear as a source of energy, which has led to a decision in September 1989, for The National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) to conduct a feasibility study to introduce nuclear power plants in Indonesia. The establishment of an authority for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, which is primarily related to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, must also be prepared. This authority is still under considerations by the Indonesian Government. In implementing the Indonesia Nuclear Programme, it is important that cooperation exists among countries of the world, Korea, in this respect, as learning from experiences of other countries are very necessary to plan for a successful Nuclear Programme

  4. ISOLDE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Fedosseev, V; Lynch, K M; Grob, L K; Herfurth, F; Scheidenberger, C; Geppert, C; Gorges, C; Ratajczyk, T; Vogel, S; Munch, M K; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J J A; Lecesne, N; Bouzomita, H; Grinyer, J; Marques moreno, F M; Parlog, M; Blank, B A; Pedroza, J; Ghetta, V; Guillemaud mueller, D S; Cottereau, E; Cheikh mhamed, M; Tusseau nenez, S; Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Smith, A G; Fitzpatrick, C; Dominik, W M; Karny, M; Ciemny, A A; Nyman, G H; Thies, R M A; Lindberg, S K G; Langouche, G F; Delaure, B J P; Mayet, P; Ory, G T; Kesteloot, N J K; Papuga, J; Dehairs, M H R; Callens, M; Domnanich, K A; Richter, D; Lutter, R J; Wiehr, S; Tengblad, O; Nacher gonzalez, E; Jungclaus, A; Ribeiro jimenez, G; Marroquin alonso, I; Cal gonzalez, J; Paziy, V; Salsac, M; Murphy, C; Podolyak, Z F; Bajoga, A D; Butler, P; Pritchard, A; Steer, A N; Fox, S P; Wadsworth, B A; Truesdale, V L; Al monthery, M; Hass, M; Guttormsen, M S; Badea, M N; Calinescu, S; Cederkall, J A; Zemlyanoy, S; Golovkov, M; Wu, C; Harrichunder, S; Ncube, M; Gerten, R F; Lehnert, J; Gladnishki, K A; Pospisil, S; Datta pramanik, U; Benzoni, G; Fedorov, D; Molkanov, P; Pfeiffer, B; Griesel, T; Wehner, L W; Mikkelsen, M; Recchia, F; Smith, J F; Kelly, C M; De melo bandeira tavares, P M; Vieira, J M; Martins da silva, M A; Lima lopes, A M; Mader, J; Kessler, P; Schweikhard, L C; Marx, G H; Kulczycka, E; Komorowska, M; Da silva, M F; Goncalves marques, C P; Baptista peres, M A; Welander, J E; Coeck, S; Ryssens, W A M; Knoops, G; Vanbuel, J; Reiter, P; Miller, C; Martin sanchez-cano, D; Wiens, A; Blazhev, A A; Braun, N; Cappellazzo, M V; Birkenbach, B; Gerst, R; Dannhoff, M F; Sithole, M J; Bilgier, B; Nardelli, S; Vetter, U; Araujo mendes, C M; Valencia marin, E; Pantea, E; Hessberger, F P; Leduc, A J; Mitsuoka, S; Carbonari, A W; Buchegger, F J; Garzon camacho, A; Stachura, M K; Stora, T; Marsh, B A; Thiboud, J A; Antalic, S; Stahl, C; Bauer, C; Thurauf, M; Maass, B; Sturm, S; Boehm, C; Wolf, N R; Ways, M; Riisager, K; Ruotsalainen, P A; Bastin, B; Duval, F T; Penessot, G; Flechard, X D; Desrues, P; Giovinazzo, J; Kurtukian nieto, T; Ascher, P E L; Roccia, S; Matea, I; Croizet, H A G; Bonnin, C M; Morfouace, P; Smith, A J; Guin, R; Banerjee, D; Ohtsubo, T; Zhukov, M V; Tengborn, E A; Dessagne, P; Juscamaita vivanco, Y; De rydt, M A E; Vermaelen, P; Monten, R; Yang, X; De coster, A; Kruecken, R; Muecher, D; Nowak, A K; Cano ott, D; Murphy, A S J; Shand, C M; Regan, P H; Jones, G D; Herzberg, R; Ikin, P; Davies, P J; Napoli, D R; Scarel, G; Larsen, A; Tornyi, T G; Pascu, S G; Stroe, L; Toma, S; Jansson, K; Dronjak fahlander, M; Krupko, S; Hurst, A M; Veskovic, M; Nikolov, J; Sibanda, W N; Rocchini, M; Deicher, M; Wichert, T; Wolf, E; Kronenberg, J; Helmke, A; Meliani, Z; Ivanov, V S; Kuti, I; Halasz, Z; Henry, M O; Bras de sequeira amaral, V; Espirito santo, F; Carvalho teixeira, R C; Rosendahl, S; Speidel, K; Agarwal, I; Faul, T; Kownacki, J M; Martins correia, J G; Lorenz, K; Costa miranda, S M; Granadeiro costa, A R; Keupers, M; Stukken, R; Wursten, E J; Kotthaus, T; Pfeiffer, M; Stegemann, S T; Gironi, L; Cakirli, R B; Jensen, A; Romstedt, F; Constantino silva furtado, I; Heredia cardona, J A; Jordan martin, M D; Montaner piza, A; Plewinski, F; Mesli, A; Pichard, A; Fallis starhunter, J P; Voulot, D; Mrazek, J; Ugryumov, V; Savreux, R P; Kojouharov, I M; Stegmann, R; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Kirsebom, O S; Jensen, K L; Jokinen, A; Rahkila, P J; Hager, U D K; Dubois, M; Orr, N A; Fabian, X; Huikari, J E; Goigoux, T; Magron, C; Zakari, A A; Maietta, M; Bachelet, C E M; Roussiere, B; Li, R; Mertzimekis, T; Gislason, H P; Shayestehaminzadeh, S; Qi, B; Mukai, M; Watanabe, Y; Willmann, L; Kurcewicz, W; Wimmer, K; Meisel, Z P; Lievens, P; Neyens, G; Darby, I G; Descamps, B O; Bunka, M; Vermeulen, C; Podadera aliseda, I; Alcorta moreno, M; Pesudo fortes, V; Algora, A; Zielinska, M; Korten, W; Wang, C H; Lotay, G J; Mason, P; Rice, S J; Willenegger, L M; Judson, D S; Revill, J P; Andreev, A; Yavuzkanat, N; Kumar, V; Zamfir, N - V; Deleanu, D; Golubev, P I; Jeppesen, H B; Pain, S D; Stracener, D W; Matousek, V; Venhart, M; Birova, M; Li, X; Stuchbery, A E; Lellep, G M; Poves paredes, A; Chakraborty, S; Leoni, S; Chupp, T; Yilmaz, C; Severin, G; Garcia ramos, J E; Hadinia, B; Mc glynn, E; Monteiro de sena silvares de carvalho, I; Friedag, P; Koos, V; Meot, V H; Pauwels, D B; Jancso, A; Srebrny, J; Alves, E J; David bosne, E; Dexters, W M M; Velten, P; Kalkuehler, M; Albers, M; Bharuth-ram, K; Akkus, B; Hemmingsen, L B S; Pedersen, J T; Dos santos redondo, L M; Rubio barroso, B; Kozlov, V; Mokhles gerami, A; Bernardo da silva, E; Unzueta solozabal, I; Schell, J; Szybowicz, M; Lassen, J; Johnston, K; Miyazaki, A; Macko, M; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Bonig, E S; Ignatov, A

    2002-01-01

    The experiments aim at a broad exploration of the properties of atomic nuclei far away from the region of beta stability. Furthermore, the unique radioactive beams of over 60~elements produced at the on-line isotope separators ISOLDE-2 and ISOLDE-3 are used in a wide programme of atomic, solid state and surface physics. Around 300 scientists are involved in the project, coming from about 70 laboratories. \\\\ \\\\ The electromagnetic isotope separators are connected on-line with their production targets in the extracted 600 MeV proton or 910~MeV Helium-3 beam of the Synchro-Cyclotron. Secondary beams of radioactive isotopes are available at the facility in intensities of 10$^1

  5. Energy and Macronutrients Intake in Two Age Groups of Black South African Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Oguntibeju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a more westernized diets, became evident in the macronutrient intake of women in this study. The consumption of an energy-dense and diverse diet, typical of this transition, contributed to the high mean total energy and protein intakes. High mean total carbohydrate intakes, a staple diet of cereals and grains was also reported. The adequate intake of dietary fibre by the population group in this study was in contrast with international studies that reported that westernization leads to increased consumption of fibre-depleted carbohydrates. The high total fat intake observed in this study may be ascribed to the increasing preference for cheaper red meat, offal, eggs, full-cream milk, cheese, brick margarine and meat drippings used in food preparation. The inclusion of these foods in the diet could explain the high total cholesterol intake reported in this study. Although the food trends of the studied group of women tended to move towards a more westernized style, traditional foods have not been totally eliminated. It is thus clear that urbanisation in this study group has led to high consumption rates of carbonated drinks, cold drinks, coffee, tea and commercial beer. A cereal-based diet was still taken; unfortunately, many of these foods were consumed in the refined form.

  6. Advances in Energy Research in Switzerland in 2000; Energie-Forschung 2000/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2000 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings and hot-water systems, accumulators and traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, combustion technologies, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy, small hydropower, nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal, nuclear safety, nuclear fusion and basics for the energy economy. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, an emphasis was placed on environmental issues with an eco-inventory for energy systems. Also, further work done on the use of grass-fibres for insulation is noted, as are passive solar systems and new developments in highly efficient insulation systems. In the building technologies area, thermo-active building components and various ventilation systems are looked at. Fuzzy-logic based neuronal networks for detecting errors in building services are noted. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic topics reported on include the impact of two-wheel concepts on mobility, lightweight body technologies, efficient drive systems, fuel cell drive technologies, accumulators and supercaps as well as various pilot and demonstration projects. Electrical topics include distribution and flywheel energy storage, high-temperature superconductors, as well as power consumption in computer applications and electrical machines. In the ambient heat and heat-pump area, projects concerning refurbishment, scroll compressors, intermediate injection, small ammonia heat-pumps, environment-compatible refrigerants are noted as are developments in the combined heat and power area, including optimisation software

  7. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2005; Energie-Forschung 2005/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview reports for the year 2005 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings, traffic, vehicles and accumulators, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, process engineering, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, nuclear safety and nuclear waste disposal, regulatory nuclear safety research, nuclear fusion and energy economy basics. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, the introduction of energy standards for buildings, labelling, component catalogues, passive dwellings, high-performance insulation systems, sustainable cities, 'Minergie' buildings, the use of solar energy are mentioned. In the building technologies area, electricity consumption, fuel cells and daylighting were looked at, as were airing, ventilation and hot-water preparation. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic-related projects reported on include financial incentives for energy-efficient vehicles, the EU's 'cleaner Drive' project, infrastructures for gas fuels, gas-fuelled buses and various mobility projects. A review of drive systems is presented, including hybrid systems and a hydro-pneumatic recuperation system. Projects on small and lightweight vehicles are reviewed, including projects on bicycles and weather protection. The record-breaking PAC-Car project is noted. Developments concerning trolley-buses and electric cars as well as a driverless cabin-vehicle running on rails are noted. Accumulators and 'Zebra' batteries are noted. Electrical topics include high-temperature superconductors, thermo-electricity, power storage and

  8. A model of household energy services in a low-income rural African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy use is closely linked to quality of life in rural Africa. The gathering of fuel-wood and other traditional fuels is a strenuous and time consuming task mainly performed by women; indoor exposure to particulate matter, mainly from cooking and heating with traditional fuels, causes about 2.5 million deaths each year in developing countries (Bruce et al., Bull World Org. 78 (2000) 1078). Modern fuels and appliances allow households to reduce their exposure to smoke from biomass cookers and heaters. Yet modern fuels are costly for income-poor households and often carry their own external costs. For example, numerous children are poisoned from ingesting paraffin, and whole villages have burned from fires triggered by paraffin stoves and lamps

  9. Combating protein-energy-malnutrition in a rural/peri-urban southern African black population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, U E; Bac, M; Kuzwayo, P M; Glatthaar, I I; Ingle, R F; Walker, A R

    1991-10-01

    PROTEIN-ENERGY-malnutrition (PEM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in Africa. In South Africa, in 1987, to help combating and preventing PEM in the rural black population, the Gold Fields Nutrition Unit was inaugurated at the Medical University of Southern Africa. In 1987-9, 442 patients (rural/peri-urban) plus their mothers or child carers were admitted, and 406 attended as outpatients. Average age was 15.4 +/- 7.6 months, weight 7.0 +/- 1.6kg, stay in hospital, 12 +/- 10.8 days, and daily weight gain during treatment was 31 +/- 48g. Mothers mainly were young and unmarried. Primary causative factors were infections, ignorance, and insufficiency of food. Since results from rehabilitation are usually poor, mothers and carers were taught how best to prepare meals using local foodstuffs. The interventions included teaching and demonstrations of how to grow vegetables, maintain an orchard, a fowl-run, and improve kitchen and laundry facilities. In 1990, in a follow-up of 73 patients, no deaths had occurred within a 12 month period. This far better than usual outcome is being furthered by setting up satellite nutrition clinics. PMID:1795353

  10. ADS National Programmes: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a preliminary design developed in 1998, based on the Energy Amplifier concept proposed by CERN, a first configuration of a lead-bismuth Eutectic cooled Experimental ADS (LBE-XADS) was worked out in the period 1999–2001, under the aegis of MURST, by a group of Italian organizations led by Ansado Nucleare, with the aim of assessing the feasibility of a small sized (80 MWth) ADS. At the end of 1997 a joint effort of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) led to the approval of a national programme by MURST (Minister for University and Scientific and Technological Research) named TRASCO (TRAsmutazione SCOrie) aiming at the study of physics and technologies needed to design an ADS for radioactive waste transmutation. The programme consisted of research subprogrammes on accelerator, neutronics, thermalhydraulics analysis, beam window technology, and material technology and compatibility with Pb and Pb-Bi. At now, most of the activities in support to the ADS development carried out at national level are part of EU-funded Projects. These activities are complemented by the programme agreement (AdP -Accordo di programma), signed between ENEA and the Ministry of Economic Development, which provides in general a range of activities aimed at the development of sustainable nuclear fission systems. Several universities and the national industry are involved, besides ENEA, in the activities

  11. Into Africa: How Talisman Energy pumps oil and money out of an African dictatorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The story behind the headlines accusing Talisman Energy Inc., headquartered in Calgary, of tacitly aiding the government of Sudan in its fratricidal war against its own people that cost more than a million lives since it began 16 years ago, is told. The company denies the charges, insisting that drilling for oil is not the reason for the civil war or for the atrocities, or that the company takes sides in the civil war. Under pressure by shareholders and government, Talisman promised to exert pressure to ensure that the money generated by Talisman's activities will be expended on hospitals and on road construction, and that Talisman will work to promote peace in Sudan. These claims have been made at the 1999 annual meting of Talisman by the company chairman addressing the shareholders, contradicting a recent statement by a senior member of the Sudanese government saying that they will use oil revenues to build more tanks and weapons to continue the war. Talisman's problems highlight the difficult choices facing companies that want to operate in conflict zones. Despite long-running civil wars such as Angola, Sierra Leone, Algeria, Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, these countries continue to attract capital from Canada and other western countries. There are rich rewards for those willing to take risks, but there is rising protest and increasing questioning of the underlying morality of doing business with oppressive governments. While Talisman strenuously claims neutrality and tries hard to convince its critics that all Sudanese benefit from the oil wealth, there is substantial evidence from various parts of Africa that resource wealth often serves to prolong conflict by reinforcing authoritarian regimes. The report provides a first-hand account of the situation in Sudan and cautions shareholders of Talisman and other resource companies investing in civil war-torn countries to pay close attention to the quality of information they are given by those

  12. Methods for the application of programmable logic devices in electronic protection systems for high energy particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis was realised within the framework of the Doctoral Student programme at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research CERN, which is situated near Geneva. The aim of this thesis was to develop a method for reliable rmware implementation and to use that method to implement a new rmware for the Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system. That system relies heavily on the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and it is one of the key machine protection systems of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The conception of the SMP hardware originates from the fully tested Beam Interlock System (BIS) being a result of another PhD thesis [1]. For that reason the reliable SMP hardware was preserved unchanged. The rst version of the SMP was ready for the LHC startup in the year 2008. Nevertheless the quality of the SMP rmware was objectionable. There were new requirements and therefore the SMP speci cation was extended. On that occasion it was decided that the existing SMP rmware will not be continued and that it...

  13. Methods for the Application of Programmable Logic Devices in Electronic Protection Systems for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Todd, Benjamin

    The present thesis was realised within the framework of the Doctoral Student programme at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research CERN, which is situated near Geneva. The aim of this thesis was to develop a method for reliable firmware implementation and to use that method to implement a new firmware for the Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system. That system relies heavily on the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and it is one of the key machine protection systems of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The conception of the SMP hardware originates from the fully tested Beam Interlock System (BIS) being a result of another PhD thesis. For that reason the reliable SMP hardware was preserved unchanged. The first version of the SMP was ready for the LHC startup in the year 2008. Nevertheless the quality of the SMP firmware was objectionable. There were new requirements and therefore the SMP specification was extended. On that occasion it was decided that the existing SMP firmware will not be continued and ...

  14. The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on GDP (gross domestic product) growth and the financial development in thirty Sub Saharan African Countries. The panel model was used in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. The results showed that energy consumption had played an important role to increase both economic growth and the financial development in the investigated economies but with the consequence of high po llution. This study recommended that these countries should increase energy productivity by increasing energy efficiency, implementation of energy savings projects, energy conservation, and energy infrastructure outsourcing to achieve its financial development and GDP growth and to increase their investment on energy projects to achieve the full energy potential. -- Highlights: ► The impact of energy consumption, CO2 emission on GDP and the financial development in the SSA countries was investigated. ► The panel model was implied in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. ► The results show energy consumption increased economic growth and the financial development but with higher pollution.

  15. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  16. 2009 Building law congress. Energy saving programme and current legislative developments. Partners in dialogue; Baurechtstage 2009.Energieeinsparungsprogramm und aktuelle Rechtsentwicklung. Partner im Gespraech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The declared political will to achieve considerable savings in primary energy use in existing as well as newly constructed buildings has led to a number of new legal regulations that are of concern to investors, property developers and architects. The present 84th volume of the series ''Partners in dialogue'' therefore presents in compact yet comprehensive form a discussion and in-depth investigation of current legal issues arising from the energy saving programme. It furthermore deals with the Securitisation Law and the amendments to the German Construction Contract Procedures. The volume also offers an overview of current jurisdiction in civil and public building law as well as laws concerning property developers, architects and engineers.

  17. Not Merely a Matter of Academics: Student Experiences of a South African University as Study-Abroad Destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, R. J.; Lemmer, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programmes attract considerable numbers of American college students; however, very few select an African country as their study-abroad destination. This article explores the experiences of American undergraduates who made the uncommon choice of a South African university as destination for a mid-length immersion type programme. The…

  18. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanbin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA and African-American (AA youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (P = 0.01, weight (P = 0.03 and waist circumference (P = 0.04, with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05, or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05. No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.

  19. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Buxton Christiana; Hagan John E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of con...

  20. Political economy of African uranium and its role in international markets. Final report. International energy studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of uranium development in Africa is briefly summarized. Today there are 4 major uranium producing countries in Africa: Gabon, Niger, Namibia, and South Africa. These nations have the possibility of political instability. In addition, the uranium market has undergone a series of radical changes over the past decade. How these African nations have responded to this changing market, and how their roles in the international market relate to domestic political and economic factors are the topics of this report

  1. A study on the framework for selecting core R and D programmes in Energy Technology Roadmap by the DEA approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Kon; Mogi, Gento; Kim, Jong Wook

    2007-07-01

    South Korea is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world because of the poor country of natural resources such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas. It is essential to solve the energy difficulty of secure supply and demand of national energy. We established the energy technology roadmap to prepare for the next 10 years. We clustered 3 core technological sectors such as technology for high oil prices, the United nations framework for climate change, and the hydrogen economy. But we didn't prioritize the weights of energy technology development in energy technology roadmap. To allocate the finite resources efficiently, we cluster the preferred groups and non-preferred groups by the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. Through the scientific decision making approach, we can allocate R and D capacity, budget, and infrastructures efficiently to produce outstanding R and D outputs. (auth)

  2. The system-dynamic and evolutionary non-Euclidean approach and the 'Lobachevsky-Poincare programme' idea for its successive realization in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of creating mesophysics is motivated on the basis of a general likeness of the description of many phenomena and processes in micro- and macroworld. For a general and detailed investigation of the former in modern high energy physics (HEP), the Absolute (arising from Minkovsky and irrespective of any reference system) universal approach is used. Its two conceptually new branches are non-linear system-dynamic and non-Euclidean evolutionary ones. They are complementary ones and completely adequate to an extreme complexity of directly unobservable HEP objects. Some primary problems of them are briefly made clear on the basis of synergetics principles and HEP's internal Lobachevsky-Euclidean geometry. They are noted as the primary content of the Lobachevsky-Poincare Programme (LPP) the idea of which has been proposed recently for their successive solution

  3. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  4. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  5. Cost analysis of measures in the integrated energy and climate programme (IECP); Wirtschaftliche Bewertung von Massnahmen des integrierten Energie- und Klimaprogramms (IEKP). Wirtschaftlicher Nutzen des Klimaschutzes. Kostenbetrachtung ausgewaehlter Einzelmassnahmen der Meseberger Beschluesse zum Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fleiter, Tobias [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2008-08-15

    The main objective of the study made by the project team was to analyse the energy and climate programme measures with respect to their ecological and economic effects. The study concentrated on a bundle of particularly important measures within the total package. The savings are estimated from a total cost perspective in which the additional investments for (possibly) more expensive efficiency technologies and technologies for using renewable energies are set against the saved costs for fossil energy (cost-benefit analysis). However, this is not done from a macroeconomic perspective since, e.g. feedback effects via prices and income are not considered; these should be examined in more detail in follow-up research. The overall result is that, with annual investments of 24 billion euro in climate protection, Germany triggers energy savings of 29 billion euro based on the year 2020. These savings are supported by programme costs (transfer costs) of only 2.5 billion euro annually (this sum includes the surcharges from renewables and CHP which constitute the biggest share). It is worth investing in climate protection in Germany. (orig.)

  6. Development of domestic capabilities for the Indian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India, has an extensive programme for nuclear power that is self reliant to achieve long term energy security. This paper describes the Indian experience in structuring and implementing the national nuclear programme turned to its natural resources. (author)

  7. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  8. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  9. The Dual Promise of Green Jobs: A Qualitative Study of Federally Funded Energy Training Programmes in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the policy literature on green jobs and green jobs training in the USA and to present findings of a qualitative study on the start-up of two Energy Training Partnerships (ETP) funded by the US Department of Labour to train workers for green jobs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes a review…

  10. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: Particle Physics Foundations of Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Inflation (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Particle Physics Foundations of Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Inflation (1/3), by Dr. Edward (Rocky) Kolb (University of Chicago).   Wednesday, May 9, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 500-1-001 - Main Auditorium ) Ninety-five percent of the present mass-energy density of the Universe is dark.  Twenty-five percent is in the form of dark matter holding together galaxies and other large scale structures, and 70% is in the form of dark energy driving an accelerated expansion of the universe.  Dark matter and dark energy cannot be explained within the standard model of particle physics.  In the first lecture I will review the evidence for dark matter and the observations that point to an explanation in the form of cold dark matter.  I will then describe the expected properties of a hypothetical Weakly-Interacting Massive Particle, or WIMP, and review experimental and observational approaches to test the hypothesis.  Finally, I will discus...

  11. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  12. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status. PMID:25265504

  13. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: Draft for the plan of management for bio-energy. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: The electricity companies' programme for gasification of coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish power companies have, since the middle of the 80's carried through a technology development effort for the use of bio-fuels in power (and dual-purpose power) plants. This note concerns the current status of the development and a sketch for an action programme for future effort. Straw is the largest unexploited potential. The use of bio-fuels does not produce so much carbon dioxide, but on the other hand biomass supply can fluctuate. Biofuels are also difficult to stoke, and expensive. Close co-operation between agriculture and forestry is necessary and risks are high for the involved sectors. It must be possible to use bio-fuels combined with coal to secure a sturdy and economic energy production, it is necessary to have a stable energy and industrial policy to maintain interest in the long term development effort, the contrasts of interest between natural gas and bio-fuels on the decentralized thermal power market must be clarified and the prices of bio-fuels must be made competitive by making supply and subsidies more effective. The main areas for future development are the bio-fuel resources, logistics and economy, straw in central power plants, gasification of coal and biomass, bio-fuels in decentralized cogeneration plants, biogas plants, conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels etc. A close co-ordination of ELSAM/ELKRAFT's development activities and cooperation between organizations in Denmark and abroad should be aimed at. (AB)

  14. Teaching Creative Writing at South African universities: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Henning J. Pieterse

    2013-01-01

    Creative Writing is a relatively new subject at South African universities. The scope and methodologies of teaching this subject locally have not yet been investigated properly. In this article the teaching of Creative Writing as subject, course and/or programme at South African universities is probed with regard to course content, methodological and pedagogical questions and outcomes. A semistructured questionnaire dealing with course content, didactic aspects of teaching Creative Writing an...

  15. The programme benefits of improving project team communication through a contact centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bond-Barnard, T. J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A South African national programme to repair government infrastructure uses a contact centre (or call centre to facilitate and manage communication. An important question is: How does the contact centre benefit the programme and its projects? This study discusses the findings of a survey that quantified the benefits of the programme when the communication between team members in the programme was improved by using a contact centre. The results show that, by using a contact centre to improve the communication between project team members, their perception of communication effectiveness, quality of project deliverables, service delivery, and customer satisfaction of the programme dramatically increases.

  16. The Winfrith DSN programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme, which is written in the Fortran language, solves the Carlson discrete Sn approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation in cylindrical geometry. This report describes the input and output facilities of the WINFRITH DSN programme and the associated editing programme WED. (author)

  17. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  18. Measuring the effect of loyalty programmes on a leading pet food brand / Suné Basson

    OpenAIRE

    Basson, Suné

    2014-01-01

    Loyalty programmes, used as a tool to improve brand loyalty among consumers, have grown in popularity in the South African business environment. Loyalty programmes are essential in understanding customers and to keep customers involved while promoting a brand simultaneously. Although loyalty programmes are also being utilised in the pet food industry, information of the impact it has had on brand loyalty of pet food brands are limited. It is for this reason that the loyalty ...

  19. Manual for the classification and prioritization of risks due to major accidents in process and related industries. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated areas wide approaches to risk management. The Inter-Agency Programme brings together expertise in health, the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. This is one of a series of publications intended to be issued on behalf of the four participating UN organizations. This is the first revision of the original report, distributed in December 1993. The revision was undertaken in the light of experience with the original edition and was prompted by the wish to add the results of a practical case study and some new developments. 13 figs, 23 tabs

  20. Human Resource Development in a Newcomer Country: MNPC’s Experience as a Dedicated Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concluding remarks: The establishment of MNPC as a fully dedicated NEPIO facilitates a focused drive towards implementation of a nuclear energy development program for Malaysia. Now, 3 years after its establishment, MNPC will continue to spearhead and coordinate collaborative national efforts towards enabling a well-informed Government decision on the option of using nuclear power post-2020. Nuclear Power Infrastructure Development Plan (NPIDP) is being prepared by Consultant engaged by MNPC and expected to be completed in Dec 2014 Professionals including stakeholders involved with nuclear power planning and programmeimplementation, could also serve as a pool of experts & personnel to staff relevant future organisations needed for NPP development

  1. The Role of a Research Reactor in the National Nuclear Energy Programme in Vietnam: Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, Vietnam has only one research reactor - Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) - with nominal power 500 kW which main purpose is training, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis and basic research. During operation more than 25 years, the research reactor played a very important role in the development of the nuclear infrastructure and provided numerous products and services. However, due to the limitation of neutron flux level, the out-of-date design of the experimental facilities and the ageing of the reactor facilities, this research reactor cannot meet the increasing user's demands. Therefore, building a new multipurpose research reactor of high power (10 to 20 MW) is essential to increase nuclear potential of the country, to meet the requirements of energy and non-energy related applications, creating staff for nuclear industry. The main role of a new research reactor is to serve the nuclear power development program, promote the application of nuclear science and technology, and training scientific and operational staff for the future nuclear facilities. (author)

  2. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  3. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  4. The EU fusion programme and roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pero, H., E-mail: Herve.Pero@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Paidassi, S. [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The EU fusion programme has to evolve from today's research to a strong goal-oriented programme driven by an ambitious roadmap. ► The programme shall focus on ITER and reactor-relevant technologies development. ► A new structure based on joint programming will be developed to implement the programme during Horizon 2020. -- Abstract: To meet ITER and fusion energy challenges, a gradual transition of the EU fusion programme priorities from today's fusion research to a strongly goal-oriented programme with clear milestones is required. This transition and the programme priorities should be driven by an ambitious, yet realistic roadmap to be agreed by EU fusion stakeholders. The programme must primarily focus on: ensuring the success of ITER; and research and development of reactor-relevant technologies. Industry must be involved early in the implementation and international collaboration should be conducted as part of a strategic approach. Joint programming should be a cornerstone of the EU fusion programme in Horizon 2020. Options for the new structure and current actions required to implement the roadmap during Horizon 2020 will be presented.

  5. The EU fusion programme and roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The EU fusion programme has to evolve from today's research to a strong goal-oriented programme driven by an ambitious roadmap. ► The programme shall focus on ITER and reactor-relevant technologies development. ► A new structure based on joint programming will be developed to implement the programme during Horizon 2020. -- Abstract: To meet ITER and fusion energy challenges, a gradual transition of the EU fusion programme priorities from today's fusion research to a strongly goal-oriented programme with clear milestones is required. This transition and the programme priorities should be driven by an ambitious, yet realistic roadmap to be agreed by EU fusion stakeholders. The programme must primarily focus on: ensuring the success of ITER; and research and development of reactor-relevant technologies. Industry must be involved early in the implementation and international collaboration should be conducted as part of a strategic approach. Joint programming should be a cornerstone of the EU fusion programme in Horizon 2020. Options for the new structure and current actions required to implement the roadmap during Horizon 2020 will be presented

  6. NDA National Graduate Programme 'nucleargraduates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to outline the NDA National Graduate Programme (nuclear graduates). The NDA has a remit under the Energy Act (2004) 'to maintain and develop the skills for decommissioning and nuclear clean-up'. Although current research is now being reviewed, there is significant evidence to suggest that the age profile in the Site Licence Companies is skewed towards older workers and there is likely to be a skill shortage in 3-5 years. As nuclear clean-up is a national issue; skill shortages also become a national issue in a very real sense. In addition, evidence suggests that the industry needs to be constantly challenged in order to achieve its targets for decommissioning. The NDA has a unique position under the Act. It is both a strategic overseer and direct employer. To this end the 'National Graduate Programme' is aligned to both the NDA's previous succession plans and the needs of the industry. Industry needs leadership that challenges the status quo and moves the UK nuclear industry to become best in class; Industry needs a dedicated to programme to address skills shortages and difficult to recruit areas such as, but not exclusively, estimators, schedulers, contract managers, site engineers, decommissioning technicians, safety monitors; The NDA has indicated a 'commercial and politically savvy' cohort is required to meet its own internal challenges and to ensure sustainability in its own workforce, and to be sensitive to the needs of customers and suppliers alike; Need to create a more diversified workforce in the nuclear industry and also plan for new skills evolving from research and development breakthroughs; Need to ensure that Tier 1, 2, 3 and 4 contractors invest in the leadership and skills for the future. World Class - delivery will be benchmarked against UK based multinational companies who operate in a global graduate attraction and development marketplace. The graduates targeted will be from leading institutions and will have a blend of

  7. The policymaking process for creating competitive assets for the use of biomass energy: the Brazilian alcohol programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.A. Puppim de [Getulio Vargas Foundation - FGV/EBAPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Public policies are fundamental to spur the use of biomass and make it competitive to face traditional commercial fossil fuels. This article analyzes the policymaking process of the Brazilian National Alcohol Policy (Proalcool). Proalcool is one of the world's most ambitious efforts to produce a renewable biomass fuel as an oil substitute. In the 1970s, after the oil crisis and the sharp increase in fuel prices, the Brazilian government started intensifying its policy to substitute sugarcane alcohol for gasoline in automobile use. Through a set of governmental interventions to increase alcohol demand and supply, Brazil created some competitive assets that made Proalcool a relative success in terms of developing institutional and technological capabilities for using renewable energy in large scale. Several key actors influenced the policy directions, such as the central and state governments, military groups, the alcohol industry, sugarcane agricultural aristocracy, bureaucrats, researchers and the media. Instead of thinking of Proalcool as a government decision based only on economic rationale or interests of few decision-makers, the elaboration and implementation of this alcohol policy could be thought of as the result of a policymaking process where the different stakeholders involved in the process with their values, interests and knowledge interacted with each other according to the political, social, technological and economic situation. (Author)

  8. Weak interaction in the African Easterly Jet

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lenouo; F. Nkankam Kamga; Yepdjuo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Low-frequency, African Easterlies Waves (AEW) are examined as disturbances embedded in the mid-tropospheric easterly jet of the African low troposphere. The solution to the nonlinear vorticity equation relevant to the description of waves is sought in the form of triplet waves. The latest suggest a unified method to determine their kinetics characteristic and to explain the mechanism of energy exchange between their different modes. The period of energy interaction between different modes of ...

  9. ALICE pp physics programme

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The physics programme of the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC comprises besides studies of high-energy heavy-ion collisions measurements of proton-proton interactions at unprecedented energies, too. This paper focuses on the global event characterisation in terms of the multiplicity distribution of charged hadrons and mean transverse momentum. These bulk observables become accessible because the detector features excellent track reconstruction, especially at low transverse momenta. The measurement of strange hadrons is of particular interest since the strange-particle phase-space was found to be suppressed beyond canonical reduction at lower center-of-mass energies and the production mechanism of soft particles is not yet fully understood. Here we benefit in particular from particle identification down to very low transverse momentum, i.e. 100 - 300 MeV/c, giving access to spectra and integrated yields of identified hadrons. Equipped with these features, ALICE will play a complementary role w.r.t. other LHC exper...

  10. The quality of Environmental Management Programmes (EMPRs) within the coal mining industry in South Africa / Casper Joubert

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations negatively impact the environment and, as a result, South African legislation requires that, as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment, an Environmental Management Programme (EMPRs) be developed and implemented to manage all the impacts identified. The Coal Mining Sector was selected for this research because of the important role it plays within the South African economy. In this research, the quality of Environmental Management Programmes within the Coal Mining Sector ...

  11. France's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects of development of France's consumption of electricity will widen the deficit of her national energy resources. Nuclear power stations should enable this deficit to be reduced, provided a certain number of uncertainties prevailing today are resolved. The first programme, put forward by Messrs. AILLERET and TARANGER at the 1955 Geneva Conference aimed at commissioning 850 MWe by 1965; the programme was devoted to developing the natural uranium graphite-gas sequence and reaches its completion with the construction of EDF 3, the world's first unit capable of 500 MWe. Before changing over from the prototype stage to their duplication, Electricite De France decided, in agreement with the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique to build EDF 4, which, while reproducing EDF 3's reactor, together with the referring equipment, the entire control equipment and various other systems, pioneers an important innovation by incorporating the heat exchangers and fans inside the prestressed concrete pressure vessel housing the core. At the same time, studies are being carried on on the same type of reactor enabling possible use of a new annular-shaped fuel element, whose use would considerably improve the performance of EDF 5, to be envisaged. On the heavy water side, the construction of EL 4 at Brennilis jointly by the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique and Electricite De France is continuing. Design work on a 500 MWe reactor of this type has already started. As regards pressurized water reactors, the Chooz power station is built jointly by Electricite De France and Belgian Utilities. Finally, the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique is continuing the construction of the 'Rapsodie' rapid neutron reactor at Cadarache, together with studies on a larger power reactor. It may thus be seen that the technical and economic knowledge gained on these various types of reactor mean that an equipment program may be contemplated which will endow nuclear power stations with a place of ever

  12. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  13. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  14. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  15. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: progress report on the multiannual programme for the promotion of energy efficiency in the Community-SAVE II. Council Decision 96/737/EC Art.8.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-17

    The SAVE II programme is dedicated to promoting the rational use of energy, focusing on the non-technological elements, helping to build the energy efficiency infrastructure and to improve policy analysis. The report provides a review of the activities and progress made since the approval of SAVE II, in five areas of action: studies and related actions aimed at implementing and completing Community measures such as the development of standards, studies on the effects of energy pricing on energy efficiency and studies helping to establish energy efficiency as a criterion within Community programmes; actions to accelerate energy efficiency investment and/or improving energy use patterns; measures to foster the exchange of experience; monitoring of energy efficiency progress in the Community and Member States; and specific actions at the regional and urban levels as well as improving the cohesion between Member States and regions in the field of energy efficiency. Annexes list funding for 1996 and 1997 and topics proposed for study in 1998.

  16. Coherent energy and environmental system analysis. A strategic research project financed by The Danish Council for Strategic Research Programme Commission on Sustainable Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, H. (ed.); Hvelplund, F.; Vad Mathiesen, B. (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The main focus of this project has been A) to further develop and integrate existing tools and methodologies of environmental life cycle assessment and energy system and market analysis into coherent energy and environmental analysis tools. B) to apply such integrated tools and methodologies to the analysis of future sustainable energy systems with an emphasis on: 1) how to integrate the transport sector including considerations of limitations in biomass resources; 2) how to develop future power systems suitable for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources; and 3) how to develop efficient public regulation in an international market environment. It is found that the transition from the present energy system dominated by fossil fuels to a system dominated by renewable energy sources requires significant changes in existing policies on both supply and demand sides. In order to succeed, such change requires the system based on renewables to be supported by strong and efficient energy conservation. In Denmark, wind power and biomass are expected to be the two dominant resources in the short and medium term perspectives. In order to ease the pressure on wind and biomass resources, energy conservation becomes essential and so does the inclusion of contributions from additional sources such as solar and geothermal energy. The change requires infrastructure where intermittent renewable energy sources can be managed in such a way that energy is available at the right time and in the right amount for the consumers. A main challenge for the transition planning is to obtain an efficient coordination between investments in the electricity, transportation, and heat sectors. The policy instruments include new systems of taxes, subsidies, tariffs, and other economic conditions in order to obtain an optimal effect. One main problem is to assure an energy-efficient use of low-temperature sources from CHP, waste incineration, industrial surplus heat and geothermal

  17. En Note om Programmering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Denne note er en introduktion til programmering. Formålet er at give dig et indblik i hvad programmering egentlig er for noget. Jeg vil vise at programmering kan foregå på forskellige måder, og at der er mange forskellige udfordringer forbundet med at programmere. Noten vil ikke knytte sig til et...... bestemt programmeringssprog. Noten vil kunne supplere et egentlig undervisningsmateriale, der støtter dig i en bestemt form for programmering i et udvalgt programmeringssprog....

  18. ADS National Programmes: Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the research and development (R&D) activities on partitioning and transmutation (P&T) technology had been promoted under the OMEGA programme since 1988. The main institutes involved in these activities were the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). Among these institutes, JAERI had mainly conducted the R&D on ADS. In 1999 and 2000, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan implemented the check and review (C&R) on the P&T technology, and the ADS was considered as one of candidates for transmutation systems together with fast reactors. In 2005, JAERI and JNC were merged and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established. In JAEA, the R&D activities on both ADS and fast reactors have been continued. In August, 2008, the AEC of Japan launched the Technical Subcommittee on P&T Technology under the Advisory Committee on R&D, and conducted the discussion about the current state of the art concerning P&T technology in Japan and the future R&D programme. The Subcommittee issued the final report in April, 2009. The final report covered the impact of the P&T technology, the state of the art of the technology, evaluation on the progress of the R&D, and the recommendations of the future R&D. As the basic policy on the P&T technology, the report stated that the R&D should not aim at only the improvement of the P&T performance, but at the achievement of the requirements for whole performance of nuclear power generation. This means that the performance of the Double strata fuel cycle concept should be evaluated from viewpoints of safety, economy, environmental friendliness, saving resource, and non-proliferation of the first stratum as well as those of the second stratum. The Double strata concept, therefore, should be studied as a part of the whole nuclear system both in the transient phase of LWR to FBR and the equilibrium

  19. Guidelines for integrated risk assessment and management in large industrial areas. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) within the framework of the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated area wide approaches to risk management. An Inter-Agency Programme, which brings together expertise in health the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management, was established. The Inter-Agency Programme on the assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems aims at promoting and facilitating the implementation of integrated risk assessment and management for large industrial areas. This initiative includes the compilation of procedures and methods for environmental and public health risk assessment, the transfer of knowledge and experience amongst countries in the application of these procedures and the implementation of an integrated approach to risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. The UN organizations sponsoring this programme have been involved for several years in activities aimed at assessment and management of environmental and health risks, prevention of major accidents and emergency preparedness. These Guidelines have been developed on the basis of experience from these activities to assist in the planning and conduct of regional risk management projects. They provide a reference framework for the undertaking of integrated health and environmental risk assessment for large industrial areas and for the formulation of appropriate risk management strategies

  20. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  1. The Tunisian standards and labelling programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunisia has recently implemented a standards and labelling programme for household appliances and other energy using equipment. This programme, which is the fruit of six years labour supported by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and executed by l'Agence Nationale pour la Maitrise de l'Energie (ANME), led to the issue of energy labelling and minimum energy efficiency standards regulations for refrigerators in 2004. This paper reports on the design and implementation of the programme that not only serves as a role model for how such programmes can be conducted in developing countries, but also matches or exceeds the design and implementation of similar programmes in developed countries. Findings are presented on the following elements: consumer research used to design the Tunisian energy label, the establishment and accreditation of national test facilities, the energy performance certification, verification and compliance process, the development of refrigerator energy efficiency and labelling criteria, public communications and outreach strategy projected programme impacts Results are also presented from a detailed and sophisticated refrigerator techno-economic energy engineering analysis that provided much of the analytical basis for the choice of labelling and efficiency standards thresholds. As a result of its careful design and implementation it is forecast that by 2030 the programme will have saved 3.4 Mt of CO2 emissions at a cost to the GEF of just 20 USc/tonne. The cost of conserved electricity for Tunisian consumers is projected to be less than 1 USc/kWh, which compares very favourably with the current tariff of 7.4 USc/kWh

  2. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  3. The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy – a South African perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Barnard

    2012-01-01

    It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In ter...

  4. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  5. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  6. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  7. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  8. Teaching Creative Writing at South African universities: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning J. Pieterse

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Creative Writing is a relatively new subject at South African universities. The scope and methodologies of teaching this subject locally have not yet been investigated properly. In this article the teaching of Creative Writing as subject, course and/or programme at South African universities is probed with regard to course content, methodological and pedagogical questions and outcomes. A semistructured questionnaire dealing with course content, didactic aspects of teaching Creative Writing and manuscript outcomes was sent to course co-ordinators of Creative Writing at 11 South African universities. The findings of this inquiry are discussed with regard to each participating university. Creative Writing is mainly taught at postgraduate level, with the focus on MA level. Although there are differences in teaching approaches, it is evident that the workshop serves as the core teaching method for most respondents. Creative Writing at South African universities has grown tremendously in terms of student numbers and published outputs – some figures are provided as illustrations. This increase links South African Creative Writing to a world-wide trend which reflects continuous growth in Creative Writing as university subject. Through published (and often award-winning outcomes Creative Writing programmes contribute to the varied South African literary landscape.

  9. Synthesis of Vaermeforsk's research programme 'Crops from field to energy'; Syntes av Vaermeforsks forskningsprogram 'Groedor fraan aaker till energi'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Gunnarsson, Carina; Roennbaeck, Marie; Olsson, Johanna

    2010-06-15

    Vaermeforsk and the Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have jointly run the research programme 'Crops from field to energy'. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture for combustion and heat and power production in Sweden. About 20 projects have studied different parts of the chain from cultivation, harvest and storage to combustion and recycling of ash to farmland for agricultural fuels (straw, hemp, Reed Canary Grass and short rotation willow crops (Salix)). The aim of this report has been to compile and synthesise progress made during the programme and realization of its aims, as well as to identify the need of further research. The most important progress and conclusions made during the programme are: Cultivation - More knowledge and concrete advice concerning planting and growth of Salix, as well as on suitable length of harvest season, which enables planting cost reductions and increased yields. Increased knowledge on cultivation of Reed Canary Grass and combined cultivation with leguminous plants. Harvest and logistics - Comparisons and costs for different alternatives for harvest, handling and logistics has been produced for all of the agricultural fuels, both via theoretical and practical efforts, which can serve as a basis for direct measures as well as continued research. Processing/combustion/ash - It is possible to produce briquettes made from Reed Canary Grass and peat. New knowledge on combustion of Reed Canary Grass with different boilers is produced. It is now recommended as a fuel for co-combustion with wood and peat in large scale plants. Recommendations on co-combustion of Reed Canary Grass and Salix with peat have also been put forward, based on combustion tests. Experience from Denmark on large scale combustion of straw and production of high quality straw has been compiled. Additional costs that may arise when using agricultural fuels

  10. Procurement for market transformation for energy-efficient products. A study under the SAVE-programme[SAVE = Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report summarises the findings from the SAVE study, 'Procurement for Market Transformation for Energy Efficient Products', focusing on the possibility of executing co-operative procurement activities at the European level. The conclusions are based upon findings from 36 market studies carried out in nine European countries regarding four different products: induction motors, solar-energy systems for water heating, office lighting systems, and combined fridge-freezers, as well as practical experience from about 30 procurements carried out by NUTEK in Sweden, and the experience of the IEA DSM Implementing agreement annex III 'Co-operative Procurement of Innovative Technologies'. The study concludes that co-operative procurement is a promising instrument for consideration in combination with other instruments for future energy-efficiency policy at the EU level. By seeking to transform the European market in its totality, the current prevailing differences between national markets can be softened contributing to the completion of a single European market and providing a basis for a more integrated market transformation approach. However, carrying out the process at the EU level is complex and it therefore needs careful designing in order to be successful. A main barrier to measures of this kind being implemented is the lack of experience, and therefore trust in the process as such, which is why further practical experience on both a national and international level is needed. To encourage member states to participate and co-operate whatever the form chosen, the study suggests that concrete and active support from the Commission is an important signalling effect, since the importance of energy efficiency on the political agenda differs considerably between countries that, furthermore, are more or less flexible when it comes to adopting new policy instruments.

  11. Amsterdam's STI/HIV Programme: An Innovative Strategy to Achieve and Enhance the Participation of Migrant Community-Based Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Annemarie; van Husen, Gwen; Barrett, Jennifer B.; Koelen, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The STI/HIV prevention programme in Amsterdam aims to improve the sexual health of Amsterdam residents of African, Antillean, Aruban and Surinamese origins. The programme strategy is to achieve and enhance the participation of migrant community-based organisations (CBOs) in sexual health promotion through a grant scheme and by providing…

  12. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  13. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  14. The tuberculosis challenge in a rural South African HIV programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Graham S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.

  15. Challenges in setting up a PET programme - South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography has over the last two decades been established as an important modality in Nuclear Medicine, especially in the management of oncology patients. In most parts of the developed world it is accepted as an integral part of the standard of care for many patients. The growth was even faster since the introduction of PET-CT devices. In the developing world the expansion of PET facilities has been considerably slower, and in some regions no PET facilities are available. Numerous factors may be responsible for this phenomenon. As in the developed world, health care contraction and reform is also imminent in South Africa. There are numerous constraints to the development of PET in South Africa. In contrast to the developed world, it took very long to establish PET facilities in South Africa, with the first facilities only established in late 2005, primarily in the private sector. Presently there are five private PET-CT facilities, with more expected in the near future. In the public sector the development is much slower. One PET-CT camera has been delivered, but is not yet functional, while two more will be installed soon. PET imaging is developing rapidly elsewhere in the world. Hence health technology reviews performed one or two years ago are lagging behind. The time is ripe for a breakthrough with providing an organised national service for PET, also in South Africa. This technology development should be regarded as a necessity, and part of strategic planning of the National Department of Health. Numerous aspects of the recommendations of the Intercollegiate Standing Committee on Nuclear Medicine in the UK are also applicable in South Africa and can be used by all role players in the field. It is already clear from the current private practices that implementation of the technique is heavily influenced by reimbursement restrictions. These should also be addressed in collaboration with the health funders in South Africa, to ensure the viability of PET in the public and private sector

  16. Electricity production from wind energy: world situation and the French program EOLE 2005; Production d'electricite par energie eolienne: situation dans le monde et programme francais EOLE 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electricite de France [ed.] [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-07

    The wind electricity world market shows at present an important development stage characterized by an annual increase rate of 20% to 30%. The total installed power in the world reached the value 7,200 MW in November 1997 and, according to forecasts, it could increase fivefold up to 2005. For France's high wind potential sites, namely the DOM-TOM and in Corsica, where the electricity production is more expensive than in inland France, this energy production mode approaches the threshold of competitiveness with other production means. The program EOLE 2005 (targeting 250 to 500 MW from wind turbines to be installed in France until 2005), launched in 1996 by EDF in collaboration with ADEME, on request of public authorities, is thought to implement this demand. The sections of the report are titled as following: - An energy used by man from long time ago; - Momentous developments of the wind power technology since eighties; - From wind turbines of some hundreds kW to 3 MW, based on robust technologies and newly devised methods; - Wind energy becomes equally interesting from economic viewpoint but for which applications?; - This option presents some drawbacks; - Which is the wind potential economically acceptable if the mentioned constraints are taken into account?; - The wind generators will be installed on sea near seashores; - An outstanding change in this field in France since 1996: the programme EOLE 2005; - 35 selected projects of 125,3 MW total power; - Future. The electricity production from wind energy seems promising particularly for the countries that have not resorted to either nuclear energy or hydropower options and which possess important wind resources.

  17. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  18. Technician level needs and skills development guidelines for the South African nuclear energy industry / Titus P. Mampala.

    OpenAIRE

    Nampala, Titus Pendukeni

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for electrical energy to bring about development and social change has brought about renewed interest in the use of nuclear power as one of the sources of electrical energy. The nuclear power industry has had a few decades of low activity due to previous accidents which turned the public perception against the use of nuclear as an electrical power source. The low activity has resulted in the shortage of nuclear skills as the skill previously available is now aged and abo...

  19. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  20. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  1. Modeling effects of inter-annual variability in meteorological and land use conditions on coupled water and energy cycling in the cultivated African Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Boulain, N.; Favreau, G.; Charvet, G.; Ramier, D.; Issoufou, H.; Boucher, M.; Mainassara, I.; Chazarin, J.; Oï, M.; Yahou, H.; Benarrosh, N.; Ibrahim, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the dry tropics in general and in the African Sahel in particular, hydro-ecosystems are very sensitive to climate variability and land management. In the Niamey region of South-West Niger, a severe multi-decadal drought together with large-scale vegetation clearing coincided with an unexpected increase in surface and ground water resources. Such an apparent paradoxical situation illustrates the complex way in which climate and land cover interactions control the Sahelian water cycle dynamics. This stresses the importance of understanding and reliably modeling water/energy transfers in the local soil-plant-atmosphere system, under contrasted meteorological and surface conditions. This study investigates the effects of the inter-annual variability of meteorological and land use conditions on the coupled water and energy cycles in the cultivated Sahel over a 5-year period. This is based on a comprehensive multi-year field dataset acquired for a millet crop field and a fallow savannah, the two main land cover types of South-West Niger (Wankama catchment in the mesoscale AMMA-CATCH Niger observatory, part of the French-initiated RBV network). It includes atmospheric forcing, seasonal course of vegetation phenology, soil properties and model validation variables (net radiation, turbulent fluxes, soil heat/water profiles), for the two fields. The study area is typical of Central Sahel conditions, with 400-600 mm annual rainfall concentrated in the 4-5 month wet season. Soils are mainly sandy and prone to surface crusting, leading to a strong vertical contrast in hydrodynamic properties. The SiSPAT process-based model used solves the 1D mass and heat transfer system of equations in the soil, including vapor phase and coupled with a two-component (bare soil and vegetation) water and energy budget at the surface-atmosphere interface. The study explores whether such a model can be accurately calibrated and validated for the two sites using realistic-parameter values. The

  2. Energy partitioning over the West African savanna: multi-year evaporation and surface conductance measurements in Eastern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagayoko, F.; Yonkeu, S.; Elbers, J.A.; Giesen, van de N.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variability of the energy partitioning was analyzed with a combination of eddy fluxes of sensible and latent heat and weather data on intensely farmed land in the savanna area of Eastern Burkina Faso, West Africa. The analysis covers two rainy seasons (May-October 2003 and 2004), one dry se

  3. Areas and programmes of technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooperation between the Atomic Energy Commission of Costa Rica, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, has permitted to carry out programmes and projects which agree with the national objectives of development. In the areas of environmental hydrology; physical sciences and chemistry; industry and geological sciences; health and animal production; biological sciences, agriculture and alimentation; scientific and technical information. (author)

  4. Stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters was conducted by scientists from the Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, as part of the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) project and in close collaboration with the scientists from Large Lakes Observatory of the University of Minnesota and the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the IAEA in Vienna. The Research Contract was part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations, and was sponsored by the Agency. Water and grab sediment samples were obtained from East African Lakes during the month of January and February 1994 and July/August 1995. Water samples were analysed for oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition at the IAEA Laboratories in Vienna, Austria. In this final paper we report the results of the study of oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition from the East African lake waters. (author)

  5. Cultural Sustainability of African Canadian Heritage: Engaging Students in Learning, the Past, the Present and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research is cultural sustainability of African Canadian heritage. Research literature informs us that engaging youth in educational programmes at the local level is fundamental to sustainability discussions. Furthermore, students must be actively engaged in their African Canadian past, present and future education. However, there…

  6. The perceived benefits for Turkey adopting nuclear energy, and the lessons learned from the attempts made to introduce a nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was formed in 1957. It had two major objectives. It aimed at promoting nuclear energy to make the maximum contribution to world energy needs. And it aimed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Turkey became an IAEA Member State in 1957, a year after the establishment of the Turkish Atomic Energy Commission which later was re-established as the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK). TAEK is a governmental organization and has served as a driving force for all institutions enhancing and broadening the fields of interest thereby fostering nuclear oriented activities in many spheres. Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Corporation (TEAS) was a state owned enterprise established for the performance of services for production and transmission of electrical energy in conformity with general economy and policies of the State under the Decree of Board of Ministers. Interaction with the Agency and Technical Co-operation in particular became a very essential component of the widespread programme within the general framework of nuclear applications in the country. Most of the assistance to Turkey was related to nuclear applications. Turkey had been trying for many years to establish a comprehensive energy development plan where nuclear power shall have an important share. Turkey has tried to launch a nuclear power plant project in Akkuyu three times in 1976,1983 and 1993 and these attempts have ceased in a couple of years, because of some 'surrounding reasons'. Integration of the nuclear power plants into the grid system of Turkey will bring the following profits: Long-term reliability of the plant (around 40 years of life-time); Introducing a diverse fuel into the Turkish electricity production system beside fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and fuel oil; With only one fuel loading, months of reliable operation from the aspect of fuel; During operation, environmentally friendly behaviour of the plant

  7. United States programme on partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The United States Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle R and D programme has been redirected over the past year. Rather than pursuing design and construction of current technologies for recycling components of used nuclear fuel in fast reactors, the programme is evaluating or re-evaluating all options for long-term sustainable fuel cycles. Strategies for open, modified open and fully closed fuel cycles are under development. In addition, with the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project, the programme is evaluating options for used fuel storage, transportation and permanent disposal of high-level waste. The Fuel Cycle R and D programme will develop and demonstrate advanced technologies in order to prepare for commercial deployment of a sustainable fuel cycle by 2050. (authors)

  8. Network virtualization and programmability

    OpenAIRE

    Colle, Didier; Jooris, Bart; Gurzi, Pasquale; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2010-01-01

    We present network virtualization (building virtual or logical networks over a physical infrastructure) and network programmability (allowing the network operator to at least control the network but more fundamentally to define its behavior) concepts.

  9. Elukestva õppe programm : Erasmus+

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Erasmus+ programm liidab senised koostööprogrammid „Euroopa elukestva õppe programm“, „Euroopa Noored“ ning Euroopa komisjoni rahvusvahelised kõrgharidusprogrammid. Elukestva õppe programmi 2013 kokkuvõte

  10. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  11. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  12. Stake and limit of nuclear energy on the respect of social, cultural and economic rights of African people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the capacities of energy production generates economic, social and cultural progress. However the energy production, especially that related to nuclear power, comprises many risks for man and his environment. These risks are primarily related to safety and health. In the developing countries like Burkina Faso, the nuclear engineering is used in the field of socio-economic and cultural development, and is beneficial to agriculture, medicine, the breeding, the research and management of water resources. The use of this nuclear engineering must however be subjected to the safety standards in the prospect of minimizing dangers such as accident risks, the stealing of sealed sources or its use by unqualified people. Its use should also be done in line with respecting human rights according to the convention on the complementary repair of damages. That would help reduce considerably the impacts of the use of nuclear engineering on human rights relating to public health, the environment and to the food

  13. A control algorithm approach for optimizing energy resources through power generation for a South African steel works plant

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, P.v.Z.; Wichers, J.H.; Van Eldik, M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous engineering plants have varieties of processes, where individual process flows are dependent on previous processes and operated by default or manual settings. Initial raw material feeds may fluctuate over time, possibly resulting in inefficient use of energy resources. This paper describes a study on power generation capabilities of such a plant. Off-gasses from various steel production processes are utilized in boilers; producing steam for the Works. Excess steam is used for powe...

  14. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  15. Stay Safe Programme

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. This child abuse prevention study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Stay Safe Programme in training unscreened 7 and 10 year old children in personal safety skills. Subsidiary aims were to evaluate the programme's impact on children's self-esteem and parents' and teachers' knowledge and attitudes of relevance to child abuse and protection. Method. Changes in safety knowledge and skills and self-esteem of 339 children who participated in the Stay Safe Program...

  16. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    George Korir; Manu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external component...

  17. Experiences from TVO's Communication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In parallel with the field investigations of three sites, TVO has a specific information project aiming at public acceptance of HLW disposal in Finland. The site or final disposal will be selected by the year 2000. Prerequisites are that the local council accepts the facility, and that there is political acceptance of final disposal in the government and in Parliament TVO's experience with communications programmes concerning the siting of the spent fuel disposal facility is discussed. Much experience was gained from the 1987-92 information programme. Another programme was organised for the period 1993-96 to back up site investigations, development of technology and safety studies, and to pave the way for information activities in the years 1997-2000. The results of a study carried out a Jysaeskylae University on TVO's waste information in the candidate areas will provide useful information on attitudes about nuclear waste management in Finland. The issue of communication with local opponents, and strategies to assist in lessening their impact is discussed. It should be noted that in 1995 an amendment to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act became effective that prohibits the transformation of Loviisa spent fuel from Finland to Russia after 1996, and thus reinforces the moral argument. (authors)

  18. The development and management of the PROSOL Programme, recognized model for the setting up of promotion plans for the use of renewable energies; Campana de difusion e informacion de energias renovables en el marco del programa Prosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.; Munoz, C.; Lopez, G.

    2004-07-01

    The Sociedad para el Desarrollo Energetico de Andalucia carries out, for order of the General Directorate of Industry, Energy and Mines. Regional Ministry of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of the Andalusian Regional Government, the development and management of the PROSOL Programme, recognized model for the setting up of promotion plans for the use of renewable energies Among the diverse activities that are realized, the explanation and demonstration of the use of Renewable Energias in Andalusian municipalities, preferably in schools, by means of a {sup M}obile Platform of Renewable Energies{sup i}s included. The activity has a double theoretical - practical version. Environmental problems are discussed, as well as the explanation and development of renewable energies with a practical demonstration. (Author)

  19. An implementation evaluation of a voluntary counselling and testing programme for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryn N. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employee wellness programmes have become standard interventions in mostorganisations. In South Africa, these programmes invariably contain an element to addressthe problem of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiencysyndrome (AIDS in the workplace.Research purpose: The purpose of this evaluation was to assess whether or not a VoluntaryCounselling and Testing (VCT programme for HIV and AIDS, at a South African university,was implemented as intended.Motivation for the study: The evaluators were motivated to explore indications in the existingliterature about these programmes that participants in VCT programmes are often not theintended target population who live a high risk lifestyle.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive design was used to evaluate serviceutlisation, service delivery and organisational support. Questionnaire data from 285respondents who participated in the programme and programme records supplied by theprogramme staff were consulted to answer the evaluation questions.Main findings: The evaluation showed that the highest uptake for the programme occurredamongst female students. The low uptake amongst men was a concern. It was found that theprogramme was delivered as intended and that there were enough resources to implement itaccording to standards set.Practical/managerial implications: The systematic report on the programme process providedthe programme managers with practical suggestions for programme improvement.Contribution/value-add: This was the first implementation evaluation of a VCT programme ina South African university context. As such it aimed to educate programme managers to thinkevaluatively about introducing new or continuing existing programmes.

  20. African Otter Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon

    2016-01-01

    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  1. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  2. The VULCANO spreading programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the currently studied core-catcher projects, some of them suppose corium spreading before cooling, in particular the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) core-catcher concept is based on mixing the corium with a special concrete, spreading the molten mixture on a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom and subsequently cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading deserves intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify key phenomena which govern the stopping of spreading. In France, for some years, the Nuclear Reactor Division of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DRN) has undertaken a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental and theoretical investigations which are finally gathered in scenario and mechanistic computer codes. In this framework, the real material experimental programme, VULCANO, conducted within an European frame, is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. In 1997 and 1998, several tests have been performed on dry corium spreading with various composition of melts. Although all the observed phenomena, in particular the differences between simulant and real material melts have not been yet totally explained, these tests have already provided a lot of information about: The behaviour of complex mixtures including refractory oxides, silica, iron oxides and in one case iron metal; Spreading progression, which was never stopped in any of these tests by a crust formation at the front; The structure of spread melts (porosity, crusts,...); Physico-chemical interaction between melt and the refractory substratum which was composed of zirconia bricks. (authors)

  3. Photovoltaic devices - International and National Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support for renewable energy technology, especially for photovoltaics has increased during the last 10 years. Governmental organizations and industrial private companies all over the world have invested many human and financial resources in the photovoltaic device implementation. All these efforts were made in the frame of long-term National Energy Programmes. As a result of these programmes the photovoltaics market has been divided into a number of market segments (consumer indoor, consumer power, remote habitation, remote industrial, grid residential, power plant) while the world installed photovoltaic power capacity will increase from 50 MWp in 1990's to 350 MWp in 2000's. (Author)

  4. The communication approach of the loveLife HIV/AIDS prevention programme / S. Bosch

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Steven

    2009-01-01

    loveLife, the South African national HIV/AIDS prevention programme for youth, is known for its brand-oriented billboards and mass media campaign that ranges over various print-, broadcast- and alternative media. However, the organisation also implements a national grass-roots peer motivation programme where various activities are co-ordinated by youths (GroundBREAKERS and Mpintshis) from the community. The organisation has been criticised for its communication approach, with many rese...

  5. Developing inquiry-based teaching and learning in Family Maths programme facilitators

    OpenAIRE

    Pam Austin; Paul Webb

    2007-01-01

    The inquiry-based Family Maths professional development programme, offered by the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, attempts not only to support the transformative education practices targeted by the South African National Department of Education, but also to extend them beyond the school walls to the community at large. This study investigates the extent to which this programme develops facilitators’ ability to implement inquiry-based learning. The research undertaken uses both qualit...

  6. Should HIV and AIDS workplace programmes still be advocated in the automotive industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Liana Steenkamp; Jill von der Marwitz; Friederike Baasner-Weihs; Jacques Pietersen

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: In light of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, and in order to improve competitiveness in the South African private sector, many structures have implemented subsidised workplace programmes.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to collect baseline data regarding the knowledge, attitudes, practices and belief (KAPB) of employees in the automotive industry in relation to HIV and AIDS, in order to assess the need for HIV and AIDS workplace programmes.Motivation fo...

  7. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  8. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  9. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a well-structured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities. (author)

  10. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R B Grover; R R Puri

    2013-10-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a wellstructured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities.

  11. Translating theory into practice: results of a 2-year trial for the LEAD programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, D

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents data for 2 years of a continuing study aimed to reduce the risk of first-time involvement by minority youth with the juvenile justice system. A quasi-experimental design was used to test a 14-week expressive art curriculum (LEAD: leadership, education, achievement and development) implemented in two rural communities. A total of 70 African American youth participated in the programme over a 2-year period. Pre- and post-test differences were examined for protective factors, behavioural self-control, self-esteem and resilience measures. When compared with the after-school programme (control group), youth in the LEAD programme in both communities had more dramatic increases in post-test scores following the intervention. The combined data from year 1 and year 2 provide positive findings in support of LEAD as a prevention programme for young offenders. The placement of the programme within an African American church in year 2 improved the processes of the LEAD programme and seemed to provide a better fit with the original design of the programme, highlighting the importance of the context, in which the programme was provided. PMID:18387150

  12. ADS National Programmes: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German R&D programme for ADS development is related to the partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. This programme is implemented mainly by the three national research centres belonging to the Helmholtz Association, i.e. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in cooperation with the Technical University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR). The main purpose of this R&D programme is the prospect to manage the high level radioactive waste such as to reduce the burden on a final repository. P&T does not eliminate the need for a final repository whatever the strategy, but it allows the reduction of the radio-toxicity associated with radioactive waste, the increase of the repository capacity as a consequence of the reduction of masses to be stored and their associated residual heat load. Different fuel cycle scenarios to implement P&T can be envisaged. These scenarios have been evaluated to identify the impact of P&T on the characteristics, number and deployment pace of the installations of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fuel fabrication, storage etc). Almost all activities conducted in the R&D programme are embedded in European and international projects and initiatives. In the following more details on the relevant components of the R&D programme are summarized

  13. International Programmes on ADS: IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA recognizes that there are four major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world’s energy mix: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind IAEA’s activity in the area of innovative transmutation reactor technology development and, in particular, Accelerator Driven Systems. The framework for all the IAEA activities in the ADS area is the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). In response to strong common R&D needs in the Member States, the TWG-FR acts as a catalyst for international information exchange and collaborative R&D. It provides a forum for exchange of non-commercial scientific and technical information, and a forum for international cooperation on generic research and development programmes on advances in fast reactors and fast spectrum accelerator driven systems. Its present members are the following 15 IAEA Member States: Belarus, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States of America, as well as 3 international organizations: ISTC, OECD-NEA, and EU (EC). As observers, the TWG-FR has welcomed Argentina and Belgium. Last but not least, the IAEA is providing the ADS Research and Development Database. It contains information about ADS related R&D programmes, existing and planned experimental facilities as well as programmes, methods and data development efforts, design studies, and so forth

  14. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Korir, George

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes a series of operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series ...

  15. External Mobility Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Every year, a significant number of highly-skilled staff members leave the Organization and offer their talents on the European job market. CERN is launching a programme aiming to help staff members to whom the Organization cannot offer an indefinite contract in the transition towards their next employment. The programme, which is based on the establishment of a number of partnerships with potential employers in the private sector, will run on a voluntary basis. Staff members who have received confirmation that they will not be offered an indefinite contract and who are interested in availing themselves of the opportunities offered by the programme, are invited to enrol by following the procedure described at: https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=5841 Applications will be processed in the strictest confidence by the Human Resources Department and eligible profiles will then be made available to partner companies for recruitment purposes. Any subsequent ...

  16. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  17. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  18. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  19. Funktionell Programmering : En framtidsprognos

    OpenAIRE

    Holmer, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Trenden inom systemutveckling och programutveckling går mot ett mer användande av multi programmeringsparadigmer. Funktionell programmering har fått mer uppmärksamhet på senare tid och utvecklingen tycks över lag gå än mer åt det deklarativa hållet där programmeraren fokuserar mer på vad som skall utföras och inte lika mycket på hur. Under en tid har det objektorienterade paradigmet varit dominerande, kommer det vara så i framtiden? Funktionell programmering skiljer sig från imperativ program...

  20. A programmer's geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, Adrian

    1983-01-01

    A Programmer's Geometry provides a guide in programming geometric shapes. The book presents formulas and examples of computer representation and coding of geometry. Each of the nine chapters of the text deals with the representation and solution of a specific geometrical problem, such as areas, vectors, and volumes. The last chapter provides a brief discussion on generating image through a computer. The codes presented in the book are written in FORTRAN 77. The text will be of great use to programmers who are working on projects that involve geometric calculations.

  1. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  2. Educational Programme in Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of a malicious act involving nuclear or other radioactive material is a continuing worldwide threat. Available data indicate circumstances in which nuclear and other radioactive material are vulnerable to theft, are uncontrolled, or are in unauthorized circulation. States must establish sustainable security measures to prevent such acts and to protect society from nuclear terrorism. Appropriate training and education at all levels and in all relevant organizations and facilities can play a major role in this process. There is increased interest in nuclear applications. Many States have expressed interest in expanding or introducing nuclear power in their country as a result of their own assessment of their energy supply needs, because of climate change, and development requirements. The projected increase in the demand for nuclear energy will increase the number of nuclear reactors worldwide and, consequently, the amount of nuclear material in use. Possible malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material are a real threat. These developments are mirrored by an increase in the use of nuclear techniques in non-power applications. As a result, the need for experts in the area of nuclear security has become of great importance, and both universities and students have shown an increasing interest in nuclear security specialities. In September 2005, the Board of Governors approved a Nuclear Security Plan covering the period 2006-2009. This emphasized, inter alia, the importance of human resource development to assist States in building capacity to establish and maintain appropriate nuclear security to prevent, detect and respond to malicious acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material. The Nuclear Security Plan envisages the development of guidance for an educational programme in nuclear security that could be used by all States. In pursuit of this goal, this publication has been developed to provide advice and assistance to

  3. Mexican medfly programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This film tells the story of the fight against and final extinction of the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Mexico. By producing billions of high quality sterile flies in the Medfly reproduction and sterilization laboratory in the province of Chiapas and releasing them over infested areas, the Moscamed Programme succeeded in eradicating this pest from Mexico in 1982

  4. Kulturalistische Unternehmensethik : ein Programm

    OpenAIRE

    Hanekamp, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    "Das Programm einer kulturalistischen Unternehmensethik wird vorgestellt. Es gründet auf einem philosophischen Ansatz, der sich als instrumentalistisch, kontextualistisch, transsubjektivistisch und individualistisch charakterisieren lässt. Hinsichtlich der ethischen Grundlagen werden starke Thesen durch den Rekurs auf eine kontextualistisch-normative Anthropologie vermieden." (Autorenreferat)

  5. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  6. En model for programmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Dette undervisningsmateriale beskriver en model for, hvordan programmer er opbygget. Materialet er skrevet til brug i det gymnasiale forsøgsfag Informationsteknologi. Seneste version af dette undervisningsmateriale kan findes på http:// www.imhotep.dk. Tak til Elisabeth Husum for en kritisk...

  7. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  8. Turkey's Basic Education Programme

    OpenAIRE

    A. Remzi Sezgin

    2000-01-01

    In August 1997, the Government of Turkey greatly increased its efforts to implement eight-year obligatory education, through parliamentary approval of Law No. 4306 for Basic Education. The law mobilises significant resources for a major investment in school facilities through earmarked taxes, establishes a timetable for the Basic Education Programme and streamlines procedures to allow for swift action and implementation.

  9. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  10. The Productive Programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The Productive Programmer offers critical timesaving and productivity tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.

  11. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...... involved in the cooperation (Finland, Denmark, Portugal, Iceland, United Kingdom and Austria)....

  12. Key United States programmes for the security of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses key US programme activities related to the security of radioactive sources, including both domestic and international programmes; the US Department of Energy-Nuclear Regulatory Commission joint report and findings; and critical partnerships for future efforts to preclude terrorist attacks using radioactive sources. (author)

  13. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  14. Field Epidemiology Training Programmes in Africa - Where are the Graduates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukanga David

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current shortage of human resources for health threatens the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. There is currently limited published evidence of health-related training programmes in Africa that have produced graduates, who remain and work in their countries after graduation. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that the majority of graduates of field epidemiology training programmes (FETPs in Africa stay on to work in their home countries--many as valuable resources to overstretched health systems. Methods Alumni data from African FETPs were reviewed in order to establish graduate retention. Retention was defined as a graduate staying and working in their home country for at least 3 years after graduation. African FETPs are located in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. However, this paper only includes the Uganda and Zimbabwe FETPs, as all the others are recent programmes. Results This review shows that enrolment increased over the years, and that there is high graduate retention, with 85.1% (223/261 of graduates working within country of training; most working with Ministries of Health (46.2%; 105/261 and non-governmental organizations (17.5%; 40/261. Retention of graduates with a medical undergraduate degree was higher (Zimbabwe 80% [36/83]; Uganda 90.6% [125/178] than for those with other undergraduate qualifications (Zimbabwe 71.1% [27/83]; Uganda 87.5% [35/178]. Conclusions African FETPs have unique features which may explain their high retention of graduates. These include: programme ownership by ministries of health and local universities; well defined career paths; competence-based training coupled with a focus on field practice during training; awarding degrees upon completion; extensive training and research opportunities made available to graduates; and the social capital acquired during training.

  15. Energy from waste - a synthesis report. A review of research projects in the Swedish Energy Agency's programme 'Energy from waste' 2000-2003; Energi ur avfall - syntesrapport. En sammanstaellning av forskningsprojekten bedrivna inom ramen foer Energimyndighetens program 'Energi ur avfall' aar 2000-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Anna [Linkoeping Univ. (SE). Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies] (comp.)

    2005-11-15

    This review describes the projects active during the years 2000-2003. Types and volumes of waste in Sweden: Consumption waste is waste from use of goods and services. Examples of consumption waste are household waste, non-branch specific industrial waste, building and demolition waste, park and garden waste, sludges from purification plants and private sewage. Production waste is generated in industry and agriculture. In 1998 Statistics Sweden performed a mapping of waste volumes and management in Sweden. This year 9.805 M tons consumption waste and 19.680 Mton production waste (excluding mine wastes) were generated. Since then, waste volumes have increased with 2-3%/year. Local communities, public sector and private waste management companies handled 7.7 M tons of waste for biologic processing, incineration with heat recovery or disposal, of these, 5.7 M tons are appreciated to have been combustible and other organic waste. In the programme, the subject 'System studies' comprised three projects: 'Systems analysis of energy recovery from waste', 'Robust strategies for recovery of energy from waste', and 'Waste as fuel - An integrated study of the energy- and waste management system'. The subject area 'Incineration and gasification' included the following projects: 'Catalytic combustion of gasified waste', 'Gas cleaning in energy recovery from waste using new technology', 'Catalytic decomposition of chars in gasified waste', 'Cocombustion of biofuel and sorted household waste - Full scale trials Bjurholm', 'Incineration of waste - a review of research and development work', 'Energy from waste through gasification and direct combustion of the gas', 'Carbonate stabilization of RDF-ashes', 'Stabilization of ashes from incineration of waste in fluidized bed boilers', 'Dioxins and other environmental toxins i fly ashes and slags from

  16. Implementation evaluation of the business process services incentive programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonceba Mashalaba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation evaluation of the business process services (BPS incentive programme undertaken by the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti and the Department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME as part of the 2012/2013 National Evaluation Plan. The evaluation started on 31 October 2012 and the final report was approved on 17 May 2013. The evaluation covers the period from the inception of the programme in January 2011 to December 2012. The BPS incentive programme was implemented to stimulate the business process sector which contributes to economic growth largely through employment creation. The main objectives of the programme are to attract investment and create employment opportunities through offshoring activities. Twenty-six indicators across the five Development Assistance Community (DAC evaluation criteria were developed. A multi-method approach was undertaken to collect data for each of the indicators. The key findings relate to the operation of the programme and a number of suggestions were made as to how to strengthen it. Overall 3807 jobs have been created through the BPS programme during the period under review. Estimated total investment provided by firms is approximately R2.7 billion. Amongst others, the study recommended that the design of the programme be reviewed and extended, potentially to a five-year period in order to maintain the competitiveness of South Africa as a business process off shoring destination. It is essential to address the skills shortage to ensure the growth and sustainability of the South African BPS industry and finally the uptake of the incentive programme.

  17. An E-Learning Collaborative Environment: Learning within a Masters in Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Natheem

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about e-learning as a form of adult education. It is based on the experiences of South African students, describes and analyses group interaction in an intercontinental Masters in Adult Education Programme which uses a computer electronic platform as the primary medium for learning and teaching. The article…

  18. The "Uptake" of a Sport-for-Development Programme in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Cora

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the "uptake" dynamics and resultant manifestations of a school-based, incentive-driven, sport-for-development programme in the South African context of poverty. The ecological systems theory of Brofenbrenner, the theory of complexity and a neo-liberal framework underpin the social constructions of local meanings…

  19. Understanding Non-Traditional PhD Students Habitus--Implications for PhD Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of vast changes in doctoral education and the emergence of non-traditional doctoral programmes, this paper investigates the habitus of non-traditional PhD students at a South African university. Bourdieu's conceptual tool of habitus informed the study. In-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 non-traditional…

  20. Empowerment of Bilingual Education Professionals: The Training of Trainers Programme for Educators in Multilingual Settings in Southern Africa (ToTSA) 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Carol; Pluddemann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a South Africa-based training programme in multilingual education for African educators and assesses its potentially transformative effects on participants. Based on a range of data collected during four course runs, as well as an e-mail survey of past participants, the authors explore how the programme has supported…

  1. Dilemmas and paradoxes of capacity building in African higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Jensen, Stig; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    of firstly capacity building projects and the power of knowledge, secondly the geography of knowledge and cultural production of academics and thirdly Africanisation of curriculum and powerful knowledge. We claim an important element of future capacity building programmes should be related to how to counter......This chapter discusses and reflects on the dilemmas and paradoxes of capacity building in African higher education by drawing on the findings of the case-based chapters in the book. The collection confirms the importance of using geography of knowledge as an approach for understanding how capacity...... building influences and affects African academics, institutions and degree programmes. The chapters also illustrate how reflexivity and positionality can be important tools for highlighting the power relations inherent in capacity building. In this chapter we discuss the three interwoven dilemmas...

  2. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  3. Reading the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  4. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  5. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano; Majek, Ondrej; de Wolf, Chris; Lancucki, Lesz; Hofvind, Solveig; Nyström, Lennarth; Segnan, Nereo; Ponti, Antonio; Van Hal, G; Martens, P; Májek, O; Danes, J; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Aasmaa, A; Anttila, A; Becker, N; Péntek, Z; Budai, A; Mádai, S; Fitzpatrick, P; Mooney, T; Zappa, M; Ventura, L; Scharpantgen, A; Hofvind, S; Seroczynski, P; Morais, A; Rodrigues, V; Bento, M J; Gomes de Carvalho, J; Natal, C; Prieto, M; Sánchez-Contador Escudero, C; Zubizarreta Alberti, R; Fernández Llanes, S B; Ascunce, N; Ederra Sanza, M; Sarriugarte Irigoien, G; Salas Trejo, D; Ibáñez Cabanell, J; Wiege, M; Ohlsson, G; Törnberg, S; Korzeniewska, M; de Wolf, C; Fracheboud, J; Patnick J, J; Lancucki, L; Ducarroz, S; Suonio, E

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  6. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  7. THE POTENTIAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SOUTH AFRICAN MANUFACTURING

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Greef; R. Reinecke

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the most commonly used Knowledge Based Systems (KBS's) called Rule Based Systems, presents some benefits of using these systems if the application warrants their attention and provides an over-view of current R&D as well as industrial systems already implemented. Areas of manUfacturing that could use KES's within the South African context are suggested. A research programme investigating the use of KBS's in robotics in progress at the University ...

  8. UKAEA underlying research programme annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in fundamental research is essential to the success of an organisation such as Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Technology whose business is the selling of Research and Development (R and D) and the services relating to it. Such research supplies the scientific understanding that underpins the technical expertise of the organisation, develops new skills and techniques, and stimulates technical innovation. The resulting scientific and technical excellence is the hall-mark of a major contract R and D organisation. Fundamental research in the AEA is co-ordinated through the Underlying Research Programme. This Report describes progress made during the financial year 1988/89 within all Technical Areas of the Programme, and additionally summarises the AEA's Underlying Research on the Safe Integral Reactor design and on 'Cold Fusion'. Highlights of recent technical achievements within the Programme are described in a separate brochure. (author)

  9. Argentine intercomparison programme for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Intercomparison Programme is being carried out in Argentina for individual monitoring services. The programme was designed to test, on a voluntary basis, the performance of the laboratories that provide individual monitoring services for X and gamma radiation fields in the range from low-level dose up to 100 mSv. Irradiations were performed in full accordance with ISO 4037-3 recommendations by the Regional Reference Centre for Dosimetry (CRRD), belonging to Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Physical Dosimetry Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). At the same time, several items have been asked to each participant pertaining to the action range, the detectors' characteristics, the laboratory procedures, the existence of an algorithm and its use for the dosemeter evaluation. In this study the evolution of the laboratories' performance throughout the programme, based on ISO 14146 acceptance criteria, is shown. (authors)

  10. Report on the Third Conference on Energy and Nuclear Power in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability, accessibility and affordability of energy continue to be the main challenges for the majority of African countries. Energy accessibility varies widely in Africa. Concerns over energy security, climate change and environmental impacts are compounding the situation. Several African countries have therefore begun to reconsider the nuclear option with a view to establishing long-term sustainable energy supplies. Nuclear was one of the most reliable technologies for electricity generation in the world today, able to generate large amounts of energy with minimal environmental impacts. The high cost of electricity for example in Kenya continued to be a challenge and the country was spending large amounts on the fuel cost adjustment associated with the use of thermal plants. Access to reliable energy sources was a critical component of all facets of socio-economic growth.The IAEA assisted member states in developing their national energy strategies through technical cooperation programmes, the primary means by which the IAEA provided assistance to member states.The aim of the 3. Conference on Energy and Nuclear Power in Africa was to provide a forum to discuss priorities and concerns related to energy and nuclear power, and further strengthen coordination with interested and relevant regional bodies/organizations in introducing nuclear power in Africa. The conference also aimed at offering a networking opportunity for countries considering the introduction of the nuclear option in their energy strategy. The major thematic areas for consideration were: Challenges of sustainable energy development in Africa; National and regional energy planning for nuclear power development; Legal and nuclear safety and security considerations; Leadership and management of a nuclear power programme; Funding and financing of a nuclear power programme in its early stages; and Regional networking for nuclear power programme development.

  11. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels; Schonfelder, V.; Ubertini, P.

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements of the...

  12. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  13. Bioergia Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Bioergia Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of Finland's Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Pharmacovigilance programme of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvan Vivekanandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs through pharmacovigilance is vital to patient safety and rational prescribing. In India, Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO initiated Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI to report ADRs through ADRs monitoring centres in India. Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC is functioning as National Coordination Centre (NCC for PvPI. The ADRs are reported to NCC through VigiFlow by various centres are evaluated and committed to Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden. The potential benefit of the PvPI is aimed to reducing or eliminating a harm of medicine. Continuous efforts of the healthcare professionals and the patients are expected to make this as one of the most successful and effective programmes. The present article updates the status and future plan of PvPI.

  16. Programme budget 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 11 main fields of KfK R + D activities which are connected with one or more of the research goals of a) assurance of nuclear fuel supply, b) nuclear waste management, c) safety of nuclear facilities, d) basic research and research on new technologies. The scientific and technical tasks connected with these goals in 1981 and on a medium-term basis as well as the financial requirements are presented in the programme budget. (orig.)

  17. Multilateral Interoperability Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Burita, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Multilateral Interoperability Programme (MIP) is a voluntary and independent activity in NATO environment by the participating nations and organizations. The MIP concept is based on data exchange in form of common exchange data model to achieve the international interoperability in command and control information systems (C2IS) of the tactical units. The article describes the basis of the MIP organizations, structure, planning and testing processes. The core of the MIP solution is the Inf...

  18. Neural Programmer-Interpreters

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Scott; De Freitas, Nando

    2015-01-01

    We propose the neural programmer-interpreter (NPI): a recurrent and compositional neural network that learns to represent and execute programs. NPI has three learnable components: a task-agnostic recurrent core, a persistent key-value program memory, and domain-specific encoders that enable a single NPI to operate in multiple perceptually diverse environments with distinct affordances. By learning to compose lower-level programs to express higher-level programs, NPI reduces sample complexity ...

  19. The Mathematica programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Roman E

    1994-01-01

    The Mathematica Programmer covers the fundamental programming paradigms and applications of programming languages. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters. Part 1 begins with an overview of the programming paradigms. This part also treats abstract data types, polymorphism and message passing, object-oriented programming, and relational databases. Part 2 looks into the practical aspects of programming languages, including in lists and power series, fractal curves, and minimal surfaces.This book will prove useful to mathematicians and computer scientists.

  20. An investigation into the DSM and energy efficiency potential of a modular underground air cooling unit applied in the South African mining industry / Martin van Eldik

    OpenAIRE

    van Eldik, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The South African mining industry is faced with the depletion of minerals and coal at current mining depths. This is forcing the industry to expand operations to greater depths where ample ore reserves are located. This expansion combined with the demand for increased production rates puts excessive strain on the ventilation and cooling systems of mines. The problem is that mining will eventually reach depths where current methods of ventilation and cooling will no longer be econo...

  1. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries'' are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs

  2. Programmable matter by folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  3. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology. PMID:27058370

  4. A new video programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    "What's new @ CERN?", a new monthly video programme, will be broadcast on the Monday of every month on webcast.cern.ch. Aimed at the general public, the programme will cover the latest CERN news, with guests and explanatory features. Tune in on Monday 3 October at 4 pm (CET) to see the programme in English, and then at 4:20 pm (CET) for the French version.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-...

  5. Presentation of the national program for the improvement of the energy efficiency; Presentation du programme national d'amelioration de l'efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This paper is the presentation of the energy mastership national program. It deals with the actions leading to the development of the enterprises and household demand, the increase of the actions in favor of the energy, the actions in the transportation sector, the actions in the habitat domain, the mastership of the energy consumption for the industrial and service sector industries, the renewable energies development, the ADEME devices. (A.L.B.)

  6. Energy and environmental aspects in building construction. Joint seminar of the LVIS-2000 and ETRR research programmes; Energia- ja ympaeristoetietoinen rakentaminen; LVIS-2000 ja ETRR -tutkimusohjelmien yhteisseminaari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohonen, R.; Naeraekkae, S. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    A joint seminar was arranged by ETRR or `Energy-efficient buildings and building components` and LVIS or `Future building services`. The main topics of the seminar included environmental and energy conservation aspects in building construction; Concepts of industrial house building; Energy conservation and ventilation solutions in residential buildings; The prototype METOP for low energy office buildings and development of other model solutions and programs

  7. Biomass programme: Overview of the 2006 Swiss research programme; Programm Biomasse. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done within the framework of the Swiss biomass research programme in 2006. The programme concentrates on the efficient conversion of biomass into heat, electrical power and motor fuels. Projects concerned with the optimisation of processes are reported on, including low-particle-emission systems, control systems for bivalent heating installations, use of demanding biomass fuels, combined pellets and solar heating systems and the elimination of ammonia emissions. In the material flow area, measurement campaigns, organic pollutants in compost, the effects of fermented wastes in agriculture and methane losses in biogas conditioning are reported on. New conversion technologies are reviewed, including hydro-thermal gasification, plant-oil fuelled combined heat and power units, flameless burners and catalytic direct liquefaction. In the area of basics, studies and concepts, eco-balances and life-cycle analyses are reported on; the production of synthetic natural gas and the influence of combustion particles are discussed and decentralised power generation from solid biomass is reported on. National and international co-operation is reviewed. The report is concluded with a review of eight pilot and demonstration projects, a review of work to be done in 2007 and a list of research and demonstration projects.

  8. Research programme on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  9. Incentives for Improving Energy Efficiency When Renovating Large-Scale Housing Estates: A Case Study of the Swedish Million Homes Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Grange

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweden has adopted ambitious energy savings objectives for buildings, but at the current rate of energy efficiency investments the objectives are unlikely to be reached. In this article we report the early findings of how real estate owners reason and act in energy efficiency investment decisions. Based on the results from interviews with the real estate companies, the companies have been divided into four ideal types that illuminate the differences in energy efficiency ambition and strategies; the Strict Profit Maximizing Company, the Little Extra Company, the Policy Led Ambitious Company and the Administration Led Ambitious Company. The different strategies will determine how the companies respond to incentives to invest in energy efficiency, and affect the overall result in the energy efficiency work. The ideal types hence are important to have in mind when designing policies to increase energy efficiency.

  10. EURATOM Research Framework Programme on Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the European Commission (EC) in the field of nuclear energy are governed by the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The research activities of the European Union (EU) are designed as multi-annual Framework Programmes (FP). The EURATOM 6. Framework Programme (EURATOM FP -6), covering the period 2002-2006, is funded with a budget of 1, 230 million Euros and managed by the European Commission. Beyond the general strategic goal of the EURATOM Framework Programmes to help exploit the potential of nuclear energy, in a safe and sustainable manner, FP -6 is designed to contribute also to the development of the 'European Research Area' (ERA), a concept described in the Commission's Communication COM(2000)6, of January 2000. Moreover EURATOM FP-6 contributes to the creation of the conditions for sharing the same nuclear safety culture throughout the EU-25 and the Candidate Countries, fostering the acceptance of nuclear power as an element of the energy mix. This paper gives an overview of the research activities undertaken through EURATOM FP-6 in the area of Reactor Systems, covering the safety of present reactors, the development of future safe reactors, and the needs in terms of research infrastructures and education and training. The actions under FP-6 are presented in their continuity of actions under FP-5. The perspectives under FP -7 are also provided. Other parts of the EURATOM FP, covering Waste Handling and Radiation Protection, as well as Fusion Energy, are not detailed in this paper. (authors)

  11. Nuclear power programme planning: An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published material on different policy considerations in the introduction of nuclear power, primarily addressed to top level decision makers in government and industry in Member States. Several Member States and experts recommended to the IAEA to address the aspects of an integrated approach to nuclear power programme planning and to serve as guidance to those countries wishing to embark on a nuclear power programme. As a follow-up, the present publication is primarily intended to serve as guidance for executives and managers in Member States in planning for possible introduction of nuclear power plants in their electricity generating systems. Nuclear power programme planning, as dealt with in this publication, includes all activities that need to be carried out up to a well-founded decision to proceed with a project feasibility study. Project implementation beyond this decision is not in the scope of this publication. Although it is possible to use nuclear energy as a heat source for industrial processes, desalination and other heat applications, it is assumed in this publication that the planning is aimed towards nuclear power for electricity generation. Much of the information given would, however, also be relevant for planning of nuclear reactors for heat production. The publication was prepared within the framework of the IAEA programme on nuclear power planning, implementation and performance as a joint activity of the Nuclear Power Engineering Section and the Planning and Economic Studies Section (Division of Nuclear Power)

  12. Programme on spent fuel management in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indian Atomic Energy Programme aims at harnessing the natural resources in the most optimal manner. To achieve this end, a three phase Nuclear Power Programme was devised in the early days of establishment of the Department of Atomic Energy. It envisages the utilization of the modest uranium reserves and rich thorium deposits in the country. The limited natural reserves of fuel materials have prompted India to pay increased attention to the back end of the fuel cycle, which consists of Reprocessing and Waste Management. The spent fuel is valued in India as a source for fuel and is treated accordingly, to recover the important fissile materials. Thus, the route of reprocessing of spent fuel in order to recycle uranium and plutonium in future reactors was opted for. Today, India possesses the capability and facilities, catering to the entire fuel cycle, i.e., starting from the mining of the ore, through fabrication of fuel and its application in reactors, to reprocessing of the spent fuel and appropriate waste management. With the third Reprocessing Plant almost ready for commissioning and second and third waste Immobilization Plants under constructions, the Spent Fuel Management Programme has come of age in India. This paper presents an overview of the status of the spent fuel management programme and its future perspective. (author)

  13. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m3. On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m3/a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  14. KNOWLEDGE BASE OF PROJECT MANAGERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN ICT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Hans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research study is two-fold: Firstly, to establish the knowledge base of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. Secondly, to establish whether project management as a discipline is regarded as an important profession in the South African ICT Sector. The paper based on a questionnaire analyses and discusses the knowledge base of project managers of ICT organisations listed on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE as well as the perceived importance of project management in the South African ICT Sector. The project managers lack some project management knowledge base in some of the nine categories of competencies. This confirms some of the findings by Rwelamila (2007 that project management training programmes offered by institutions of higher learning in South Africa are skewed. This paper also established that the organisations in the South African ICT Sector recognise project management as an important profession. The lack of some project management fundamental knowledge base by project managers necessitate that the organisations concerned should implement some of the following: review project management training programmes and implement mentoring and coaching programmes. This article reveals the knowledge base gaps of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. It also reveals whether project management is regarded as an important profession by organisations in the South African ICT Sector. It complements another research study done by Rwelamila (2007 in South Africa. It is directed to the South African organisations in the ICT Sector as well as institutions of higher learning in South Africa that offer project management training programmes.

  15. Materials in solar thermal collectors - International cooperation within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency; Material i plana termiska solfaangare - Internationellt samarbete inom ramen foer IEAs solvaermeprogram under 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Bo; Moeller, Kenneth; Andersson, B.L.; Andersson, Ingemar

    1998-12-31

    Efforts made during 1998 by the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute within the framework of the international working group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors` of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency are briefly reviewed. Research work deals with a) durability and life-time assessment of solar absorber coatings, b) methods for characterization of micro climate for materials in flat plate solar collectors, and c) antireflecting coatings and transparent polymeric materials for solar thermal applications. Results of the work include a) recommended methods for assessment of durability of solar absorber surfaces, b) methods for characterization of climate inside of solar collectors for the purpose of durability testing, and c) methods for testing the mechanical properties and weatherability of antireflecting coatings and transparent polymeric cover plate materials 15 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Design status and future research programme for a sub-critical assembly driven by a proton accelerator with proton energy 660 MeV for experiments on long-lived fission products and minor actinides transmutation (Sad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report presents project for the construction of a low power integral system on the basis of the proton accelerator of energy 660 MeV and sub-critical MOX blanket with uranium-plutonium fuel. Installation includes sub-critical core with a nominal thermal power of 15-20 kW. Multiplication coefficient keff = 0,95 and the accelerator beam power of 0.75-1 kW. The experimental programme for SAD will be focused on solving different aspects of reactor physics, reaction rates measurements and benchmarking. The first conceptual design of the SAD experiment is completed in the form of the ISTC Project Proposal 2267. Realisation of the SAD facility may be expected in about 3-4 years. (author)

  17. The ELENA Programme in the Province of Chieti - A Public Private Partnership Best Practice Improving Energy Efficiency of Buildings and Public Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Fecondo

    2015-09-01

    To date, the most relevant Project outcomes consist 87 municipalities involved, a structured database of energy audit and data about 144 buildings and about 46,000 public light points. Moreover, an effective engagement of public and private stakeholders, lays the foundation for a strong Energy Performance Contract framework able to leverage financing based on minimun guaranteed energy savings of 20% in respect to baseline values.

  18. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  19. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  20. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  1. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  2. Multilateral Interoperability Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Burita

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Interoperability Programme (MIP is a voluntary and independent activity in NATO environment by the participating nations and organizations. The MIP concept is based on data exchange in form of common exchange data model to achieve the international interoperability in command and control information systems (C2IS of the tactical units. The article describes the basis of the MIP organizations, structure, planning and testing processes. The core of the MIP solution is the Information Exchange Data Model (IEDM. The Czech Armed Forces (CAF MIP process implementation is mentioned. The MIP example is a part of university education process.

  3. Research and training programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Research is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “a systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”Research is embedded in the curricula of most postgraduate training programmes; students are expected to complete some form of original work towards a dissertation. This often evokes a range of reactions: “What is the purpose of this exercise? Why do I have to do research when I just want to do a job? Shouldn’t research rather be left to experts? I can’t do the course; I have no research background!”

  4. Research and training programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Daksha Patel

    2007-01-01

    Research is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “a systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”Research is embedded in the curricula of most postgraduate training programmes; students are expected to complete some form of original work towards a dissertation. This often evokes a range of reactions: “What is the purpose of this exercise? Why do I have to do research when I just want to do a job? Shouldn’t research r...

  5. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    OpenAIRE

    Andy eQuindeau; Dietrich eHesse; Marin eAlexe

    2014-01-01

    We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8])O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us...

  6. The community programme revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Gray

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the lessons for the New Deal era of some older strands in UK and European labour market measures; the Community Programme of the 1980s and the experience of “entreprises d'insertion in France, Spain and the Netherlands. It considers whether the institutional infrastructure of the New Deal is appropriate for the realisation of "intermediate labour marketsâ€. This raises some further questions; whether ILMs are about creating employment or merely redistributing it, and whe...

  7. Progress in Programmable Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Cuntala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic devices (PLD are situated on important place among microelectronic components thanks to the continuing technological development of semiconductor components, due to new architectures and new approaches to digital systems design. Software design of various complicated digital systems becomes advantageous article of many firms. The Department of Electronics and Electrotechnology pays pemanent attention to mentioned components in application field. The collective of authors wants in this article point out on possibilities of design of digital system using the PLD. The paper plan contains the following basic parts: Technological aspects that influence development of configurable logic devices, Methodology od design and implementation and Flexibility of PLD interface.

  8. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  9. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  10. Outreach services to improve access to health care in South Africa: lessons from three community health worker programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Goudge, Jane; Thomas, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In South Africa, there are renewed efforts to strengthen primary health care and community health worker (CHW) programmes. This article examines three South African CHW programmes, a small local non-governmental organisation (NGO), a local satellite of a national NGO, and a government-initiated service, that provide a range of services from home-based care, childcare, and health promotion to assist clients in overcoming poverty-related barriers to health care. Methods: The compa...

  11. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  12. The 'energy transitions' programmes in Europe (out of France). Progress status and impact on the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined some opposite characteristics of the electricity market which is opened in some respects, and protected in others, and shown how the European regulation has become inappropriate, this document proposes an overview of energy transition policies in different European countries. It more precisely describes the German example with its four main steps of evolution (phasing out nuclear, definition of an energy mix to compensate this phasing out, definition of development objectives for renewable energies, and projection to 2050 with the Energy Concept), its current achievements in terms of evolution of energy mix and levels which are to be reached by 2050, and its contradictions and difficulties: costs and notably hidden costs of intermittent energies, solar and wind overproduction with bad consequences for the market, industrial setback in the solar array sector, implications in territorial organisation in relationship with energy production, social transfers, evolution of public opinion. Other European experiences are briefly presented (Spain, Italy, and Great-Britain) and the global European situation is briefly described. Some questions are raised and some recommendations are made in conclusion

  13. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  14. ALWR - VTT's technology programme on advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1998, VTT Energy launched a four year research programme 'Advanced Light Water Reactors' (ALWR). The research programme strives to intensify co operation between different Finnish organisations as well as to make better use of international R and D efforts on ALWR concepts. Some projects of the programme focus on use of new computational tools for the design and safety analysis of ALWRs. Improved computer simulation methods and models are necessary for the analysis of passive safety systems. Some projects address development and assessment of new technical solutions in ALWR. The projects are carried out in close co operation with the Finnish power companies and are often part of reactor vendors international development programmes. Another key element of the programme is training of new nuclear experts and providing possibilities for continuing education of the current staff. (author)

  15. ADS National Programmes: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the MYRRHA project development. MYRRHA is an accelerator driven, multi purpose fast neutron spectrum facility for R&D, cooled by a lead-bismuth eutectic. SCK•CEN has started the MYRRHA project as a national programme with several national & international bilateral collaboration agreements; the project has now evolved as an European integrated project in the frame of the IPEUROTRANS (European Commission, Sixth Framework Programme). The MYRRHA ‘Draft-2’ predesign file (completed in the early 2005) has been proposed to the partners as a basis for the XT-ADS machine. After a detailed investigation of potential alternatives, the MYRRHA concept (for the subcritical core, the primary coolant system, the accommodation of experimental rigs, the reactor vessel and the spallation target) has been kept with some modifications to achieve the XT-ADS objectives. The most recent version of the XT-ADS design was presented in the 2007 TWG meeting

  16. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  17. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  18. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  19. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  20. The Russian nuclear data research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains the Russian programme of nuclear data research, approved by the Russian Nuclear Data Committee on 16 December 1994. It gives surveys on nuclear data needs, on the structure of nuclear data activities, on experimental facilities for nuclear data measurements at five Russian institutes, on theoretical model work, nuclear data evaluation, and nuclear data testing. It describes four Russian nuclear data centers and their relations to the International Nuclear Data Centres Network, and their holdings of nuclear data libraries of Russian and international origin. A summary of nuclear data applications in energy and non-energy fields is given. An appendix contains a detail nuclear data research programme for the years 1995 - 2005. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs