WorldWideScience

Sample records for african countries regional

  1. Status of national health research systems in ten countries of the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO Regional Committee for Africa, in 1998, passed a resolution (AFR/RC48/R4 which urged its Member States in the Region to develop national research policies and strategies and to build national health research capacities, particularly through resource allocation, training of senior officials, strengthening of research institutions and establishment of coordination mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to take stock of some aspects of national resources for health research in the countries of the Region; identify current constraints facing national health research systems; and propose the way forward. Methods A questionnaire was prepared and sent by pouch to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Representatives for facilitation and follow up. The health research focal person in each of the countries Ministry of Health (in consultation with other relevant health research bodies in the country bore the responsibility for completing the questionnaire. The data were entered and analysed in Excel spreadsheet. Results The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 21.7% (10/46; three countries had a health research policy; one country reported that it had a law relating to health research; two countries had a strategic health research plan; three countries reported that they had a functional national health research system (NHRS; two countries confirmed the existence of a functional national health research management forum (NHRMF; six countries had a functional ethical review committee (ERC; five countries had a scientific review committee (SRC; five countries reported the existence of health institutions with institutional review committees (IRC; two countries had a health research programme; and three countries had a national health research institute (NHRI and a faculty of health sciences in the national university that conducted health research

  2. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Deshmukh, Ranjit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [Namibia Univ. of Science and Technology, Windhoek, (Namibia). Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency; Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly-Moman, Jessica [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Kammen, Daniel M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Callaway, Duncan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2017-03-27

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental– impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. In conclusion, the overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  3. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Grace C; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M; Callaway, Duncan S

    2017-04-11

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental-impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with "no-regrets" options-or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6-20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  4. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.

  5. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  6. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses M; Nganda, Benjamin M; Mwikisa, Chris N; Cardoso, Bernardino

    2011-04-13

    There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries); 36.8% (7/19) indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19) had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18) indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18) indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18) indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17) affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17) indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. A rapid assessment, like the one reported in this article, of the

  7. African Journals Online: Browse by Country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Home > African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  8. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence From an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region.

    OpenAIRE

    Yepes Maryam; Maurer Jürgen; Stringhini Silvia; Viswanathan Barathi; Gedeon Jude; Bovet Pascal

    2016-01-01

    While obesity continues to rise globally the associations between body size gender and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. We examined the gender and socioeconomic patterns of body mass index (BMI) and perceived ideal body size in the Seychelles a middle income small island state in the African region. We also assessed the potential role of...

  9. Country Presentation. Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin Poussoumandji-Ouinga, P.

    2010-01-01

    No incident related to the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials has been yet reported in the country. However, rumors relating to the orphaned sources exist due to buried radioactive waste and former radiotherapy activities. Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive materials is a new threat for the law enforcement agents.This is contributed by absence of dedicated equipment for radiation detection either at the border or within the country, lack of awareness of agents in charge of enforcement control, porosity of the border, absence of a protocol for exchanging information between Customs, intelligence and Police Service

  10. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  11. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  12. Alcohol Control Policies in 46 African Countries: Opportunities for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Esser, Marissa B; Dias, Sónia; Babor, Thomas; Parry, Charles D H

    2015-07-01

    There is little information on the extent to which African countries are addressing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm, which suggests that evaluations of national alcohol policies are needed in this region. The aim of this article is to examine the strength of a mix of national alcohol control policies in African countries, as well as the relationship between alcohol policy restrictiveness scores and adult alcohol per capita consumption (APC) among drinkers at the national level. We examined national alcohol policies of 46 African countries, as of 2012, in four regulatory categories (price, availability, marketing and drink-driving), and analyzed the restrictiveness of national alcohol policies using an adapted Alcohol Policy Index (API). To assess the validity of the policy restrictiveness scores, we conducted correlational analyses between policy restrictiveness scores and APC among drinkers in 40 countries. Countries attained a mean score of 44.1 of 100 points possible, ranging from 9.1 (Sao Tomé and Principe) to 75.0 (Algeria), with low scores indicating low policy restrictiveness. Policy restrictiveness scores were negatively correlated with and APC among drinkers (rs = -0.353, P = 0.005). There is great variation in the strength of alcohol control policies in countries throughout the African region. Tools for comparing the restrictiveness of alcohol policies across countries are available and are an important instrument to monitor alcohol policy developments. The negative correlation between policy restrictiveness and alcohol consumption among drinkers suggests the need for stronger alcohol policies as well as increased training and capacity building at the country level. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Dohrn, J; Omoni, G; Malata, A; Klopper, H; Larson, E

    2016-03-01

    This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade. The shortage of published nursing research from African countries severely limits the ability of practicing nurses and midwives to base clinical decisions on solid evidence. However, little is known regarding unpublished or unindexed clinical research ('grey literature'), a potentially rich source of information. Identifying these sources may reveal resources to assist nurses in providing evidence-based care. This scoping review of grey literature on clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries helped to identify gaps in research and assess whether these gaps differ from published research. Systematic searches of grey literature were performed. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses in 1 of 25 southern or eastern African countries, between 2004 and 2014 and included patient outcomes. Data were extracted on location, institution, research topic, institutional connections and author information. Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences between indexed and non-indexed literature. We found 262 studies by 287 authors from 17 southern and eastern African countries covering 13 topics. Although all topics were also found in indexed literature and there were statistically significant differences between the number of times, fewer topics were covered in grey literature vs. indexed. Patient satisfaction and experience and traditional health practices were more likely to be published, whereas chronic disease, assault and paediatric-related research were less often published. Generally, there is a paucity of clinical nursing research in this region. This could reflect the shortage of nurses prepared to conduct research in this region. Nurses may find additional resources for evidence in the grey literature. A complete understanding of the state of nursing

  14. Associations between psychological stress and smoking, drinking, obesity, and high blood pressure in an upper middle-income country in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamik, Tanja; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    The direction and magnitude of the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and psychological stress continue to be debated, and no data are available from surveys in the African region. In this study, we examine the associations between CVRFs and psychological stress in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. A survey was conducted in 1,240 adults aged 25-64 years representative of the Seychelles. Participants were asked to rank psychological stress that they had experienced during the past 12 months in four domains: work, social life, financial situation, and environment around home. CVRFs (high blood pressure, tobacco use, alcohol drinking, and obesity) were assessed using standard procedures. Psychological stress was associated with age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Overall, there were only few consistent associations between psychological stress and CVRFs, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social stress was associated with smoking, drinking, and obesity, and there were marginal associations between stress at work and drinking, and between financial stress, and smoking and drinking. Psychological stress was not associated with high blood pressure. These findings suggest that psychological stress should be considered in cardiovascular disease prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The problems of informational terrorism in African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyuk Eugenia Vasylivna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of informational terrorism in African countries, especially in SADC countries, are analyzed as well as the ways to combat information terrorism in this region. The major issues related to information terrorism are highlighted, which include data exfiltration, social engineering, insider threats, database breaches as well as poor identity and access management. The essence of Computer Security (Cyber Security is revealed and its main tasks are characterized: accessibility, integrity, including authenticity and confidentiality. The main threats for cyberspace are distinguished.

  16. Panafricanism, African Boundaries and Regional Integration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Pan African idea of closer unity is examined. Regional economic integration as a Pan African perspective is presented as a major way out of the deep and worsening economic crises bedeviling African economics. Attempts have been made since the 1960s to create and re-create institutions for regional economic ...

  17. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  18. Price elasticity of petroleum products in selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, S.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a fundamental understanding of the economic impact which is directly related to the price elasticity of petroleum products in six selected African countries is obtained by using the Jorgorson-Lian model for shares. Each kind of fuel price has a different impact on the share of oil products for the different countries. The price increase of one kind of fuel may increase or decrease the share of another fuel in the total oil products. In the oil importing African countries, the price of one product is relatively inelastic, whereas in the oil producing African countries, the price is elastic. (Author)

  19. AFRA. African Regional Co-operative Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This publication provides an outline of the African Regional Co-operation Agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). The agreement stems from an initiative of several African member states of the IAEA to get the agency to help establish an African regional arrangement which would be similar to arrangements which were already in place in the Asian and Latin American regions. Through this regional approach to development, AFRA seeks to accelerate moves toward self-sufficiency in scientific disciplines and appropriate technologies by coordinating intellectual and physical resources and disseminating innovative methods and practices in a cost-effective manner

  20. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J. (United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighbouring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin. 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub-Saharan region, energy independent countries using indigeneous coal and peat resources. These resources have the potential to replace wood and wood charcoal as domestic fuel in the urban centres, as well as producing electrical and industrial energy, thus reducing expensive oil imports and decreasing the rate of deforestation. 31 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Food irradiation: an emerging opportunity for African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Gyamfi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text. The paper reviews the use of food irradiation technology and its potential in food processing and international trade for economic development of African countries. Provision of infrastructure along with technical expertise, private sector anticipation, effective collaborative ventures and networking with other countries and international agencies are considered crucial for Africa to harness the potential of food irradiation. (author)

  2. Situation Analysis of Alcohol Control Policy in Five African Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol use is a major risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in low and middle-income countries. This research will evaluate alcohol control policy and legislation in five African countries to provide evidence-based research to policymakers, researchers, and lobby groups working to reduce alcohol use.

  3. Biogas technology research in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This reviews aims to provide an insight and update of the state of biogas technology research in some selected sub-Saharan African countries in peer reviewed literature. This paper also aims to highlight the sub-Saharan countries' strengths and weaknesses in biogas research and development capacity. An attempt is ...

  4. What drives energy consumption in developing countries? The experience of selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, Yaya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the drivers of energy consumption in Sub-Saharan African countries. It applies the bounds testing approach to cointegration to time series data at individual country levels over the period from 1970 to 2011. The study finds that energy consumption is cointegrated with real GDP per capita, industrial output, imports, foreign direct investment, credit to private sector, urbanization and population. Furthermore, the sign and magnitude of long-run estimates vary significantly for a single country and across countries depending on the energy consumption variable used. Overall, the findings confirm the leading role of economic growth, industrial output, population and urbanization. Economic growth, industrial output and population have positive effects on energy consumption in the majority of countries. Given the urgent need to address climate change, African countries should adopt policies to improve energy efficiency and accelerate transition toward renewable energy. The African Renewable Energy Initiative launched at the 21st session of the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) is an opportunity for African countries to provide and maintain widespread access to reliable and affordable environmentally cleaner energy to meet the requirements of rapid economic growth and improved living standards. - Highlights: •Key drivers of energy use in 12 African countries are examined. •Economic growth, industrial GDP, population and urbanization play a leading role in explaining energy use. •Urbanization has a positive effect on energy use in six countries and a negative effect in four countries. •The results obtained have useful policy implications.

  5. Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Léonce Ndikumana; James K. Boyce

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of capital flight from 30 sub-Saharan African countries, including 24 countries classified as severely indebted low-income countries, for the period 1970-1996. The econometric analysis reveals that external borrowing is positively and significantly related to capital flight, suggesting that to a large extent capital flight is debt-fueled. We estimate that for every dollar of external borrowing in the region, roughly 80 cents flowed back as capital flight in the...

  6. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  7. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  8. Comparative analysis of family poultry production in twelve African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.B.; Dwinger, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a survey on family poultry to obtain information on disease prevalence, feeding practices, and the management of poultry housing in twelve African countries. The survey data were collected during both the wet and dry seasons and summarised (average and standard deviation) by country, village/region, season, and survey question. The disease data results show that three (greenish/bloody diarrhoea, swollen head, and coughing) of top four reported symptoms are part of Newcastle disease's presenting signs. Chick mortality was also higher in the wet season, when there is a higher incidence of Newcastle disease. This was also supported by the individual country data in that those countries with high chick mortality data also had low hatchability in the wet season with Egypt being the only exception. The types of housing used for shelter for family poultry was quite variable and presented a challenge to determine the level of cleaning/sanitation to assist in controlling Newcastle disease. On the one hand, a large percentage of households reported never cleaning the poultry house (e.g., Cameroon, Morocco, Mauritius, and Sudan). On the other hand, 34% of the responses to housing type were either trees or other forms of housing that would be difficult to clean i.e., old car, fence, surrounding wall, etc. Obviously, these results should be closely examined when instituting control programs for Newcastle disease. The large variety of available scavenged feed without any data on intake raises the question of how to balance the ration for the flock. Family poultry scientists need to determine a method to estimate intake which could assist in determining what supplementary feed is necessary if any. This challenge may be one of the most important aspects to family poultry management because of the importance of nutrition to poultry production with the added difficulty of providing balanced nutrition in an extensive system. (author)

  9. Clinical nursing and midwifery research in African countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Carolyn; Larson, Elaine

    2015-05-01

    Globally, the nursing shortage has been deemed a crisis, but African countries have been hit hardest. Therefore, it is of utmost importance nurses use the best available evidence and that nursing research is targeted to address gaps in the evidence. To achieve this, an understanding of what is currently available and identification of gaps in clinical nursing research is critical. We performed a scoping review of existing literature to assess clinical nursing research conducted in all African countries over the past decade, identify gaps in clinical nursing and midwifery research, determine whether they match with health priorities for countries, and define priorities for regional clinical nursing research agendas to improve health outcomes. This is a scoping review of published clinical nursing research conducted in African countries. Systematic searches of literature published between January 01, 2004 and September 15, 2014 were performed in PubMed, Medline, CINHAL, and Embase. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses, included data obtained in African countries or regions within the African continent, published in a peer-reviewed journal with an abstract, and included patient outcomes. Abstracts were independently reviewed for inclusion by two authors. The following data were extracted: countries of publication and study, study type and design, journal, language, and topics of research. Gaps in the literature were identified. Initially, 1091 papers were identified with a final sample of 73 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Studies used 12 designs, were published in 35 journals published in five countries (including two African countries); 29% of the research was published in a single journal (Curatonis). Research was mostly qualitative (57%) and included twenty countries in Africa (38%). There were 12 major topics of study, most often midwifery/maternal/child health (43%), patient experiences (38%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  10. Inflation persistence in African countries: Does inflation targeting matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Phiri, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates inflation persistence in annual CPI inflation collected between 1994 and 2014 for 46 African countries. We group these countries into panels according to whether they are inflation targeters or not and conduct estimations for pre and post inflation targeting periods. Interestingly enough, we find that inflation persistence was much higher for inflation targeters in periods before adopting their inflation targeting regimes and inflation persistence dropped by 40 percent...

  11. Regional variation in smoking among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G; Polednak, A P; Bendel, R

    1999-08-01

    The impact of geographic region and metropolitan residence on smoking prevalence among African Americans has not been adequately examined. This study analyzed 5 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey (1990-1994) on current smoking and regional variation among 16,738 African Americans. Results. Respondents in the West had the lowest unadjusted smoking prevalence rates and Midwest residents had the highest. Current smoking was lower among African Americans living in non-central cities than in central cities even after adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that black women in the South were significantly less likely to be smokers compared with any other gender/region group. These findings suggest the significance of gender and regional factors such as the social history of migration, social stress and racism, exposure to tobacco advertisement, variations in cultural influences, community structures, and coping strategies in under standing African American smoking behavior. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  12. Extension systems in Southern African countries: A review | Oladele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews extension systems in selected southern African countries with a view of identifying the features of the systems and how they have been able to reach their target audience. Some of the features are use of committees for research and extension linkages, involvement of NGOs and private sector, the use ...

  13. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  14. Country watch: Central African Republic (CAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubel, J; Sobela, F; Voga, P

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Community Peer AIDS Education Project, initiated in 1995 in the Central African Republic (CAR). The CAR project was created by the National AIDS Committee (NAC) and the US Peace Corps. A 4-day workshop was held at the onset for project staff and consultants. Staff developed a simple monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system that emphasizes "learning." M&E schemes measure project outputs, expenditures, and other measures of program implementation in order to help staff gradually improve implementation. M&E helps staff document activities, share information, and learn from the implementation process. Project activities are documented by maintaining community logbooks, taking photos of significant aspects of the educational activities, and leading informal discussion groups. The CAR project engaged in sharing and learning activities by holding meetings with peer leaders, team meetings, meetings with project managers, and meetings with the NAC. Once a month, peer field coordinators conducted a structured exercise with peer leaders. One aim was to gain their feedback on the successes and constraints of activities. Another was to make suggestions on how to improve activities. These structured exercises are recorded as lessons learned in a project book. Team meetings are held periodically. During meetings, staff review project books and photos and discuss successes and problems encountered. Project manager meetings provide time to share lessons learned and to suggest project strengthening options. NAC meetings between the project manager and field coordinators allow for a bottom-up learning process. CAR project staff were receptive to M&E efforts.

  15. [Expanding the lebensraum of Africans: how the "country of European uncles" also became the country of African nephews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lututala, M B

    1997-01-01

    The author analyzes migration from Africa to the developed countries of the north, focusing on the underlying logic and methods of such migration. He suggests that Africans see migration to the northern countries as a survival strategy and as an attempt to integrate themselves into the world economic system. The methods employed by African migrants to circumvent the increasing efforts to limit their numbers are described, with a focus on their use of regulations designed to aid the reunification of families. The author suggests that rich countries may have a moral obligation to allow migration from Africa, since its causes lie in the history of colonialism and the present and past exploitation of the developing countries by those of the north.

  16. IAEA to Help West African Countries Diagnose Ebola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will provide specialized diagnostic equipment to help Sierra Leone in its efforts to combat an ongoing Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano announced today. Later, the support is planned to be extended to Liberia and Guinea. The support is in line with a UN Security Council appeal and responds to a request from Sierra Leone. The IAEA assistance will supplement the country's ability to diagnose EVD quickly using a diagnostic technology known as Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The assistance, expected to be delivered in the coming weeks, initiates broader IAEA support to African Member States to strengthen their technological abilities to detect diseases transmitted from animals to humans - zoonotic diseases. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations have been at the forefront of developing RT-PCR, a nuclear-derived technology which allows EVD to be detected within a few hours, while other methods require growing on a cell culture for several days before a diagnosis is determined. Early diagnosis of EVD, if combined with appropriate medical care, increases the victims' chance of survival and helps curtail the spread of the disease by making it possible to isolate and treat the patients earlier. Health authorities in Sierra Leone and other affected countries are already applying RT-PCR, but their diagnostic capability is limited; there is a shortage of the diagnostic kits and other materials needed for the process and backup equipment is needed to avoid diagnostic downtime in case of equipment failure. The IAEA will support the most affected countries' sustained ability to detect the disease in cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response. The IAEA, as part of its ongoing work, has helped 32 African countries and several other Member States develop skills

  17. African Countries and WTO´s Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Amin

    2007-01-01

    The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism was designed, inter alia, to secure the 'rule of law' within international trade and provide all members with opportunities to exercise their rights under multilateral trade agreements. But, after ten years, no sub-Saharan African country has yet used the option...... to initiate a dispute. This article examines what prevents the WTO Africa Group from using the system and critically reviews the solutions they have proposed to remedy this. It concludes by discussing how this reflects broader problems concerning African participation in WTO, and puts forward some alternative...

  18. Looking forward to the East African Countries' Collaboration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of harmonizing nursing and midwifery education, practice and legislation. A study to ... opportunity for University Deans in the East African region to dialogue and examine possible areas .... essentials for a productive collaboration including; ... and 4 students graduated in mental health programs. ... such as e-learning.

  19. HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Greeff, Minrie; Chirwa, Maureen L; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzermer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sa...

  20. ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Growth; Evidence from African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kangni R Kpodar; Mihasonirina Andrianaivo

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of information and communication technologies (ICT), especially mobile phone rollout, on economic growth in a sample of African countries from 1988 to 2007. Further, we investigate whether financial inclusion is one of the channels through which mobile phone development influences economic growth. In estimating the impact of ICT on economic growth, we use a wide range of ICT indicators, including mobile and fixed telephone penetration rates and the cost of local ...

  1. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries.

  2. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  3. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  4. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Gina

    1998-01-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  5. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  6. Insurance market development: An empirical study of African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The insurance industry plays a very crucial role in an economy by fostering intermediation and by its mechanism of risk bearing. As such it could be argued that the insurance industry fosters economic growth. In this article we analyse the global insurance market development trends, particularly focusing on Africa. Our sample comprise of the 10 African countries namely—South Africa, Angola, Nigeria, Kenya, Mauritius, Namibia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt. We employ three insurance market development metrics namely; premium volumes, insurance density and insurance penetrations ratios to establish trends in the level of development of global insurance markets. Our results document that the African countries (excluding South Africa have the least developed insurance markets. For most of the countries in our sample, the non-life insurance industry dominates the life-insurance industry. As such, it is imperative that their respective governments put in place measures that will grow their economies inorder to stimulate the development of insurance markets in Africa.

  7. Health expenditure and economic growth - a review of the literature and an analysis between the economic community for central African states (CEMAC) and selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piabuo, Serge Mandiefe; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2017-12-01

    African leaders accepted in the year 2001 through the Abuja Declaration to allocate 15% of their government expenditure on health but by 2013 only five (5) African countries achieved this target. In this paper, a comparative analysis on the impact of health expenditure between countries in the CEMAC sub-region and five other African countries that achieved the Abuja declaration is provided. Data for this study was extracted from the World Development Indicators (2016) database, panel ordinary least square (OLS), fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) were used as econometric technic of analysis. Results showed that health expenditure has a positive and significant effect on economic growth in both samples. A unit change in health expenditure can potentially increase GDP per capita by 0.38 and 0.3 units for the five other African countries that achieve the Abuja target and for CEMAC countries respectively, a significant difference of 0.08 units among the two samples. In addition, a long-run relationship also exist between health expenditure and economic growth for both groups of countries. Thus African Economies are strongly advised to achieve the Abuja target especially when other socio-economic and political factors are efficient.

  8. The African Union and the Conflict in Mali: Extra-regional Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... between these extra-African bodies and the regional and sub-regional organisations has recorded more success than a unilateral intervention. The support given to ECOWAS in Liberia led to a successful resolution of that country's war and the AU-UN hybrid operations in Darfur are yielding some kind of modest success.

  9. Regional Integration: A Political Federation of the East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility and viability of an East African political federation project. Since the late 1800s under the then British East Africa, the countries of East Africa have been searching for ways to integrate. The search led to the establishment of the East African Community (EAC) in December ...

  10. Examining the Regional Aspect of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    This paper applies a general-to-specific analysis to detect regularities in the driving forces of foreign direct investment (FDI) that can explain why some regions are more attractive to foreign investors than others. The results suggest that regional differences in FDI inflows to African, Asian...... at improving the investment climate for foreign investors. This also means that there is no African bias. Among a large number of return and risk variables applied in the empirical literature, growth and inflation turn out to be the only robust and significant FDI determinants across regions although the size...... and Latin American countries can be fully explained by structural characteristics rather than fixed regional effects. The implication of this finding is that countries that are lagging behind other developing countries in attracting foreign capital have the opportunity to implement policies aimed...

  11. Cannabis and Amphetamine Use and Associated Factors among School-Going Adolescents in Nine African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cannabis and amphetamine use and associated factors among adolescents in nine African countries. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 25,372 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years, SD = 1.6) from nine African countries that participated in the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in…

  12. Correlates of complete childhood vaccination in East African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen E Canavan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of childhood vaccinations, vaccination rates in low-income countries (LICs vary widely. Increasing coverage of vaccines to 90% in the poorest countries over the next 10 years has been estimated to prevent 426 million cases of illness and avert nearly 6.4 million childhood deaths worldwide. Consequently, we sought to provide a comprehensive examination of contemporary vaccination patterns in East Africa and to identify common and country-specific barriers to complete childhood vaccination. METHODS: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, we looked at the prevalence of complete vaccination for polio, measles, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG and DTwPHibHep (DTP as recommended by the WHO among children ages 12 to 23 months. We conducted multivariable logistic regression within each country to estimate associations between complete vaccination status and health care access and sociodemographic variables using backwards stepwise regression. RESULTS: Vaccination varied significantly by country. In all countries, the majority of children received at least one dose of a WHO recommended vaccine; however, in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda less than 50% of children received a complete schedule of recommended vaccines. Being delivered in a public or private institution compared with being delivered at home was associated with increased odds of complete vaccination status. Sociodemographic covariates were not consistently associated with complete vaccination status across countries. CONCLUSIONS: Although no consistent set of predictors accounted for complete vaccination status, we observed differences based on region and the location of delivery. These differences point to the need to examine the historical, political, and economic context of each country in order to maximize vaccination coverage. Vaccination against these childhood diseases is a

  13. Cost Effective Ways of Implementing Nuclear Power Programme in African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderojua, Abraham; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Energy Poverty Energy Poverty is a term for a lack of access to electricity, heat or other forms of power. This more than often refers to the situation of peoples in the developing world. According to the records of the International Energy Agency (IEA), a detailed country-by-country database estimated that in 2009 the number of people without access to electricity was 1.4 billion or 20% of the world's population. Some 85% of those people live in rural areas. According to, current forecasts suggest the world will see an increase in global energy consumption of over 50% by 2030 with 70% of this growth in demand expected to come from developing countries. There is therefore the need to seek for a way of meeting this need within the time frame and doing so at an affordable price or rather with the most efficient allocation of resources. Nuclear energy can play a role in providing increased access to affordable energy in many parts of the world. There are growing concerns all over the world about energy security. This is partially due to the instability in the price of fossil fuel and to the political instability of most of the oil rich regions of the world. There arises therefore a need for means of meeting the increasingly growing energy demands of the nations while cutting down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. 1.2 The African Situation Presently, the only country on the African continent that has operational nuclear power plants is South Africa. South Africa has two nuclear power plants. Koeberg- 1 and Koeberg-2. Koeberg-1 started operation in 1984 and Koeberg-2 in 1985. Both are 900 MW(e) PWRs. The remaining nations across Africa are dependent largely on either hydro power plants, thermal or gas or a combination of both. However, there has been an increase in interest in nuclear electricity in a number of African countries. The list includes countries like Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Namibia, e.tc. These are countries whose economies are

  14. Wastage in the health workforce: some perspectives from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovlo Delanyo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. Methods This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". Results "Direct" wastage – or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death – is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage – which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision – is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. Conclusion The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.

  15. Wastage in the health workforce: some perspectives from African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Delanyo

    2005-08-10

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH) are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". "Direct" wastage--or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death--is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage--which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision--is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.

  16. Challenges for nationwide vaccine delivery in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songane, Mario

    2017-10-19

    Vaccines are very effective in providing individual and community (herd) immunity against a range of diseases. In addition to protection against a range of diseases, vaccines also have social and economic benefits. However, for vaccines to be effective, routine immunization programmes must be undertaken regularly to ensure individual and community protection. Nonetheless, in many countries in Africa, vaccination coverage is low because governments struggle to deliver vaccines to the most remote areas, thus contributing to constant outbreaks of various vaccine-preventable diseases. African governments fail to deliver vaccines to a significant percentage of the target population due to many issues in key areas such as policy setting, programme management and financing, supply chain, global vaccine market, research and development of vaccines. This review gives an overview of the causes of these issues and what is currently being done to address them. This review will discuss the role of philanthropic organisations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and global partnerships such as the global alliance for vaccines and immunizations in the development, purchase and delivery of vaccines.

  17. Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet

    The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. State of equity: childhood immunization in the World Health Organization African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Rebecca Mary; Hampton, Lee McCalla; Anya, Blanche-Philomene Melanga; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Diallo, Mamadou Saliou; Wallace, Aaron Stuart

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the Global Vaccine Action Plan called on all countries to reach and sustain 90% national coverage and 80% coverage in all districts for the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3) by 2015 and for all vaccines in national immunization schedules by 2020. The aims of this study are to analyze recent trends in national vaccination coverage in the World Health Organization African Region andto assess how these trends differ by country income category. We compared national vaccination coverage estimates for DTP3 and the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) joint estimates of national immunization coverage for all African Region countries. Using United Nations (UN) population estimates of surviving infants and country income category for the corresponding year, we calculated population-weighted average vaccination coverage by country income category (i.e., low, lower middle, and upper middle-income) for the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. DTP3 coverage in the African Region increased from 52% in 2000 to 76% in 2015,and MCV1 coverage increased from 53% to 74% during the same period, but with considerable differences among countries. Thirty-six African Region countries were low income in 2000 with an average DTP3 coverage of 50% while 26 were low income in 2015 with an average coverage of 80%. Five countries were lower middle-income in 2000 with an average DTP3 coverage of 84% while 12 were lower middle-income in 2015 with an average coverage of 69%. Five countries were upper middle-income in 2000 with an average DTP3 coverage of 73% and eight were upper middle-income in 2015 with an average coverage of 76%. Disparities in vaccination coverage by country persist in the African Region, with countries that were lower middle-income having the lowest coverage on average in 2015. Monitoring and addressing these disparities is essential for meeting

  19. Medicines registration in Portuguese-speaking African countries, focusing in the following countries: Angola, Cap Verde and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Alina Maria Moreira de

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to present the regulation perspective on the medicines registration in PALOPs – Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (Portuguese‐speaking African countries), their regulatory requirements, constraints and opportunities, focusing on the following countries: Angola, Cape Verde and Mozambique. This thesis has as purpose to deepen and systematize knowledge with regard to the registration procedure of medicines in the selected countries. Regulatory pers...

  20. Current situation, genetic relationship and control measures of infectious bronchitis virus variants circulating in African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Khataby

    2016-08-01

    Three S1 gene hypervariable regions were studied and compared to the reference genotypes/serotypes that found emerging in African regions. This comparison was based on phylogenetic trees, nucleotide and amino-acid sequence analysis. It clearly appears that IBV variants reported in Africa, display a low genetic relationship between them and with the majority of the reference strains emerging in neighboring countries, except the case of variants from Libya and Egypt that show a high relatedness. Also the Massachusetts serotypes were the most prevalent co-circulating with both serotypes, Italy02 type in Morocco and Qx-like genotype in South part of the African continent. In order to control the IBV variants in African regions, an efficient vaccination strategy program should be implemented.

  1. Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

    2010-09-15

    Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

  2. THE VALURISATION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanga, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The question that needs to be answered is how the the valorisation of cultural patrimony in Africa is being analysed and understood. In order to respond to this question, it is necessary to ask oneself what exactly is meant by 'African Cultural Patrimony'. How are we going to keep parameters from running into many directions when talking about patrimony? What public cultural politics are we to follow in order to valorize more effectively the concept of patrimony? The areas that need economic analysis are therefore very large ones, as are subsequent propositions which would allow us to arrive at a value for financing the conservation of such patrimony. The valorization of cultural patrimony needs to be put at the disposition of as large a public as possible. In order to do this work, it is necessary to distinguish between: - Historical monuments: comprised of private properties, public castles, historical buildings, and archaeological sites - Museums: By this we mean not only museum buildings and collections, and not only the research work performed by curators. We also mean museums as a country's mark of identity, showcasing the country's collections so that tourists will come, and allowing people worldwide to access the collections on their computers. Faced with these facts, it is obvious that not only does the State need to play an important role in these tasks, but in addition, territorial entities need to define and set standards for the conservation of cultural patrimony in such a way that financing is made available for the continuation of patrimony. Since creating ''cultural patrimony'' is above all a social construct, its valorization and its importance asks public and private actors to join together, because the fundamental thought is that patrimony creates outside interests. In other words, cultural patrimony stimulates other economic activities, and therefore it is necessary to recuperate part of these external gains in order to respond to the

  3. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries – a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78....../116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella......Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews...

  4. THE MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT - THE CASE FOR 6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMES, N; LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African

  5. Space and place for WHO health development dialogues in the African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Dovlo, Delanyo Yao Tsidi

    2016-07-18

    Majority of the countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region are not on track to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals, yet even more ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 3 on heath, have been adopted. This paper highlights the challenges - amplified by the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa - that require WHO and other partners' dialogue in support of the countries, and debate on how WHO can leverage the existing space and place to foster health development dialogues in the Region. To realise SDG 3 on ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, the African Region needs to tackle the persistent weaknesses in its health systems, systems that address the social determinants of health and national health research systems. The performance of the third item is crucial for the development and innovation of systems, products and tools for promoting, maintaining and restoring health in an equitable manner. Under its new leadership, the WHO Regional Office for Africa is transforming itself to galvanise existing partnerships, as well as forging new ones, with a view to accelerating the provision of timely and quality support to the countries in pursuit of SDG 3. WHO in the African Region engages in dialogues with various stakeholders in the process of health development. The EVD outbreak in West Africa accentuated the necessity for optimally exploiting currently available space and place for health development discourse. There is urgent need for the WHO Regional Office for Africa to fully leverage the space and place arenas of the World Health Assembly, WHO Regional Committee for Africa, African Union, Regional economic communities, Harmonization for Health in Africa, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, African Development Bank, professional associations, and WHO African Health Forum, when it is created, for dialogues to mobilise the required resources to

  6. Position paper: researching and developing open architectures for national health information systems in developing African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Most African countries have limited health information systems infrastructure. Some health information system components are implemented but often on an adhoc, piecemeal basis, by foreign software developers and designed to solve specific problems...

  7. Formation of UAE State and Factors for Development of International Relations between UAE and African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of formation of UAE state and features formation of international relations between UAE and African countries including low level of political and economic ties between UAE and African countries and dominant role of economic and humanitarian assistance in their relations provided both through international organizations and on bilateral basis by Abu Dhabi Fund for Development. Islam and traditional values of Arab culture are considered defining factors for formation of such structure of international relations.

  8. Natural disasters in African countries: what can we learn about them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Lukamba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Problems posed by disasters have become increasingly important for all African governments. Every year a variety of disas ters occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa and these are becoming more prevalent. This article presents an analysis of statistical surveys for natural disasters in different regions of Africa over a 30-year period from 1974 to 2003. It shows that disaster frequency is increasing on the continent. The investigation of the data demonstrates that the East Africa region is under the greatest threat from natural disasters. In 2008, climatological disasters, notably droughts, claimed many victims in the eastern part of Africa, with more than one third of the population affected in Djibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia. The region has experienced the highest recorded number of disaster events for the past 30 years, followed by the West Africa region. The Southern Africa region is placed third as far as the frequency of disaster events in sub-Saharan Africa is concerned. The least disaster prone region is central Africa. The observations made in this analysis relate to the economic losses in different regions from the impact of natural disasters. In some instances, recovery from economic loss could not be recouped because of stunted growth and other internal problems in these countries. In addition, this article suggests some strategies to mitigate the problem of natural hazards in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Flood; drought; volcanic eruptions; political governance; climate change; specialised capabilities

  9. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector. Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  10. Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Ben Youssef, Adel; M'henni, Hatem; Rault, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This article extends the recent findings of , , and by implementing recent bootstrap panel unit root tests and cointegration techniques to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real GDP for 12 Middle East and North African Countries (MENA) over the period 1981–2005. Our results show that in the long-run energy consumption has a positive significant impact on CO 2 emissions. More interestingly, we show that real GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO 2 emissions for the region as a whole. However, although the estimated long-run coefficients of income and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in most studied countries, the turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. CO 2 emission reductions per capita have been achieved in the MENA region, even while the region exhibited economic growth over the period 1981–2005. The econometric relationships derived in this paper suggest that future reductions in CO 2 emissions per capita might be achieved at the same time as GDP per capita in the MENA region continues to grow. - Highlights: ► We study the links between CO 2 emissions, energy consumption and GDP in MENA region. ► Energy consumption has a positive correlation with CO 2 emissions. ► GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO 2 emissions for the region as a whole. ► However, the turning points are low in some cases and high in other cases. ► Thus, not all countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease CO 2 emissions.

  11. Beyond new vaccine introduction: the uptake of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, Folake; Ewald, Leah; Steinglass, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The number of vaccines available to low-income countries has increased dramatically over the last decade. Overall infant immunization coverage in the WHO African region has stagnated in the past few years while countries' ability to maintain high immunization coverage rates following introduction of new vaccines has been uneven. This case study examines post-introduction coverage among African countries that introduced PCV between 2008 and 2013 and the factors affecting Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) introduction. Nearly one-third of countries did not achieve 80% infant PCV3 coverage by two years post-introduction and 58% of countries experienced a decline in coverage between post introduction years two and four. Major factors affecting coverage rates included introduction without adequate preparation, insufficient supply chain capacity and management, poor communication between organizations and with the public, and data collection systems that were insufficient to meet information needs. Deliberately addressing these issues as well as longstanding weaknesses during new vaccine introduction can strengthen the immunization and broader health system. Further study is required to identify and address factors that affect maintenance of high coverage following introduction of new vaccines in the African region. Immunization with PCV is one of the most important interventions protecting against pneumonia, the second leading cause of death for children under five globally.

  12. Productivity losses associated with tuberculosis deaths in the World Health Organization African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Muthuri, Rosenabi Deborah Karimi

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, almost half of the global tuberculosis deaths occurred in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region. Approximately 21.5 % of the 6 060 742 TB cases (new and relapse) reported to the WHO in 2014 were in the African Region. The specific objective of this study was to estimate future gross domestic product (GDP) losses associated with TB deaths in the African Region for use in advocating for better strategies to prevent and control tuberculosis. The cost-of-illness method was used to estimate non-health GDP losses associated with TB deaths. Future non-health GDP losses were discounted at 3 %. The analysis was conducted for three income groups of countries. One-way sensitivity analysis at 5 and 10 % discount rates was undertaken to assess the impact on the expected non-health GDP loss. The 0.753 million tuberculosis deaths that occurred in the African Region in 2014 would be expected to decrease the future non-health GDP by International Dollars (Int$) 50.4 billion. Nearly 40.8, 46.7 and 12.5 % of that loss would come from high and upper-middle- countries or lower-middle- and low-income countries, respectively. The average total non-health GDP loss would be Int$66 872 per tuberculosis death. The average non-health GDP loss per TB death was Int$167 592 for Group 1, Int$69 808 for Group 2 and Int$21 513 for Group 3. Tuberculosis exerts a sizeable economic burden on the economies of the WHO AFR countries. This implies the need to strongly advocate for better strategies to prevent and control tuberculosis and to help countries end the epidemic of tuberculosis by 2030, as envisioned in the United Nations General Assembly resolution on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

  13. THE EUROPEAN UNION AND PARTNERSHIPS WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES – THE CASE OF ACP REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Dobošová

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU has developed a wide cooperation network with developing countries based on trade, cooperation, aid and other aspects. These bilateral and regional agreements serve various and specific interests of the EU and the concerned countries and cover not only trade, but also other broad issues. However, above those remain the main goals of the EU in the area of the common commercial policy, development policy and external relations policy. The trend of regional integration and regional trade agreements proliferation has influenced these relations as well. The article will examine this trend in the network of EU trade agreements with developing countries, specifically with the African, Caribbean and Pacific region. Some critical issues of the EU – ACP cooperation will be identified.

  14. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  15. what is the optimal level of tariffs for african countries?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Series focuses on economic policy-making topics and provide a forum for ... question become highly important for structuring trade policies for maximum gains from ... The study therefore suggests a country by country approach to tariff ... many countries of Africa, the issue is no longer whether or not to liberalize trade, or.

  16. Sizable variations in circulatory disease mortality by region and country of birth in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafnsson, Snorri B; Bhopal, Raj S; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. METHODS: We obtained national deat...

  17. Disciplining governance in Africa : a comparison of the World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment and the African Union’s African Peer Review Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kassa (Saba)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis study examines the promotion of governance in the African Continent. It compares the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) of the World Bank to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) of the African Union. These governance assessments represent differing

  18. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries - A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Sekwati-Monang, Bonno; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Atter, Amy; Ackah, Nina Bernice; Mbugua, Samuel; Asagbra, Agnes; Abdelgadir, Warda; Nakavuma, Jesca; Jakobsen, Mogens; Fang, Weihuan

    2017-05-16

    Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in seven African countries (Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda) from papers in regional or international journals published between January 2000 and December 2015. One hundred and sixteen publications that dealt with food microbiology were reviewed for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78/116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently reported organisms in those studies. Although the data were highly heterogeneous, a striking feature is high prevalence of the major pathogens in RTE foods, almost as high as in raw foods. E. coli averaged at 37.6% in raw foods and 31.6% in RTE foods. The corresponding prevalence for Salmonella was 19.9% vs 21.7%; S. aureus, 27.8% vs 25.1% and L. monocytogenes, 19.5% vs 6.7%. The average prevalence of foodborne pathogens in these countries was 34.2% (29.0-39.3%). Differences in food types as well as non-uniform protocols for sampling and identification might have contributed to high heterogeneity (I 2 >97%) although some high prevalence data could be factual with extensive varieties of raw and RTE foods

  19. Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Giuseppe; D'Atanasio, Eugenia; Marini, Ornella; Coppa, Alfredo; Sellitto, Daniele; Trombetta, Beniamino; Berti, Andrea; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2017-03-01

    By using the recently introduced 6-dye Yfiler ® Plus multiplex, we analyzed 462 males belonging to 20 ethnic groups from four eastern African countries (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya). Through a Y-STR sequence analysis, combined with 62 SNP-based haplogroup information, we were able to classify observed microvariant alleles at four Y-STR loci as either monophyletic (DYF387S1 and DYS458) or recurrent (DYS449 and DYS627). We found evidence of non-allelic gene conversion among paralogous STRs of the two-copy locus DYF387S1. Twenty-two diallelic and triallelic patterns observed at 13 different loci were found to be significantly over-represented (peastern African ethnic groups, and suggests caution in the use of country-based haplotype frequency distributions for forensic inferences in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dog rabies data reported to multinational organizations from Southern and Eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-06-08

    Rabies is one of the viral diseases with the highest case fatality rate in humans. The main transmission route to humans is through bites, especially of infected dogs. Decisions on the allocation of resources to control and reduce the socio-economic impacts of rabies require reliable data. Several national, regional and international organizations have been gathering rabies data for more than a decade. The objective of this paper was to examine the consistencies in the number of dog rabies cases reported to different multinational organizations by Southern and Eastern African countries and to explore the presence of any time trend among the reported rabies data. Data was systematically extracted from the databases of the Southern and Eastern African Rabies Group-SEARG and the World Organization for Animal Health/World animal health information-OIE/WAHID. Despite differences in entities by which data have been reported to the two organisations, reported numbers were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.52, P rabies outbreaks. Inconsistencies in the reported numbers were observed between the databases, possibly due to the fact that human and animal health authorities report separately to the organisations involved in addition to the use of indefinite definitions of report categories set by report receiving organizations.

  1. Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): wet season campaigns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Otter, LB

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) involved two wet season and one dry season field campaigns. This paper reports on the wet season campaigns. The first was conducted at five sites along the Kalahari Transect in Zambia...

  2. Fertility in Sub-Saharan African Countries with Consideration to Health and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Yongil; Rhyu, Sang-Young; Shields, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Fertility has begun to fall in Sub-Saharan Africa but it remains high on average and particularly for a few countries. This paper examines African fertility using a panel data set of 47 Sub-Saharan countries between 1962 and 2003. Fixed and random country effect estimates are made in models where the explanatory variables are suggested by the theory of the demographic transition as modified by Caldwell. Special attention is paid to the economic status of women, urbanization, the poverty level...

  3. Expenditures on health research in sub-Saharan African countries: results of a questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Derege; Zielinski, Chris; Mbondji, Peter Ebongue; Sanou, Issa; Kouvividila, Wenceslas; Lusamba-Dikassa, Paul-Samson

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the sources of funds for health research (revenue) and the uses of these funds (expenditure). A structured questionnaire was used to solicit financial information from health research institutions. Forty-two sub-Saharan African countries. Key informants in 847 health research institutions in the 42 sub-Saharan African countries. Expenditure on health research by institutions, funders and subject areas. An estimated total of US$ 302 million was spent on health research by institutions that responded to the survey in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region for the biennium 2005-2006. The most notable funders for health research activities were external funding, ministries of health, other government ministries, own funds and non-profit institutions. Most types of health research performers spent significant portions of their resources on in-house research, with medical schools spending 82% and government agencies 62%. Hospitals spent 38% of their resources on management, and other institutions (universities, firms, etc.) spent 87% of their resources on capital investment. Research on human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis and malaria accounted for 30% of funds, followed by research on other communicable diseases and maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (23%). Research on major health problems of the Region, such as communicable diseases, accounts for most of the research expenditures. However, the total expenditure is very low compared with other WHO regions. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  4. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2009-11-18

    In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security and human development by diminishing the chances of

  5. Allergic disorders in African countries: linking immunology to accurate phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Identification and characterization of risk and protective factors for allergy is important for developing strategies for prevention or treatment. The prevalence of allergy is clearly higher in affluent countries than in developing countries like, e.g. Africa. Especially in urban areas of developing

  6. The economic aspect of regionalization of European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this paper is focused on the multidisciplinary approach in studying the phenomenon of regionalization, which is conceived as the process of creation of lower administrative and territorial units within a state and transfer of central authorities to these units. Different concepts have been analyzed; the most significant characteristics of definitions: region, regionalization and regionalism have been underlined. Based on the multidisciplinary approach and method, four dominant models of regionalism in Europe have been defined: constitutional, strong, decentralized and administrative one. Regionalization concept has been considered in the dynamic way, within the historical context. Creation of European national states in the period between 17th and 19th century have been analyzed and centralistic state approach based on centralization and hierarchical vision of relations between central government and regions has been explained. Such approach has remained dominant in the territorial policy of national states until the last decades of the 20th century. The paper has presented historical path of regionalization in European countries with dominant models of regionalization e.g. Germany, Italy, France and Scandinavian countries as well as Spain, country with strong regional roots, which dated back more than couple of hundred years. Special attention has been given to analysis of different paths and contents of decentralization in European countries, starting in the 1970’s. Based on the analysis of contents of decentralization and regionalization and its constitutional and legal foundation it has been concluded that these processes represent significant step in further democratization of European countries.

  7. Winning the battle against the scourge of poliomyelitis in the African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Matshidiso

    2016-10-10

    Recently we have recorded some progress against the transmission of poliovirus in the African Region. This is attributable to a number of factors, including commitment of global partnerships against polio, improvement of existing strategies as well as a number of innovations in response to the disease in the Region. The WHO Regional Office in Africa documented these practices that led to the noticeable progress in the polio eradication initiative in the African Region, as lessons learnt and as part of polio legacy planning. The documentation exercise covered eight countries, namely Angola, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania and Togo. A number of practices were identified. Some of these practices cut across countries while others were peculiar to specific countries. We have thus developed some manuscripts to capture these practices for publication in scientific journal so as to place them in the public domain for use. It is hoped that these practices will be deployed to other public health programmes in the Region and beyond. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Indirect cost of maternal deaths in the WHO African Region in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Mwabu, Germano Mwige; Orem, Juliet Nabyonga; Muthuri, Rosenabi Deborah Karimi

    2014-08-31

    An estimated 147,741 maternal deaths occurred in 2010 in 45 of the 47 countries in the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective of this study was to estimate the indirect cost of maternal deaths in the Region to provide data for use in advocacy for increased domestic and external investment in multisectoral policy interventions to curb maternal mortality. This study used the cost-of-illness method to estimate the indirect cost of maternal mortality, i.e. the loss in non-health gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to maternal deaths. Estimates on maternal mortality for 2010 from Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2010 published by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank were used in these calculations. Values for future non-health GDP lost were converted into their present values by applying a 3% discount rate. One-way sensitivity analysis at 5% and 10% discount rates assessed the impact on non-health GDP loss. Indirect cost analysis was undertaken for the countries, categorized under three income groups. Group 1 consisted of nine high and upper middle income countries, Group 2 of 12 lower middle income countries, and Group 3 of 26 low income countries. Estimates for Seychelles in Group 1 and South Sudan in Group 3 were not provided in the source used. The 147,741 maternal deaths that occurred in 45 countries in the African Region in 2010 resulted in a total non-health GDP loss of Int$ 4.5 billion (PPP). About 24.5% of the loss was in Group 1 countries, 44.9% in Group 2 countries and 30.6% in Group 3 countries. This translated into losses in non-health GDP of Int$ 139,219, Int$ 35,440 and Int$ 16,397 per maternal death, respectively, for the three groups. Using discount rates of 5% and 10% reduced the total non-health GDP loss by 19.1% and 47.7%, respectively. Maternal mortality is responsible for a noteworthy level of non-health GDP loss among the countries in the African Region. There is urgent need, therefore, to increase

  9. Improving skills and institutional capacity to strengthen adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in African countries through HPV vaccine introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dochez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based, socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination.Following a successful “taking-stock” meeting, a training programme was drafted to assist countries to strengthen the integration of adolescent health interventions using HPV vaccination as an entry point. Two workshops were conducted in the Eastern and Southern African Regions. All countries reported on progress made during a final joint symposium.Of the 20 countries invited to participate in either of the workshops and/or final symposium, 17 countries participated: Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Countries that are currently implementing HPV vaccination programmes, either nationally or through demonstration projects, reported varying degrees of integration with other adolescent health interventions. The most commonly reported adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination include health education (including sexually transmitted infections, deworming and delivering of other vaccines like tetanus toxoid (TT or tetanus diphtheria (Td.The project has successfully (a established an African-based network that will advocate for incorporating the HPV vaccine into national immunisation programmes; (b created a platform for experience exchange and thereby contributed to novel ideas of

  10. Implementation of Rotavirus Surveillance and Vaccine Introduction - World Health Organization African Region, 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenda, Jason M; Burke, Rachel M; Shaba, Keith; Mihigo, Richard; Tevi-Benissan, Mable Carole; Mumba, Mutale; Biey, Joseph Nsiari-Muzeyi; Cheikh, Dah; Poy MSc, Alain; Zawaira, Felicitas R; Aliabadi, Negar; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri; Cohen, Adam L; Parashar, Umesh D

    2017-11-03

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe pediatric diarrhea globally, estimated to have caused 120,000 deaths among children aged rotavirus vaccination for all infants worldwide (2). Two rotavirus vaccines are currently licensed globally: the monovalent Rotarix vaccine (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline; 2-dose series) and the pentavalent RotaTeq vaccine (RV5, Merck; 3-dose series). This report describes progress of rotavirus vaccine introduction (3), coverage (using estimates from WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF]) (4), and impact on pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations in the WHO African Region. By December 2016, 31 (66%) of 47 countries in the WHO African Region had introduced rotavirus vaccine, including 26 that introduced RV1 and five that introduced RV5. Among these countries, rotavirus vaccination coverage (completed series) was 77%, according to WHO/UNICEF population-weighted estimates. In 12 countries with surveillance data available before and after vaccine introduction, the proportion of pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations that were rotavirus-positive declined 33%, from 39% preintroduction to 26% following rotavirus vaccine introduction. These results support introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the remaining countries in the region and continuation of rotavirus surveillance to monitor impact.

  11. Clinical nursing and midwifery research in Middle Eastern and North African Countries: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alashal Alhusaini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The professions of nursing and midwifery currently face many challenges, such as an increasing number of patients with communicable and non-communicable diseases, which strains resources and requires nurses and midwives to develop their knowledge and skills to a higher level. This is also true in the Middle East, including the Mediterranean East and North African regions, which means it is vitally important that nurses and midwives have access to and use current research to inform their practice, with research targeting the most relevant issues, including complex humanitarian emergency situations that increase health issues and challenge health infrastructure. For this to be achieved, a scoping review of the indexed clinical nursing and midwifery literature in the Middle East was performed to identify gaps in clinical nursing and midwifery research and areas requiring focus. A search of PubMed, CINAHL/EBSCO, EMBASE, the Jordanian Database for Nursing Research resulted in 210/1398 articles which met the inclusion criteria: (1 original research, (2 conducted in Middle Eastern countries as defined by the World Health Organization, (3 had at least one nurse or midwife author (but not limited to nurses in Middle Eastern countries, (4 published in an indexed, peer-reviewed journal between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, (5 included patient outcomes in the results, (6 written in English or Arabic and (7 included an abstract. Studies were found from 10 of the 22 countries; the majority (n = 199; 94.76% was conducted in three countries: Jordan, Iran and Lebanon. Most studies (n = 158, 75.24% used quantitative designs, primarily cross-sectional, descriptive studies (n = 106 and the most frequently researched topics were related to maternal child health and women′s health (n = 95, 48.5%. Strategies are needed to encourage collaboration between nursing and midwifery faculty members including clinicians to assure that clinical research is

  12. Regional cooperation in RWM in the AO countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-anant, N.; Thiangtrongjit, S.

    2011-01-01

    Regional cooperation in radioactive waste management (RWM) in the Asian and Oceanic countries has been successfully developing for more than 20 y. At present, the Asian and Oceanic countries recognise that there are several projects under the regional cooperation, such as the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), the Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regional projects. The FNCA on Radiation Safety and RWM is an effective mechanism for enhancing socio-economic development through active regional partnership in the peaceful and safe utilisation of nuclear technology. The ANSN Topical Group on RWM is established for exchanging, pooling, and sharing knowledge in the field of nuclear safety. For IAEA regional cooperation on RWM, such as IAEA-regional project RAS/3/009 Strengthening Infrastructure of RWM can provide and support Asian and Oceanic countries for national work plan, fellowships and scientific visits as well as expert services. (authors)

  13. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  14. Estimating regional centile curves from mixed data sources and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef; Hayes, Daniel J; Stasinopoulos, D Mikis; Rigby, Robert A; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Terlouw, Dianne J

    2009-10-15

    Regional or national growth distributions can provide vital information on the health status of populations. In most resource poor countries, however, the required anthropometric data from purpose-designed growth surveys are not readily available. We propose a practical method for estimating regional (multi-country) age-conditional weight distributions based on existing survey data from different countries. We developed a two-step method by which one is able to model data with widely different age ranges and sample sizes. The method produces references both at the country level and at the regional (multi-country) level. The first step models country-specific centile curves by Box-Cox t and Box-Cox power exponential distributions implemented in generalized additive model for location, scale and shape through a common model. Individual countries may vary in location and spread. The second step defines the regional reference from a finite mixture of the country distributions, weighted by population size. To demonstrate the method we fitted the weight-for-age distribution of 12 countries in South East Asia and the Western Pacific, based on 273 270 observations. We modeled both the raw body weight and the corresponding Z score, and obtained a good fit between the final models and the original data for both solutions. We briefly discuss an application of the generated regional references to obtain appropriate, region specific, age-based dosing regimens of drugs used in the tropics. The method is an affordable and efficient strategy to estimate regional growth distributions where the standard costly alternatives are not an option. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Finance Growth Link: Comparative Analysis of Two Eastern African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanta Ashenafi Beyene

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the finance growth link of two low-income Sub-Saharan African economies – Ethiopia and Kenya – which have different financial systems but are located in the same region. Unlike previous studies, we account for the role of non-bank financial intermediaries and formally model the effect of structural breaks caused by policy and market-induced economic events. We used the Vector Autoregressive model (VAR, conducted impulse response analysis and examined variance decomposition. We find that neither the level of financial intermediary development nor the level of stock market development explains economic growth in Kenya. For Ethiopia, which has no stock market, intermediary development is found to be driven by economic growth. Three important inferences can be made from these findings. First, the often reported positive link between finance and growth might be caused by the aggregation of countries at different stages of economic growth and financial development. Second, country-specific economic situations and episodes are important in studying the relationship between financial development and economic growth. Third, there is the possibility that the econometric model employed to test the finance growth link plays a role in the empirical result, as we note that prior studies did not introduce control variables.

  16. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 1995 World Conference on Women. African Regional Preparatory Conference, November 94, Dakar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    During the African Regional Preparatory Conference, held in Dakar in November 1994, the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) organized a workshop on "Traditional Practices and Beliefs as a Violation of the Human Rights of the Woman and the Girl Child" in collaboration with the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). Eight panelists shared their country experiences and made proposals for eradicating harmful traditional practices. A film was shown, and Mrs. Marianne Sidibe, president of the Senegalese IAC National Committee, gave a vivid description of female genital mutilation (FGM). Proposals made during the workshop include 1) a follow-up workshop in Beijing; 2) inclusion of IAC concerns in the Platform of Action; 3) integration of IAC concerns into the national health programs of African nations with allocated budgets for implementation; 4) strengthening of interagency collaboration with governments; 5) adoption of legislation prohibiting harmful traditional practices such as FGM; 6) a minimum legal age for marriage of 18 years; 7) inclusion of information on traditional practices and gender sensitivity in primary and high school curricula; 8) involvement of youth in the campaign against harmful traditional practices; 9) regular evaluation of IAC activities; and 10) education of parents concerning gender equality. The African Platform for Action adopted by the conference considers FGM a form of violence against women.

  18. How dietary intake has been assessed in African countries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Real, Catarina; Pimenta-Martins, Ana; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pinto, Elisabete; Maina, Ndegwa Henry

    2018-04-13

    Dietary patterns are often considered as one of the main causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is of utmost importance to study dietary habits in developing countries since this work is scarce. To summarize the most recent research conducted in this field in African countries, namely the most used methodologies and tools. A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE®/PubMed, aiming to identify scientific publications focused on studies of dietary intake of different African populations, in a ten-year period. Papers not written in English/Portuguese/Spanish, studies developed among African people but not developed in African countries, studies aiming to assess a particular nutrient/specific food/food toxin and studies that assessed dietary intake among children were excluded. Out of 99 included studies, the 24-hour recall and the food-frequency questionnaire were the most used dietary intake assessment tools, used to assess diet at an individual level. It was also observed that often country-unspecific food composition databases are used, and the methodologies employed are poorly validated and standardized. There is an emergent need to improve the existing food databases by updating food data and to develop suitable country-specific databases for those that do not have their own food composition table.

  19. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and of a nearly chronic nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member-states announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015....... The readiness is to be tested at a continental field exercise, Amani Africa 11 to take place in South Africa October 2015. (Defence Web, 2015) The article will start by mapping out the security dynamics and architecture in East Africa, including its membership circles and priorities. The article...

  20. Cameroon is a central African country with an estimated population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (53.37 %) of the dental surgeons were females aged 41-50 years, worked in private practice ... graduated a total of 48 students in 2014 and are projected to graduate 490 dentists by ... Forty percent of them were employed by the government and only 20% of the dental ... index of 0.357 out of the 191 member countries of.

  1. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  2. Polio infrastructure strengthened disease outbreak preparedness and response in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Koffi; Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The continuous deployments of polio resources, infrastructures and systems for responding to other disease outbreaks in many African countries has led to a number of lessons considered as best practice that need to be documented for strengthening preparedness and response activities in future outbreaks. We reviewed and documented the influence of polio best practices in outbreak preparedness and response in Angola, Nigeria and Ethiopia. Data from relevant programmes of the WHO African Region were also analyzed to demonstrate clearly the relative contributions of PEI resources and infrastructure to effective disease outbreak preparedness and response. Polio resources including, human, financial, and logistic, tool and strategies have tremendously contributed to responding to diseases outbreaks across the African region. In Angola, Nigeria and Ethiopia, many disease epidemics including Marburg Hemorrhagic fever, Dengue fever, Ebola Virus Diseases (EVD), Measles, Anthrax and Shigella have been controlled using existing polio Eradication Initiatives resources. Polio staffs are usually deployed in occasions to supports outbreak response activities (coordination, surveillance, contact tracing, case investigation, finance, data management, etc.). Polio logistics such vehicles, laboratories were also used in the response activities to other infectious diseases. Many polio tools including micro planning, dashboard, guidelines, SOPs on preparedness and response have also benefited to other epidemic-prone diseases. The Countries' preparedness and response plan to WPV importation as well as the Polio Emergency Operation Center models were successfully used to develop, strengthen and respond to many other diseases outbreak with the implication of partners and the strong leadership and ownership of governments. This review has important implications for WHO/AFRO initiative to strengthening and improving disease outbreak preparedness and responses in the African Region in respect

  3. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910

  4. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers - examples from five destination countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.

  5. Development performances of agriculture in the Danube region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Milivoj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the Danube Region countries profile their policies towards a more efficient way of exploiting the natural resources of the Danube basin. The Danube can contribute to a better integration of the countries, enhancing economic opportunities through diversification and promotion of rural development. The trend analysis in the agricultural sector of the Danube Region countries refers to the first decade of this century, and it begins with the determination of the agricultural importance in the overall economy. The development performances of agriculture in the Danube Region countries are considered according to the production and export performances of this economic sector, using a comparative approach. The agricultural production growth, level and growth of the partial agricultural productivities - labour and land, as well as the value of exports in relation to engaged labour and agricultural land, are analysed in such a context.

  6. The age structure of selected countries in the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1982-01-01

    The study objective was to examine the age structure of selected countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, using available data and frequently applied indices such as the population pyramid, aged-child ratio, and median age. Based on the overall picture of the age structure thus obtained, age trends and their implication for the near future were arrived at. Countries are grouped into 4 types based on the fertility and mortality levels. Except for Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, the age structure in the 18 ESCAP region countries changed comparatively little over the 1950-80 period. The largest structural change occurred in Singapore, where the proportion of children under age 15 in the population declined significantly from 41-27%, while that of persons 65 years and older more than doubled. This was due primarily to the marked decline in fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 6.7-1.8 during the period. Hong Kong also had a similar major transformation during the same period: the proportion of the old age population increased 2 1/2 times, from 2.5-6.3%. The age structures of the 18 ESCAP countries varied greatly by country. 10 countries of the 2 high fertility and mortality types showed a similar young age structural pattern, i.e., they have higher dependency ratios, a higher proportion of children under 15 years, a lower proportion of population 65 years and older, lower aged-child ratios, and younger median ages than the average countries in the less developed regions of the world. With minimal changes over the 1950-80 period, the gap between these countries and the average of the less developed regions widened. Unlike these 10 (mostly South Asian) countries, moderately low fertility and mortality countries (China, Korea, and Sri Lanka) are located between the world average and the less developed region in most of the indices, particularly during the last decade. Although their rate of population aging is not

  7. The Importance of Decommissioning Planning for African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenweaver, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Many countries in Africa have facilities that will require eventual decommissioning. If the entire life cycle of a nuclear facility is considered, decommissioning is just the last activity. The IAEA has published a number of documents that can be used during the decommissioning process, from initial planning to final release of the site. These documents are discussed briefly in this paper and further discussion is provided that will explain why planning for decommissioning should start now.

  8. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country

    OpenAIRE

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Discussion Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expen...

  9. An ontology for regulating eHealth interoperability in developing African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available eHealth governance and regulation are necessary in low resource African countries to ensure effective and equitable use of health information technology and to realize national eHealth goals such as interoperability, adoption of standards and data...

  10. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  11. Association between Contract Teachers and Student Learning in Five Francophone African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amita

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the association between studying with a contract teacher and a student's academic outcomes, using data from five Francophone African countries for two grade levels and two subjects. Based on this analysis, the evidence for or against this form of teacher hiring is inconclusive. The results indicate that these…

  12. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact...

  13. Capacity Building for Women in African Countries: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capacity Building for Women in African Countries: A Case Study of Sierra Leone. ... In the case of women this has further inured from histories of discrimination most of which stems from socio-cultural factors and forces. Ongoing ... The paper is informed by conceptual analysis of existing literature and official documentation.

  14. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  15. The CCAA program aims to improve the capacity of African countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    of African countries to adapt to climate change in ways ... training. • Communications and networking ... in Cities of Portuguese-speaking Small Island Developing States – ... This includes training in topics core to addressing climate ... Program (ACCFP) to deepen Africa's capacity in policy, teaching .... and rural livelihoods.

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25-64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Three dietary patterns were identified: "snacks and drinks", "fruit and vegetables" and "fish and rice". No significant associations were found between SES and the "snacks and drinks" pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the "fruit and vegetables" pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60-0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional "fish and rice" pattern [1.58 (1.32-1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the "fish and rice" pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition.

  18. Incidence of pregnancy following antiretroviral therapy initiation and associated factors in eight West African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Balestre, Eric; Minga, Albert; Ajayi, Samuel; Sawadogo, Adrien; Zannou, Marcel D.; Leroy, Valériane; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Dabis, François; Becquet, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in eight West African countries over a 10-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted within the international database of the IeDEA West Africa Collaboration. All HIV-infected women aged Pregnancy after ART initiation was the main outcome and was based on clinical reporting. Poisson regression analysis accounting for country heterogeneity was computed to estimate first pregnancy incidence post-ART and to identify its associated factors. Pregnancy incidence rate ratios were adjusted on country, baseline CD4 count and clinical stage, haemoglobin, age, first ART regimen and calendar year. Results Overall 29,425 HIV-infected women aged 33 years in median [Inter Quartile Range: 28–38] contributed for 84,870 women-years of follow-up to this analysis. The crude incidence of first pregnancy (2,304 events) was 2.9 per 100 women-years [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7–3.0], the highest rate being reported among women aged 25–29 years: 4.7 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 4.3–5.1. The overall Kaplan-Meier probability of pregnancy occurrence by the fourth year on ART was 10.9% (95% CI: 10.4–11.4) and as high as 28.4% (95% CI: 26.3–30.6) among women aged 20–29 years at ART initiation. Conclusion The rate of pregnancy occurrence after ART initiation among HIV-infected women living in the West Africa region was high. Family planning services tailored to procreation needs should be provided to all HIV-infected women initiating ART and health consequences carefully monitored in this part of the world. PMID:25216079

  19. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  20. Readiness of ethics review systems for a changing public health landscape in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motari, Marion; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

    2015-12-02

    The increasing emphasis on research, development and innovation for health in providing solutions to the high burden of diseases in the African Region has warranted a proliferation of studies including clinical trials. This changing public health landscape requires that countries develop adequate ethics review capacities to protect and minimize risks to study participants. Therefore, this study assessed the readiness of national ethics committees to respond to challenges posed by a globalized biomedical research system which is constantly challenged by new public health threats, rapid scientific and technological advancements affecting biomedical research and development, delivery and manufacture of vaccines and therapies, and health technology transfer. This is a descriptive study, which used a questionnaire structured to elicit information on the existence of relevant national legal frameworks, mechanisms for ethical review; as well as capacity requirements for national ethics committees. The questionnaire was available in English and French and was sent to 41 of the then 46 Member States of the WHO African Region, excluding the five Lusophone Member States. Information was gathered from senior officials in ministries of health, who by virtue of their offices were considered to have expert knowledge of research ethics review systems in their respective countries. Thirty three of the 41 countries (80.5 %) responded. Thirty (90.9 %) of respondent countries had a national ethics review committee (NEC); 79 % of which were established by law. Twenty-five (83.3 %) NECs had secretarial and administrative support. Over 50 % of countries with NECs indicated a need for capacity strengthening through periodic training on international guidelines for health research (including clinical trials) ethics; and allocation of funds for administrative and secretariat support. Despite the existing training initiatives, the Region still experiences a shortage of professionals

  1. Pathology services in developing countries-the West African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyi, Oyedele A

    2011-02-01

    Histopathology, like other branches of medicine in West Africa, has suffered largely from economic, political, social, and infrastructural problems, becoming a shadow of the top quality that had been obtained in the past. To address the prevailing problems, one needs to attempt defining them. The existing structure of training and practice are discussed, highlighting the author's perception of the problems and suggesting practical ways to address these while identifying potential roles for North American pathology organizations. The author's past and ongoing association with pathology practice in Nigeria forms the basis for this review. Pathology practice is largely restricted to academic medical centers. The largest of academic centers each accession around 4000 or fewer surgical specimens per year to train 9 to 12 residents. Histopathology largely uses hematoxylin-eosin routine stains, sometimes with histochemistry but rarely immunohistochemistry. Pathologists depend largely on their skills in morphology (with its limitations) to classify and subclassify tumors on routine stains, including soft tissue and hematolymphoid malignancies. Immunofluorescence, intraoperative frozen section diagnosis, electronic laboratory system, and gross and microscopic imaging facilities are generally not available for clinical use. The existing facilities and infrastructure can be augmented with provision of material and professional assistance from other pathology associations in more developed countries and should, among other things, focus on supplementing residency education. Virtual residency programs, short-visit observerships, development of simple but practical laboratory information systems, and closer ties with pathologists in these countries are some of the suggested steps in achieving this goal.

  2. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-23

    Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expenditures. In order to limit dialysis cost, primary and secondary prevention of chronic renal disease are of paramount importance. In addition to drugs, secondary prevention includes diet measures (e.g. salt diet, protein diet). The aims of diet practice in chronic kidney disease are to slow chronic renal failure progression and to prevent its complications like hyperphosphatemia and hyperkaliemiae. A few decades ago, a Tunisian diet was exclusively Mediterranean, and protein consumption was not excessive. However, today, protein consumption is more comparable to western countries. Salt consumption is also excessive. Some Tunisian diets still include food with high potassium intake, which are not suitable for patients with chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the role of the dietician is extremely important to help calculate and create a dietary regimen tailored to each of our patients. Advice about diets should be adapted to both the patient and population habits to improve adherence rate. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide our own experience regarding medical nutrition therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease in Tunisia, with some changes in food habits. Prevention is far better than treatment. In this perspective, dietary measures must be at the core of our intervention.

  3. Actual and predicted prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Probst, Charlotte; Shield, Kevin; Kraicer-Melamed, Hannah; Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy among the general population in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region, by country. First, a comprehensive systematic literature search was performed to identify all published and unpublished studies. Then, several meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model, were conducted to estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy among the general population for countries in the WHO African Region with two or more studies available. Lastly, for countries with less than two studies or no known data predictions were obtained using regression modelling. The estimated prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among the general population ranged from 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-2.8%; Equatorial Guinea) to 12.6% (95% CI: 9.9-15.4%; Cameroon) in Central Africa, 3.4% (95% CI: 2.6-4.3%; Seychelles) to 20.5% (95% CI: 16.4-24.7%; Uganda) in Eastern Africa, 5.7% (95% CI: 4.4-7.1%; Botswana) to 14.2% (95% CI: 11.1-17.3%; Namibia) in Southern Africa, 6.6% (95% CI: 5.0-8.3%; Mauritania) to 14.8% (95% CI: 11.6-17.9%; Sierra Leone) in Western Africa, and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.2-5.3%; Algeria) in Northern Africa. The high prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy in some African countries calls for educational campaigns, screening and targeted interventions for women of childbearing age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Towards zero waste in emerging countries - a South African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management [DEAT, 2001. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Government of South Africa. Polokwane Declaration. Drafted by Government, Civil Society and the Business Community. National Waste Summit, Polokwane, 26-28 September 2001], which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa.

  5. Towards Zero Waste in emerging countries - A South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management , which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa

  6. Tobacco--its role in the economy and the health of African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In Africa the issue of smoking and health is complicated by the fact that in many countries tobacco is grown commercially and is relied upon to bring in foreign exchange through export, of revenue for the government if sold on the home market. Consequently, in some nations the ministries of health and of agriculture are working at cross purposes. This contradiction is recognized in the report issued recently of a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on smoking and health organized for English-speaking Member States of the WHO African Region, and held in Zambia. In opening the seminar, the prime minister of Zambia, Mr. N. Mundia, stated that governments had an obligation to educate people on the risks involved in the use of tobacco but that this could pose a moral dilemma where tobacco production made an apparently significant contribution to the economy. Additionally, he warned that developing countries are considered valuable markets by tobacco companies and stressed that if the promotion of tobacco products by such companies represented a threat "to the health of our people, we cannot let it happen." This point was endorsed by Mr. W.C. Mwambazi, the National WHO Program Coordinator who stated that smoking was on the increase in many developing countries as a result of unscrupulous marketing practices by cigarette manufacturers and that smoking was a major threat to the realization of health for all by the year 2000. Aspects of smoking and health that have special relevance for Africa are emphasized in the report. The few studies carried out in Africa tend to confirm findings from the developed world that smoking increases the risk of cancer and coronary heart disease. Not only is tobacco smoked in Africa, but it is chewed and taken as snuff, and these uses also entail a risk to health. Case studies included in the report show that transnational tobacco companies take full advantage of the present lack of legislation in most African countries on the promotion

  7. Promotion of renewable energy in some MENA region countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeladim, K.; Bouchakour, S.; Arab, A. Hadj; Ould Amrouche, S.; Yassaa, N.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years Middle East and North African (MENA) countries, are showing efforts about the integration of renewable electricity into their power markets. Indeed, installations were already achieved and renewable energy programs were launched. The Algerian program remains one of the most ambitious with its installation capacity up to 22GW of power generating to be installed by 2030. More than 60 % of the total capacity is planned to be solar photovoltaic (PV). Like Algeria, Morocco has integrated development project with a target to develop by 2020 a 2000 MW capacity of electricity production from solar energy. The Tunisian government has launched its first phase of the renewable power generation program, with an objective to install 1,000 MW of renewable power capacity over the 2017-2020 periods, where 650 MW of the total capacity is planned to be solar and 350 MW wind. One of the leading Arab country in wind energy, these recent years is Egypt, with its more than 700 megawatt of operational power generation plants and has launched significant projects development in solar energy. Regarding Jordan, the government has taken different steps in this field of energy with a Strategy plan 2007-2020, by implementing a large scale of projects on renewable energy sources, with an objective to cover 10% of the country’s energy supply, from renewable sources by the year 2020. Concerning Lebanon, the country is looking to attain an integration of 12 % by 2020.

  8. Zār Spirit Possession in Iran and African Countries: Group Distress, Culture-Bound Syndrome or Cultural Concept of Distress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Mianji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zār is the term used to describe a form of spirit possession common in northern African, eastern African, and some Middle-Eastern societies. Although these regions share some cultural similarities arising from their history of slavery, in these places, zār varies in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and social context. Based on a selective review of the literature, this paper looks at the place of zār spirit possession in both DSM-IV and DSM-V; it also examines how zār is manifested in Iran and in African countries including Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt; and it aims to provide practical information to mental health clinicians so that they can better understand how this cultural concept is practiced by Iranians and Middle Eastern and African immigrants living near the Persian Gulf coast.

  9. Trends of major disease outbreaks in the African region, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Senait; Duales, Sambe; Yokouide, Allarangar; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu

    2010-03-01

    Communicable disease outbreaks cause millions of deaths throughout Sub-Saharan Africa each year. Most of the diseases causing epidemics in the region have been nearly eradicated or brought under control in other parts of the world. In recent years, considerable effort has been directed toward public health initiatives and strategies with a potential for significant impact in the fight against infectious diseases. In 1998, the World Health Organization African Regional Office (WHO/AFRO) launched the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy aimed at mitigating the impact of communicable diseases, including epidemic-prone diseases, through improving surveillance, laboratory confirmation and appropriate and timely public health interventions. Over the past decade, WHO and its partners have been providing technical and financial resources to African countries to strengthen epidemic preparedness and response (EPR) activities. This review examined the major epidemics reported to WHO/AFRO from 2003 to 2007. we conduct a review of documents and reports obtained from WHO/AFRO, WHO inter-country team, and partners and held meeting and discussions with key stakeholders to elicit the experiences of local, regional and international efforts against these epidemics to evaluate the lessons learned and to stimulate discussion on the future course for enhancing EPR. The most commonly reported epidemic outbreaks in Africa include: cholera, dysentery, malaria and hemorrhagic fevers (e.g. Ebola, Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo fever and yellow fever). The cyclic meningococcal meningitis outbreak that affects countries along the "meningitis belt" (spanning Sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal and The Gambia to Kenya and Ethiopia) accounts for other major epidemics in the region. The reporting of disease outbreaks to WHO/AFRO has improved since the launch of the IDSR strategy in 1998. Although the epidemic trends for cholera showed a decline in case fatality rate (CFR

  10. Regional Integration and Foreign Investment: The Case of Asean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O. Nwosu; Anthony Orji; Nathaniel Urama; Joseph I. Amuka

    2013-01-01

    The importance of regional integration in stimulating foreign direct investment cannot be overemphasized. With a special focus on the ASEAN countries, this research paper investigates the role of regional integration in attracting foreign direct investment. We bring a novelty to this paper by dividing foreign direct investment into Inter-and Intra-ASEAN to see if both are determined by the same set of factors. If economic integration drives intra-ASEAN FDI we would expect such FDI to be unrel...

  11. Drivers of Environmental Institutional Dynamics in Decentralized African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie; Ferrand, Nils

    2015-12-01

    This paper builds on the assumption that an effective approach to support the sustainability of natural resource management initiatives is institutional "bricolage." We argue that participatory planning processes can foster institutional bricolage by encouraging stakeholders to make their own arrangements based on the hybridization of old and new institutions. This papers aims at identifying how participatory process facilitators can encourage institutional bricolage. Specifically the paper investigates the specific contextual and procedural drivers of institutional dynamics in two case studies: the Rwenzori region in Uganda and the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia. In both cases, participatory planning processes were implemented. This research has three innovative aspects. First, it establishes a clear distinction between six terms which are useful for identifying, describing, and analyzing institutional dynamics: formal and informal; institutions and organizations; and emergence and change. Secondly, it compares the contrasting institutional dynamics in the two case studies. Thirdly, process-tracing is used to identify contextual and procedural drivers to institutional dynamics. We assume that procedural drivers can be used as "levers" by facilitators to trigger institutional bricolage. We found that facilitators need to pay particular attention to the institutional context in which the participatory planning process takes place, and especially at existing institutional gaps or failures. We identified three clusters of procedural levers: the selection and engagement of participants; the legitimacy, knowledge, and ideas of facilitators; and the design of the process, including the scale at which it is developed, the participatory tools used and the management of the diversity of frames.

  12. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition but it must

  13. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  14. Water footprint as an indicator of agricultural productivity in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Zamanillo, Daniel; Zhang, Guoping; Mathews, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions with the largest scope for improved agricultural development that would contribute to global food security while respecting environmental boundaries. More importantly, undernourishment is a challenge for many African countries and needs to be addressed to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This study was conducted to support the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affair's Inclusive Green Growth aim of increasing water use efficiency by 25% in Dutch financed projects. A water footprint profile was developed for 7 Sub-Saharan countries; Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique and Rwanda. The profiles provide an overview of water use from the perspective of the goods produced within the country, the consumption of goods, in particular agricultural crops, whether these goods are produced domestically or imported from other countries and the level of blue water scarcity experienced in the country. Across all countries, key food crops such as maize, and sorghum have low water productivity relative to the global water footprint benchmark. Export crops such as tea in Kenya or cocoa in Ghana show a good performance over global production. Furthermore, the water footprint of crops over the period 2006-2013 was compared to data from the period 1996-2005. Changes in yield and the resulting changes in the water footprint were assessed for both food and export crops. Yields in food crops improved in some countries, and in some years, but not consistently across all countries and years. The greatest gains in water productivity were in key export crops. The results provide insights into whether improvements have been made in water productivity in recent years and through comparison with the global water footprint benchmark, remaining opportunities for further gains in water productivity were identified. Going forward, policies that will enhance further improvement in water productivity and support greater food and

  15. Cross-Country Entrepreneurial Intentions Study: The Danube Region Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Šebjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate how entrepreneurial intentions of individuals in the eight countries of the Danube region are shaped by different components of individuals’ personal attitudes, the subjective norm and personal behavioral control. We analyze the internal structure of these components as well as some demographic and human capital factors. Cultural and developmental differences influencing variation in causal effects among variables in the model are analyzed. Structural equation modeling is used for data obtained by adult population surveys within the GEM research. Results of our study show that the entrepreneurial intention model is applicable across countries and that the internal effects among components of motivational antecedents exist, although not all hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Our study suggests that the process from perception to intention is similarly shaped across the eight countries of the Danube region, although there are several differences in the magnitude of causal effects as well as differences regarding influential factors.

  16. Hunger influenced life expectancy in war-torn Sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence N

    2018-04-27

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem especially in developing countries experiencing war/conflicts. War might be one of the socio-political factors influencing malnutrition in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. This study aims at determining the influence of war on corruption, population (POP), number of population malnourished (NPU), food security and life expectancy (LE) in war-torn SSA countries (WTSSA) by comparing their malnutrition indicators. Fourteen countries in WTSSA were stratified into zones according to war incidences. Countries' secondary data on population (POP), NPU, Food Security Index (FSI), corruption perceptions index (CPI), Global Hunger Index (GHI) and LE were obtained from global published data. T test, multivariate and Pearson correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship between CPI, POP, GHI, FSI, NPU, male LE (MLE) and female LE (FLE) in WTSSA at p Malnutrition indicators were similarly affected in WTSSA. Hunger influenced life expectancy. Policies promoting good governance, equity, peaceful co-existence, respect for human right and adequate food supply will aid malnutrition eradication and prevent war occurrences in Sub-Saharan African countries.

  17. Countries of the Baltic Region in the Global Culinary Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmanov A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is creating a global culinary space where culinary traditions of different countries interact and compete. The author sets out to explore characteristic features of the culinary space of nine Baltic States as part of the global culinary space. The author uses empirical data on the number of restaurants serving different national cuisines in the main cities of the region. The Baltic culinary space incorporates the world’s leading cuisines (Italian, Japanese, Chinese, etc. as well as the local cuisines of the BSR countries. The world’s leading cuisines prove to be more influential in the region than the local ones. Some countries of the Baltic Sea region (Russia, Poland, Sweden, Latvia, and Denmark have culinary sovereignty, since their residents prefer national cuisines. In some other countries of the region (Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania, the public favours the world’s leading cuisines — Italian, Japanese and American — over the local ones. The non-capital Baltic cities of Poland and Germany, as well as St. Petersburg, display a greater sense of culinary patriotism than Warsaw, Berlin, and Moscow respectively. This article attempts to explore the features of the Baltic culinary space. The author considers the environmental and socio- historical factors key determinants of the countries’ cuisines.

  18. Estimating regional centile curves from mixed data sources and countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Hayes, D.J.; Stasinopoulos, D.M.; Rigby, R.A.; Kuile, F.O. ter; Terlouw, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Regional or national growth distributions can provide vital information on the health status of populations. In most resource poor countries, however, the required anthropometric data from purpose-designed growth surveys are not readily available. We propose a practical method for estimating

  19. The impact of family planning on primary school enrolment in sub-national areas within 25 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen

    2013-06-01

    We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth.

  20. Financial development and economic growth: literature survey and empirical evidence from sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Kakilli Acaravci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the literature on the finance-growth nexus and investigate the causality between financial development and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa for the period 1975-2005. Using panel co-integration and panel GMM estimation for causality, the results of the panel co-integration analysis provide evidence of no long-run relationship between financial development and economic growth. The empirical findings in the paper show a bi-directional causal relationship between the growth of real GDP per capita and the domestic credit provided by the banking sector for the panels of 24 Sub-Saharan African countries. The findings imply that African countries can accelerate their economic growth by improving their financial systems and vice versa.

  1. Role of mobile phone technology in health education in Asian and African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.

  2. Testing for purchasing power parity in 21 African countries using several unit root tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    Purchasing power parity is used as a basis for international income and expenditure comparison through the exchange rate theory. However, empirical studies show disagreement on the validity of PPP. In this paper, we conduct the testing on the validity of PPP using panel data approach. We apply seven different panel unit root tests to test the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis based on the quarterly data on real effective exchange rate for 21 African countries from the period 1971: Q1-2012: Q4. All the results of the seven tests rejected the hypothesis of stationarity meaning that absolute PPP does not hold in those African Countries. This result confirmed the claim from previous studies that standard panel unit tests fail to support the PPP hypothesis.

  3. Dairy products and colorectal cancer in middle eastern and north African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kinany, K; Deoula, M; Hatime, Z; Bennani, B; El Rhazi, K

    2018-03-01

    This systematic review was conducted to explain the association between dairy products and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Middle Eastern and North African countries (MENA). The database consulted were PubMed, Clinical Trials, and Cochrane to extract the relevant studies published till the 31stof December 2016, using inclusion and exclusion criteria according to Prisma Protocol. The characteristics of these studies comprised the consumption of all types of dairy products in relation to CRC risk. Seven studies were included in this review. For dairy products overall, no significant association was found. Regarding modern dairy products, included studies found controversial results with OR = 9.88 (95% CI: 3.80-24.65) and OR a  = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.02-0.71). A positive association was reported between traditional dairy products and CRC risk, to OR = 18.66 (95% CI: 3.06-113.86) to OR = 24 (95% CI: 1.74-330.82) to ORa = 1.42 (95% CI: 0.62-3.25), p trend  = 0.03. Calcium was inversely associated with the CRC risk with OR a  = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04-0.17). This is the first systematic review which illustrated the association between dairy consumption and CRC risk in MENA region. The results were inconsistent and not always homogeneous. Further specified studies may be warranted to address the questions about the association between CRC and dairy products in a specific context of MENA region.

  4. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international project investigating the earth atmosphere -human system in southern Africa. The programme was conducted over a two year period from March 1999 to March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-September 2000) was the most intensive activity involved over 200 scientist from eighteen countries. The main objectives were to characterize and quantify biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate NASA's Earth Observing System's Satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft-- two South African Weather Service Aeorcommanders, the University of Washington's CV-880, the U.K. Meteorological Office's C-130, and NASA's ER-2 --with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses, that had moved downwind of the subcontinent, was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple Observations were made in various geographical sections under different synoptic conditions. Airborne missions were designed to optimize the value of synchronous over-flights of the Terra Satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller scale ground validation activities took place throughout the subcontinent during the campaign period.

  5. Historical Preconditions and Factors for Development of International Relations between UAE and African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of preconditions for development of international relations between UAE and African countries including geographical location of the UAE, naval and ship building skills of the Persian gulf Arabs, participation of both Eastern Africa and Persian Gulf in the Indian ocean trade as well as influence on its development of external factors such as Islamic expansion and colonial policies of Britain and Portugal.

  6. Schizophrenia trials conducted in African countries: a drop of evidence in the ocean of morbidity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purgato Marianna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To quantify schizophrenia trialling activity in African countries and to describe the main features of these trials. Methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Register, which contains 16,000 citations to 13,000 studies relating only to people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illness, to identify schizophrenia trials conducted in Africa without time limitation. Results A total of 38 trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in our analysis. Of the 54 countries of Africa, only 8 produced at least one trial: South Africa produced the majority of trials (20 out of 38 trials, 53%, followed by Nigeria (7 out of 38 trials, 18% and Egypt (4 out of 38 trials, 11%. The majority of studies investigated the efficacy of pharmacological interventions, were short in duration, and employed a double-blind design. The quality of reporting was generally poor. We found six trials comparing antipsychotics from the WHO Essential List of Medicine versus new generation antipsychotics. In terms of efficacy and acceptability, these studies failed to show any advantage of newer antipsychotics over first-generation agents. Conclusions We observed an impressive mismatch between the number of individuals with schizophrenia living in African countries, estimated to be around 10 million, and the overall number of patients included in African trials, which is less than 2,000. These few trials were of low quality and appeared not to reflect the real needs of the population. We argue that the concept of pragmatism should be introduced into the design of randomized trials in African countries. Pragmatic trials should investigate whether treatments, given in real-world circumstances, really have clinically meaningful effects.

  7. Choice of exchange rate regimes for African countries: Fixed or Flexible Exchange rate regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simwaka, Kisu

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate exchange rate regime has been a subject of ongoing debate in international economics. The majority of African countries are small open economies and thus where the choice of the exchange rate regime is an important policy issue. Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and ...

  8. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wojczewski

    Full Text Available Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa, the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.

  9. The promotion of regional integration of electricity markets: Lessons for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oseni, Musiliu O.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on how to promote regional cooperation in electricity. We begin by discussing the theory of international trade cooperation in electricity, with a view to discussing what preconditions might be important in facilitating wide area trading across national borders. We then develop lessons based on the comparison of four case studies. These include three regional developing country power pools – the Southern African Power pool (SAPP), West African Power pool (WAPP) and the Central American Power Market (MER). We contrast these with Northern Europe's Nord Pool. These cases highlight both the potential and difficulty of having cross-jurisdictional power pools. In the light of the theory and evidence we present, we draw key lessons in the areas of: preconditions for trading; necessary institutional arrangements; practicalities of timetabling; reasons to be hopeful about future prospects. - Highlights: • This paper focuses on how to promote regional electricity cooperation. • We develop lessons based on comparison of four international case studies. • The cases highlight both the potential and difficulty of power pools. • We identify preconditions, institutional arrangements and timetabling. • We conclude that the future prospects for regional power pools are good.

  10. On the mathematical analysis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: deathly infection disease in West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Goufo, Emile Franc Doungmo

    2014-01-01

    For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.

  11. Income-environment relationship in Sub-Saharan African countries: Further evidence with trade openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Eléazar

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between energy consumption, income growth, carbon emissions and trade openness in fourteen Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration and the Toda-Yamamoto causality test were used to investigate the long-run and short-run properties, respectively. The long-run estimations give evidence against the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in SSA countries. In contrast, the results highlight the significant and monotonically contribution of income growth and energy consumption in explaining carbon emissions in the long-run and short-run in several countries. Furthermore, the results show that trade openness enhances economic growth and is not linked to causing carbon emissions in these countries. Hence, a trade incentive policy may be implemented without harmful effect on the quality of the environment.

  12. HIV/AIDS-related social anxieties in adolescents in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, J L; Ross, M W; Akande, A

    1998-02-01

    This study examines the social anxieties associated with HIV prevention in adolescents in three African countries (Nigeria, Kenya, and Zimbabwe). The subjects used in this study were black Africans in form 2 or grade 10 in public high schools (Nigeria, n = 387; Kenya, n = 274; Zimbabwe n = 313). Subjects responded to the 33 item AIDS Social Assertiveness Scale (ASAS). Data indicated similar factor structures for each of the three countries and included five factors. The combined sample factor intercorrelations were modestly but significantly correlated. The mean scores for each factor were compared, and ANOVA of the factors by country, by gender, and by interaction between country and gender were performed. The factor structures were very similar between countries, each including five factors that had similar themes: condom interactions, refusal of risk, confiding in significant others, contact with people with HIV/AIDS, and general assertiveness. These factor structures were also very similar to one found in previous studies of Australian adolescents on the ASAS. The Kenyan means for four of the five factors were significantly lower than those for Nigeria, and were also significantly lower than the Zimbabwean means for two of the five factors, suggesting that Kenyan students are less anxious about social situations related to HIV/AIDS than others. Significant variance was found for several factors due to gender, country, and the interaction between gender and country. These results have important implications for designing education programs. The similarities of anxieties regarding HIV/AIDS social situations suggest that these clusters of social barriers to reduction of HIV infection risk might form the basis of educational interventions, and that dimensions of HIV social anxieties are similar across countries.

  13. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho,…

  14. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  15. Regional Cooperation Towards Trans-country Natural Gas Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2009-01-01

    India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose ...... of this paper is to report scenarios, which quantify the impacts for India of regional cooperation to materialize trans-country pipelines. The analysis covers time period from 2005 to 2030.......India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose...

  16. Documentation of polio eradication initiative best practices: Experience from WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nshimirimana, Deo; Nsubuga, Peter; Mutabaruka, Evariste; Tapsoba, Leonard; Ghali, Emmanuel; Kabir, Shaikh Humayun; Gassasira, Alex; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The African Region is set to achieving polio eradication. During the years of operations, the Polio Eradication Initiative [PEI] in the Region mobilized and trained tremendous amount of manpower with specializations in surveillance, social mobilization, supplementary immunization activities [SIAs], data management and laboratory staff. Systems were put in place to accelerate the eradication of polio in the Region. Standardized, real-time surveillance and response capacity were established. Many innovations were developed and applied to reaching people in difficult and security challenged terrains. All of these resulted in accumulation of lessons and best practices, which can be used in other priority public health intervention if documented. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa [WHO/AFRO] developed a process for the documentation of these best practices, which was pretested in Uganda. The process entailed assessment of three critical elements [effectiveness, efficiency and relevance] five aspects [ethical soundness, sustainability, involvement of partners, community involvement, and political commitment] of best practices. A scored card which graded the elements and aspects on a scale of 0-10 was developed and a true best practice should score >50 points. Independent public health experts documented polio best practices in eight countries in the Region, using this process. The documentation adopted the cross-sectional design in the generation of data, which combined three analytical designs, namely surveys, qualitative inquiry and case studies. For the selection of countries, country responses to earlier questionnaire on best practices were screened for potential best practices. Another criterion used was the level of PEI investment in the countries. A total of 82 best practices grouped into ten thematic areas were documented. There was a correlation between the health system performances with DPT3 as proxy, level of PEI investment in countries

  17. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Points, Region 9 Indian Country, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  18. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) Map Service, Region 9, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. The service is composed of three layers; one for each unique LUST...

  19. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Points, Region 9, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  20. Employment Performance and Convergence in the European Countries and Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Perugini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the national and regional (NUTS-2 employment performance and convergence for various aggregations of 27 European countries (EU-25, plus Romania and Bulgaria, mainly using the three employment rates (total, female, older worker adopted by the European Employment Strategy (EES. At the national level, this analysis confirmed the existence of considerable differences in employment performance between and within the various country aggregations. Empirical analysis highlighted the remarkable net job creations in the EU-15 (and EMU-12 for the period 1997-2003, accompanied by a (national convergence for all three employment indicators. As regards total employment rates, significant converging trends also emerge at the regional level for both EU-15 and EMU-12 aggregations. In the eight Central European Countries, new EU members (8 CEC-NM, a  diverging trend in the total employment rate began in 1999, whereas converging dynamics were limited to the employment rate of older workers in the period 1998-2001. Regional analyses showed significant  diverging dynamics in the total employment rates (1999-2003 for the eight CEC-NM regions. At the national level of analyses, the relationship between “progress in transition” and employment performance was also briefly examined. Results show that a simple, stable correlation does not exist. However, a weak U-shaped relationship existing in 1998 shifted downward and evolved toward a positive link in 2003. The main results of cluster analysis of the 53 regions of the ten CECs confirmed a high level of regional labour market diversification, and the fact that sector structure affects employment performance significantly

  1. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks, Region 9, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and locational information, status of LUST case, operating status of facility, inspection dates, and links to No Further Action letters for closed LUST cases. This database contains 1230 features, with 289 features having a LUST status of open, closed with no residual contamination, or closed with residual contamination.

  2. Ecological study of road traffic injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region: country economic level, road user category and gender perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Mathilde; Laflamme, Lucie; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-02-13

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has the second highest number of road traffic injury mortality rates after the African region based on 2013 data, with road traffic injuries accounting for 27% of the total injury mortality in the region. Globally the number of road traffic deaths has plateaued despite an increase in motorization, but it is uncertain whether this applies to the Region. This study investigated the regional trends in both road traffic injury mortality and morbidity and examined country-based differences considering on income level, categories of road users, and gender distribution. Register-based ecological study linking data from Global Burden of Disease Study with the United Nations Statistics Division for population and World Bank definition for country income level. Road traffic injury mortality rates and disability-adjusted life years were compiled for all ages at country level in 1995, 2005, 2015 and combined for a regional average (n = 22) and a global average (n = 122). The data were stratified by country economic level, road user category and gender. Road traffic injury mortality rates in the Region were higher than the global average for all three reference years but suggest a downward trend. In 2015 mortality rates were more than twice as high in low and high income countries compared to global income averages and motor vehicle occupants had a 3-fold greater mortality than the global average. Severe injuries decreased by more than half for high/middle income countries but remained high for low income countries; three times higher for males than females. Despite a potential downward trend, inequalities in road traffic injury mortality and morbidity burden remain high in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Action needs to be intensified and targeted to implement and enforce safety measures that prevent and mitigate severe motor vehicle crashes in high income countries especially and invest in efforts to promote public, active transport

  3. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between national income, HIV/AIDS and political status and mortalities in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, S Y; Umezaki, M; Nakamura, K; Kizuki, M; Takano, T

    2006-07-01

    To investigate associations between mortalities in African countries and problems that emerged in Africa in the 1990s (reduction of national income, HIV/AIDS and political instability) by adjusting for the influences of development, sanitation and education. We compiled country-level indicators of mortalities, national net income (the reduction of national income by the debt), infection rate of HIV/AIDS, political instability, demography, education, sanitation and infrastructure, from 1990 to 2000 of all African countries (n=53). To extract major factors from indicators of the latter four categories, we carried out principal component analysis. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the associations between mortality indicators and national net income per capita, infection rate of HIV/AIDS, and political instability by adjusting the influence of other possible mortality determinants. Mean of infant mortality per 1000 live births (IMR); maternal mortality per 100,000 live birth (MMR); adult female mortality per 1000 population (AMRF); adult male mortality per 1000 population (AMRM); and life expectancy at birth (LE) in 2000 were 83, 733, 381, 435, and 51, respectively. Three factors were identified as major influences on development: education, sanitation and infrastructure. National net income per capita showed independent negative associations with MMR and AMRF, and a positive association with LE. Infection rate of HIV/AIDS was independently positively associated with AMRM and AMRF, and negatively associated with LE in 2000. Political instability score was independently positively associated with MMR. National net income per capita, HIV/AIDS and political status were predictors of mortality indicators in African countries. This study provided evidence for supporting health policies that take economic and political stability into account.

  5. Evaluation of regional project to strengthen national health research systems in four countries in West Africa: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issiaka; Aidam, Jude; Montorzi, Gabriela

    2017-07-12

    Since the Commission on Health Research for Development (COHRED) published its flagship report, more attention has been focused on strengthening national health research systems (NHRS). This paper evaluates the contribution of a regional project that used a participatory approach to strengthen NHRS in four post-conflict West African countries - Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mali. The data from the situation analysis conducted at the start of the project was compared to data from the project's final evaluation, using a hybrid conceptual framework built around four key areas identified through the analysis of existing frameworks. The four areas are governance and management, capacities, funding, and dissemination/use of research findings. The project helped improve the countries' governance and management mechanisms without strengthening the entire NHRS. In the four countries, at least one policy, plan or research agenda was developed. One country put in place a national health research ethics committee, while all four countries could adopt a research information management system. The participatory approach and support from the West African Health Organisation and COHRED were all determining factors. The lessons learned from this project show that the fragile context of these countries requires long-term engagement and that support from a regional institution is needed to address existing challenges and successfully strengthen the entire NHRS.

  6. Effects of capital inflows on emerging market economies : How FDI from Chinese investors impacts on growth of Sub-Saharan African countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Tuulia

    2017-01-01

    Even though the implications of foreign direct investment (FDI) have been studied greatly, only a small part have focused on Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). With young and relatively talented workforce, SSA will provide enormous opportunities for multinationals entering the region. The purpose of this research is to examine whether FDI from China has a significant impact on economic development in Sub-Saharan African countries. In addition, it identifies the difference between the motivations o...

  7. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto V Mbugi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%, SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%, and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%. Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1. We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001. No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103. However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG, we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu (p-value = 0.03. This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3

  8. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugi, Erasto V; Katale, Bugwesa Z; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Keyyu, Julius D; Kendall, Sharon L; Dockrell, Hazel M; Michel, Anita L; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Warren, Robin M; Matee, Mecky I; van Helden, Paul D; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  9. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugi, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  10. Electricity consumption and economic growth: a time series experience for 17 African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane

    2006-01-01

    While the availability of electricity by itself is not a panacea for the economic and social problems facing Africa, the supply of electricity is nevertheless believed to be a necessary requirement for Africa's economic and social development. This paper tests the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for 17 African countries for the period 1971-2001 using a newly developed cointegration test proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and using a modified version of the Granger causality test due to Toda and Yamamoto (1995). The advantage of using these two approaches is that they both avoid the pre-testing bias associated with conventional unit root and cointegration tests. The empirical evidence shows that there was a long-run relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real GDP per capita for only 9 countries and Granger causality for only 12 countries. For 6 countries there was a positive uni-directional causality running from real GDP per capita to electricity consumption per capita; an opposite causality for 3 countries and bi-directional causality for the remaining 3 countries. The result should, however, be interpreted with care as electricity consumption accounts for less than 4% of total energy consumption in Africa and only grid-supplied electricity is taken into account

  11. Exploration for uranium in a tropical country: a case history in the Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, P.

    1983-01-01

    A total-count aerial radiometric survey carried out in the Central African Republic, in a wet tropical environment, led to the discovery of several anomalies, which were found to be bound to laterites overlying in Archean, quarzite-micaschist metamorphic series. Ground verification included several techniques: regional photogeology, radiometry and stream sediment geochemistry. Each anomalous spot was studied in detail by radiometric and geochemical grids, local topographic study and trenching through the lateritic profile. (author)

  12. Polio Eradication Initiative: Contribution to improved communicable diseases surveillance in WHO African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwengee, William; Okeibunor, Joseph; Poy, Alain; Shaba, Keith; Mbulu Kinuani, Leon; Minkoulou, Etienne; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, there has been a tremendous progress in the reduction of cases of poliomyelitis. The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication and in May 2013, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) 2013-2018. The plan provides a timeline for the completion of the GPEI by eliminating all paralytic polio due to both wild and vaccine-related polioviruses. We reviewed how GPEI supported communicable disease surveillance in seven of the eight countries that were documented as part of World Health Organization African Region best practices documentation. Data from WHO African region was also reviewed to analyze the performance of measles cases based surveillance. All 7 countries (100%) which responded had integrated communicable diseases surveillance core functions with AFP surveillance. The difference is on the number of diseases included based on epidemiology of diseases in a particular country. The results showed that the polio eradication infrastructure has supported and improved the implementation of surveillance of other priority communicable diseases under integrated diseases surveillance and response strategy. As we approach polio eradication, polio-eradication initiative staff, financial resources, and infrastructure can be used as one strategy to build IDSR in Africa. As we are now focusing on measles and rubella elimination by the year 2020, other disease-specific programs having similar goals of eradicating and eliminating diseases like malaria, might consider investing in general infectious disease surveillance following the polio example. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Timing of maternal death: Levels, trends, and ecological correlates using sibling data from 34 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Merdad

    Full Text Available Millennium Development Goal 5 has not been universally achieved, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding whether maternal deaths occur during pregnancy, childbirth, or puerperium is important to effectively plan maternal health programs and allocate resources. Our main research objectives are to (1 describe the proportions and rates of mortality for the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods; (2 document how these trends vary by sub-region; and (3 investigate ecological correlations between these rates and maternal care interventions. We used data from the Demographic and Health Survey program, which comprises 84 surveys from 34 sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 1990 and 2014. We calculated age-standardized maternal mortality rates and time-specific maternal mortality rates and proportions, and we assessed correlations with maternal care coverage. We found high levels of maternal mortality in all three periods. Time-specific maternal mortality rates varied by country and region, with some showing an orderly decline in all three periods and others exhibiting alarming increases in antepartum and postpartum mortality. Ecological analysis showed that antenatal care coverage was significantly associated with low antepartum mortality, whereas the presence of a skilled attendant at childbirth was significantly associated with low postpartum mortality. In sub-Saharan Africa, maternal deaths occur at high rates in all three risk periods, and vary substantially by country and region. The provision of maternal care is a predictor of time-specific maternal mortality. These results confirm the need for country-specific interventions during the continuum of care to achieve the global commitment to eliminating preventable maternal mortality.

  14. Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and strengthening regional workforce capacity in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Namsenmo, Abel; Illunga, Benoit Kebella; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kuaban, Christopher; Mbopi-Kéou, Francois-Xavier; Gabsa, Wilfred; Mulumba, Leopold; Bangamingo, Jean Pierre; Ngulefac, John; Dahlke, Melissa; Mukanga, David; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (CAFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership capacity building training program. It was established in October 2010 to enhance capacity for applied epidemiology and public health laboratory services in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of the program is to develop a trained public health workforce to assure that acute public health events are detected, investigated, and responded to quickly and effectively. The program consists of 25% didactic and 75% practical training (field based activities). Although the program is still in its infancy, the residents have already responded to six outbreak investigations in the region, evaluated 18 public health surveillance systems and public health programs, and completed 18 management projects. Through these various activities, information is shared to understand similarities and differences in the region leading to new and innovative approaches in public health. The program provides opportunities for regional and international networking in field epidemiology and laboratory activities, and is particularly beneficial for countries that may not have the immediate resources to host an individual country program. Several of the trainees from the first cohort already hold leadership positions within the ministries of health and national laboratories, and will return to their assignments better equipped to face the public health challenges in the region. They bring with them knowledge, practical training, and experiences gained through the program to shape the future of the public health landscape in their countries.

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  16. HUMAN SIDE OF E-COMMERCE IN THE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    DURAK, Görkem

    2017-01-01

    E-commerce is a new way of shopping through using internet since 1990s. This latest from of shopping is based on progress in information technologies. In the 1990s, companies just as Amazon and eBay started to change the shopping behavior of people. In this research, e-commerce index of 44 Sub-Saharan African countries are calculated by using World Development Indicators which are issued by the World Bank Group. The E-commerce index is consisting of access to electricity, co...

  17. Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) contribution in strengthening public health laboratories systems in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumede, Nicksy; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Nsubuga, Peter; Okeibunor, Joseph; Dosseh, Annick; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal; Byabamazima, Charles

    2016-10-10

    The laboratory has always played a very critical role in diagnosis of the diseases. The success of any disease programme is based on a functional laboratory network. Health laboratory services are an integral component of the health system. Efficiency and effectiveness of both clinical and public health functions including surveillance, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and health promotion are influenced by reliable laboratory services. The establishment of the African Regional polio laboratory for the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has contributed in supporting countries in their efforts to strengthen laboratory capacity. On the eve of the closing of the program, we have shown through this article, examples of this contribution in two countries of the African region: Côte d'Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Descriptive studies were carried out in Côte d'Ivoire (RCI) and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from October to December 2014. Questionnaires and self-administered and in-depth interviews and group discussions as well as records and observation were used to collect information during laboratory visits and assessments. The PEI financial support allows to maintain the majority of the 14 (DRC) and 12 (RCI) staff involved in the polio laboratory as full or in part time members. Through laboratory technical staff training supported by the PEI, skills and knowledge were gained to reinforce laboratories capacity and performance in quality laboratory functioning, processes and techniques such as cell culture. In the same way, infrastructure was improved and equipment provided. General laboratory quality standards, including the entire laboratory key elements was improved through the PEI accreditation process. The Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) is a good example of contribution in strengthening public health laboratories systems in the African region. It has established strong Polio Laboratory network that contributed to the

  18. Surgical Residency Training in Developing Countries: West African College of Surgeons as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Oluwole Gbolagunte; Alao, Adekola

    2016-01-01

    In 1904, William Halsted introduced the present model of surgical residency program which has been adopted worldwide. In some developing countries, where surgical residency training programs are new, some colleges have introduced innovations to the Halsted's original concept of surgical residency training. These include 1) primary examination, 2) rural surgical posting, and 3) submission of dissertation for final certification. Our information was gathered from the publications on West African College of Surgeons' (WACS) curriculum of the medical schools, faculty papers of medical schools, and findings from committees of medical schools. Verbal information was also gathered via interviews from members of the WACS. Additionally, our personal experience as members and examiners of the college are included herein. We then noted the differences between surgical residency training programs in the developed countries and that of developing countries. The innovations introduced into the residency training programs in the developing countries are mainly due to the emphasis placed on paper qualifications and degrees instead of performance. We conclude that the innovations introduced into surgical residency training programs in developing countries are the result of the misconception of what surgical residency training programs entail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  20. Regional innovative policy: Developed countries' experience and lessons for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljaeva Julija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research into formation of national innovative system at the regional level in developed countries gives the opportunity to reveal specific instruments of governmental policy and their adoption in Russian conditions. Nowadays Europe has got its general task in science development to build up common scientific area. According to the European Commission, it is possible to perform this task if EU countries and agree to unite their resources, and their national scientific policy is reformed under this common European standard. The main instrument of EU scientific and technological policy is European Framework programs of scientific research and technological development. In the context of these programs free funding is given as support to international scientific and technological projects. So, the most favorable climate is being created in Europe, which will let it become one of the centers of worldwide scientific research. The Japanese model of regional innovative system assumes building of brand new cities that is technology towns concentrating scientific research in forward spheres and industrial production. Herewith building of such technology towns to a great extent is funded at the regional level. Tax incentives play the significant role in the innovative activity stimulation in developed countries. For example, in Great Britain big corporations have the right to write down 125% of their scientific expenses to the cost, small write down 150%. Taxable profit decreases by a certain per cent what depends on increasing in expenses on scientific research. In another at a very high speed building up its innovative capital country - China - a differentiated VAT rate takes place. On average it is 18%, but it is twice lower in the sphere of IT. So, analysis of foreign experience of innovative development lets us underline the following necessary instruments of innovative policy: Private and governmental partnership in financing of academic and

  1. Corporate social disclosure by public enterprises: Evidence from a less developing African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Kabir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR information disclosure practices of a sample of public enterprises operating in a less developing African country (i.e. Swaziland over the years 2008 and 2010. Corporate annual reports and other relevant documents were used to extract CSR disclosure information. The study used content analysis of CSR information appearing in the corporate reports. Content analysis was measured in accordance with number of words. The paper examines five major categories of CSR disclosure such as environmental performance and policies, human resources, community activities, fair business practices, and human rights. Findings show that the trend of increasing amounts of corporate social information disclosure amongst the enterprises from 2008 to 2010 has not increased significantly. Results show that human resources disclosure issues were greatest followed by community involvement and then by environmental related issues. There was no attempt to disclose human rights issues by the enterprises. This study contributes to the literature on CSR reporting practices by public enterprises in the context of less developing African countries.

  2. A survey of pharmacists' perception of foundation level competencies in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Arit; Bruno, Andreia; Bates, Ian

    2018-04-02

    Evidence from published literature in pharmacy practice research demonstrate that the use of competency frameworks alongside standards of practice facilitate improvement in professional performance and aid expertise development. The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacists' perception of relevance to practice of the competencies and behaviours contained in the FIP Global Competency Framework (GbCF v1). The overall objective of the study was to assess the validity of the GbCF v1 framework in selected countries in Africa. A cross-sectional survey of pharmacists practicing in 14 countries in Africa was conducted between November 2012 and December 2014. A combination of purposive and snowball sampling method was used. Data was analysed using SPSS v22. A total of 469 pharmacists completed the survey questionnaire. The majority (91%) of the respondents were from four countries: Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. The study results showed broad agreement on relevance to practice for 90% of the behaviours contained in the GbCF v1 framework. Observed disagreement was associated with area of pharmacy practice and the corresponding patient facing involvement (p ≤ 0.05). In general, the competencies within the 'pharmaceutical care' and 'pharmaceutical public health' clusters received higher weighting on relevance compared to the research-related competencies which had the lowest. Specific inter-country variability on weighting of relevance was observed in five behaviours in the framework although, this was due to disparity in 'degree of relevance' that was related to sample composition in the respective countries. The competencies contained in the GbCF v1 are relevant to pharmacy practice in the study population; however, there are some emergent differences between the African countries surveyed. Overall, the findings provide preliminary evidence that was previously lacking on the relevance of the GbCF v1 competencies to pharmacy practice in the countries

  3. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  4. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed; El-Baz, Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is) the biggest river system in Africa. PMID:26257941

  5. Polio eradication in the African Region on course despite public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph C; Ota, Martin C; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Gumede, Nicksy; Shaba, Keith; Kouadio, Koffi I; Poy, Alain; Mihigo, Richard; Salla, Mbaye; Moeti, Matshidiso R

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization, African Region is heading toward eradication of the three types of wild polio virus, from the Region. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2 and 3 (WPV2 and WPV3) were last reported in 1998 and 2012, respectively, and WPV1 reported in Nigeria since July 2014 has been the last in the entire Region. This scenario in Nigeria, the only endemic country, marks a remarkable progress. This significant progress is as a result of commitment of key partners in providing the much needed resources, better implementation of strategies, accountability, and innovative approaches. This is taking place in the face of public emergencies and challenges, which overburden health systems of countries and threaten sustainability of health programmes. Outbreak of Ebola and other diseases, insecurity, civil strife and political instability led to displacement of populations and severely affected health service delivery. The goal of eradication is now within reach more than ever before and countries of the region should not relent in their efforts on polio eradication. WHO and partners will redouble their efforts and introduce better approaches to sustain the current momentum and to complete the job. The carefully planned withdrawal of oral polio vaccine type II (OPV2) with an earlier introduction of one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), in routine immunization, will boost immunity of populations and stop cVDPVs. Environmental surveillance for polio viruses will supplement surveillance for AFP and improve sensitivity of detection of polio viruses. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Addressing the Issue of Gender Equity in the Presidency of the University System in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guramatunhu-Mudiwa, Precious

    2010-01-01

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a regional economic grouping of 15 countries whose common vision is to promote economic, social and political development and growth. Arguably, sustainable growth can be realized if there is equal access to all positions of power and influence in the area, but an investigation of 117…

  7. African American and Hispanic American sportsmen in the north central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan Marsinko; John Dwyer

    2003-01-01

    Public forest managers need an awareness and understanding of their clients in order to better address their needs for recreational uses of forest lands. This study examines and characterizes African American and Hispanic American sportsmen (hunters and anglers) in the North Central Region of the United Stares (IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MO, WI) and compares them to African...

  8. Optimising design and cost-effective implementation of future pan-African dietary studies: a review of existing economic integration and nutritional indicators for scenario-based profiling and clustering of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom K; Landais, Edwige; Zotor, Francis; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gunter, Marc J; Amuna, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2018-02-01

    Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others. To assure the successful implementation of pan-African nutritional and health initiatives, cost-effective approaches considering similarities/disparities in economy, regional integration, development and nutritional aspects between countries are needed. In the absence of pre-existing models, we reviewed regional economic integration and nutritional indicators (n 13) available in international organisations databases or governmental agencies websites, for fifty-two African countries. These indicators were used to map the countries according to common languages (e.g. Arabic, English, French, Portuguese), development status (e.g. human development index), malnutrition status (e.g. obesity) and diet (e.g. staples predominantly based on either cereals or tubers). The review of the indicators showed that there exist similarities between African countries that can be exploited to benefit the continent with cross-national experiences in order to avoid duplication of efforts in the implementation of future pan-African health studies. In addition, including present and future nutrition surveillance programmes in Africa into national statistical systems might be cost-effective and sustainable in the longer term.

  9. JOURNALISTIC IDENTITY AND AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS: Paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  10. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  11. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  12. Implementation of a Regional Training Program on African Swine Fever As Part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program across the Caucasus Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco De Nardi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A training and outreach program to increase public awareness of African swine fever (ASF was implemented by Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Ministries of Agriculture in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. The implementing agency was the company SAFOSO (Switzerland. Integration of this regional effort was administered by subject matter experts for each country. The main teaching effort of this project was to develop a comprehensive regional public outreach campaign through a network of expertise and knowledge for the control and prevention of ASF in four neighboring countries that experience similar issues with this disease. Gaps in disease knowledge, legislation, and outbreak preparedness in each country were all addressed. Because ASF is a pathogen with bioterrorism potential and of great veterinary health importance that is responsible for major economic instability, the project team developed public outreach programs to train veterinarians in the partner countries to accurately and rapidly identify ASF activity and report it to international veterinary health agencies. The project implementers facilitated four regional meetings to develop this outreach program, which was later disseminated in each partner country. Partner country participants were trained as trainers to implement the outreach program in their respective countries. In this paper, we describe the development, execution, and evaluation of the ASF training and outreach program that reached more than 13,000 veterinarians, farmers, and hunters in the partner countries. Additionally, more than 120,000 booklets, flyers, leaflets, guidelines, and posters were distributed during the outreach campaign. Pre- and post-ASF knowledge exams were developed. The overall success of the project was demonstrated in that the principles of developing and conducting a public outreach program were established, and these foundational teachings can be applied within a single country or

  13. Regional and global market integration of African financial markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Review of Economics and Finance. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. A PILOT EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE STUDY OF TRANSFUSION SCREENING FOR HIV, HCV AND HBSAG IN TWELVE AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M; Shah, Avani; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Laperche, Syria; Lefrere, Jean-Jacques; van Hasselt, James; Zacharias, Peter; Murphy, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serologic screening for the major transfusion transmissible viruses (TTV) is critical to blood safety and has been widely implemented. However, actual performance as measured by proficiency testing has not been well studied in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted an external quality assessment of laboratories engaged in transfusion screening in the region. Materials and Methods Blinded test panels, each comprising 25 serum samples that were pedigreed for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and negative status, were sent to participating laboratories. The panels were tested using the laboratories’ routine donor screening methods and conditions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and multivariable analysis was used to compare performance against mode of testing, country and infrastructure. Results A total of 12 African countries and 44 laboratories participated in the study. The mean (range) sensitivities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 91.9% (14.3-100), 86.7% (42.9-100) and 90.1% (50-100), respectively. Mean specificities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 97.7%, 97% and 99.5% respectively. After adjusting for country and infrastructure, rapid tests had significantly lower sensitivity than enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for both HBsAg (p<0.0001) and HCV (p<0.05). Sensitivity also varied by country and selected infrastructure variables. Conclusion While specificity was high, sensitivity was more variable and deficient in a substantial number of testing laboratories. These findings underscore the importance of proficiency testing and quality control, particularly in Africa where TTV prevalence is high. PMID:25052195

  15. Factors associated with declining under-five mortality rates from 2000 to 2013: an ecological analysis of 46 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Aaron M; Blevins, Meridith; Haley, Connie A; Mwinga, Kasonde; Habimana, Phanuel; Shepherd, Bryan E; Aliyu, Muktar H; Ketsela, Tigest; Vermund, Sten H

    2016-01-08

    Inadequate overall progress has been made towards the 4th Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five mortality rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Progress has been variable across African countries. We examined health, economic and social factors potentially associated with reductions in under-five mortality (U5M) from 2000 to 2013. Ecological analysis using publicly available data from the 46 nations within the WHO African Region. We assessed the annual rate of change (ARC) of 70 different factors and their association with the annual rate of reduction (ARR) of U5M rates using robust linear regression models. Most factors improved over the study period for most countries, with the largest increases seen for economic or technological development and external financing factors. The median (IQR) U5M ARR was 3.6% (2.8 to 5.1%). Only 4 of 70 factors demonstrated a strong and significant association with U5M ARRs, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher ARRs were associated with more rapidly increasing coverage of seeking treatment for acute respiratory infection (β=0.22 (ie, a 1% increase in the ARC was associated with a 0.22% increase in ARR); 90% CI 0.09 to 0.35; p=0.01), increasing health expenditure relative to gross domestic product (β=0.26; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41; p=0.02), increasing fertility rate (β=0.54; 95% CI 0.07 to 1.02; p=0.07) and decreasing maternal mortality ratio (β=-0.47; 95% CI -0.69 to -0.24; p<0.01). The majority of factors showed no association or raised validity concerns due to missing data from a large number of countries. Improvements in sociodemographic, maternal health and governance and financing factors were more likely associated with U5M ARR. These underscore the essential role of contextual factors facilitating child health interventions and services. Surveillance of these factors could help monitor which countries need additional support in reducing U5M. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  16. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  17. Market, Country and World Effects on Regional Equity Market Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wooi Hooy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the fundamental driving forces of regional equity market integration in a trading bloc. The determinant factors are categorized into market attribute, economic fundamentals and world information. Our sample consists of 26 equity markets of ive regional trading blocs, namely AFTA, CER, EFTA, EU and NAFTA over the period of January 1999 to  August  2005.  We  measure  market  integration  based  on  pricing  errors  as  proposed  by Korajczyk (1996 and Levine and Zervos (1998. Using panel regressions, our results show that  equity  integration  in  these  trading  blocs  is  driven  internally,  where  only  individual-market  volatility  and  economic  fundamentals  play  a  signiicant  role  in  the  process.  Intra-bloc  trade  is  found  to  enhance  regional  equity  market  integration,  supporting  the  notion that  regional  convergence  extends  beyond  the  trade  sector  that  is  promoted  in  the  trade agreements.  We  also  document  regime  shifting  effects  during  stock  market  crises,  where most  of  these  markets  became  strongly  integrated  after  a  regional  crisis,  but  integration was signiicantly weakened during a crisis that affected the world markets. Also, the level of equity market integration differs across trading blocs, where the blocs with a smaller number of country members are relatively more integrated. ";} // -->activate javascript

  18. Globalization, female employment, and regional differences in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for within-country spatial differences is a much neglected issue in many cross-country comparisons. This paper highlights this importance in this empirical analysis of the impact of a country’s degree of social and economic globalization on female employment in 33 OECD countries, using a pseudo micro panel on 110’000 persons from the World Values Survey, 1981 to 2008. A traditional cross-country analysis suggests that only the social dimension of globalization, the worldwide inform...

  19. Malaria control in the African Region: perceptions and viewspoints on proceedings of the Africa Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    ; and levering of African Union and regional economic communities to address the cross-border dimension of malaria control. It was agreed that countries needed to secure adequate domestic and external funding for sustained commitment to malaria elimination; strengthen national malaria control programmes in the context of broader health system strengthening; ensure free access to long-lasting insecticide treated nets and malaria diagnosis and treatment for vulnerable groups; strengthen human resource capacity at central, district and community levels; and establish strong logistics, information and surveillance systems. Conclusion It is critically important for countries to have a clear vision and strategy for malaria elimination; effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; draw lessons from other African countries that have succeeded to dramatically reduce the burden of malaria; and sustain funding and ongoing interventions.

  20. Mean reversion in the current account of forty-eight african countries: Evidence from the Panel SURADF test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsiao-Ping; Chang, Tsangyao; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Su, Chi-Wei; Yuan, Young

    2007-10-01

    Here, the Panel seemingly unrelated regressions augmented Dickey-Fuller test (SURADF) test, first introduced and advanced by Breuer et al. [Misleading inferences from panel unit-root tests with an illustration from purchasing power parity, Rev. Int. Econ. 9(3) (2001) 482-493], is used to investigate the mean-reverting behavior of the current account of 48 African countries during the 1980-2004 periods. The empirical results from numerous panel-based unit root tests, conducted earlier, indicated that the current account of each of these countries is stationary; however, when Breuer et al.'s (2001) Panel SURADF test is conducted, it is found that a unit root exists in the current account of 11 of the countries studied. These results have one extremely important policy implication for the 48 African countries studied: the current account deficit of most is sustainable, and thus signifying that those nations should have no incentive to default on their international debt.

  1. [Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.

  2. Empirical Evidence of Target Leverage, Adjustment Costs and Adjustment Speed of Non-Financial Firms in Selected African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Oyebola Fatima Etudaiye-Muhtar; Oyebola Fatima Etudaiye-Muhtar; Rubi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The issue of target leverage for corporate firms in developing countries has received little attention in extant literature, especially countries in Africa. Given the imperfection that exists in African financial markets that may limit firms access to external capital, this study investigates dynamic adjustment towards a target debt ratio. In addition, the study used a dynamic panel data estimation technique to determine adjustment costs and speed of adjustment in non-financial firms in selec...

  3. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A.; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D.; Degboe, Arnold N.; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially

  4. Learning-by-Exporting Versus Self-Selection: New Evidence for 19 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster-McGregor, N.; Isaksson, A.; Kaulich, F.

    2015-01-01

    We examine learning-by-exporting effects of manufacturing and services firms in 19 sub-Saharan African countries. Comparing several outlier-robust estimators, our results provide evidence for positive effects in the manufacturing sector when using the MM estimator, but not in the services sector.

  5. Measuring the inward FDI potential of South African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krugell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. Problem statement: Following South Africa's reintegration into the world economy in 1994, foreign direct investment has been seen as a potential driver of growth and development. Concerns about the low investment rate in South Africa raise the possibility of augmenting domestic with foreign investment expenditure. The potential of technology spillovers and skills transfer from foreign direct investment have also been emphasised. As a result, Trade and Investment South Africa is involved in identifying, packaging and promoting investment opportunities. However, investments tend to be place-specific and this has lead to the decentralisation of foreign direct investment promotion. Currently the nine provincial development agencies are competing to attract investors and the larger local governments are also getting involved in the fray. This paper argues that some places have better potential to attract foreign investment than others. A first step to use scarce investment promotion resources more efficiently would be to measure the inward FDI potential of South African regions. Approach: This paper uses principal components analysis to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. This approach draws on UNCTAD's Inward FDI Potential Index and applies it to 354 magisterial districts in South Africa for the periods 1996, 2001 and 2006. The index creates a summary measure of FDI potential. Findings: The results show that different places present differential potential in urbanization and localization economies and market size. The high-potential locations are typically found in or around the major agglomerations, but there are a few smaller places on the periphery that offer FDI potential. Contribution: The index should aid

  6. Do Transport Infrastructures Promote the Foreign Direct Investments Attractiveness? Empirical Investigation from Four North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Saidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship among foreign direct investments and economic growth is a very controversial issue that has given rise to an abundant literature. Numerous research studies examine the bidirectional causal relationship and investigate the major determinants of these investments. In the same order of ideas, this article gives an empirical study from four North African countries to evaluate the role of transport infrastructures to improve the territorial attractiveness for the foreign direct investment. The present paper starts by a theoretical study explaining the role of transport as a major determinant of FDI. In a second section, we represent the empirical study. By using an econometric model with panel data, we found that traditional determinants of FDI have the most significant influence on the international investors’ decision. However, the same findings verify a positive impact of transport and consider it as a new important factor with strategic issues that cannot be avoided. The empirical validation from the four countries leads to verify that it is necessary to adopt development strategies that take into account the transport infrastructures and logistics function

  7. Women's empowerment and choice of contraceptive methods in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Kurimoto, Nami

    2012-03-01

    It is generally believed that women's lack of decision-making power may restrict their use of modern contraceptives. However, few studies have examined the different dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use in African countries. Data came from the latest round of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Namibia, Zambia, Ghana and Uganda. Responses from married or cohabiting women aged 15-49 were analyzed for six dimensions of empowerment and the current use of female-only methods or couple methods. Bivariate and multivariate multinomial regressions were used to identify associations between the empowerment dimensions and method use. Positive associations were found between the overall empowerment score and method use in all countries (relative risk ratios, 1.1-1.3). In multivariate analysis, household economic decision making was associated with the use of either female-only or couple methods (1.1 for all), as was agreement on fertility preferences (1.3-1.6) and the ability to negotiate sexual activity (1.1-1.2). In Namibia, women's negative attitudes toward domestic violence were correlated with the use of couple methods (1.1). Intervention programs aimed at increasing contraceptive use may need to involve different approaches, including promoting couples' discussion of fertility preferences and family planning, improving women's self-efficacy in negotiating sexual activity and increasing their economic independence.

  8. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African Region. PMID:26175748

  9. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa eMonteiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems towards commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African region.

  10. The contribution of the polio eradication initiative to narrowing the gaps in the health workforce in the African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamso, Jean; Mvika, Eddy S; Ota, M O C; Okeibunor, Joseph; Mkanda, Pascal; Mihigo, Richard

    2016-10-10

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) massively invested to overcome the crippling disease in countries of the WHO African Region. In the context of economic crisis, almost all countries in the Region lack an adequate health workforce. Large amounts were invested by GPEI in human resources. This paper shows how the human resources funded by polio contributed to narrowing the gaps in health workforce and helped strengthening and supporting other priority health programmes in Angola, Chad, DRC, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Togo. The health workforce strengthening methods used in the five different countries included the following: policy development and strategic planning, microplanning, capacity building of public health and community workers, implementation and services, monitoring and evaluation, advocacy and social mobilization, and programme review. Staff funded by polio helped with achieving good coverage in vitamin A and insecticide-treated mosquito nets (Angola, Chad); improvement of EPI and integrated disease surveillance indicators, improved quality of data (all five countries), administrative support, smooth introduction of new vaccines, increased case detection, and early isolation of patients suffering from the Guinea worm (Chad); reduction of cholera, extension of directly observed TB short course treatment (Democratic Republic of Congo); significant staff performance improvement (Nigeria). GPEI investment achieved far beyond its primary goal, and contributed to narrowing the gaps in the health workforce in countries of the African Region, as demonstrated by the best practice documentation exercise. We recommend that expertise and experience of polio funded staff should be leveraged to strengthen, expand and support other public health programmes. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 “Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems”—a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services—several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories’ diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to

  12. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-09-28

    In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 "Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems"-a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services-several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories' diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to advance the

  13. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N’Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D.; Mengel, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). Methods/ Principal findings During June 2011–December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d’Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0–40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3–86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0–37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27–38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0–10% (median, 1%) by country. Conclusions/Significance Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use. PMID:27186885

  14. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sauvageot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  15. Cancer and HIV infection in referral hospitals from four West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Antoine; Odutola, Michael; Ekouevi, Didier K; Tanon, Aristophane; Oga, Emmanuel; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Charurat, Manhattan; Zannou, Marcel D; Eholie, Serge P; Sasco, Annie J; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Adebamowo, Clement; Dabis, Francois

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of the HIV epidemic on cancer epidemiology are sparsely documented in Africa. We aimed to estimate the association between HIV infection and selected types of cancers among patients hospitalized for cancer in four West African countries. A case-referent study was conducted in referral hospitals of Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Togo. Each participating clinical ward included all adult patients seeking care with a confirmed diagnosis of cancer. All patients were systematically screened for HIV infection. HIV prevalence of AIDS-defining and some non-AIDS defining cancers (Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, liver, lung, skin, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity and anogenital cancers) were compared to a referent group of cancers reported in the literature as not associated with HIV. Odds ratios adjusted on age, gender and lifetime number of sexual partners (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Among the 1644 cancer patients enrolled, 184 (11.2%) were identified as HIV-infected. The HIV prevalence in the referent group (n=792) was 4.4% [CI 3.0-5.8]. HIV infection was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (aOR 34.6 [CI: 17.3-69.0]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aOR 3.6 [CI 1.9-6.8]), cervical cancer (aOR 4.3 [CI 2.2-8.3]), anogenital cancer (aOR 17.7 [CI 6.9-45.2]) and squamous cell skin carcinoma (aOR 5.2 [CI 2.0-14.4]). A strong association is now reported between HIV infection and Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers including cervical cancer and anogenital cancer. As these cancers are amenable to prevention strategies, screening of HPV-related cancers among HIV-infected persons is of paramount importance in this African context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations of government health expenditures, the supply of health care professionals, and country literacy with prenatal care use in ten West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Yhenneko J; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-03-01

    Social and health care context may influence prenatal care use. We studied associations of government health expenditures, supply of health care professionals, and country literacy rates with prenatal care use in ten West African countries, controlling for individual factors. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (n = 58,512) and random effect logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having any prenatal care and adequate prenatal care. Each percentage increase in the literacy rate was associated with 4% higher odds of having adequate prenatal care (p = .029). Higher literacy rates among women may help to promote adequate prenatal care.

  17. Achieving value for money in health: a comparative analysis of OECD countries and regional countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Yusuf; Khan, Mahmud; Hikmet, Neşet

    2017-10-01

    To measure efficiency gains in health sector over the years 1995 to 2013 in OECD, EU, non-member European countries. An output-oriented DEA model with variable return to scale, and residuals estimated by regression equations were used to estimate efficiencies of health systems. Slacks for health care outputs and inputs were calculated by using DEA multistage method of estimating country efficiency scores. Better health outcomes of countries were related with higher efficiency. Japan, France, or Sweden were found to be peer-efficient countries when compared to other developed countries like Germany and United States. Increasing life expectancy beyond a certain high level becomes very difficult to achieve. Despite declining marginal productivity of inputs on health outcomes, some developed countries and developing countries were found to have lowered their inefficiencies in the use of health inputs. Although there was no systematic relationship between political system of countries and health system efficiency, the objectives of countries on social and health policy and the way of achieving these objectives might be a factor increasing the efficiency of health systems. Economic and political stability might be as important as health expenditure in improving health system goals. A better understanding of the value created by health expenditures, especially in developed countries, will require analysis of specific health interventions that can increase value for money in health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region - largely from Asia and the Middle East - are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC's ongoing commitment to regional trade policy.

  20. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N.; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC

  1. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  2. Groundwater quality characterization to protect biodiversity in SADC region (Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vitale

    2016-06-01

    requires a successful groundwater characterization and protection. Conservation of biodiversity depends on groundwater needs strategies that allows for the use of groundwater in a way that is compatible with the persistence of ecosystems in natural area, such as Limpopo Transfrontier Park, in the Southern African Region, which is an area rich in term of biological diversity and ecological complexity. In particular the quality of ground water in some parts of the country, especially shallow ground water, is changing as a result of human activities. The goal of the following study is to provide an assessment of the actual groundwater quality-monitoring network and in consideration of the growing demand for water, there is a need to understand the effects of planting on water resources to estimate crop water requirement for the focus area, as last step of the methodology.

  3. Genetic and morphological characterisation of the Ankole Longhorn cattle in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeyo Mwai A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size, genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were genotyped using 15 DNA microsatellites. Femoral length, horn length, horn circumference, rump height, body length and fore-limb circumference showed the largest differences between regions. An overall FST index indicated that 2.7% of the total genetic variation was present among sub-populations. The least differentiation was observed between the two sub-populations of Mbarara south and Luwero in Uganda, while the highest level of differentiation was observed between the Mugamba in Burundi and Malagarasi in Tanzania. An estimated membership of four for the inferred clusters from a model-based Bayesian approach was obtained. Both analyses on distance-based and model-based methods consistently isolated the Mugamba sub-population in Burundi from the others.

  4. Carbon emissions-income relationships with structural breaks: the case of the Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Montasser, Ghassen; Ajmi, Ahdi Noomen; Nguyen, Duc Khuong

    2018-01-01

    This article revisits the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions-GDP causal relationships in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries by employing the Rossi (Economet Theor 21:962-990, 2005) instability-robust causality test. We show evidence of significant causality relationships for all considered countries within the instability context, whereas the standard Granger causality test fails to detect causal links in any direction, except for Egypt, Iran, and Morocco. An important policy implication resulting from this robust analysis is that the income is not affected by the cuts in the CO 2 emissions for only two MENA countries, the UAE and Syria.

  5. Food insecurity and women's roles in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimet, J E

    1997-01-01

    Food insecurity is most severe in the African continent, with 200 million of the 800 million people suffering from food insecurity found in sub-Saharan Africa. The main causes of food insecurity in Africa are natural disasters and conflict. Since African women are often the main food producers, income earners and guardians of family health and nutrition at the rural level, they play a key role in dealing with the continent's food insecurity problem. During the Women's Conference in Kenya in 1985, women were encouraged to play a central role in the development and production of food and agriculture, while governments were asked to provide women with access to land, child care facilities, and education. If given the right tools and support from the government and community, women could become vital players in eliminating world hunger.

  6. ATM Technology and Banking System in West African Sub-Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated Teller Machine (ATM) technology has had its significant impact in banking system in Nigeria and some other West African Countries. The most significant impact of ATM technology is the customer's ability to withdraw money outside banking hours. But this feat achieved by ATM technology is not without ...

  7. Framework for supporting countries to address the food crisis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Framework for supporting countries to address the food crisis and malnutrition in the African region. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Protection of vulnerable groups; and Evidence- based interventions.

  8. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African–Indian family in three tropical Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East African–Indian (EAI lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. Methods: The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Results: Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%, having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. Conclusion: This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Keywords: East African–Indian family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tropical Asian countries

  9. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Transversal analysis of public policies on user fees exemptions in six West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Queuille, Ludovic; Kafando, Yamba; Robert, Emilie

    2012-11-20

    While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors' attitudes usually encountered in these policies. The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors' attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a reorganization of practices, service rationing due to lack of

  11. Challenge in environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiburre, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges in attaining environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries, with main focus on environmentally degrading activities carried out by the poor rural communities as the only way of scaling down poverty. The typical examples include, among others, charcoal burning, firewood gathering and hunting. These activities are practiced by poor rural communities for commercial purposes, with the main market being the urban areas; whose population increase and the inability to afford electricity for domestic purposes have made the demand for charcoal and firewood to increase. While recognising the right for the basic needs for everyone, efforts have been made to reduce the pressure exerted by rural communities on to natural resources, and alternative income generating activities have been adopted. However, successes in these fields are still not observable. The paper also discusses the need for integrated approaches that might reduce the demand on natural forest resources-based energy, which consist of subsidized electricity, fast growing tree plantation, and energy efficiency, among others. (author)

  12. Dynamic relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in three North African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Saidi; Ben Mbarek, Mounir

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigated the causal relationship between energy consumption (EC), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic growth for three selected North African countries. It uses a panel co-integration analysis to determine this econometric relationship using data during 1980-2012. Recently developed tests for panel unit root and co-integration tests are applied. In order to test the Granger causality, a panel Vector Error Correction Model is used. The conservation hypothesis is found; the short run panel results show that there is a unidirectional relationship from economic growth to EC. In addition, there is a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to CO2 emissions. A unidirectional relationship from EC to CO2 emissions is detected. Findings shown that there is a big interdependence between EC and economic growth in the long run, which indicates the level of economic activity and EC mutually influence each other in that a high level of economic growth leads to a high level of EC and vice versa. Similarly, a unidirectional causal relationship from EC to CO2 emissions is detected. This study opens up new insights for policy-makers to design comprehensive economic, energy and environmental policy to keep the economic green and a sustainable environment, implying that these three variables could play an important role in the adjustment process as the system changes from the long run equilibrium.

  13. Removing user fees in the health sector: a review of policy processes in six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, Bruno; Hercot, David; Noirhomme, Mathieu; Ridde, Valéry; Tibouti, Abdelmajid; Tashobya, Christine Kirunga; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, governments of several low-income countries have taken decisive action by removing fully or partially user fees in the health sector. In this study, we review recent reforms in six sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Ghana, Liberia, Senegal and Uganda. The review describes the processes and strategies through which user fee removal reforms have been implemented and tries to assess them by referring to a good practice hypotheses framework. The analysis shows that African leaders are willing to take strong action to remove financial barriers met by vulnerable groups, especially pregnant women and children. However, due to a lack of consultation and the often unexpected timing of the decision taken by the political authorities, there was insufficient preparation for user fee removal in several countries. This lack of preparation resulted in poor design of the reform and weaknesses in the processes of policy formulation and implementation. Our assessment is that there is now a window of opportunity in many African countries for policy action to address barriers to accessing health care. Mobilizing sufficient financial resources and obtaining long-term commitment are obviously crucial requirements, but design details, the formulation process and implementation plan also need careful thought. We contend that national policy-makers and international agencies could better collaborate in this respect.

  14. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacko, I.

    1997-01-01

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of

  15. Energy-water-food nexus under financial constraint environment: good, the bad, and the ugly sustainability reforms in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khalid; Shamsuddin, Sadaf; Ahmad, Mehboob

    2017-05-01

    Environmental sustainability agenda are generally compromised by energy, water, and food production resources, while in the recent waves of global financial crisis, it mediates to increase the intensity of air pollutants, which largely affected the less developing countries due to their ease of environmental regulation policies and lack of optimal utilization of economic resources. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are no exception that majorly hit by the recent global financial crisis, which affected the country's natural environment through the channel of unsustainable energy-water-food production. The study employed panel random effect model that addresses the country-specific time-invariant shocks to examine the non-linear relationship between water-energy-food resources and air pollutants in a panel of 19 selected SSA countries, for a period of 2000-2014. The results confirmed the carbon-fossil-methane environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) that turned into inverted U-shaped relationships in a panel of selected SSA countries. Food resources largely affected greenhouse gas (GHG), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions while water resource decreases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), fossil fuel, and CH 4 emissions in a region. Energy efficiency improves air quality indicators while industry value added increases CO 2 emissions, fossil fuel energy, and GHG emissions. Global financial crisis increases the risk of climate change across countries. The study concludes that although SSA countries strive hard to take some "good" initiatives to reduce environmental degradation in a form of improved water and energy sources, however, due to lack of optimal utilization of food resources and global financial constraints, it leads to "the bad" and "the ugly" sustainability reforms in a region.

  16. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Yee Peng; Muhammad, Junaina; Amin Noordin, Bany Ariffin; Cheng, Fan Fah

    2017-01-01

    This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004–2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy,...

  17. NEWS for Africa: adaptation and reliability of a built environment questionnaire for physical activity in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Kasoma, Sandra S; Onywera, Vincent O; Assah, Felix; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Conway, Terry L; Moss, Sarah J; Ocansey, Reginald; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Akinroye, Kingsley K; Prista, Antonio; Larouche, Richard; Gavand, Kavita A; Cain, Kelli L; Lambert, Estelle V; Aryeetey, Richmond; Bartels, Clare; Tremblay, Mark S; Sallis, James F

    2016-03-08

    Built environment and policy interventions are effective strategies for controlling the growing worldwide deaths from physical inactivity-related non-communicable diseases. To improve built environment research and develop African specific evidence, it is important to first tailor built environment measures to African contexts and assess their psychometric properties across African countries. This study reports on the adaptation and test-retest reliability of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in seven sub-Saharan African countries (NEWS-Africa). The original NEWS comprising 8 subscales measuring reported physical and social attributes of neighborhood environments was systematically adapted for Africa through extensive input from physical activity and public health researchers, built environment professionals, and residents in seven African countries: Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. Cognitive testing of NEWS-Africa was conducted among diverse residents (N = 109, 50 youth [12 - 17 years] and 59 adults [22 - 67 years], 69 % from low socioeconomic status [SES] neighborhoods). NEWS-Africa was translated into local languages and evaluated for 2-week test-retest reliability in adult participants (N = 301; female = 50.2 %; age = 32.3 ± 12.9 years) purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability (high and low walkable) and SES (high and low income) and from villages in six of seven participating countries. The original 67 NEWS items was expanded to 89 scores (76 individual NEWS items and 13 computed scales). Several modifications were made to individual items, and some new items were added to capture important attributes in the African environment. A new scale on personal safety was created, and the aesthetics scale was enlarged to reflect African specific characteristics. Over 95 % of all NEWS-Africa scores (items plus computed scales) demonstrated evidence of "excellent" (ICCs

  18. Milking the region? South African capital and Zambia's dairy industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    and interviews with representatives or employees of most of the country's large, medium .... Zambeef secured this relationship with the retail multinational before ... Currently it does not buy centrally but each franchise sources dairy products.

  19. Regional Integration: A Political Federation of the East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-06-13

    Jun 13, 2006 ... He suggested that the countries of the East Africa Community (EAC) together with .... tries engaged in free trade for local produce. This was .... First, he averred that economic integration is not enough because of political ...

  20. Stock Market Integration in Africa: The Case of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and Selected African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gail Ncube; Kapingura Forget Mingiri

    2015-01-01

    African stock markets are deemed to be small, segmented and illiquid. Given this back ground, the study utilises monthly data for the period 2000-2008, employing the Johansen and Julius cointegration method to determine the long-run relationship between the five selected African stock markets. Granger causality tests were also conducted to establish if there are any causal links between the stock markets in Africa. The analysis in the study indicates that African stock markets are improving i...

  1. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Alam

    Full Text Available To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC, facility based delivery (FBD, and modern contraception (MC in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda had 4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda, ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in countries

  2. Entrepreneurial migration and regional opportunities in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    nDoen, M.L.; Gorter, C.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the entrepreneurial migrants' preferences for a location for business activities in developing countries. In the modelling framework six socio-economic and six socio-cultural variables are used in this study to investigate the migrants' propensity to stay at a

  3. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  4. Exploring child prostitution in a major city in the West African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounmenou, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The study explored the characteristics of child prostitution in a major city in the West African region. A convenience sample of children in prostitution, specifically girls below age 18 (n=243), were recruited on 83 prostitution sites identified in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. A survey instrument, consisting of 71 closed-ended question items, was used to explore various variables including profile of children in prostitution, factors of vulnerability to prostitution; prostitution practices, compensations and related issues in child prostitution. The findings show that most children in prostitution in the city were from Burkina Faso (63%) and Nigeria (30%), two countries that do not share borders. Most native respondents practiced prostitution for survival and to support their families. In contrast, all the respondents from Nigeria practiced prostitution as victims of international sex trafficking. An important finding was that 77% of the children in prostitution surveyed were educated. Among the respondents, there were similarities in the major life events that contributed to their situation of prostitution. These life events include early separation with parents, sexual abuse, foster care, and forced marriage. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of large-scale deployment of concentrated solar power on North African countries: Socio-economic aspects (Conference Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Komendantova, N.; Patt, A.

    2010-01-01

    To prevent catastrophic results of climate change, the stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of CO2 below 450 or even 350 parts per million is necessary. The large-scale electricity generation from renewable energy sources is one of possible options to satisfy the world's growing energy demand and to reduce green house gas emissions from electricity generation. Several studies show technical viability of large-scale deployment of concentrated solar power in North African countries and i...

  6. Polio Eradication Initiative contribution in strengthening immunization and integrated disease surveillance data management in WHO African region, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; Minkoulou, Etienne; Shaba, Keith; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Dadja, Landoh; Okeibunor, Joseph; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The PEI Programme in the WHO African region invested in recruitment of qualified staff in data management, developing data management system and standards operating systems since the revamp of the Polio Eradication Initiative in 1997 to cater for data management support needs in the Region. This support went beyond polio and was expanded to routine immunization and integrated surveillance of priority diseases. But the impact of the polio data management support to other programmes such as routine immunization and disease surveillance has not yet been fully documented. This is what this article seeks to demonstrate. We reviewed how Polio data management area of work evolved progressively along with the expansion of the data management team capacity and the evolution of the data management systems from initiation of the AFP case-based to routine immunization, other case based disease surveillance and Supplementary immunization activities. IDSR has improved the data availability with support from IST Polio funded data managers who were collecting them from countries. The data management system developed by the polio team was used by countries to record information related to not only polio SIAs but also for other interventions. From the time when routine immunization data started to be part of polio data management team responsibility, the number of reports received went from around 4000 the first year (2005) to >30,000 the second year and to >47,000 in 2014. Polio data management has helped to improve the overall VPD, IDSR and routine data management as well as emergency response in the Region. As we approach the polio end game, the African Region would benefit in using the already set infrastructure for other public health initiative in the Region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Therese; Austin, Judy; Anfinson, Katherine; Amsalu, Ribka; Casey, Sara E; Fadulalmula, Shihab Ibrahim; Langston, Anne; Lee-Jones, Louise; Meyers, Janet; Mubiru, Frederick Kintu; Schlecht, Jennifer; Sharer, Melissa; Yetter, Mary

    2011-07-13

    Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa.

  8. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  9. Coordination as a best practice from the polio eradication initiative: Experiences from five member states in the African region of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    As part of the efforts to eradicate polioviruses in the African Region, structures were put in place to ensure coordinated mobilization and deployment of resources within the framework of the global polio eradication initiative (PEI). The successes of these structures made them not only attractive to other public health interventions, but also caused them to be deployed to the response efforts of other diseases interventions, without any systematic documentation. This article documents the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in the African Region of World Health Organization METHODS: We reviewed the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in five countries in the African Region. The analysis identified significant involvement of PEI coordination structures in the implementation of routine immunization programs in all the countries analyzed. Similarly, maternal and child health programs were planned, implemented, monitored and evaluation the Inter-Agency Coordination Committees of the PEI programs in the different countries. The hubs system used in PEI in Chad facilitated the efficient coordination of resources for immunization and other public health interventions in Chad. Similarly, in the Democratic Republic of Congo PEI led coordination activities benefited other public health programs like disease control and the national nutrition program, the national malaria control program, and the tuberculosis control program. In Nigeria, the polio Expert Review Committee effectively deployed the Emergency Operation Center for the implementation of prioritized strategies and activities of the National Polio Eradication Emergency Plan, and it was utilized in the response to Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in the country. The PEI-led coordination systems are thus recognized as having made significant contribution to the coordination and delivery of other public health interventions in the African

  10. Metal recycling - a renewable resource in Gulf Cooperative Countries region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E. [Bahrain Univ. (Bahrain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    The exhaustion of natural resources and growing environmental awareness highlighted the necessity of metal recycling all over the world. The production/consumption activities in the GCC region do generate annually a huge amount of valuable ferrous and nonferrous metal scrap. This paper deals with the benefits of metal recycling to the GCC region in lights of energetic, environmental and economic points of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die abnehmenden Vorraete von Primaermetallen sowie das zunehmende Umweltbewusstsein machen das Metall-Recycling auf der ganzen Welt notwendig. Die Produktions- und Verbrauchsaktivitaeten in der GCC-Region erzeugen jaehrlich riesige Mengen von wertvollem eisen- und nicht eisenhaltigen Schrott. Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Energie-Verbrauch, dem Umweltschutz und der Wirtschaft des Recycling und stellt dessen Vorteile fuer die GCC-Region vor. (orig.)

  11. Transversal analysis of public policies on user fees exemptions in six West African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridde Valéry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors’ attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors’ attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a

  12. Chad: An Overview of a Country Plagued with Internal Strife and Regional Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    permitted exploration until 2004.15 A 30-year concession was established to develop an oil field near Doba to produce and transport oil to markets via a...Thomas, 201. 22 " Republic of Chad", Background Notes on Countries of the World 2003/10495517, 20031108: EBSCOhost .- http://search.ebscohost.com/Login.aspx...International Organization African." Business, Economy, Market Research, Finance, Income Tax Informations. http://www.economicexpert.com/a

  13. Small hydropower in Southern Africa: an overview of five countries in the region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available dif- ferent sources, but is incomplete and inconsistent. This lack of information severely hampers the abili- ty to learn from past experiences and creates a bar- rier to the uptake of the technology (Gaul et al., 2010). 14 Journal of Energy... of lack of infor- mation by providing an overview of the status of small hydropower in five southern African countries. Defining small hydropower No internationally agreed definitions exist for the different sizes of hydropower. A generic distinction...

  14. Estimating regional centile curves from mixed data\\ud sources and countries

    OpenAIRE

    Van Buuren, Stef; Hayes, Daniel; Stasinopoulos, D. Mikis; Rigby, Robert A; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Terlouw, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Regional or national growth distributions can provide vital information on the health status of populations. In most resource poor countries, however, the required anthropometric data from purpose-designed growth surveys are not readily available. We propose a practical method for estimating regional (multi-country) age-conditional weight distributions based on existing survey data from different countries. We developed a two-step method by which one is able to model data with widely differen...

  15. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebohon, Obas John; Ikeme, Anthony Jekwu

    2006-01-01

    The need to decompose CO 2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO 2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO 2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO 2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO 2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO 2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO 2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO 2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO 2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO 2 emission

  16. African Instituted Churches in Southern Africa: Paragons of Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    May 23, 2006 ... reducing discussions on regional cooperation to purely economic and materialistic ..... references to religion and culture in a document dealing with economic .... nomic Cooperation and Integration, Harare: SAPES Books.

  17. Reconsidering the origins of the Southern African regionalism thirty years later: towards a constructivist approach to the origins of SADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abel Moma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of SADCC has generated a debate over the real origins of the southern African model of regionalism. This paper develops the idea that the origins of SADC are both internal and external. Thus, southern African regionalism is understood as a constructivist articulation of internal and external inputs, which determined the creation of SADCC and its transformation into SADC.

  18. African regional conferences as an indicator of research trends in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 African Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering is the 15th in the series of 4 yearly conferences. The majority of the early conferences were held in sub-Saharan Africa with significant contributions from South...

  19. Public health and food safety in the WHO African region | Mensah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminated food continues to cause numerous devastating outbreaks in the African Region. In Africa, a large proportion of ready-to-eat foods are sold by the informal sector, especially as street foods. The hygienic aspects of vending operations and the safety of these foods are problematic for food safety regulators.

  20. New Regions of the Human Genome Linked to Skin Color Variation in Some African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the first study of its kind, an international team of genomics researchers has identified new regions of the human genome that are associated with skin color variation in some African populations, opening new avenues for research on skin diseases and cancer in all populations.

  1. Understanding the Adolescent Gap in HIV Testing Among Clients of Antenatal Care Services in West and Central African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stephane

    2017-09-01

    New HIV infections among children have declined significantly more slowly in West and central African countries (WCA) than in eastern and southern African countries between 2009 and 2015. Since adolescent fertility is particularly high in WCA countries, frequent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV may in part be due to low coverage of HIV testing among adolescents during antenatal care (ANC). We investigated this adolescent gap in HIV testing using survey data from the demographic and health surveys and multiple indicators cluster surveys collected in 21 WCA countries since 2009. We found significant adolescent gaps in HIV testing in 12 out of 21 WCA countries, with the largest gap observed in Nigeria. In countries with a significant adolescent gap in HIV testing, we used Fairlie decompositions to assess what proportion of these gaps were explained by age-related differences in the distribution of (a) marital status, (b) socioeconomic status (SES), (c) MTCT-related knowledge, and (d) patterns of ANC utilization. Differences in SES and MTCT-related knowledge were the most consistent determinants of adolescent gaps in HIV testing during ANC. Differences in ANC utilization (e.g., fewer and possibly delayed ANC visits) also contributed to the adolescent gap in 8 out of 12 countries. Interventions that improve knowledge of MTCT risks, and/or promote the sustained use of ANC services, could help engage HIV-infected adolescents who become pregnant in PMTCT services. Targeting these interventions at the most disadvantaged households will be crucial in further reducing HIV infections among children.

  2. Linking forests, deforestation, and nutritional outcomes: an observational study in nine African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pienkowski, MSc

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agricultural expansion is a leading driver of deforestation, yet malnutrition remains a significant cause of morbidity. Understanding trade-offs and synergies between forest protection and agricultural expansion, and how they vary between groups across time, could help guide socially equitable sustainable development. Forests have important roles in supporting dietary diversity and micronutrient intake, but limited empirical evidence links forests and broad nutritional outcomes. Our research explores the associations between key indicators of malnutrition and forest cover and deforestation, the mediating role of socioeconomic factors, and underlying temporal trends. Methods: In this observational study, we explored associations between nutritional outcomes (underweightness, stunting, wasting, and overweightness in children younger than 5 years and forest cover and loss gradients (in 10 km buffers around communities in 61 032 African households. These households were surveyed by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS Program from nine countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, and Liberia between 2003 and 2014. DHS data were combined with spatially explicit data on forest cover and loss, climate, infrastructure, economy, and demography in a series of generalised linear mixed-effects models. Findings: In urban areas, children in communities surrounded by 1 SD higher forest cover had 10·8% (95% CI 3·0–18·0; p=0·0073 lower incidence of underweightness and 11·7% (1·9–20·6; p=0·0212 lower incidence of wasting than did children in areas with the mean amount of forest cover. In rural areas, the relationship was reversed, with 6·0% (1·6–10·6; p=0·0074 higher incidence of underweightness among children in areas of 1 SD higher forest cover than among children in areas with the mean amount of forest cover. These relationships became marginally non

  3. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Smeeth, Liam; Lock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries. Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions. 26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries. Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website. Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%). Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6%) and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%). Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents. Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority.

  4. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Brathwaite

    Full Text Available To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries.Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions.26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries.Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website.Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%. Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6% and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%. Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents.Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority.

  5. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    increasing cases of pollution of farmlands, rivers, wells and the environment in general. Apart from all these, what is even becoming more worrisome is that none of all these oil firms operating in the region is able to account on how it disposes its industrial toxic waste generated as a result of its industrial activities within the region. Finally Geological strata are adversely destroyed by seismographic activities, Sea creatures are destroyed by oil pollution and Means of livelihood of revering dwellers are often threatened by pollution. RECOMMENDATIONS After identifying how the pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region is increasing in relation to the increasing petroleum activities, I have come up with the following suggestions/recommendations. 1. AFRICAN UNION RESOLUTION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) should use their capacity to be able to influence the African Union (AU) to pass a resolution banning the illegal dumping of radioactive waste, Gas flaring and Costal bunkering in this part of the world. 2. RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, in conjunction with the United Nations Environmental Agency, the International Atomic Energy Agency and with the corporation of the African Union should send team of researchers to come and investigate this trend on petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region and proffer possible solutions in checking the menace.

  6. GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site

  7. Simulation of West African air pollution during the DACCIWA experiment with the GEOS-Chem West African regional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Pollutant emissions from West African cities are forecast to increase rapidly in future years because of extensive economic and population growth, together with poorly regulated industrialisation and urbanisation. Observational constraints in this region are few, leading to poor understanding of present-day air pollution in this region. To increase our understanding of the processes controlling air pollutants over the region, airborne observations were made from three research aircraft based out of Lomé, Togo during the DACCIWA field campaign in June-July 2016. A new 0.25x0.3125 degree West Africa regional version of the GEOS-Chem offline chemical transport model has also been developed to explore the processes controlling pollutants over the region. We evaluate the model using the aircraft data and focus on primary (CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs) and secondary pollutants (O3, aerosol). We find significant differences between the model and the measurements for certain primary compounds which is indicative of significant uncertainties in the base (EDGAR) emissions. For CO (a general tracer of pollution) we evaluate the role of different emissions sources (transport, low temperature combustion, power generation) in determining its concentration in the region. We conclude that the leading cause of uncertainty in our simulation is associated with the emissions datasets and explore the impact of using differing datasets.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  9. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF MENA AND AFRICAN COUNTRIES: IMPACTS OF THE VARIATIONS IN LAND AND NATURAL RESOURCE OWNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece H. Guleryuz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the primary determinants of the contemporary economic growth performance in MENA and African countries using a panel data estimation and random effects model during the period 1996-2014 for 24 countries. It is hypothesized that the variation in natural resources rents, initial human capital stock, and initial inequality in land ownership have significant impacts on contemporary economic growth rates in different countries. Furthermore, various political economy factors are controlled for in order to measure the effect of institutional quality. The estimation results show that the natural resources rents, initial inequality in land ownership, initial income, and government effectiveness influence GDP per capita growth rates with a statistical significance.

  10. International terrorism and East African sub-regionalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    May 23, 2006 ... In Africa, integration within and between regions has been thought of as an alternative .... make losses under a single European market as a result of: 1. Reduction or total ..... Journal of History, Vol.25, 1996. Omondi, C., 2003 ...

  11. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Management of split skin graft donor site in the West African sub region: survey of plastic surgeons' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawoye, O A; Ademola, S A; Iyun, A O; Michael, A I; Oluwatosin, O M

    2017-06-30

    Split skin graft (SSG) is one of the most commonly performed operations on any Plastic Surgery service. Rate of donor site healing is affected by various factors including the type of dressing applied. The aim of this study was to survey the practice of plastic surgeons in the sub region with respect to management of SSG donor site and see how it conforms to international standards. Structured questionnaires on various aspects of the harvest and management of SSG donor sites were administered to plastic surgeons during the 53rd annual conference of the West African College of Surgeons (WACS) at Lome, Togo in March 2013. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. There were 47 respondents out of 55 plastic surgeons from four West African countries, which represented 85.4% of registered participants at the plastic surgery section of the conference. All the respondents performed SSG regularly, and the thigh was the most commonly used donor site. Different types of paraffin gauze remained the most commonly used primary donor site dressing. Only 17% of the respondents apply a topical local anaesthetic agent on the donor site. The choice of SSG donor site dressing in the sub region was driven mainly by availability. Concerted efforts must be made to access newer wound care products for optimum management of this commonly performed operation.

  13. Integrated Health Care Systems and Indigenous Medicine: Reflections from the Sub-Sahara African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Maina Ahlberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous or traditional medicine has, since the 1970s, been widely regarded as a resource likely to contribute to strengthening the health care systems in low income countries. This paper examines the state of traditional medicine using evidence from three case studies in Central Kenya. While the cases are too few to represent the broad diversity of cultures and related healing systems in the Sub-Sahara African Region, the way they seem to refute the main assumptions in the integration discourse is important, also because studies from other countries in the region report perspectives, similar to the case studies in Kenya. It is often argued that people continue to use traditional medicine because it is affordable, available, and culturally familiar. Its integration into the health care system would therefore promote cultural familiarity. The case studies however point to the loss of essential cultural elements central to traditional medicine in this particular area while users travel long distances to reach the healers. In addition, there are significant paradigm differences that may present obstacles to integration of the two systems. More problematic however is that integration is, as in many development interventions, a top-down policy that is rarely based on contextual realities and conditions. Instead, integration is often defined and dominated by biomedical professionals and health planners who may be unfamiliar or even hostile to some aspects of traditional medicine. Furthermore, integration efforts have tended to embrace selected components mostly herbal medicine. This has led to isolating herbal medicine from spiritualism, which may in turn affect the holistic perspective of traditional medicine. While familiarity and relevance may explain the continued use of traditional medicine, its services may not be as readily available, accessible, or even affordable as is often asserted. Globalization set in motion through colonization and

  14. A country divided? Regional variation in mortality in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrianna; Levchuk, Nataliia; Stickley, Andrew; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2013-12-01

    We set out to identify the contribution of various causes of death to regional differences in life expectancy in Ukraine. Mortality data by oblast (province) were obtained from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. The contribution of various causes of death to differences in life expectancy between East, West and South Ukraine was estimated using decomposition. In 2008, life expectancy for men in South (61.8 years) and East Ukraine (61.2 years) was lower than for men in West Ukraine (64.0 years). A similar pattern was observed among women. This was mostly due to deaths from infectious disease and external causes among young adults, and cardio- and cerebro-vascular deaths among older adults. Deaths from TB among young adults contribute most to differences in life expectancy. Deaths due to infectious disease, especially TB, play an important role in the gap in life expectancy between regions in Ukraine. These deaths are entirely preventable--further research is needed to identify what has 'protected' individuals in Western Ukraine from the burden of deaths experienced by their Southern and Eastern counterparts.

  15. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  16. South Africa's marketing strategies towards major African regional economic players: the case of the 2010 FIFA World Cup –was it truly an African event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PPS Sifolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically examines the effect and the dynamics of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in relation to major African regional economic players. It was conducted with an assumption that the branding of the 2010 FIFA World Cup as „Africa‟s Time‟, „Africa‟s moment‟, and „Africa‟s turn‟ to the benefit of the continent would be viewed with pessimism, at least by the (Egypt, Algeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Ghana and Nigeria major African regional economic players, as an event that did not benefit the continent as a whole but South Africa and the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. This article used phenomenological strategy under qualitative methods whereby face to face interviews were conducted from a sample drawn from the pool of diplomatic community and the staff of relevant Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs and Inter-Governmental Organisations (IGOs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results revealed that an event was a tremendous boost to the pride and confidence of Africa and its people. Credit should be given to South Africa for taking the leading role in marketing an event as African and not as South African. Such marketing strategy did not only ensure African ownership but instilled the sense of African pride.

  17. Ethnopharmacological reports on anti-Buruli ulcer medicinal plants in three West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Addo, Phyllis; Asante, Isaac K; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-08-22

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most common mycobacterial infection in the world, after tuberculosis and leprosy and has recently been recognized as an important emerging disease. This disease is common in West Africa where more than 99% of the burden is felt and where most affected people live in remote areas with traditional medicine as primary or only option. Reports indicate that the ethnopharmacological control approach of the disease in such settings has shown promise. However, no or very few compilations of traditional knowledge in using medicinal plants to treat BU have been attempted so far. This review aimed to record medicinal plants used traditionally against BU in three countries in West Africa: Ivory Coast, Ghana and Benin and for which ethnopharmacological knowledge supported by pharmacological investigations has been reported. The information recorded in this review will support further pharmacological research to develop appropriate drugs for a better BU control. A systematic review of the literature on ethnobotanical use and anti-BU activity of plants reported for BU treatment was performed. The approach consisted to search several resources, including Technical Reports, Books, Theses, Conference proceedings, web-based scientific databases such as publications on PubMed, Science direct, Springer, ACS, Scielo, PROTA, Google and Google scholar reporting ethnobotanical surveys and screening of natural products against Mycobacterium ulcerans. This study was limited to papers and documents published either in English or French reporting ethnopharmacological knowledge in BU treatment or pharmacological potency in vitro. This review covered the available literature up to December 2014. The majority of reports originated from the three most affected West African countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Benin). Though, 98 plant species belonging to 48 families have been identified as having anti-BU use, many have received no or little attention. Most of the

  18. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    As of 31 December 1996, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) (see INFCIRC/377), had been received by the Director General from the Governments of 20 African countries. Niger, Libya and Mali are added at the list of 17 countries reported in the previous addition of the document (INFCIRC/377/Add.7). Pursuant to Article XIV.2 of the original Agreement, the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  19. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-28

    As of 31 December 1996, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) (see INFCIRC/377), had been received by the Director General from the Governments of 20 African countries. Niger, Libya and Mali are added at the list of 17 countries reported in the previous addition of the document (INFCIRC/377/Add.7). Pursuant to Article XIV.2 of the original Agreement, the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000.

  20. Deforestation and child diet diversity: A geospatial analysis of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, Lindsay P; Acharya, Yubraj; Jones, Andrew D

    2018-05-01

    Deforestation worldwide could have important consequences for diet quality and human nutrition given the numerous ecosystem services that are provided by forests and biodiverse landscapes. Yet, empirical research assessing the links between deforestation and diets is lacking. In this study, we examined the association between deforestation and diet diversity among children using geolocated Demographic and Health Survey data for 33,777 children across 15 countries of sub-Saharan Africa coupled with remotely-sensed data on forest cover loss. Deforestation was negatively associated with diet diversity (regression coefficient (95% CI): - 0.47 (- 0.76, - 0.18)), as well as recent consumption of legumes and nuts, flesh foods, and fruits and vegetables among children aged 6 months to 24 months. Regionally, these trends were statistically significant only in the West Africa region. This hypothesis-generating research adds to the growing body of evidence that forests and forest-based ecosystems are associated with diet quality and nutrition and provides support for future studies that examine mechanisms linking forest loss and human nutrition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Setting the agenda in emergency medicine in the southern African region: Conference assumptions and recommendations, Emergency Medicine Conference 2014: Gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd D. Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The first international emergency medicine (EM conference in Botswana was held on 15th and 16th May 2014 at the Gaborone International Convention Centre. The support from key stakeholders positioned the conference, from its conception, to deliver expert guidance on emergency medicine relevance, education and systems implementation. The conference theme was aptly: “Setting the Agenda in Emergency Medicine in the Southern African Region.” Over 300 local, regional and international delegates convened to participate in this landmark event. Country representation included Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Lesotho, Nigeria and the United States of America. Conference assumptions intersected emergency care, African burden of injury and illness and the role of the state; the public protection ethic of emergency care, and the developmental, economic and health interest in promoting EM. The recommendations addressed emergency care relevance; health systems research as an imperative for emergency systems development in southern Africa; community agency as a requisite for emergency care resilience; emergency care workers as pivotal to the emergency medical system, and support of EM system implementation. The conference recommendations – by way of setting an agenda, augur well for emergency care development and implementation in the southern African region and are likely to prove useful to the southern African countries seeking to address health service quality, EM advocacy support and implementation guidance. Emergency medicine is the only discipline with ‘universality’ and ‘responsivity’ at the point of need. This implies the widespread potential for facilitation of access to health care: a public health goal nuanced by the African development agenda.

  2. Analysis of market potential of the Luxury goods industry in the West African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fofana, Nathy Nabila

    2014-01-01

    For decades, the African continent has been perceived in a negative way and it has not been easy to change this international perception of the continent. During the past few years a deep change has taken place in the continent and in the eyes of the world. Africa is now open for business and Africa is also able to compete effectively in the international luxury market. The luxury market is constantly rising but it is not fully present on the African continent yet. The objective of this thesi...

  3. Countries, Within-Country Regions, and Multiple-Country Regions in International Management: A Functional, Institutional, and Critical Event (FICE) Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael; Peterson, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the focused issue by offering a functional, institutional and critical event or FICE perspective on the relationship between cultural boundaries and the boundaries of modern nation states (termed countries here). Our perspective draws from three kinds of theory that suggest how...... governmental boundaries have come to be connected in different degrees and in different ways to cultural groups. We use the FICE perspective to integrate the four articles in the focused issue that speak to whether boundaries around countries matter as compared to boundaries around religious groups, within...

  4. An assessment of South African prepaid electricity experiment, lessons learned, and their policy implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, D.D.; Shah, Tushaar

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews the economics, logistics, and technology underlying the South African experiment of prepaid electricity. Although this experiment has resulted into benefiting large masses of small and dispersed consumers, it has also generated a set of new problems that could not be visualized at the inception of the experiment. The success of this program can be largely attributed to a number of factors, including a good marketing campaign, innovative tariff schedules, better planning and management, and so on. Lessons learned from this experiment are useful for policy-making purposes in other developing countries of Africa and Asia

  5. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...

  6. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT : a mixed-methods study in four African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hardon, A.; Vernooij, E.; Bongololo-Mbera, G.; Cherutich, P.; Desclaux, Alice; Kyaddondo, D.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Neuman, M.; Wanyenze, R.; Obermeyer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1) the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study's main...

  7. The development and state regional policy in the V4 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Pristach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available -\tArticle provides an overview of the current state of development of regional policy in the European Union, which compares with developments in the countries of the Rose Group (Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland -\tit informs about the possibilities of regional, structural and cohesion European Union policy -\tobjectives and instruments of regional policy in the programming period 2007 – 2013 -\tWhat is NUTS regions and cohesion. in all countries analyzed evaluates and compares economic regions according to objective level verifiable indicators. They include gross domestic product (GDP in purchasing power parity (PPP 1 per capita and unemployment levels -\twork describes the strategies, objectives, instruments, program and institutional framework of regional policy in individual countries.

  8. Defense Spending Databases for Countries in the Asia-Pacific Region: An Analysis and Comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuning, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify and analyze a select number of unclassified databases that cover defense spending and other defense related criteria for countries in the Asia-Pacific region...

  9. Heating & cooling: Policy frameworks in six European cities, their regions and countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchele, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Report on current regulations, support policies, and other related framework conditions on EU level, national, regional and local level for the target countries, and assessment of specific characteristics of successful regulations and policies from a local perspective....

  10. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  11. Differentiation and Articulation in Tertiary Education Systems : A Study of Twelve African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ng'ethe, Njuguna; Subotzky, George; Afeti, George

    2008-01-01

    This study strives to sketch an initial map of the extent and nature of institutional and program differentiation within African systems of tertiary education. In doing so, it also seeks to chart the patterns of articulation that have emerged or been consciously put in place between the different institutional types (such as public universities, private universities, polytechnics, training...

  12. Role of Russia in development of intra-regional integration process between countries of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureddin Kayumovich Kayumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of partnership of Central Asia countries is described. Prosperity of each of these countries for natural resources is analyzed. Is highlighted that the countries of region complete each other in the context of resources. In order to resist a negative influence of globalization, countries of a region should become integrated using complementarity of their economic potentials. The countries of region derived from the USSR productions united into the single technological and transport net. Meanwhile, there were more disintegration processes in the last years. China placed into the region very big investments. Chinese capital is being placed in Tajikistan, for example, into energetic, road building, agriculture. Position of Russia in the region is feeble. Critically is evaluated economic cooperation of the region with non-CIS states. Leader of integration in the region can become Russia. It is reasonable to use Russia for the organization of links. The positiveinfluence of policy of tsarist Russia on theregion in theforetimeis underlined. External and internal factors of disintegration in the region are analyzed. It is supposed to create within the SCO a research fund for solving scientific problems of an international character

  13. Imported malaria among African immigrants: is there still a relationship between developed countries and their ex-colonies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz José

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare cases of imported malaria originating from the Spanish ex-colony of Equatorial Guinea (EG with those originating from the rest of Africa (RA. Methods All the African cases detected in Barcelona between 1989 and 2007 were investigated in a retrospective analysis. Clinical-epidemiological variables such as sex, age, visiting friends and relatives (VFR, species, hospital admission and chemo-prophylaxis were compared. Data were analysed by logistic regression, calculating the Odds Ratio (OR and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI. Results Of the 489 African patients, 279 (57,1% had been born in EG and 210 (42,9% in the rest of Africa. The cumulative incidence of imported malaria among those from EG was 179.6 per thousand inhabitants, while in those from the RA it was 33.7 per thousand (p visiting friends and relatives (VFR category, and more individuals younger than 15 years or older than 37 years, and more women. They also visited a traveller's health centre more often, had fewer hospital admissions and were less likely to reside in the inner city. Conclusion Cases of imported malaria originating in Africa, are more likely to come from the Spanish ex-colony of EG, and VFR are more likely to be affected. It is recommended that developed countries promote prevention programmes, such as CP advice directed at African immigrants, and develop programmes of cooperation against malaria in their ex-colonies.

  14. The influence of African air pollution on regional and global tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of African biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions on the tropospheric ozone over Africa and globally using a coupled global chemistry climate model. Our model studies indicate that surface ozone concentration may rise by up to 50 ppbv in the burning region during the biomass burning seasons. Biogenic emissions yield between 5–30 ppbv increase in the near surface ozone concentration over tropical Africa. The impact of lightning on surface ozone is negligible, while anthropogenic emissions yield a maximum of 7 ppbv increase in the annual-mean surface ozone concentration over Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt. Our results show that biogenic emissions are the most important African emission source affecting total tropospheric ozone. The influence of each of the African emissions on the global tropospheric ozone burden (TOB of 384 Tg yields about 9.5 Tg, 19.6 Tg, 9.0 Tg and 4.7 Tg for biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions emitted in Africa respectively. The impact of each of these emission categories on African TOB of 33 Tg is 2.5 Tg, 4.1 Tg, 1.75 Tg and 0.89 Tg respectively, which together represents about 28% of the total TOB calculated over Africa. Our model calculations also suggest that more than 70% of the tropospheric ozone produced by each of the African emissions is found outside the continent, thus exerting a noticeable influence on a large part of the tropical troposphere. Apart from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Latin America experiences the largest impact of African emissions, followed by Oceania, the Middle East, Southeast and south-central Asia, northern North America (i.e. the United States and Canada, Europe and north-central Asia, for all the emission categories.

  15. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28] in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results: We identified 44 isolates (44% as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae; 27 isolates (27% as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23% as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0% as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer, cytolytic enterotoxin (act, and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast were detected in 45 (87%, 4 (7.7%, and 9 (17% of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt was not detected. Conclusion: The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and genes coding for toxin production are common among them.

  16. Improving epidemic malaria planning, preparedness and response in Southern Africa. Report on the 1st Southern African Regional Epidemic Outlook Forum, Harare, Zimbabwe, 26-29 September, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Joaquim; Garanganga, Brad; Teveredzi, Vonai; Marx, Sabine M; Mason, Simon J; Connor, Stephen J

    2004-10-22

    Malaria is a major public health problem for countries in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). While the endemicity of malaria varies enormously across this region, many of the countries have districts that are prone to periodic epidemics, which can be regional in their extent, and to resurgent outbreaks that are much more localized. These epidemics are frequently triggered by climate anomalies and often follow periods of drought. Many parts of Southern Africa have suffered rainfall deficit over the past three years and countries expect to see increased levels of malaria when the rains return to more 'normal' levels. Problems with drug and insecticide resistance are documented widely and the region contains countries with the highest rates of HIV prevalence to be found anywhere in the world. Consequently, many communities are vulnerable to severe disease outcomes should epidemics occur. The SADC countries have adopted the Abuja targets for Roll Back Malaria in Africa, which include improved epidemic detection and response, i.e., that 60% of epidemics will be detected within two weeks of onset, and 60% of epidemics will be responded to within two weeks of detection. The SADC countries recognize that to achieve these targets they need improved information on where and when to look for epidemics. The WHO integrated framework for improved early warning and early detection of malaria epidemics has been recognized as a potentially useful tool for epidemic preparedness and response planning. Following evidence of successful adoption and implementation of this approach in Botswana, the SADC countries, the WHO Southern Africa Inter-Country Programme on Malaria Control, and the SADC Drought Monitoring Centre decided to organize a regional meeting where countries could gather to assess their current control status and community vulnerability, consider changes in epidemic risk, and develop a detailed plan of action for the forthcoming 2004-2005 season. The

  17. Post-War Economics. Micro-Level Evidence from the African Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aoust, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis starts by arguing that the civil conflicts that erupted in the African Great Lakes are rooted in a continuous pursuit of power, in which ethnic, regional and political identifiers are used by the contenders for power to rally community support. In an introductory chapter, I go back to the colonial era, drawing attention to Burundi and Rwanda, and then describe in more details Burundi's refugee crisis, ex-combatants' demobilization and the 2010 elections, all of which will be addre...

  18. Problems of Foreign Economic Relations Development of Ural Regions with BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the basic vocabulary of BRICS countries, its regional tendencies of business development, and its share taken in the foreign-economic activity are analyzed. Contribution of different foreign trade fields of regions into economic development is revealed. Indicators of development levels of external economic links are reviewed. Alternative options of the foreign trade development, expenses and benefits from its reorientation, and the reason of low indicators of development of foreign trade activity of the Ural regions with BRICS countries are evaluated, and measures for their improvement and development are offered. The mechanism and tools of stimulation of foreign economic relations development of regions with BRICS countries are investigated. The internal and external motives and incentives of expansion of these relations are examined. The factors influencing the regional markets development and revealing multidirectional tendencies in activities of business, government, society for development of foreign economic relations of the Ural regions with BRICS countries, and first of all with Brazil, India, China and the Republic of South Africa are investigated. The export-import features of the foreign trade operations with these countries, and also possible ways and the directions of expansion of the prognostics of foreign economic relations in the conditions of toughening and restriction of similar operations and financial sources from the developed countries, first of all the USA and EU countries are represented. Author examines the reasons and scenario, problems and difficulties for the country and the Ural regions in refocusing of international economic relation from Western Europe to the South-East Asia countries. Real opportunities of participation of regions of the country in the import substitution and development of own resource and production base are analyzed. The research is focused on analysis of international economic

  19. A Bayesian analysis of the impact of post-crash care on road mortality in Sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonmongo Lacina Soro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing a disproportionate road tragedy compared to its motorization rate and road network density. Most of the road traffic deaths occur in the pre-hospital phase. Yet, more than half of the African countries do not possess formal pre-hospital care system. This study assesses the potential impact of post-crash care on road mortality in 23 Sub-Saharan African countries. A panel Bayesian normal linear regression with normally distributed non-informative priors is used to fit the data set covering the time period 2001–2010. The post-crash care system is proxied by the estimated share of seriously injured transported by ambulance, and three binary variables indicating the existence of emergency access telephone services and emergency training for doctors and nurses. The findings suggest a negative correlation between the road mortality rate and the estimated share of seriously injured transported by ambulance, the emergency access telephone services and the emergency training for doctors. A positive relation is unexpectedly observed for the emergency training for nurses. Other regressors such as the Gross Domestic Product per capita and populations in the age range 15–64 years are related to higher fatality rates while the length of the road network and life expectancy are linked to decreasing fatality rates.

  20. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D; Degboe, Arnold N; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2009-09-22

    Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts. Using an African-centered cultural framework

  1. A review of the evolution and trajectory of the African union as an instrument of regional integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirisa, Innocent Ew; Mumba, Artwell; Dirwai, Simbarashe O

    2014-01-01

    This review paper seeks to analyse African integration in terms of its magnitude of solidarity, the state and typology of integration and functioning. It assesses the strengths, weaknesses, objectives, successes and failures of the African integration project as well as threats to its survival. The primary goal is to sift between issues with the view of better informing the future of the integration. The paper acknowledges how, in 2002, the OAU (formed in 1963) convened to reconstitute and become the African Union (AU) composed of eight Regional Economic Communities. The reformed union has spelt out gender equality, strategic planning, intra-trade, non-indifference to suffering in member states and sustainability, as additional objectives to those of the former OAU. This idea has been to foster integration to promote peace, security and cooperation hence solidarity. It can now be assessed succinctly that African integration has arisen in the need for amalgamation of efforts to solve African problems with African solutions.

  2. Regional health governance: A suggested agenda for Southern African health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Erica Dale; Fourie, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    Regional organisations can effectively promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. Regional bodies make decisions about health challenges in the region, for example, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the World Health Organisation South East Asia Regional Office (WHO-SEARO). The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has a limited health presence as a regional organisation and diplomatic partner in health governance. This article identifies how SADC facilitates and coordinates health policy, arguing that SADC has the potential to promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. The article identifies the role of global health diplomacy and niche diplomacy in health governance. The role of SADC as a regional organisation and the way it functions is then explained, focusing on how SADC engages with health issues in the region. Recommendations are made as to how SADC can play a more decisive role as a regional organisation to implement South-South management of the regional social policy, health governance and health diplomacy agenda.

  3. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Surinam; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America

  4. A comparative assessment of the innovation potential of the Baltic Sea region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemeshev Andrey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a comparative assessment of the Baltic region countries on the basis of three groups of indicators — indicators of economic and research potential, indicators of dynamics of economic and research potential development, and indicators of economic and innovation potential of the states of the region. The author emphasises the need for Russia to cooperate with other countries of the region in the field of innovations as well as the possible role for the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University in this process.

  5. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  6. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  7. AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community : Policy Research and Decision Support. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is at the epicentre of the AIDS pandemic. The regional adult HIV prevalence is approximately 11%, twice the average in other African countries. Scores of ...

  8. Economic feasibility study of regional centers for nuclear fuel reprocessing in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakeshloo, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle costs for the following three different economic alternatives were studied: (1) Reprocessing in an industrialized country (such as the U.S.); (2) Reprocessing in the individual developing country; (3) Reprocessing in a regional center. The nuclear fuel cycle cost for the ''Throw-away'' fuel cycle was evaluated. Among the six regions which were considered in this study, region one (South America including Mexico) was selected for the economic analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle for the above three alternatives. For evaluation of the cases where the fuel is reprocessed in a regional center or in an individual developing country, a unit reprocessing cost equation was developed. An economic evaluation was developed to estimate the least expensive method for transporting radioactive nuclear material by either leased or purchased shipping casks. The necessary equations were also developed for estimating plutonium transportation and the safeguard costs. On the basis of nuclear material and services requirements and unit costs for each component, the levelized nuclear fuel cycle costs for each alternative were estimated. Finally, by a comparison of cost, among these three alternatives plus the ''Throw-away'' case,it was found that it is not at all economical to build individual reprocessing plants inside the developing countries in region one. However, it also was found that the economic advantage of a regional center with respect to the first alternative is less than a 4% difference between their total fuel cycle costs. It is concluded that there is no great economic advantage in any developing countries to seek to process their fuel in one of the advanced countries. Construction of regional reprocessing centers is an economically viable concept

  9. African Anthropogenic Combustion Emissions: Estimate of Regional Mortality Attributable to Fine Particle Concentrations in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Roblou, L.; Assamoi, E.; Criqui, P.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Rosset, R.

    2014-12-01

    Fossil fuel (traffic, industries) and biofuel (domestic fires) emissions of gases and particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities and megacities. In this study, we will present the most recent developments of African combustion emission inventories, including African specificities. Indeed, a regional fossil fuel and biofuel inventory for gases and particulates described in Liousse et al. (2014) has been developed for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° for the years 2005 and 2030. For 2005, the original database of Junker and Liousse (2008) was used after modification for updated regional fuel consumption and emission factors. Two prospective inventories for 2030 are derived based on Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems (POLES) model (Criqui, 2001). The first is a reference scenario (2030ref) with no emission controls and the second is for a "clean" scenario (2030ccc*) including Kyoto policy and African specific emission control. This inventory predicts very large increases of pollutant emissions in 2030 (e.g. contributing to 50% of global anthropogenic organic particles), if no emission regulations are implemented. These inventories have been introduced in RegCM4 model. In this paper we will focus on aerosol modelled concentrations in 2005, 2030ref and 2030ccc*. Spatial distribution of aerosol concentrations will be presented with a zoom at a few urban and rural sites. Finally mortality rates (respiratory, cardiovascular) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 increase from 2005 to 2030, calculated following Lelieveld et al. (2013), will be shown for each scenarios. To conclude, this paper will discuss the effectiveness of scenarios to reduce emissions, aerosol concentrations and mortality rates, underlining the need for further measurements scheduled in the frame of the new DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions) program.

  10. The text of an African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The document reproduces the text of an African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology among African Member States that was endorsed by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1990

  11. Study of the influencing factors of the blood levels of toxic elements in Africans from 16 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; González-Antuña, Ana; Almeida-González, Maira; Barry-Rodríguez, Carlos; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María

    2017-01-01

    Africa's economy is growing faster than any other continent and it has been estimated that the middle class in Africa now exceeds 350 million people. This has meant a parallel increase in the importation of consumer goods and in the implementation of communication and information technologies (ICT), but also in the generation of large quantities of e-waste. However, inadequate infrastructure development remains a major constraint to the continent's economic growth and these highly toxic residues are not always adequately managed. Few studies have been conducted to date assessing the possible association between socioeconomic development factors, including e-waste generation, and blood levels of inorganic elements in African population. To disclose the role of geographical, anthropogenic, and socioeconomic development determinants on the blood levels of Ag, Al, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and V —all of them frequently found in e-waste—, an immigrant population-based study was made including a total of 245 subjects from 16 countries recently arrived to the Canary Islands (Spain). Women presented higher levels of blood elements than men, and Northern Africans (Moroccans) were the most contaminated. People from low-income countries exhibited significantly lower blood levels of inorganic elements than those from middle-income countries. We found a significant association between the use of motor vehicles and the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the level of contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment, telephone and internet use had higher levels of inorganic elements. In general terms, the higher level of economic development the higher the blood levels of inorganic pollutants, suggesting that the economic development of Africa, in parallel to e-waste generation and the existence of informal recycling sites, have directly affected the level of

  12. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yee Peng; Muhammad, Junaina; Amin Noordin, Bany Ariffin; Cheng, Fan Fah

    2018-02-01

    This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004-2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy, it is not spared from various sources of macroeconomic volatility through the decades. The reported data cover 15 types of macroeconomic data series, representing three broad categories of indicators that can be used to proxy macroeconomic volatility. They are indicators that account for macroeconomic volatility (i.e. volatility as a macroeconomic outcome), domestic sources of macroeconomic volatility and external sources of macroeconomic volatility. In particular, the selected countries are Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, which are regarded as developing countries, while Singapore, Japan and Australia are developed countries. Despite the differences in level of economic development, these countries were affected by similar sources of macroeconomic volatility such as the Asian Financial Crisis and the Global Financial Crisis. These countries were also affected by other similar external turbulence arising from factors such as the global economic slowdown, geopolitical risks in the Middle East and volatile commodity prices. Nonetheless, there were also sources of macroeconomic volatility which were peculiar to certain countries only. These were generally domestic sources of volatility such as political instability (for Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines), natural disasters and anomalous weather conditions (for Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan and Australia) and over-dependence on the electronic sector (for Singapore).

  13. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Peng Chow

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004–2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy, it is not spared from various sources of macroeconomic volatility through the decades. The reported data cover 15 types of macroeconomic data series, representing three broad categories of indicators that can be used to proxy macroeconomic volatility. They are indicators that account for macroeconomic volatility (i.e. volatility as a macroeconomic outcome, domestic sources of macroeconomic volatility and external sources of macroeconomic volatility. In particular, the selected countries are Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, which are regarded as developing countries, while Singapore, Japan and Australia are developed countries. Despite the differences in level of economic development, these countries were affected by similar sources of macroeconomic volatility such as the Asian Financial Crisis and the Global Financial Crisis. These countries were also affected by other similar external turbulence arising from factors such as the global economic slowdown, geopolitical risks in the Middle East and volatile commodity prices. Nonetheless, there were also sources of macroeconomic volatility which were peculiar to certain countries only. These were generally domestic sources of volatility such as political instability (for Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, natural disasters and anomalous weather conditions (for Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan and Australia and over-dependence on the electronic sector (for Singapore. Keywords

  14. Systematic documentation of new vaccine introduction in selected countries of the Latin American Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lúcia H; Toscano, Cristiana M; Sanwogou, N Jennifer; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Tambini, Gina; Roses-Periago, Mirta; Andrus, Jon K

    2013-07-02

    Countries in Latin America were among the first developing countries to introduce new vaccines, particularly rotavirus (RV) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), into their national immunization schedules. Experiences and lessons learned from these countries are valuable to donors, immunization partners, and policy makers in other countries wishing to make informed decisions on vaccine introduction. In order to enhance knowledge and promote understanding of the process of new vaccine introduction in the Latin American Region, with particular focus on RV and PCV, we conducted a systematic qualitative assessment. We evaluated the decision-making process, documented the structure in place, and reviewed key factors pertaining to new vaccine introduction. These include country morbidity and mortality data available prior to vaccine introduction, funding sources and mechanisms for vaccine introduction, challenges of implementation, and assessment of vaccine impact. From March 2010 to April 2011, we evaluated a subset of countries that had introduced RV and/or PCV in the past five years through interviews with key informants at the country level and through a systematic review of published data, gray literature, official technical documents, and country-specific health indicators. Countries evaluated were Bolivia, Brazil, Nicaragua, Peru, and Venezuela. In all countries, the potential of new vaccines to reduce mortality, as established by Millennium Development Goal 4, was an important consideration leading to vaccine introduction. Several factors-the availability of funds, the existence of sufficient evidence for vaccine introduction, and the feasibility of sustainable financing-were identified as crucial components of the decision-making process in the countries evaluated. The decision making process regarding new vaccine introduction in the countries evaluated does not follow a systematic approach. Nonetheless, existing evidence on efficacy, potential impact, and

  15. African Crop Science Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Crop Science Journal was established with the primary objective of ... and all those concerned with agricultural development issues in the region. .... as possible, the editors avoid appointing reviewers from the country of origin of ...

  16. [Gerontology in rural and mountains regions aged people in the country and in mountain regions (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsell, O

    1977-04-01

    The gerontologic problems of people living in the country and in mountain regions always were neglected in comparison to those of townsmen. In the last decade an important structural change has happened, caused on the one side by the fact that more and more people leave the country for the towns, and by the problem of overaged persons in the country; on the other side this change is a consequence of improvement by modern technical acquisitions (more agricultural machines, silos), living hygiene and the tourism. The living conditions in the past and today in Switzerland are shown, referring to various publications. The ecological change also hits the aged people, financially by revenues, completion of private help organizations, rebuilding of homes for the aged persons in every village and regional nursing home, as well as household helps for those elderly people who still live in the country in their own houses. The qualitative differences between living conditions in the country and in town will in the near future be equalized--which is especially mentionned.

  17. Medical Education in Decentralized Settings: How Medical Students Contribute to Health Care in 10 Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Zohray; van Schalkwyk, Susan; Couper, Ian; Pattanaik, Swaha; Turay, Khadija; Sagay, Atiene S; Baingana, Rhona; Baird, Sarah; Gaede, Bernhard; Iputo, Jehu; Kibore, Minnie; Manongi, Rachel; Matsika, Antony; Mogodi, Mpho; Ramucesse, Jeremais; Ross, Heather; Simuyeba, Moses; Haile-Mariam, Damen

    2017-12-01

    African medical schools are expanding, straining resources at tertiary health facilities. Decentralizing clinical training can alleviate this tension. This study assessed the impact of decentralized training and contribution of undergraduate medical students at health facilities. Participants were from 11 Medical Education Partnership Initiative-funded medical schools in 10 African countries. Each school identified two clinical training sites-one rural and the other either peri-urban or urban. Qualitative and quantitative data collection tools were used to gather information about the sites, student activities, and staff perspectives between March 2015 and February 2016. Interviews with site staff were analyzed using a collaborative directed approach to content analysis, and frequencies were generated to describe site characteristics and student experiences. The clinical sites varied in level of care but were similar in scope of clinical services and types of clinical and nonclinical student activities. Staff indicated that students have a positive effect on job satisfaction and workload. Respondents reported that students improved the work environment, institutional reputation, and introduced evidence-based approaches. Students also contributed to perceived improvements in quality of care, patient experience, and community outreach. Staff highlighted the need for resources to support students. Students were seen as valuable resources for health facilities. They strengthened health care quality by supporting overburdened staff and by bringing rigor and accountability into the work environment. As medical schools expand, especially in low-resource settings, mobilizing new and existing resources for decentralized clinical training could transform health facilities into vibrant service and learning environments.

  18. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and associated risk factors among school-going adolescents in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R

    2014-08-28

    The burden caused by the coexistence of obesity and underweight in Low and Middle Income Countries is a challenge to public health. While prevalence of underweight among youth has been well documented in these countries, overweight, obesity and their associated risk factors are not well understood unlike in high income countries. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in seven African countries were used for this study. The survey used a clustered design to obtain a representative sample (n = 23496) from randomly selected schools. 53.6% of the sample was male, and participants ranged in age from 11-17 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using age and sex adjusted self-reported heights and weights. Classification of weight status was based on the 2007 World Health Organization growth charts (BMI-for-age and sex). Multivariable Logistic Regression reporting Odds Ratios was used to assess potential risk factors on BMI, adjusting for age, sex, and country. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata with an alpha of 0.05 and reporting 95% confidence intervals. Unadjusted rates of being underweight varied from 12.6% (Egypt) to 31.9% (Djibouti), while being overweight ranged from 8.7% (Ghana) to 31.4% (Egypt). Obesity rates ranged from 0.6% (Benin) to 9.3% (Egypt). Females had a higher overweight prevalence for every age group in five of the countries, exceptions being Egypt and Malawi. Overall, being overweight was more prevalent among younger (≤12) adolescents and decreased with age. Males had a higher prevalence of being underweight than females for every country. There was a tendency for the prevalence of being underweight to increase starting in the early teens and decrease between ages 15 and 16. Most of the potential risk factors captured by the GSHS were not significantly associated with weight status. The prevalence of both overweight and underweight was relatively high, demonstrating the

  19. Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Hannes; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use. We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437), 9 (n = 23,139) and 6 countries (n = 14,561) respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels. Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (pCooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070) determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50). Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation. We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season.

  20. The Ebola contagion and forecasting virus: evidence from four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhem, Selmi; Nejib, Hachicha D

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on examining the number of deaths' increases participation in the propagating the Ebola virus during the period ranging from March to October 2014. An application of the MGARCH-DCC model regressions on four countries has led to discover that the finding that human contact play a significant role in transmitting the Ebola virus. Our findings also reveal that Guinea has already suffered from a spread-like virus originating from Sierra Lione and Liberia. Noteworthy also, other countries are now liable to such a risk; for instance, Nigeria is a country vulnerable to the propagation of this virus. Consequently, we undertake to conduct our forecasts for EGARCH model estimates implements; which has estimated a decrease in the Ebola virus incurred number of deadly Ebola virus over the two months following the November and December.

  1. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  2. A review of accounting research in internationalising journals in the South African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl J. de Villiers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study analyses the accounting research articles published by South African journals. Aim and setting: A review of accounting research in internationalising journals in the South African region that publish accounting research. Methods: The characteristics of accounting articles were analysed. Five journals were analysed, including the four internationalising journals, Investment Analysts Journal, Meditari Accountancy Research, South African Journal of Business Management, and South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences and one local journal, South African Journal of Accounting Research (SAJAR. Results: The findings of this study will be of interest to journal editors, authors who would like their research to make an impact and be cited, as well as university research administrators and government higher education policy-makers. Conclusion: The analyses show that many of the highly cited articles have been published recently, boding well for the citation statistics of these journals in future and indicating some success in their efforts to internationalise. The citations of SAJAR lag behind the citations of the internationalising journals. Each journal publishes articles that cover different subject area(s. Within accounting research, accounting education and social and environmental accounting are popular areas of research, whereas taxation; the public sector; and management accounting are not well represented among published articles during 2015–2016 in these five journals. About half of all accounting articles claim their insights will contribute to the accounting literature, with much smaller percentages claiming to contribute to management, policy-making and practice. The most prolific authors and most prominent universities to some extent follow the most popular subject areas, with a social and environmental researcher, Warren Maroun, featuring strongly, and his university, the University of the

  3. Business owners' action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Krauss, Stefanie I; Keith, Nina; Escher, Susanne; Grabarkiewicz, Rafal; Luneng, Siv Tonje; Heers, Constanze; Unger, Jens; Friedrich, Christian

    2007-11-01

    A model of business success was developed with motivational resources (locus of control, self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-reported personal initiative) and cognitive resources (cognitive ability and human capital) as independent variables, business owners' elaborate and proactive planning as a mediator, and business size and growth as dependent variables. Three studies with a total of 408 African micro and small-scale business owners were conducted in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Structural equation analyses partially supported the hypotheses on the importance of psychological planning by the business owners. Elaborate and proactive planning was substantially related to business size and to an external evaluation of business success and was a (partial) mediator for the relationship between cognitive resources and business success. The model carries important implications for selection, training, and coaching of business owners. (c) 2007 APA

  4. Transformation of environmental conditions in large former Soviet countries: regional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityukova, V. R.; Borovikov, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The article studies changes in the structure of environmental conditions of regions in the large former Soviet countries (case study of Russia and Kazakhstan) that have formed considerable contrasts in the placement of industrial complex and population settlement during the previous development stages. The changes related to the transition to market economy have led to essential transformation of environmental conditions. A complex index allowing to assess changes at the regional level in Kazakhstan and Russia and to reveal main similarities and differences between those changes is applied to studying the transformation of regional and industry structure. The article examines both industry-specific and spatial patterns forming environmental conditions at the regional level.

  5. State of inequality in malaria intervention coverage in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Smith, Thomas A; de Savigny, Don; Penny, Melissa A

    2017-10-18

    Scale-up of malaria interventions over the last decade have yielded a significant reduction in malaria transmission and disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated economic gradients in the distribution of these efforts and of their impacts within and across endemic countries. Using Demographic and Health Surveys we computed equity metrics to characterize the distribution of malaria interventions in 30 endemic countries proxying economic position with an asset-wealth index. Gradients were summarized in a concentration index, tabulated against level of coverage, and compared among interventions, across countries, and against respective trends over the period 2005-2015. There remain broad differences in coverage of malaria interventions and their distribution by wealth within and across countries. In most, economic gradients are lacking or favor the poorest for vector control; malaria services delivered through the formal healthcare sector are much less equitable. Scale-up of interventions in many countries improved access across the wealth continuum; in some, these efforts consistently prioritized the poorest. Expansions in control programs generally narrowed coverage gaps between economic strata; gradients persist in countries where growth was slower in the poorest quintile or where baseline inequality was large. Despite progress, malaria is consistently concentrated in the poorest, with the degree of inequality in burden far surpassing that expected given gradients in the distribution of interventions. Economic gradients in the distribution of interventions persist over time, limiting progress toward equity in malaria control. We found that, in countries with large baseline inequality in the distribution of interventions, even a small bias in expansion favoring the least poor yielded large gradients in intervention coverage while pro-poor growth failed to close the gap between the poorest and least poor. We demonstrated that dimensions of disadvantage

  6. Country and regional variations in purchase prices for essential cancer medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Seidman, Robert L; Mackey, Tim K

    2017-08-24

    Accessibility to essential cancer medications in low- and middle-income countries is threatened by insufficient availability and affordability. The objective of this study is to characterize variation in transactional prices for essential cancer medications across geographies, medication type, and time. Drug purchase prices for 19 national and international buyers (representing 29 total countries) between 2010 and 2014 were obtained from Management Sciences for Health. Median values for drug pricing were computed, to address outliers in the data. For comparing purchase prices across geographic units, medications, and over time; Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare two groups, Kruskal Wallis H tests were used to compare more than two groups, and linear regression was used to compare across continuous independent variables. During the five-year data period examined, the median price paid for a package of essential cancer medication was $12.63. No significant differences in prices were found based on country-level wealth, country-level disease burden, drug formulation, or year when medication was purchased. Statistical tests found significant differences in prices paid across countries, regions, individual medications, and medication categories. Specifically, countries in the Africa region appeared to pay more for a package of essential cancer medication than countries in the Latin America region, and cancer medications tended to be more expensive than anti-infective medications and cardiovascular medications. Though preliminary, our study found evidence of variation in prices paid by health systems to acquire essential cancer medications. Primarily, variations in pricing based on geographic location and cancer medication type (including when comparing to essential medicines that treat cardiovascular and infectious diseases) indicate that these factors may impact availability, affordability and access to essential cancer drugs. These factors should be taken into

  7. Rainfall variability, climate change and regionalization in the African monsoon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Bernard; Roucou, Pascal; Vigaud, Nicolas; Camara, Moctar; Konare, Abdourahamane; Sanda, Seidou Ibrah; Diedhiou, Arona; Janicot, Serge

    2012-01-01

    This summary recalls some results at the end of the AMMA international experiment (2003-2010) in terms of variability of the African monsoon at the intra-seasonal to multi-decadal scales and of climate prospective. The results confirmed the weight of surface temperatures and marine tele-connections for inter-annual and decadal fluctuations and stressed the importance of atmospheric variability. They also described the dominant modes of intra-seasonal variability as their interactions with the surface. Several hypotheses involving memory effects related to soil water and vegetation, particularly in boreal spring and autumn have also been made. Prospective analysis from model output suggests rainfall surplus around 2050 over the Eastern-central Sahel and relative deficit to the West. Phase 2 of AMMA (2010-2020) will focus more on aspects that have a high social impact in direct collaboration with meteorological services predictability, prediction scores, operational indicators, evaluation of the part of anthropogenic forcing in the current and future variations. (authors)

  8. A new division of the Nordic countries into potential price regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    It has been proposed that the division of the Nordic countries into electric spot regions (potential price regions) should be changed. This implies, among other things, that Sweden is divided into three price regions. The price regions will be used for dealing with large bottlenecks, while small bottlenecks will be handled by means of countertrade. Will the change increase the risk of market power? Probably not. The present arrangement offers about equally good possibilities to exercise market power and causes price signals in general to become erroneous and that trade becomes limited. The absence of price limits in Sweden will probably not increase competition by much since the same producers are numerous on both sides of the limits. Price regions in Sweden may sharpen competition between producers in each region and producers in adjacent regions outside of Sweden

  9. Role of income in intergenerational co-residence: Evidence from selected African and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nusrate; Hossain, Belayet; Emran, Masum

    2018-06-01

    The study investigates the macroeconomic determinants of co-residing arrangement between generations in selected developing countries with a focus on examining the effect of changing income level of the working generation. A reduced form model is specified for co-residence between the older generation and altruistic working generation. The fixed- and random-effects models are applied in two waves of data for 22 countries. Estimated results indicate that the income of the altruistic working generation has a negative effect on co-residence, suggesting that if the income of the working generation increases, co-residence decreases. This decrease is greater for older men compared with their female counterparts. Life expectancy, literacy and culture also have significant influences on co-residence. Co-residence is expected to fall in developing countries with economic growth over time. Consequently, a higher proportion of older citizens will be vulnerable in the future. Hence, governments of developing countries will face increasing pressure from their older people to provide appropriate planning and strategy to face this challenge. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  10. Adjustment and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha

    2015-01-01

    trajectories of the introduction of adjustment programs. The analysis reveals that only few countries have shown positive and sustained results. The traditional (first-generation) Fund-Bank adjustment package is linked with sustained increase in Gross Domestic Product, export and investment growth rates only...

  11. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degboe Arnold N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and

  12. Genomic regions associated with susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma in African Americans: The cross BETRNet admixture study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqing Sun

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC are far more prevalent in European Americans than in African Americans. Hypothesizing that this racial disparity in prevalence might represent a genetic susceptibility, we used an admixture mapping approach to interrogate disease association with genomic differences between European and African ancestry.Formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples were identified from 54 African Americans with BE or EAC through review of surgical pathology databases at participating Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet institutions. DNA was extracted from normal tissue, and genotyped on the Illumina OmniQuad SNP chip. Case-only admixture mapping analysis was performed on the data from both all 54 cases and also on a subset of 28 cases with high genotyping quality. Haplotype phases were inferred with Beagle 3.3.2, and local African and European ancestries were inferred with SABER plus. Disease association was tested by estimating and testing excess European ancestry and contrasting it to excess African ancestry.Both datasets, the 54 cases and the 28 cases, identified two admixture regions. An association of excess European ancestry on chromosome 11p reached a 5% genome-wide significance threshold, corresponding to -log10(P = 4.28. A second peak on chromosome 8q reached -log10(P = 2.73. The converse analysis examining excess African ancestry found no genetic regions with significant excess African ancestry associated with BE and EAC. On average, the regions on chromosomes 8q and 11p showed excess European ancestry of 15% and 20%, respectively.Chromosomal regions on 11p15 and 8q22-24 are associated with excess European ancestry in African Americans with BE and EAC. Because GWAS have not reported any variants in these two regions, low frequency and/or rare disease associated variants that confer susceptibility to developing BE and EAC may be driving the observed European ancestry

  13. Palliative care and support for persons with HIV/AIDS in 7 African countries: implementation experience and future priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Carla S; Memiah, Peter; Henley, Yvonne B; Kaiza-Kangalawe, Angela; Shumbusho, Anna Joyce; Obiefune, Michael; Enejoh, Victor; Stanis-Ezeobi, Winifred; Eze, Charity; Odion, Ehekhaye; Akpenna, Donald; Effiong, Amana; Miriti, Kenneth; Aduda, Samson; Oko, John; Melaku, Gebremedhin D; Baribwira, Cyprien; Umutesi, Hassina; Shimabale, Mope; Mugisa, Emmanuel; Amoroso, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    To combat morbidity and mortality from the worldwide epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the United States Congress implemented a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in 30 resource-limited countries to integrate combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both prevention and cure. Over 35% of eligible persons have been successfully treated. Initial legislation cited palliative care as an essential aspect of this plan but overall health strengthening became critical to sustainability of programming and funding priorities shifted to assure staffing for care delivery sites; laboratory and pharmaceutical infrastructure; data collection and reporting; and financial management as individual countries are being encouraged to assume control of in-country funding. Given infrastructure requisites, individual care delivery beyond ART management alone has received minimal funding yet care remains necessary for durable viral suppression and overall quality of life for individuals. Technical assistance staff of one implementing partner representing seven African countries met to clarify domains of palliative care compared with the substituted term "care and support" to understand potential gaps in on-going HIV care. They prioritized care needs as: 1) mental health (depression and other mood disorders); 2) communication skills (age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status); 3) support of care-providers (stress management for sustainability of a skilled HIV workforce); 4) Tied Priorities: symptom management in opportunistic infections; end-of-life care; spiritual history-taking; and 5) Tied Priorities: attention to grief-related needs of patients, their families and staff; and management of HIV co-morbidities. This process can inform health policy as funding transitions to new priorities.

  14. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novignon Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc. are accessible and effectively used.

  15. PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger J. Chin, MA, MPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.

  16. To what extent are African Countries Vulnerable to climate change? Lessons from a new indicator of Physical Vulnerability to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick GUILLAUMONT; Catherine SIMONET

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the vulnerability of African countries to climate change, for which they are not responsible. It is based on an index of structural or physical vulnerability to climate change at the country level, denominated below by the acronym PVCCI. This index has been created recently by the authors, and has been made available on the FERDI website. The design of this index draws both on the environmental literature, and some principles used by the United Nations to measure structura...

  17. Mother-Child Emotional Availability in Ecological Perspective: Three Countries, Two Regions, Two Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Heslington, Marianne; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Giusti, Zeno; de Galperin, Celia Zingman

    2008-01-01

    This study used a cross-national framework to examine country, region, and gender differences in emotional availability (EA), a prominent index of mutual socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Altogether 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. mothers and their daughters and sons from both rural and metropolitan areas took part in home…

  18. [Epilepsy and its impact in northwest region of the Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet-Bernady, P; Tabo, A; Druet-Cabanac, M; Poumale, F; Ndoma, V; Lao, H; Bouteille, B; Dumas, M; Preux, P M

    1997-01-01

    In African countries, epilepsy is an important public health problem with major medical, socio-cultural, and economic implications. This study was carried out to evaluate attitudes towards epilepsy in the Central African Republic. A total of 187 epileptic patients were included. Only 20.9% of the study population were married. School attendance never exceeded the elementary level. Epilepsy was active in 98.4% of patients who continued to present attacks despite extensive treatment which was either poorly complied with or inadequate. Attitudes towards epilepsy remain rooted in belief in supernatural phenomenon and evil spirits with use of traditional therapies involving abstinence from certain foods and use of laxative agents to drive out evil forces. Epileptics are excluded from their families and not allowed to attend school but, in our study, they were not prevented from the work place since 70% held jobs. In this study, 54% of epileptics believed that the disease was contagious, 55.6% that it was incurable, and 20.9% that it was due occult or supernatural causes. While precise quantification is impossible, our experience based on interviews with patients and frequent observation of burn wounds suggests that moral and physical suffering is immense among epileptics in the Central African Republic. Epilepsy in Black Africa is a major public health problem requiring serious attention from government officials, health care specialists, and the families of patients. Better information to promote awareness of the non-contagious nature of the disease, greater support for families of patients, and improvement in treatment compliance are essential.

  19. Physiotherapy for people with mental health problems in Sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Mugisha, James

    2018-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychosocial interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Physiotherapists could have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery within the multidisciplinary care of people with mental health problems. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the role of physiotherapists within the current mental health policies of SSA countries and to explore the current research evidence for physiotherap...

  20. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND MEASUREMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS OF REGIONS ON EXAMPLE OF COUNTRIES EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav ROLÍNEK

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline the substance of strategic management in relation to regional development with focus on the basic indicators that evaluate regional competitive advantage. Strategic management presents the collection of methods and approaches that are applicable to the regulation of regional development. The basic requirement of this process is to increase competitive advantage of the regions. It is possible to define regional competitive advantage as the ability of regions to generate revenues and keep employment rate at a level corresponding to national and international competition. The level of regional competitiveness is, for example, measurable by GDP per capita index. Besides this indicator, we can also use the evaluation of labour productivity expressed as GDP per employee as well as the ratio of employable population to the total of economically active inhabitants. For these monitored indicators, the Czech Republic doesn’t belong to the best countries. It is on the 19th place among the countries of EU in GDP per capita and it is also not very good in productivity evaluation, expressed by GDP per employee (20th place. On the other hand, the Czech Republic belongs among the countries with quite high employment rate (12th place. An application of the point method shows that the Czech Republic is on 18th place according to an average of selected indicators resulting from the GDP description per resident. It reaches only 70.2% of the level of the leading country, Luxemburg. The results of the article were obtained in the frame of the project MSM 6007665806 a MPSV 1J 016/04-DP2.

  1. Institutional perceptions, adaptive capacity and climate change response in a post-conflict country: a case study from Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.C.P.; Smit, B.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Ngana, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) faces increased vulnerability to climate change because it is a low-income country with low adaptive capacity; a situation that is exacerbated by recent civil conflict. This research analysed the perceptions of decision-makers within, and the response of diverse

  2. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N'Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D; Mengel, Martin A

    2016-05-01

    Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  3. Introduction and Rollout of a New Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in African Meningitis Belt Countries, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Barry, Rodrigue; Kandolo, Denis; Shirehwa, Florence; Lingani, Clement; Novak, Ryan T.; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Perea, William; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was developed specifically for the African “meningitis belt” and was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. The vaccine was first used widely in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010 with great success. The remaining 23 meningitis belt countries wished to use this new vaccine. Methods. With the help of African countries, WHO developed a prioritization scheme and used or adapted existing immunization guidelines to mount PsA-TT vaccination campaigns. Vaccine requirements were harmonized with the Serum Institute of India, Ltd. Results. Burkina Faso was the first country to fully immunize its 1- to 29-year-old population in December 2010. Over the next 4 years, vaccine coverage was extended to 217 million Africans living in 15 meningitis belt countries. Conclusions. The new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well received, with country coverage rates ranging from 85% to 95%. The rollout proceeded smoothly because countries at highest risk were immunized first while attention was paid to geographic contiguity to maximize herd protection. Community participation was exemplary. PMID:26553672

  4. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speizer Ilene S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  5. Successes and challenges of north-south partnerships - key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north-south and south-south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a 'north-south divide' in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner institutions. Some challenges were underestimated

  6. Successes and challenges of north–south partnerships – key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North–south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Design Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. Results The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north–south and south–south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a ‘north–south divide’ in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. Conclusion The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner

  7. Increasing human resource capacity in African countries: A nursing and midwifery Research Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Sun

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Evaluations provided favorable feedback regarding the process leading up to as well as the content of the Research Summit. While further long-term evaluations will be needed to determine the sustainability of this initiative, the Summit format afforded the opportunity for regional experts to meet, examine research priorities, and develop strategic action and mentorship plans. This paper describes a replicable method that could be utilized in other regions using available resources to minimize costs and modest grant funding.

  8. Ethnic Identity and Regional Differences in Mental Health in a National Sample of African American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Duque, Gerardo; Wetterneck, Chad T; Chapman, L Kevin; DeLapp, Ryan C T

    2018-04-01

    Prior research has found that a strong positive ethnic identity is a protective factor against anxiety and depression in African Americans. In this study, ethnic identity is examined in a geographically representative sample of African American young adults (n = 242), using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) (Phinney in J Adolescent Res 7:156-76, 15). The two-factor structure of the measure (Roberts et al. in J Early Adolescence 19:301-22, 1) was analyzed using a structural equation model and displayed an acceptable fit only when multiple error terms were correlated. A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis revealed measurement equivalence of the two-factor structure between African Americans from Southern and non-Southern regions of the USA. We found that significantly higher levels of ethnic identity were present among African American in the South compared to other regions, and region significantly predicted total ethnic identity scores in a linear regression, even when controlling for gender, age, urbanicity, and years of education. Furthermore, among African Americans, living in the South was significantly correlated with less help-seeking for diagnosed depression, anxiety, and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder, where help-seeking was defined as obtaining a diagnosis by a professional. The role of ethnic identity and social support are discussed in the context of African American mental health.

  9. The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in "Nonendemic" Regions of Zambia (1989-2015): Implications for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulundu, Edgar; Lubaba, Caesar H; van Heerden, Juanita; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mataa, Liywalii; Chambaro, Herman Moses; Sinkala, Yona; Munjita, Samuel Munalula; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Samui, Kenny; Pandey, Girja Shanker; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S

    2017-08-23

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic disease of swine. In Zambia, ASF was first reported in 1912 in Eastern Province and is currently believed to be endemic in that province only. Strict quarantine measures implemented at the Luangwa River Bridge, the only surface outlet from Eastern Province, appeared to be successful in restricting the disease. However, in 1989, an outbreak occurred for the first time outside the endemic province. Sporadic outbreaks have since occurred almost throughout the country. These events have brought into acute focus our limited understanding of the epidemiology of ASF in Zambia. Here, we review the epidemiology of the disease in areas considered nonendemic from 1989 to 2015. Comprehensive sequence analysis conducted on genetic data of ASF viruses (ASFVs) detected in domestic pigs revealed that p72 genotypes I, II, VIII and XIV have been involved in causing ASF outbreaks in swine during the study period. With the exception of the 1989 outbreak, we found no concrete evidence of dissemination of ASFVs from Eastern Province to other parts of the country. Our analyses revealed a complex epidemiology of the disease with a possibility of sylvatic cycle involvement. Trade and/or movement of pigs and their products, both within and across international borders, appear to have been the major factor in ASFV dissemination. Since ASFVs with the potential to cause countrywide and possibly regional outbreaks, could emerge from "nonendemic regions", the current ASF control policy in Zambia requires a dramatic shift to ensure a more sustainable pig industry.

  10. Suicidal ideation among MSM in three West African countries: Associations with stigma and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Pitche, Vincent; Kouanda, Seni; Ceesay, Nuha; Ouedraogo, Henri G; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Baral, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Suicidal ideation is understudied among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore social capital and sexual behavior stigma associated with suicidal ideation among MSM in the West African nations of The Gambia, Burkina Faso and Togo. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and snowball sampling across multiple cities (n = 1555) from July 2011 to August 2013. During a single study visit, participants completed a survey. Logistic regression models were used to assess bivariate and multivariable associations with suicidal ideation. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation was 13% overall and ranged 6%-17% across study sites. After adjusting for potential confounders, MSM who reported stigma as a result of having sex with men were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Physical and sexual violence was strongly associated with suicidal ideation, including being physically harmed (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91, 4.52), tortured (aOR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.17, 6.86) and raped (aOR = 3.07, 95% CI = 2.05, 4.60). In contrast, increasing social participation with the broader community was associated with decreased report of suicidal ideation (aOR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85, 0.99). Sexual behavior stigma should be addressed to improve mental health among MSM in Western Sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women in three sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Qian

    Full Text Available Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women.We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97. Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00 and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23 were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001, with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84.We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.

  12. Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iheonu, E. E.; Akingbade, F.O A.; Ocholi, M.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.4 0 N, Long. 2.3 0 E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible

  13. Tobacco use and its determinants in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in West African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Antoine; Ekouevi, Didier-Koumavi; Aboubakrine, Maiga; Bashi, Jules; Messou, Eugène; Maiga, Moussa; Traore, Hamar-Alassane; Zannou, Marcel; Guehi, Calixte; Ba-Gomis, Franck-Olivier; Minga, Albert; Allou, Gérard; Eholie, Serge-Paul; Dabis, Francois; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Sasco, Annie-Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tobacco smoking is common in HIV-infected patients from industrialized countries. In West Africa, few data exist concerning tobacco consumption. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) network in West Africa. Health workers administered to patients receiving antiretroviral treatment a questionnaire assessing tobacco and cannabis consumption. Regular smokers were defined as present smokers who smoked >1 cigarette per day for ≥1 year. RESULTS Overall, 2920 patients were enrolled in three countries. The prevalence of ever smokers and present smokers were 46.2% (95% CI 42.8–49.5) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2–18.0) in men and 3.7% (95% CI 2.9–4.5) and 0.6% (95% CI 0.3–0.9) in women, respectively. Regular smoking was associated being from Côte d’Ivoire or Mali compared to Benin (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.9–7.3 and 7.7; 95% CI 4.4–13.6), a severely impaired immunological status at HAART initiation (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1–2.2) and a history of tuberculosis (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–3.0). CONCLUSION Marked differences of smoking prevalence exist between these West African countries. This survey approach also provides evidences concerning the association between cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients, a major public health issue in this part of the world. PMID:19861019

  14. Regional Variations of Credits Obtained by LEED 2009 Certified Green Buildings—A Country Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED is one of the most widely recognized green building rating systems. With more than 20% of the projects certified in non-United States (US countries, LEED’s global impact has been increasing and it is critically important for developers and regulatory authorities to understand LEED’s performance at the country level to facilitate global implementation. This study therefore aims to investigate the credit achievement pattern of LEED 2009, which is one of the well-developed versions of LEED, by using 4021 certified projects in the US, China, Turkey, and Brazil. The results show that significant differences can be identified on most rating categories, including sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, indoor environmental quality, and innovation in design. Using a post hoc analysis, country-specific credit allocation patterns are also identified to help developers to understand existing country-specific green building practices. In addition, it is also found that there is unbalanced achievement of regional priority credits. The study offers a useful reference and benchmark for international developers and contractors to understand the regional variations of LEED 2009 and for regulatory authorities, such as the U.S. Green Building Council, to improve the rating system, especially on designing regional priority credits.

  15. A Global Maritime Emissions Trading System. Design and Impacts on the Shipping Sector, Countries and Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Markowska, A.; Eyring, V.; Cionni, I.; Selstad, E. Shipping / Emissions trading / Economy / Costs / Effects / Developing countries Publication number:

    2010-01-15

    This report designs a global cap-and-trade scheme for maritime transport and assesses its impacts on the shipping sector, regions and groups of countries. It shows that it is feasible to implement a cap-and-trade scheme for greenhouse gas emissions in the maritime transport sector. Such a scheme ensures that the environmental target is met, while allowing the sector to grow and ensuring that the target is met in the most cost-effective way. An emissions trading scheme would result in an increase in the costs of shipping of less than 10%, depending on the price of allowances. The increase in import values is likely to be less than 1% for most commodity groups, and the impact on consumer prices even lower. Using new data on emissions of ships sailing to regions and country groups, this report demonstrates that the additional costs of imports for most regions and country groups are estimated to be less than 0.2% of GDP, with a few exceptions. This report demonstrates that it is possible to compensate developing countries for the increased costs of imports by using approximately two thirds of the revenues of the auction. The remainder of the revenues can be used for other aims, such as R and D into fuel-efficiency of ships.

  16. Lifelong Learning and Employability in the Danube Region Countries: Influences and Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Nicoleta Bodea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A continuous challenge for education and lifelong learning is to assist individuals in acquiring skills and knowledge for successful work life, especially after the financial crisis which influenced negatively the employment growth in all European Union countries. The paper focuses on finding correlations between employability and lifelong learning in the Danube Region countries of the European Union and more explicitly in the ex-communist ones of this region. As research instruments, two online questionnaires were built based on a thorough literature review and a set of structured interviews and filled in by 390 IT students and 55 IT professors. The surveys’ results revealed a clear positive correlation between the level of education and the opinion about the importance of obtaining a job as a result of the educational endeavors. A special attention in the survey was given to social networks, which were acknowledged as modern facilitators of lifelong learning activities. The conclusions of the current study are particularly important in the Romanian context, as the employment rate of recent graduates is in a decreasing trend, but also for all the Danube Region ex-communist countries, which have to boost their employment rates as well, to assure their economical growth. Identification of factors stimulating employment of young people according with their education contributes at the sustainable economic growth of these countries, at the growth of graduates insertion in the labor market and at the diminution of labor migration.

  17. National nursing strategies in seven countries of the Region of the Americas: issues and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasanmi, Rebecca O; Kim, Esther M; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli

    2015-07-01

    To identify and examine the current national nursing strategies and policy impact of workforce development regarding human resources for health in seven selected countries in the Region of the Americas: Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. A review of available literature was conducted to identify publicly-available documents that describe the general backdrop of nursing human resources in these seven countries. A keyword search of PubMed was supplemented by searches of websites maintained by Ministries of Health and nursing organizations. Inclusion criteria limited documents to those published in 2008-2013 that discussed or assessed situational issues and/or progress surrounding the nursing workforce. Nursing human resources for health is progressing. Canada, Mexico, and the United States have stronger nursing leadership in place and multisectoral policies in workforce development. Jamaica shows efforts among the Caribbean countries to promote collaborative practices in research. The three selected countries in Central and South America championed networks to revive nursing education. Yet, overall challenges limit the opportunities to impact public health. The national nursing strategies prioritized multisectoral collaboration, professional competencies, and standardized educational systems, with some countries underscoring the need to align policies with efforts to promote nursing leadership, and others, focusing on expanding the scope of practice to improve health care delivery. While each country wrestles with its specific context, all require proper leadership, multisectoral collaboration, and appropriate resources to educate, train, and empower nurses to be at the forefront.

  18. National nursing strategies in seven countries of the Region of the Americas: issues and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O. Shasanmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and examine the current national nursing strategies and policy impact of workforce development regarding human resources for health in seven selected countries in the Region of the Americas: Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. METHODS: A review of available literature was conducted to identify publicly-available documents that describe the general backdrop of nursing human resources in these seven countries. A keyword search of PubMed was supplemented by searches of websites maintained by Ministries of Health and nursing organizations. Inclusion criteria limited documents to those published in 2008-2013 that discussed or assessed situational issues and/or progress surrounding the nursing workforce. RESULTS: Nursing human resources for health is progressing. Canada, Mexico, and the United States have stronger nursing leadership in place and multisectoral policies in workforce development. Jamaica shows efforts among the Caribbean countries to promote collaborative practices in research. The three selected countries in Central and South America championed networks to revive nursing education. Yet, overall challenges limit the opportunities to impact public health. CONCLUSIONS: The national nursing strategies prioritized multisectoral collaboration, professional competencies, and standardized educational systems, with some countries underscoring the need to align policies with efforts to promote nursing leadership, and others, focusing on expanding the scope of practice to improve health care delivery. While each country wrestles with its specific context, all require proper leadership, multisectoral collaboration, and appropriate resources to educate, train, and empower nurses to be at the forefront.

  19. Soil contamination from lead battery manufacturing and recycling in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Were, Faridah Hussein; Adogame, Leslie; Gharbi, Semia; San, Dalila; Nota, Manti Michael; Kuepouo, Gilbert

    2018-02-01

    Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential soil contamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118 soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a legacy of lead contamination that will impact millions in communities throughout Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  1. Diagnosis of vegetation recovery within herbaceous sub-systems in the West African Sahel Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, J.; Hanan, N. P.; Prihodko, L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Ji, W.; Ross, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The West African Sahel (WAS) region is an extensive water limited environment that features a delicate balance of herbaceous and woody vegetation sub systems. These play an important role in the cycling of carbon while also supporting the dominant agro-pastoral human activities in the region. Quantifying the temporal trends in vegetation with regard to these two systems is therefore very important in assessing resource sustainability and food security. In water limited areas, rainfall is a primary driver of vegetation productivity and past watershed scale studies in the WAS region have shown that increase in the slope of the productivity-to-rainfall relationship is indicative of increasing cover and density of herbaceous plants. Given the importance of grazing resources to the region, we perform a wall-to-wall pixel based analysis of changing short-term vegetation sensitivity to changing annual rainfall (hereafter referred to as dS) to examine temporal trends in herbaceous vegetation health. Results indicate that 43% of the Sahelian region has experienced changes (P Western and Central Mali and South Western Niger. Positive dS is indicative of herbaceous vegetation recovery, in response to changing management and rainfall conditions that promote long-term herbaceous community recovery following degradation during the 1970-1980s droughts.

  2. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  3. Energy as a tool for sustainable development for African, Caribbean and Pacific countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.; Bengaly, S.; Bertarelli, L.

    1999-01-01

    Energy plays a critical role in sustainable human development. It impacts on poverty, population, health, the environment, investment in industrial and agricultural development, foreign exchange and even security; it also has a strong gender implication. Policies aimed at providing energy services in a sustainable manner open doors to the achievement of a wide array of other development goals. However, the manner in which the world currently produces and consumes energy is unsustainable. A key challenge is to incorporate strategies to limit the potential negative impact of human activity on the global climate. Recognising these issues, national governments, bilateral co-operation agencies, and international development institutions have made efforts to promote the provision of energy services in ways which contribute to sustainable development. However, a number of barriers continue to limit the adoption of existing options. Building on the 1997 UNDP publication, Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges, the present report analyses the energy situation of two particular country groupings of global interest, Sub-Saharan Africa and ACP Small Island Developing States. It goes on to identify the actions required by different role-players to increase the adoption of sustainable energy options in these two groups. This publication is the result of a joint EC/UNDP initiative which aims to intensify the global dialogue on sustainable energy issues and to provide a basis for future concrete cooperation activities. It is the intention of the report to support developing countries in implementing more effectively the objectives of Agenda 21, and to contribute to the follow up to the Rio Earth Summit and the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in preparation for its 9th Session in 2001. Coming at a critical time in the work of the European Commission, with the ongoing negotiation of a new framework development agreement to replace Lome IV, the report is an

  4. Infrastructure and Other Considerations to Launch Nuclear Power Programme: The Case of Sub-Sahara African Developing Countries like Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshesha, Atnatiwos Zeleke

    2011-01-01

    Trends in the world's population and energy use during the past decades show dramatic increases; and the demand for electricity, mainly from developing countries, is expected to increase more rapidly than the demand for other forms of energy. Besides, concern of climate change led to the need for production of significant amount of 'safe and clean' energy which in turn favours to nuclear option. Other alternative renewable sources like solar and wind can assist but currently they are short of supplying the required high energy demand either economically or/and in substantial amount. Nuclear option therefore remains a possible (developed) technology to fill this energy gap; and many countries including developing one show interest to make use of this energy source. In this paper the economic situations and energy production of six East Africa Sub-Saharan developing countries, with total population of 240 million were assessed, and 6.8% and 2.9% average GDP and population growth respectively registered in the last four years; however, their energy production in 2008 (est.) was 17.662 billion kWh, which is the least in the world. The contribution of inadequate energy and its poor coverage in hampering development, increase poverty and unstability were also analyzed. To come out of this cyclic challenge; it is recommended that countries based on regional economic cooperation should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and cooperate to invest commonly or unilaterally to launch Nuclear Power Programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements. It is also noted that the best candidate to start NP programme in these countries would be the worldwide dominant water cooled reactors. However, for countries with low grid capacity and to carry out projects in remote areas which are far-away from national grid systems or to desalinate water, considerations for smaller

  5. The analysis of the regional self-governing units forests in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lišková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on identification, analysis, description and comparison of the regional self-governing units (RSGU forests in selected European countries. The analysis deals not only with forests in the ownership of basic regional self-governing units such as villages but also with forests of higher regional self-governing unit such as regions or federated states. The identification and description of this type of ownership is not overly published in the Czech Republic. The published foreign overall studies and summaries state mainly the division into forests in public and private ownership. This article is created on the basis of the selection of relevant information sources according to corresponding key words. The methods of analysis of available literary sources, conspectus, comparison and interpretation were used to deal with the topic. The quantity of information is higher and more available within basic regional self-governing units than with higher regional self-governing units. On the basis of obtained information it can be stated that the share of forest ownership in the observed countries varies ranging from zero share in the ownership to fifty per cent share in Germany.

  6. Improving data quality across 3 sub-Saharan African countries using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR): results from the African Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Sarah; Mwanza, Moses; Nisingizwe, Marie Paul; Michel, Cathy; Hirschhorn, Lisa

    2017-12-21

    High-quality data are critical to inform, monitor and manage health programs. Over the seven-year African Health Initiative of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, three of the five Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) partnership projects in Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zambia introduced strategies to improve the quality and evaluation of routinely-collected data at the primary health care level, and stimulate its use in evidence-based decision-making. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) as a guide, this paper: 1) describes and categorizes data quality assessment and improvement activities of the projects, and 2) identifies core intervention components and implementation strategy adaptations introduced to improve data quality in each setting. The CFIR was adapted through a qualitative theme reduction process involving discussions with key informants from each project, who identified two domains and ten constructs most relevant to the study aim of describing and comparing each country's data quality assessment approach and implementation process. Data were collected on each project's data quality improvement strategies, activities implemented, and results via a semi-structured questionnaire with closed and open-ended items administered to health management information systems leads in each country, with complementary data abstraction from project reports. Across the three projects, intervention components that aligned with user priorities and government systems were perceived to be relatively advantageous, and more readily adapted and adopted. Activities that both assessed and improved data quality (including data quality assessments, mentorship and supportive supervision, establishment and/or strengthening of electronic medical record systems), received higher ranking scores from respondents. Our findings suggest that, at a minimum, successful data quality improvement efforts should include routine audits linked to

  7. Women's empowerment and male involvement in antenatal care: analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Na, Muzi; Cherewick, Megan; Hindin, Michelle; Mullany, Britta; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-08-30

    Increasing women's status and male involvement are important strategies in reducing preventable maternal morbidity and mortality. While efforts to both empower women and engage men in maternal health care-seeking can work synergistically, in practice they may result in opposing processes and outcomes. This study examines whether a woman's empowerment status, in sum and across economic, socio-familial, and legal dimensions, is associated with male partner accompaniment to antenatal care (ANC). Women's empowerment was measured based on the sum of nine empowerment items in the 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys in eight sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso (n = 2,490), Burundi (n = 1,042), Malawi (n = 1,353), Mozambique (n = 414), Rwanda (n = 1,211), Senegal (n = 505), Uganda (n = 428) and Zimbabwe (n = 459). In cross-sectional analyses, bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of male partner accompaniment to ANC between women with above-average versus below-average composite and dimensional empowerment scores. In the majority of countries, male accompaniment to ANC was not uncommon. However, findings were mixed. Positive associations in women's composite empowerment and male involvement were observed in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.50) and Uganda (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.35), and in the economic empowerment dimension in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.47). In Malawi, significant negative associations were observed in the odds of male accompaniment to ANC and women's composite (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97) and economic empowerment scores (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94). No significant differences were observed in Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, or Zimbabwe. Women's empowerment can be positively or negatively associated with male antenatal accompaniment. Male involvement efforts may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's participation in social and economic spheres

  8. Efficiency of international cooperation schemata in African countries: A comparative analysis using a data envelopment analysis approach

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    Victor Martin-Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficiency measurement by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA in the non-profit sector has focused on the so-called Stage I of non-profit organisations, namely, fundraising efforts (which are the most influential determinants of raising funds in order to increase the amount of contributions. However, for the so-called Stage II of non-profit organisations, namely, spending the achieved resources to program services delivery, DEA studies are very scarce. In attempting to address this research gap and to the best of our knowledge, this investigation is the first study that applies DEA to the assessment of international cooperation schemata. Consequently, we offer a significant contribution to the literature by overcoming the limitations of other techniques used to assess the efficiency and providing new insight into the efficiency of targeted different international cooperation schemata (ICS in international cooperation development projects. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the ICS of developmental projects funded by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development. Setting: Our setting is composed of different international cooperation projects funded with different schemata by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development between 2002 and 2006 in two African countries that are top priority targets of Spanish international aid: Morocco, and Mozambique. Methods: Using a sample of 48 international cooperation projects carried out in two African countries considered priorities in the Spanish Cooperation Master Plan, we analyse project efficiency using DEA. Results: The findings suggest that some schemata are more efficient than others when applied to international cooperation projects (ICS. Specifically, we find that permanent open-call subsidies are more efficient than non-governmental development organisation subsidies. Conclusion: Measures for evaluating

  9. Preparing for Ebola Virus Disease in West African countries not yet affected: perspectives from Ghanaian health professionals.

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    Nyarko, Yaw; Goldfrank, Lewis; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Soghoian, Sari; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2015-02-26

    The current Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic has ravaged the social fabric of three West African countries and affected people worldwide. We report key themes from an agenda-setting, multi-disciplinary roundtable convened to examine experiences and implications for health systems in Ghana, a nation without cases but where risk for spread is high and the economic, social and political impact of the impending threat is already felt. Participants' personal stories and the broader debates to define fundamental issues and opportunities for preparedness focused on three inter-related themes. First, the dangers of the fear response itself were highlighted as a threat to the integrity and continuity of quality care. Second, healthcare workers' fears were compounded by a demonstrable lack of societal and personal protections for infection prevention and control in communities and healthcare facilities, as evidenced by an ongoing cholera epidemic affecting over 20,000 patients in the capital Accra alone since June 2014. Third, a lack of coherent messaging and direction from leadership seems to have limited coordination and reinforced a level of mistrust in the government's ability and commitment to mobilize an adequate response. Initial recommendations include urgent investment in the needed supplies and infrastructure for basic, routine infection control in communities and healthcare facilities, provision of assurances with securities for frontline healthcare workers, establishment of a multi-sector, "all-hazards" outbreak surveillance system, and engaging directly with key community groups to co-produce contextually relevant educational messages that will help decrease stigma, fear, and the demoralizing perception that the disease defies remedy or control. The EVD epidemic provides an unprecedented opportunity for West African countries not yet affected by EVD cases to make progress on tackling long-standing health systems weaknesses. This roundtable discussion

  10. The Rising Burden of Diabetes and Hypertension in Southeast Asian and African Regions: Need for Effective Strategies for Prevention and Control in Primary Health Care Settings

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    Viswanathan Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To review the available literature on burden of diabetes mellitus (DM and hypertension (HTN and its coexistence in Southeast Asian (SEA and the African (AFR regions and to suggest strategies to improve DM and HTN prevention and control in primary health care (PHC in the two regions. Methods. A systematic review of the papers published on DM, HTN, and prevention/control of chronic diseases in SEA and AFR regions between 1980 and December 2012 was included. Results. In the year 2011, SEA region had the second largest number of people with DM (71.4 million, while the AFR region had the smallest number (14.7 million. Screening studies identified high proportions (>50% of individuals with previously undiagnosed HTN and DM in both of the SEA and AFR regions. Studies from both regions have shown that DM and HTN coexist in type 2 DM ranging from 20.6% in India to 78.4% in Thailand in the SEA region and ranging from 9.7% in Nigeria to 70.4% in Morocco in the AFR region. There is evidence that by lifestyle modification both DM and HTN can be prevented. Conclusion. To meet the twin challenge of DM and HTN in developing countries, PHCs will have to be strengthened with a concerted and multipronged effort to provide promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services.

  11. Physiotherapy for people with mental health problems in Sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review.

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    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Mugisha, James

    2018-01-01

    There is a need for psychosocial interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Physiotherapists could have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery within the multidisciplinary care of people with mental health problems. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the role of physiotherapists within the current mental health policies of SSA countries and to explore the current research evidence for physiotherapy to improve functional outcomes in people with mental health problems in SSA. The Mental Health Atlas and MiNDbank of the World Health Organization were screened for the role of physiotherapy in mental health plans. Next, we systematically searched PubMed from inception until August 1st, 2017 for relevant studies on physiotherapy interventions in people with mental health problems in SSA. The following search strategy was used: "physiotherapy" OR "physical therapy" OR "rehabilitation" AND "mental" OR "depression" OR "psychosis" OR "schizophrenia" OR "bipolar" AND the name of the country. The current systematic review shows that in 22 screened plans only 2 made reference to the importance of considering physiotherapy within the multidisciplinary treatment. The current evidence (N studies = 3; n participants = 94) shows that aerobic exercise might reduce depression and improve psychological quality of life, self-esteem, body image and emotional stress in people with HIV having mental health problems. In people with depression moderate to high but not light intensity aerobic exercise results in significantly less depressive symptoms ( N  = 1, n  = 30). Finally, there is evidence for reduction in post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and arousal), anxiety and depression following body awareness related exercises (N = 1, n  = 26). Our review demonstrated that physiotherapy is still largely neglected in the mental health care systems of SSA. This is probably due to

  12. FBC utilization prospects in decentralized cogeneration units in Caucasus region countries

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    Skodras George

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Great differences are encountered among Caucasus region countries with respect to energy resources reserves and economic conditions. Thermal power plants consist of obsolete and inefficient units, while the Soviet-type large heating systems in the area collapsed after 1992 and their reconstruction is considered uneconomic. Renovation needs of the power and heat sector, and the potential of Fluidised Bed Combustion implementations in decentralized cogeneration units were investigated, since operating oil and gas power plants exhibit high fuel consumption, low efficiency and poor environmental performance. Results showed significant prospects of Fluidised Bed Combustion utilization in decentralized cogeneration units in the Caucausus region heat and power sector. Their introduction constitutes an economically attractive way to cover power and heat demands and promotes utilization of domestic energy resources in all of three countries, provided that financial difficulties could be confronted.

  13. Multiple origins and regional dispersal of resistant dhps in African Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

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    Richard J Pearce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the molecular basis of resistance to a number of common antimalarial drugs is well known, a geographic description of the emergence and dispersal of resistance mutations across Africa has not been attempted. To that end we have characterised the evolutionary origins of antifolate resistance mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (dhps gene and mapped their contemporary distribution.We used microsatellite polymorphism flanking the dhps gene to determine which resistance alleles shared common ancestry and found five major lineages each of which had a unique geographical distribution. The extent to which allelic lineages were shared among 20 African Plasmodium falciparum populations revealed five major geographical groupings. Resistance lineages were common to all sites within these regions. The most marked differentiation was between east and west African P. falciparum, in which resistance alleles were not only of different ancestry but also carried different resistance mutations.Resistant dhps has emerged independently in multiple sites in Africa during the past 10-20 years. Our data show the molecular basis of resistance differs between east and west Africa, which is likely to translate into differing antifolate sensitivity. We have also demonstrated that the dispersal patterns of resistance lineages give unique insights into recent parasite migration patterns.

  14. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

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    Andreas Kuznik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted.The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86% and specificity (99% reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2-US$48. Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%-14.0% to 0.038% (range: 0.002%-0.113%. Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32,000, and avert up to 2.6 million

  15. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

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    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  16. Monitoring Results in Routine Immunization: Development of Routine Immunization Dashboard in Selected African Countries in the Context of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; van den Ent, Maya M V X; Sosler, Stephen; Hinman, Alan R; Brown, Sidney; Sodha, Samir; Ehlman, Daniel C; Wallace, Aaron S; Mihigo, Richard

    2017-07-01

    To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system. The development and implementation of the dashboard to assess immunization system performance allowed national program managers to monitor the key immunization indicators and stratify by high-risk and non-high-risk districts. Although only a single outcome indicator goal (at least 10% annual increase in DTP3 coverage achieved in 80% of high-risk districts) initially existed in the endgame strategy, we successfully added additional outcome indicators (eg, decreasing the number of DTP3-unvaccinated children) as well as program process indicators focusing on cold chain, stock availability, and vaccination sessions to better describe progress on the pathway to raising immunization coverage. When measuring progress toward improving immunization systems, it is helpful to use a comprehensive approach that allows for measuring multiple dimensions of the system. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. Regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Znaor, Ariana; Holcatova, Ivana; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Ferlay, Jacques; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    Marked unexplained national variations in incidence rates of kidney cancer have been observed for decades in Europe. To investigate geographic variations at the regional level and identify European regions with high incidence rates of kidney cancer. Regional- and national-level incidence data were extracted from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents databases, local cancer registry databases, and local published reports. World population age-standardised rates (ASRs) were calculated for the periods 2003-2007 and 1988-1992. Rates by period and sex were compared using map visualisation. During 2003-2007, the highest ASR was found in the Plzen region, Czech Republic (31.4/100,000 person-years in men). Other regions of the Czech Republic had ASRs of 18.6-27.5/100,000 in men, with a tendency for higher rates in regions south of Prague. Surrounding regions, including eastern Germany and regions of Slovakia and Austria, had medium-to-high incidence rates (13.0-16.8/100,000 in men). Three other areas in Europe showed higher incidence rates in men compared with the rest of the continent: Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, and Belarus (15.0-17.6/100,000); Iceland (13.5/100,000), and northern Italy (up to 16.0/100,000). Similar regional differences were observed among women, with rates approximately half of those observed in men in the same region. In general, these regional geographic variations remained stable over the periods 1988-1992 and 2003-2007, although higher incidence rates were detected in the Baltic countries in 2003-2007. Several European regions show particularly high rates of kidney cancer incidence. Large variations were observed within countries covered by national health-care systems, implying that overdetection is not the major factor. We present regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in Europe. We highlight several regions with high incidence rates where further studies should be conducted for cancer control and prevention. Copyright

  18. Regional approach to the management of fruit flies in the Pacific Island countries and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Of the 4,500 species of fruit flies (family Tephritidae) world-wide, over 350 species occur in the Pacific region. Of these, at least 25 species are regarded as being of major economic importance to fruit and vegetable production and to international trade within the region. Recognition of the economic importance of fruit flies to horticultural production and trade increased markedly in the 1980s due to the imposition of restrictions on the use of ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation by trading partners. This treatment was the mainstay of quarantine treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables susceptible to fruit fly infestations and destined for markets in Australia, New Zealand, USA, Japan and Canada. Small, but economically significant, markets for fresh fruits and vegetables in the Pacific rim countries disappeared because alternative quarantine treatments for EDB fumigation were not available. Countries, such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, looked for modern technologies to overcome these constraints to export. As well as quarantine treatment technologies, procedures new to the Pacific Island countries, such as quality assurance systems and quarantine pathways, had to be included into the production and marketing chains. Quarantine surveillance, particularly for exotic fruit flies, became a prerequisite for trade in fresh fruits and vegetables. The emphasis on fruit flies also regionally increased because of the increasing number of incursions of exotic fruit flies into the region over the past 10-12 years. Outbreaks of exotic fruit flies in the Solomon Islands (1984-85), Nauru (1984-85), Northern Australia (1995 and 1998), New Zealand (1996), French Polynesia (1995-96), and Palau (1995-96) demonstrated the vulnerability of the Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) to these incursions. To address the increased threat of introduction of exotic fruit flies through increased tourism and regional travellers, a regional approach to the management

  19. Knowledge Organisations and High-Tech Regional Innovation Systems in Developing Countries: Evidence from Argentina

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    Carolina Pasciaroni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the globally and knowledge based economy, the universities and other knowledge organisations are valued for their ability to contribute to the regional innovation processes. This is particularly relevant for the developing countries in South America since their R&D spending is highly concentrated on the public knowledge infrastructure. However, there are few studies examining the role of knowledge organizations at regional level in Latin America. The proposed study aims to analyse the role played by knowledge organisations in the formation of a high-tech Regional Innovation Systems in Argentina. This country has a number of attractive features relative to the positive evolution of its R&D spending and the recent implementation of a policy that promotes cooperation between firms and knowledge organisations among high-tech sectors. As evidenced in developed regions, the organisations under study play a key role in the promotion of a high-tech Regional Innovation Systems. However, this prominent role is not based on those local factors identified in the literature, such as organisational and institutional local assets, but on national science and technology policies and individual initiatives conducted by the faculties involved.

  20. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-12-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum γ-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Lessons learned from early implementation of option B+: the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation experience in 11 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Mary Pat; Mattingly, Meghan; Giphart, Anja; van de Ven, Roland; Chouraya, Caspian; Walakira, Moses; Boon, Alexandre; Mikusova, Silvia; Simonds, R J

    2014-12-01

    "Option B+" is a World Health Organization-recommended approach to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission whereby all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women initiate lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review of early Option B+ implementation experience is intended to inform Ministries of Health and others involved in implementing Option B+. This implementation science study analyzed data from 11 African countries supported by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) to describe early experience implementing Option B+. Data are from 4 sources: (1) national guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and Option B+ implementation plans, (2) aggregated service delivery data between January 2013 and March 2014 from EGPAF-supported sites, (3) field visits to Option B+ implementation sites, and (4) relevant EGPAF research, quality improvement, and evaluation studies. Rapid adoption of Option B+ led to large increases in percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women accessing ART in antenatal care. By the end of 2013, most programs reached at least 50% of HIV-positive women in antenatal care with ART, even in countries using a phased approach to implementation. Scaling up Option B+ through integrating ART in maternal and child health settings has required expansion of the workforce, and task shifting to allow nurse-led ART initiation has created staffing pressure on lower-level cadres for counseling and community follow-up. Complex data collection needs may be impairing data quality. Early experiences with Option B+ implementation demonstrate promise. Continued program evaluation is needed, as is specific attention to counseling and support around initiation of lifetime ART in the context of pregnancy and lactation.

  2. A review of visceral leishmaniasis during the conflict in South Sudan and the consequences for East African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, Waleed; Herricks, Jennifer R; Hotez, Peter J

    2016-08-22

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused predominantly by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by both Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini, is highly endemic in East Africa where approximately 30 thousands VL cases are reported annually. The largest numbers of cases are found in Sudan - where Phlebotomus orientalis proliferate in Acacia forests especially on Sudan's eastern border with Ethiopia, followed by South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Long-standing civil war and unrest is a dominant determinant of VL in East African countries. Here we attempt to identify the correlation between VL epidemics and civil unrest. In this review, literature published between 1955 and 2016 have been gathered from MSF, UNICEF, OCHA, UNHCR, PubMed and Google Scholar to analyse the correlation between conflict and human suffering from VL, which is especially apparent in South Sudan. Waves of forced migration as a consequence of civil wars between 1983 and 2005 have resulted in massive and lethal epidemics in southern Sudan. Following a comprehensive peace agreement, but especially with increased allocation of resources for disease treatment and prevention in 2011, cases of VL declined reaching the lowest levels after South Sudan declared independence. However, in the latest epidemic that began in 2014 after the onset of a civil war in South Sudan, more than 1.5 million displaced refugees have migrated internally to states highly endemic for VL, while 800,000 have fled to neighboring countries. We find a strong relationship between civil unrest and VL epidemics which tend to occur among immunologically naïve migrants entering VL-endemic areas and when Leishmania-infected individuals migrate to new areas and establish additional foci of disease. Further complicating factors in East Africa's VL epidemics include severe lack of access to diagnosis and treatment, HIV/AIDS co-infection, food insecurity and malnutrition. Moreover, cases of post-kala-azar dermal

  3. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardon, Anita; Vernooij, Eva; Bongololo-Mbera, Grace; Cherutich, Peter; Desclaux, Alice; Kyaddondo, David; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Neuman, Melissa; Wanyenze, Rhoda; Obermeyer, Carla

    2012-01-11

    Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1) the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408) and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) services; 2) semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3) in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4) document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90%) report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain) when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously.

  4. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardon Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1 the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408 and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC services; 2 semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3 in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4 document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. Results The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90% report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. Conclusion To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously.

  5. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI): a culture-informed instrument for the country's main ethnocultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H; Meiring, Deon; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Hill, Carin

    2015-09-01

    We present the development and the underlying structure of a personality inventory for the main ethnocultural groups of South Africa, using an emic-etic approach. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) was developed based on an extensive qualitative study of the implicit personality conceptions in the country's 11 official languages (Nel et al., 2012). Items were generated and selected (to a final set of 146) with a continuous focus on cultural adequacy and translatability. Students and community adults (671 Blacks, 198 Coloreds, 104 Indians, and 391 Whites) completed the inventory. A 6-dimensional structure (comprising a positive and a negative Social-Relational factor, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness) was equivalent across groups and replicated in an independent sample of 139 Black and 270 White students. The SAPI correlated highly overall with impression-management aspects, but lower with lying aspects of social desirability. The SAPI social-relational factors were distinguishable from the Big Five in a joint factor analysis; the multiple correlations with the Big Five were .64 (positive) and .51 (negative social-relational). Implications and suggestions for emic-etic instrument and model development are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fouchier, Capucine; Blanchet, Alain; Hopkins, William; Bui, Eric; Ait-Aoudia, Malik; Jehel, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Background To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) to this population. Method The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95). Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83). At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively). Conclusion Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ. PMID:23233870

  7. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  8. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capucine de Fouchier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective: The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ to this population. Method: The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95. Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83. At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ.

  9. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Ackerman, Benjamin; Diouf, Daouda; Ceesay, Nuha; Mothopeng, Tampose; Odette, Ky-Zerbo; Kouanda, Seni; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Simplice, Anato; Kouame, Abo; Mnisi, Zandile; Trapence, Gift; van der Merwe, L Leigh Ann; Jumbe, Vicente; Baral, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January-August 2013), Côte d'Ivoire (March 2015-February 2016), The Gambia (July-December 2011), Lesotho (February-September 2014), Malawi (July 2011-March 2012), Senegal (February-November 2015), Swaziland (August-December 2011), and Togo (January-June 2013). Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20%) identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.16, p gender with condomless receptive anal sex, the odds of HIV infection for transgender women were 2.2 times greater than the odds for cis-MSM (95% CI 1.65-2.87, p gender diversity within HIV research and programs.

  11. Regional Integration and Conflict Management in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    security in the region , the building of environment programmes at the regional level, and .... Africa, and prioritized only one corresponding organization for each area; .... uninvited interventions by some African states in neighboring countries in.

  12. Africa burning: A thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, Robert J.; Annegarn, Harold J.; Suttles, J. Timothy; King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Privette, Jeffrey L.; Scholes, Robert J.

    2003-07-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) was a major surface, airborne, and spaceborne field campaign carried out in southern Africa in 2000 and 2001 that addressed a broad range of phenomena related to land-atmosphere interactions and the biogeochemical functioning of the southern African system. This paper presents a thematic analysis and integration of the Journal of Geophysical Research SAFARI 2000 Special Issue, presenting key findings of an intensive field campaign over southern Africa in August and September of 2000. The integrating themes deal with surface emissions characterization; airborne characterizations of aerosols and trace gases; regional haze and trace gas characterization; and radiant measurements by surface, aircraft, and remote sensing platforms. Enhanced regional fuel loads associated with the moist La Niña phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle produced above average biomass burning emissions, which consequently dominated all other aerosol and trace gas emissions during the dry season. Southward transport of a broad plume of smoke originating in equatorial Africa and exiting off the east coast toward the Indian Ocean (the river of smoke) is attributed to unusual synoptic airflows associated the ENSO phase. New and revised biogenic and pyrogenic emission factors are reported, including a number of previously unreported oxygenated organic compounds and inorganic compounds from biomass combustion. Emission factors are scaled up to regional emission surfaces for biogenic species utilizing species specific and light-dependent emission factors. Fire scar estimates reveal contradictory information on the timing of the peak and extent of the biomass-burning season. Integrated tall stack coordinated measurements (between ground, airborne and remotely sensing platforms) of upwelling and downwelling radiation in massive thick aerosol layers covering much of southern Africa yield consistent estimates of large

  13. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating the burden of Japanese encephalitis virus and other encephalitides in countries of the mekong region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tarantola

    Full Text Available Diverse aetiologies of viral and bacterial encephalitis are widely recognized as significant yet neglected public health issues in the Mekong region. A robust analysis of the corresponding health burden is lacking. We retrieved 75 articles on encephalitis in the region published in English or in French from 1965 through 2011. Review of available data demonstrated that they are sparse and often derived from hospital-based studies with significant recruitment bias. Almost half (35 of 75 of articles were on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV alone or associated with dengue. In the Western Pacific region the WHO reported 30,000-50,000 annual JEV cases (15,000 deaths between 1966 and 1996 and 4,633 cases (200 deaths in 2008, a decline likely related to the introduction of JEV vaccination in China, Vietnam, or Thailand since the 1980s. Data on dengue, scrub typhus and rabies encephalitis, among other aetiologies, are also reviewed and discussed. Countries of the Mekong region are undergoing profound demographic, economic and ecological change. As the epidemiological aspects of Japanese encephalitis (JE are transformed by vaccination in some countries, highly integrated expert collaborative research and objective data are needed to identify and prioritize the human health, animal health and economic burden due to JE and other pathogens associated with encephalitides.

  15. An Investigation on Legal Protection for Women Victims of Climate Change; Studying African Regional Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mosaffa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, paying attention to the subject of Climate Change and its destructive effects on different countries around the world have caused regular activities as holding international conferences, and ratifying some international documents. Developing and non-developed countries have less facilities and infrastructures to protect themselves from climate change effects and are more vulnerable. Moreover, African countries due to their climate conditions are the most vulnerable. Even more, they have the main population of climate refugees. Although an increasing effort in Africa has resulted in more legal protection for victims of climate change especially women as the most volunrable people, and has been appeared in many regional treaties, but inconsistency and denial of responsibilities from developing countries have caused serious challenges for long term legal-protection of environmental refugees and displacements, especially women and children who are the most vulnerable of climate change victims. Since a sufficient protection of these people requires a common concern and responsibility between states, referring to the "common but different responsibility" principle is one of the most important legal pillar for burden sharing of the massive climate – change movements. تأثیرات تغییرات اقلیم در دهه‌های گذشته بسیار بزرگ بوده و توجه به این پدیده موجب انجام اقدامات معمول بین‌المللی از قبیل برگزاری کنفرانس، تشکیل نهادهـا و تنظیم اسناد گردیده است. در ایـن بین، کشورهای کمتر توسعه‌یافته از امکانات کمتری برای مقابله با این تغییرات برخوردار و در نتیجه آسیب پذیر‌ترند. منطقه آفریقا با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی خاص خود بیشترین آسیب را متحمل شده و هم

  16. Comparisons of intensity-duration patterns of physical activity in the US, Jamaica and 3 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Lara R; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Shoham, David; Kroff, Jacolene; Cao, Guichan; Cooper, Richard S; Brage, Soren; Ekelund, Ulf; Luke, Amy

    2014-08-27

    This difference in how populations living in low-, middle or upper-income countries accumulate daily PA, i.e. patterns and intensity, is an important part in addressing the global PA movement. We sought to characterize objective PA in 2,500 participants spanning the epidemiologic transition. The Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) is a longitudinal study, in 5 countries. METS seeks to define the association between physical activity (PA), obesity and CVD risk in populations of African origin: Ghana (GH), South Africa (SA), Seychelles (SEY), Jamaica (JA) and the US (suburban Chicago). Baseline measurements of objective PA, SES, anthropometrics and body composition, were completed on 2,500 men and women, aged 25-45 years. Moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA, min/d) on week and weekend days was explored ecologically, by adiposity status and manual labor. Among the men, obesity prevalence reflected the level of economic transition and was lowest in GH (1.7%) and SA (4.8%) and highest in the US (41%). SA (55%) and US (65%) women had the highest levels of obesity, compared to only 16% in GH. More men and women in developing countries engaged in manual labor and this was reflected by an almost doubling of measured MPVA among the men in GH (45 min/d) and SA (47 min/d) compared to only 28 min/d in the US. Women in GH (25 min/d), SA (21 min/d), JA (20 min/d) and SEY (20 min/d) accumulated significantly more MPVA than women in the US (14 min/d), yet this difference was not reflected by differences in BMI between SA, JA, SEY and US. Moderate PA constituted the bulk of the PA, with no study populations except SA men accumulating > 5 min/d of vigorous PA. Among the women, no sites accumulated >2 min/d of vigorous PA. Overweight/obese men were 22% less likely to engage in manual occupations. While there is some association for PA with obesity, this relationship is inconsistent across the epidemiologic transition and suggests that PA policy recommendations should be

  17. Getting It Right the First Time: Defining Regionally Relevant Training Curricula and Provider Core Competencies for Point-of-Care Ultrasound Education on the African Continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Landes, Megan; Hunchak, Cheryl; Paluku, Justin; Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Salmon, Christian; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Wachira, Benjamin; Mangan, James; Chhaganlal, Kajal; Kalanzi, Joseph; Azazh, Aklilu; Berman, Sara; Zied, El-Sayed; Lamprecht, Hein

    2017-02-01

    Significant evidence identifies point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in resource-limited settings. Despite this evidence, local health care providers on the African continent continue to have limited access to and use of ultrasound, even in potentially high-impact fields such as obstetrics and trauma. Dedicated postgraduate emergency medicine residency training programs now exist in 8 countries, yet no current consensus exists in regard to core PoCUS competencies. The current practice of transferring resource-rich PoCUS curricula and delivery methods to resource-limited health systems fails to acknowledge the unique challenges, needs, and disease burdens of recipient systems. As emergency medicine leaders from 8 African countries, we introduce a practical algorithmic approach, based on the local epidemiology and resource constraints, to curriculum development and implementation. We describe an organizational structure composed of nexus learning centers for PoCUS learners and champions on the continent to keep credentialing rigorous and standardized. Finally, we put forth 5 key strategic considerations: to link training programs to hospital systems, to prioritize longitudinal learning models, to share resources to promote health equity, to maximize access, and to develop a regional consensus on training standards and credentialing. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of the fourth industrial revolution: a cross-country/region comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fourth industrial revolution stimulates the advances of science and technology, in which the Internet of Things (IoT and its supporting technologies serve as backbones for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS and smart machines are used as the promoters to optimize production chains. Such advancement goes beyond the organizational and territorial boundaries, comprising agility, intelligence, and networking. This scenario triggers governmental efforts that aim at defining guidelines and standards. The speed and complexity of the transition to the new digitalization era in a globalized environment, however, does not yet allow a common and coordinated understanding of the impacts of the actions undertaken in different countries and regions. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to bridge this gap through a systematic literature review that identifies the most influential public policies and evaluates their existing differences. This cross-country/region comparison provides a worldwide panorama of public policies' durations, main objectives, available funding, areas for action, focused manufacturing sectors, and prioritized technologies. Findings of this review can be used as the basis to analyse the position of a country against the existing challenges imposed towards its own industrial infrastructure and also to coordinate its public policies.

  19. Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for the authentication of regionally unique South African lamb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Sara W.; Muller, Magdalena; Alewijn, Martin; Koot, Alex H.; Ruth, van Saskia M.; Hoffman, Louwrens C.

    2017-01-01

    The volatile fingerprints of South African lamb meat and fat were measured by proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to evaluate it as an authentication tool. Meat and fat of the Longissimus lumborum (LL) of lambs from six different regions were assessed. Analysis showed that the volatile

  20. Duplicated Enhancer Region Increases Expression of CTSB and Segregates with Keratolytic Winter Erythema in South African and Norwegian Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngcungcu, T.; Oti, M.O.; Sitek, J.C.; Haukanes, B.I.; Linghu, B.; Bruccoleri, R.; Stokowy, T.; Oakeley, E.J.; Yang, F; Zhu, J.; Sultan, M.; Schalkwijk, J.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Lippe, C.; Brunner, H.G.; Ersland, K.M.; Grayson, W.; Buechmann-Moller, S.; Sundnes, O.; Nirmala, N.; Morgan, T.M.; Bokhoven, H. van; Steen, V.M.; Hull, P.R.; Szustakowski, J.; Staedtler, F.; Zhou, H.; Fiskerstrand, T.; Ramsay, M.

    2017-01-01

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE) is a rare autosomal-dominant skin disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of palmoplantar erythema and epidermal peeling. KWE was previously mapped to 8p23.1-p22 (KWE critical region) in South African families. Using targeted resequencing of the KWE critical

  1. African Journals Online: Central African Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Home > African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  2. Contribution to the Proposal for the Formation of Regional Centres for Nuclear Physics in the Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaga, G. [Institute ' ' Rudjer Bośković' ' , Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1969-07-15

    The paper discusses the development of nuclear physics in developing countries, pointing out the difficulties of research in the future. A proposal for the formation of regional centres is put forward. Arguments justifying the formation of these regional centres are presented together with the suggestion that UNESCO and IAEA act as sponsors and financial supporters of the regional centres. The institutes in the developing countries could serve as a basis for such centres. Countries which are qualified and interested in having and using the facilities of the regional centres should also participate in the financing of them. (author)

  3. How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the medical course in Portugal and African Portuguese speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joselina; Severo, Milton; Fresta, Mário; Ismail, Mamudo; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Barros, Henrique

    2011-05-25

    A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some weaknesses.

  4. What's in a country average? Wealth, gender, and regional inequalities in immunization in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Rohini P; Yazbeck, Abdo S

    2003-12-01

    Recent attention to Millennium Development Goals by the international development community has led to the formation of targets to measure country-level achievements, including achievements on health status indicators such as childhood immunization. Using the example of immunization in India, this paper demonstrates the importance of disaggregating national averages for a better understanding of social disparities in health. Specifically, the paper uses data from the India National Family Health Survey 1992-93 to analyze socioeconomic, gender, urban-rural and regional inequalities in immunization in India for each of the 17 largest states. Results show that, on average, southern states have better immunization levels and lower immunization inequalities than many northern states. Wealth and regional inequalities are correlated with overall levels of immunization in a non-linear fashion. Gender inequalities persist in most states, including in the south, and seem unrelated to overall immunization or the levels of other inequalities measured here. This suggests that the gender differentials reflect deep-seated societal factors rather than health system issues per se. The disaggregated information and analysis used in this paper allows for setting more meaningful targets than country averages. Additionally, it helps policy makers and planners to understand programmatic constraints and needs by identifying disparities between sub-groups of the population, including strong and weak performers at the state and regional levels.

  5. Relationships between cancer pattern, country income and geographical region in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teo, Chin Hai; Abdullah, Nurdiana; Tan, Wei Phin; Tan, Hui Meng

    2015-09-03

    Cancer incidence and mortality varies across region, sex and country's economic status. While most studies focused on global trends, this study aimed to describe and analyse cancer incidence and mortality in Asia, focusing on cancer site, sex, region and income status. Age-standardised incidence and mortality rates of cancer were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Cancer mortality to incidence ratios (MIRs) were calculated to represent cancer survival. The data were analysed based on the four regions in Asia and income. Cancer incidence rate is lower in Asia compared to the West but for MIR, it is the reverse. In Asia, the most common cancers in men are lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophageal cancers while the most common cancers in women are breast, lung, cervical, colorectal and stomach cancers. The MIRs are the highest in lung, liver and stomach cancers and the lowest in colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Eastern and Western Asia have a higher incidence of cancer compared to South-Eastern and South-Central Asia but this pattern is the reverse for MIR. Cancer incidence rate increases with country income particularly in colorectal and breast cancers but the pattern is the opposite for MIR. This study confirms that there is a wide variation in cancer incidence and mortality across Asia. This study is the first step towards documenting and explaining the changing cancer pattern in Asia in comparison to the rest of the world.

  6. Does a wife's education influence spousal agreement on approval of family planning?: Random-effects Modeling using data from two West African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mian; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Rogers, Laurencia

    2014-05-01

    Spousal approval of family planning is critical for contraceptive use. Both contraceptive use rates and women's education are low in many West-African countries and this study examines the role of wives' education in spousal agreement on approval of family planning in two sub-Saharan West African countries. We used couples' data from Demographic Health Surveys in Senegal and in Niger, conducted in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results using multilevel modeling show that the odds of spousal agreement on approval of family planning were slightly over three times [OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.32 to 7.57] in Senegal and were about three times [OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.64 to 5.76] in Niger higher for women with more than primary education. Findings suggest that improvement in women's education could lead to spousal agreement on approval of family planning, which may lead to use of family planning in sub-Saharan African countries.

  7. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  8. The influence of industry actions on the availability of alcoholic beverages in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Jernigan, David

    2015-04-01

    The alcohol beverage industry has been expanding its corporate social responsibility and other business activities in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of these activities on the physical, economic, psychological and social availability of alcohol in the region. Narrative review. Source materials came from the business press, industry sources (websites, annual reports, press releases, conference proceedings) and the scientific literature published since 2000. The alcohol industry has intensified its activities in the African region, through their funding of social aspect organizations, technical publications, policy workshops and other corporate social responsibility activities. Marketing campaigns, new product designs and the development of industry-civil society partnerships have increased. There is evidence that the alcohol industry also engages in lobbying, information dissemination and legal action to thwart effective public health measures. The corporate social responsibility activities of the global alcohol industry have provided a vehicle to promote industry-favorable policies and increase the physical, economic, social and psychological availability of alcohol. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. DNA methylation in the APOE genomic region is associated with cognitive function in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxuan; Zhao, Wei; Ware, Erin B; Turner, Stephen T; Mosley, Thomas H; Smith, Jennifer A

    2018-05-08

    Genetic variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE) and proximal genes (PVRL2, TOMM40, and APOC1) are associated with cognitive function and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play a central role in the regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have found evidence that DNA methylation may contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia, but its association with cognitive function in populations without dementia remains unclear. We assessed DNA methylation levels of 48 CpG sites in the APOE genomic region in peripheral blood leukocytes collected from 289 African Americans (mean age = 67 years) from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. Using linear regression, we examined the relationship between methylation in the APOE genomic region and multiple cognitive measures including learning, memory, processing speed, concentration, language and global cognitive function. We identified eight CpG sites in three genes (PVRL2, TOMM40, and APOE) that showed an inverse association between methylation level and delayed recall, a measure of memory, after adjusting for age and sex (False Discovery Rate q-value accounting for known genetic predictors for cognition. Our findings highlight the important role of epigenetic mechanisms in influencing cognitive performance, and suggest that changes in blood methylation may be an early indicator of individuals at risk for dementia as well as potential targets for intervention in asymptomatic populations.

  10. The concentration of the global alcohol industry and its penetration in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Babor, Thomas F

    2015-04-01

    To describe the penetration and expansion of the global alcohol industry into the African region, as a context for exploring the implications for public health. Source materials for this study came primarily from market research and the business press. This was supplemented by industry sources (from websites, company annual reports), World Health Organization reports and the scientific literature. Drinking in Africa is characterized by high rates of abstention and a high prevalence of heavy episodic consumption among those who drink. Much of the region is currently experiencing a rapid rise in consumption. Rising populations and income and the rapid pace of urbanization make Africa very attractive to the global alcohol industry, and industry leaders have identified Africa as a key area for growth. The shift from collaboration to competition in Africa among the global alcohol companies has prompted increasing alcohol production, promotion, new product development, pricing schemes and stakeholder lobbying. Beer consumption has increased across most of the continent, and global brewers view themselves as legitimate players at the alcohol policy table. Weak alcohol policy environments may be compromised further in terms of public health protections by alcohol industry opposition to effective measures such as marketing regulations, availability controls and taxation. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. The truth is in the isotopes: Authenticating regionally unique South African lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara W; Muller, Magdalena; Butler, Mike; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-01-15

    Stable isotope ratios ( 13 C/ 12 C and 15 N/ 14 N) of South African lambs from different regions were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Homogenised and defatted meat of the Longissimus lumborum muscle was assessed. The Rûens and Hantam Karoo regions had the lowest (P≤0.05) δ 13 C values related to the presence of C 3 plants (lucerne and Karoo bushes, respectively). The Northern Karoo, Namibia and Bushmanland had the highest δ 13 C values likely due to a high proportion of dietary C 4 grass species. The δ 15 N values were highest for Central Karoo, Semi-extensive, Namibia and Hantam Karoo, while Rûens and Feedlot had the lowest nitrogen isotope values (P≤0.05). Classification of origin (Karoo vs. Non-Karoo) using discriminant analysis allowed 95% and 90% correct classification of the samples for the estimation model and validation models, respectively. The results confirm that IRMS provides sufficient discriminative power to classify lamb meat of varying origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Successes and challenges of north–south partnerships – key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Färnman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North–south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Design: Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. Results: The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north–south and south–south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a ‘north–south divide’ in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. Conclusion: The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed

  13. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2017-10-01

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  14. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    adverse events experienced and the proportion reporting drunkenness. Conclusions We find an association between experience of adverse childhood events and drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries. The complex impacts of adverse childhood experiences on young people's development and behavior may have an important bearing on the effectiveness of interventions geared at reducing alcohol dependence among the youth.

  15. Reproductive Parameters of the West African Dwarf Bucks Raised in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Ezihe

    Sahelian vegetational region, the Yankasa which is the most numerous and widespread found in the guinea savannah and spread to other parts of the country, and finally the hardy, short-legged. West African Dwarf sheep restricted to high.

  16. Increasing the value of health research in the WHO African Region beyond 2015--reflecting on the past, celebrating the present and building the future: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Olalekan A; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Ota, Martin O; Nicol, Mark; Hussey, Gregory D; Ndumbe, Peter M; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2015-03-13

    To assess the profile and determinants of health research productivity in Africa since the onset of the new millennium. Bibliometric analysis. In November 2014, we searched PubMed for articles published between 2000 and 2014 from the WHO African Region, and obtained country-level indicators from World Bank data. We used Poisson regression to examine time trends in research publications and negative binomial regression to explore determinants of research publications. We identified 107,662 publications, with a median of 727 per country (range 25-31,757). Three countries (South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya) contributed 52% of the publications. The number of publications increased from 3623 in 2000 to 12,709 in 2014 (relative growth 251%). Similarly, the per cent share of worldwide research publications per year increased from 0.7% in 2000 to 1.3% in 2014. The trend analysis was also significant to confirm a continuous increase in health research publications from Africa, with productivity increasing by 10.3% per year (95% CIs +10.1% to +10.5%). The only independent predictor of publication outputs was national gross domestic product. For every one log US$ billion increase in gross domestic product, research publications rose by 105%: incidence rate ratio (IRR=2.05, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.04). The association of private health expenditure with publications was only marginally significant (IRR=1.86, 95% CI 1.00 to 3.47). There has been a significant improvement in health research in the WHO African Region since 2000, with some individual countries already having strong research profiles. Countries of the region should implement the WHO Strategy on Research for Health: reinforcing the research culture (organisation); focusing research on key health challenges (priorities); strengthening national health research systems (capacity); encouraging good research practice (standards); and consolidating linkages between health research and action (translation). Published by the BMJ

  17. Associations between mode of HIV testing and consent, confidentiality, and referral: a comparative analysis in four African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer

    Full Text Available Recommendations about scaling up HIV testing and counseling highlight the need to provide key services and to protect clients' rights, but it is unclear to what extent different modes of testing differ in this respect. This paper examines whether practices regarding consent, confidentiality, and referral vary depending on whether testing is provided through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT or provider-initiated testing.The MATCH (Multi-Country African Testing and Counseling for HIV study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, and Uganda. Surveys were conducted at selected facilities. We defined eight outcome measures related to pre- and post-test counseling, consent, confidentiality, satisfactory interactions with providers, and (for HIV-positive respondents referral for care. These were compared across three types of facilities: integrated facilities, where testing is provided along with medical care; stand-alone VCT facilities; and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT facilities, where testing is part of PMTCT services. Tests of bivariate associations and modified Poisson regression were used to assess significance and estimate the unadjusted and adjusted associations between modes of testing and outcome measures. In total, 2,116 respondents tested in 2007 or later reported on their testing experience. High percentages of clients across countries and modes of testing reported receiving recommended services and being satisfied. In the unadjusted analyses, integrated testers were less likely to meet with a counselor before testing (83% compared with 95% of VCT testers; p<0.001, but those who had a pre-test meeting were more likely to have completed consent procedures (89% compared with 83% among VCT testers; p<0.001 and pre-test counseling (78% compared with 73% among VCT testers; p = 0.015. Both integrated and PMTCT testers were more likely to receive complete post-test counseling than were VCT testers (59% among

  18. Associations between mode of HIV testing and consent, confidentiality, and referral: a comparative analysis in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Neuman, Melissa; Desclaux, Alice; Wanyenze, Rhoda; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Cherutich, Peter; Namakhoma, Ireen; Hardon, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations about scaling up HIV testing and counseling highlight the need to provide key services and to protect clients' rights, but it is unclear to what extent different modes of testing differ in this respect. This paper examines whether practices regarding consent, confidentiality, and referral vary depending on whether testing is provided through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) or provider-initiated testing. The MATCH (Multi-Country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, and Uganda. Surveys were conducted at selected facilities. We defined eight outcome measures related to pre- and post-test counseling, consent, confidentiality, satisfactory interactions with providers, and (for HIV-positive respondents) referral for care. These were compared across three types of facilities: integrated facilities, where testing is provided along with medical care; stand-alone VCT facilities; and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) facilities, where testing is part of PMTCT services. Tests of bivariate associations and modified Poisson regression were used to assess significance and estimate the unadjusted and adjusted associations between modes of testing and outcome measures. In total, 2,116 respondents tested in 2007 or later reported on their testing experience. High percentages of clients across countries and modes of testing reported receiving recommended services and being satisfied. In the unadjusted analyses, integrated testers were less likely to meet with a counselor before testing (83% compared with 95% of VCT testers; p<0.001), but those who had a pre-test meeting were more likely to have completed consent procedures (89% compared with 83% among VCT testers; p<0.001) and pre-test counseling (78% compared with 73% among VCT testers; p = 0.015). Both integrated and PMTCT testers were more likely to receive complete post-test counseling than were VCT testers (59% among both PMTCT

  19. Framework for laboratory harmonization of folate measurements in low- and middle-income countries and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Zhang, Mindy; Jabbar, Shameem

    2018-02-01

    The measurement of serum and red blood cell folate, two commonly used biomarkers of folate status in populations, is complicated by analytical and data interpretation challenges. Folate results show poor comparability across laboratories, even using the same analytical technique. The folate microbiologic assay produces accurate results and requires simple instrumentation. Thus, it could be set up and maintained in low- and middle-income country laboratories. However, the assay has to be harmonized through the use of common critical reagents (e.g., microorganism and folate calibrator) in order to produce comparable results across laboratories and over time, so that the same cutoff values can be applied across surveys. There is a limited need for blood folate measurements in a country owing to the periodic nature of surveys. Having a network of regional resource laboratories proficient in conducting the folate microbiologic assay and willing and able to perform service work for other countries will be the most efficient way to create an infrastructure wherein qualified laboratories produce reliable blood folate data. Continuous participation of these laboratories in a certification program can verify and document their proficiency. If the resource laboratories conduct the work on a fee-for-service basis, they could become self-sustaining in the long run. © 2018 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. The textile and clothing industry in the Danube region countries: Comparative advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatijević Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the analysis of comparative advantages of international export in the TC (textile and clothing industry of the Danube region countries with a special focus on Serbia. The aim of this study is to analyze the comparative advantage and suggest possible economic and legal measures to strengthen export. This study observed export per capita and participation of TC industry export, and measured the comparative advantage and specialization of the Danube region countries in the period between 2005 and 2013. In the course of research, we used the Balassa (RCA and Lafay (LFI indexes of comparative advantage, and the GL index and RUV index of horizontal and vertical specialization in intra-industry exchange. The research has revealed positive comparative advantage in the export of the textile industry in the Czech Republic, Germany and Slovenia. In the clothing industry export, positive comparative advantage was revealed in the cases of: Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Slovakia and Serbia. The research has shown a positive comparative advantage of the TC industry sector in Serbia. The results of our research into the TC industry reveal the existence of correlation between comparative advantage and intra-industry specialization in international trade.

  1. Bibliometric analysis of regional Latin America's scientific output in Public Health through SCImago Journal & Country Rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In the greater framework of the essential functions of Public Health, our focus is on a systematic, objective, external evaluation of Latin American scientific output, to compare its publications in the area of Public Health with those of other major geographic zones. We aim to describe the regional distribution of output in Public Health, and the level of visibility and specialization, for Latin America; it can then be characterized and compared in the international context. Methods The primary source of information was the Scopus database, using the category “Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health”, in the period 1996–2011. Data were obtained through the portal of SCImago Journal and Country Rank. Using a set of qualitative (citation-based), quantitative (document recount) and collaborative (authors from more than one country) indicators, we derived complementary data. The methodology serves as an analytical tool for researchers and scientific policy-makers. Results The contribution of Latin America to the arsenal of world science lies more or less midway on the international scale in terms of its output and visibility. Revealed as its greatest strengths are the high level of specialization in Public Health and the sustained growth of output. The main limitations identified were a relative decrease in collaboration and low visibility. Conclusions Collaboration is a key factor behind the development of scientific activity in Latin America. Although this finding can be useful for formulating research policy in Latin American countries, it also underlines the need for further research into patterns of scientific communication in this region, to arrive at more specific recommendations. PMID:24950735

  2. Regional disaster risk management strategies for food security: Probing Southern African Development Community channels for influencing national policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy M. Tirivangasi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters and food insecurity are directly interconnected. Climate change related hazards such as floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, droughts and other risks can weaken food security and severely impact agricultural activities. Consequently, this has an impact on market access, trade, food supply, reduced income, increased food prices, decreased farm income and employment. Natural disasters create poverty, which in turn increases the prevalence of food insecurity and malnutrition. It is clear that disasters put food security at risk. The poorest people in the community are affected by food insecurity and disasters; hence, there is a need to be prepared as well as be in a position to manage disasters. Without serious efforts to address them, the risks of disasters will become an increasingly serious obstacle to sustainable development and the achievement of sustainable development goals, particularly goal number 2 ‘end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture’. In recent years, countries in southern Africa have experienced an increase in the frequency, magnitude and impact of climate change–related hazards such as droughts, veld fire, depleting water resources and flood events. This research aims to reveal Southern African Development Community disaster risk management strategies for food security to see how they an influence and shape policy at the national level in southern Africa. Sustainable Livelihood approach was adopted as the main theoretical framework for the study. The qualitative Analysis is based largely on data from databases such as national reports, regional reports and empirical findings on the disaster management–sustainable development nexus.

  3. Costs of implementing integrated community case management (iCCM) in six African countries: implications for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Besada, Donnela; Leon, Natalie; Rohde, Sarah; Sanders, David; Oliphant, Nicholas; Doherty, Tanya

    2017-06-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa still reports the highest rates of under-five mortality. Low cost, high impact interventions exist, however poor access remains a challenge. Integrated community case management (iCCM) was introduced to improve access to essential services for children 2-59 months through diagnosis, treatment and referral services by community health workers for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis of iCCM implementation in regions supported by UNICEF in six countries and assesses country-level scale-up implications. The paper focuses on costs to provider (health system and donors) to inform planning and budgeting, and does not cover cost-effectiveness. The analysis combines annualised set-up costs and 1 year implementation costs to calculate incremental economic and financial costs per treatment from a provider perspective. Affordability is assessed by calculating the per capita financial cost of the program as a percentage of the public health expenditure per capita. Time and financial implications of a 30% increase in utilization were modeled. Country scale-up is modeled for all children under 5 in rural areas. Utilization of iCCM services varied from 0.05 treatment/y/under-five in Ethiopia to over 1 in Niger. There were between 10 and 603 treatments/community health worker (CHW)/y. Consultation cost represented between 93% and 22% of economic costs per treatment influenced by the level of utilization. Weighted economic cost per treatment ranged from US$ 13 (2015 USD) in Ghana to US$ 2 in Malawi. CHWs spent from 1 to 9 hours a week on iCCM. A 30% increase in utilization would add up to 2 hours a week, but reduce cost per treatment (by 20% in countries with low utilization). Country scale up would amount to under US$ 0.8 per capita total population (US$ 0.06-US$0.74), between 0.5% and 2% of public health expenditure per capita but 8% in Niger. iCCM addresses unmet needs and impacts on under 5 mortality. An

  4. Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  5. Regulation of genomic and biobanking research in Africa: a content analysis of ethics guidelines, policies and procedures from 22 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Munung, Syntia Nchangwi; Matimba, Alice; McCurdy, Sheryl; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Staunton, Ciara; Yakubu, Aminu; Tindana, Paulina

    2017-02-02

    The introduction of genomics and biobanking methodologies to the African research context has also introduced novel ways of doing science, based on values of sharing and reuse of data and samples. This shift raises ethical challenges that need to be considered when research is reviewed by ethics committees, relating for instance to broad consent, the feedback of individual genetic findings, and regulation of secondary sample access and use. Yet existing ethics guidelines and regulations in Africa do not successfully regulate research based on sharing, causing confusion about what is allowed, where and when. In order to understand better the ethics regulatory landscape around genomic research and biobanking, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of existing ethics guidelines, policies and other similar sources. We sourced 30 ethics regulatory documents from 22 African countries. We used software that assists with qualitative data analysis to conduct a thematic analysis of these documents. Surprisingly considering how contentious broad consent is in Africa, we found that most countries allow the use of this consent model, with its use banned in only three of the countries we investigated. In a likely response to fears about exploitation, the export of samples outside of the continent is strictly regulated, sometimes in conjunction with regulations around international collaboration. We also found that whilst an essential and critical component of ensuring ethical best practice in genomics research relates to the governance framework that accompanies sample and data sharing, this was most sparingly covered in the guidelines. There is a need for ethics guidelines in African countries to be adapted to the changing science policy landscape, which increasingly supports principles of openness, storage, sharing and secondary use. Current guidelines are not pertinent to the ethical challenges that such a new orientation raises, and therefore fail to provide accurate guidance

  6. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine W Ruktanonchai

    Full Text Available Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries.We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1 skilled birth attendance, 2 receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3 receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015.Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3, while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89 and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75.Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These

  7. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A; Burgert, Clara R; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew Sek; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75). Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These results

  8. Quality and safety of beef produced in Central African Sub-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawe M. Nfor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to provide a general situation of cattle slaughtered in Cameroon, as a representative example for the Central African Sub-region. The quality and safety of beef from the abattoir of Yaoundé, the largest in Cameroon, were considered. From January 2009 to March 2012, the pre-slaughter conditions and characteristics of 1953 cattle carcasses were recorded, as well as the pH of m. longissimus thoracis 24 h after slaughter. From these carcasses, 60 were selected to represent the bulls slaughtered. The quality parameters and composition of m. longissimus thoracis were carried out. The origin of most of the cattle was the Guinea High Savannah (74.6%, and transhumance was the common production system (75.5%. Gudali (45.6%, White Fulani (33.3% and Red Mbororo (20.3% breeds were predominant. Carcass weight was affected by rearing system and cattle category, and it markedly varied during year. Considering meat quality, the fat content was low (1.2% and similar between breeds, moreover Gudali showed the toughest meat. Of the cows slaughtered, 27% were pregnant and the most common abnormal conditions encountered were ectoparasites, fatigue, lameness, fungal-like skin lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, respiratory distress, nodular lesions. More than 20% of the carcasses had some organs condemned, mainly for liver flukes (5.17%, and 1.0% of them were completely condemned due to tuberculosis, that also affected 3.28% of lungs. These data could aid authorities draw up programmes with the aim to strengthen cattle production, improve beef supply, control and prevent the observed diseases, and promote the regional trade.

  9. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Benjamin; Diouf, Daouda; Ceesay, Nuha; Mothopeng, Tampose; Odette, Ky-Zerbo; Kouanda, Seni; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Simplice, Anato; Kouame, Abo; Trapence, Gift; van der Merwe, L. Leigh Ann; Jumbe, Vicente; Baral, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Methods and findings Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January–August 2013), Côte d’Ivoire (March 2015–February 2016), The Gambia (July–December 2011), Lesotho (February–September 2014), Malawi (July 2011–March 2012), Senegal (February–November 2015), Swaziland (August–December 2011), and Togo (January–June 2013). Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20%) identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42–2.16, p HIV (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.49–2.19, p HIV prevalence was 25% (235/926) in transgender women and 14% (505/3,594) in cis-MSM. When adjusted for age, condomless receptive anal sex, depression, interpersonal stigma, law enforcement stigma, and violence, and the interaction of gender with condomless receptive anal sex, the odds of HIV infection for transgender women were 2.2 times greater

  10. Dynamic agglomeration patterns in a two-country new economic geography model with four regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Kubin, Ingrid; Mossay, Pascal; Sushko, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a two-country New Economic Geography model with four regions. It is defined by a 2D piecewise smooth map that depends on 8 parameters. Using reductions of this map to 1D maps defined on invariant straight lines, we obtain stability conditions of the Core–Periphery fixed points, and show how such reductions can be used to describe basins of attraction of coexisting attractors. Typical bifurcation sequences obtained when varying some parameters are discussed. We find patterns that are much richer than those observed in standard NEG models: there are more types of fixed points including fixed points attracting in Milnor’s sense; their basins of attraction are quite complicated; and coexistence is pervasive.

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Ergonomics SA ...

  12. Global Forum 2015 dialogue on "From evidence to policy - thinking outside the box": perspectives to improve evidence uptake and good practices in the African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Pannenborg, Charles Ok; Amore, Luis Gabriel Cuervo; Ghannem, Hassen; IJsselmuiden, Carel; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet

    2016-07-18

    The Global Forum 2015 panel session dialogue entitled "From evidence to policy - thinking outside the box" was held on 26 August 2015 in the Philippines to debate why evidence was not fully translated into policy and practice and what could be done to increase its uptake. This paper reports the reasons and possible actions for increasing the uptake of evidence, and highlights the actions partners could take to increase the use of evidence in the African Region. The Global Forum 2015 debate attributed African Region's low uptake of evidence to the big gap in incentives and interests between research for health researchers and public health policy-makers; limited appreciation on the side of researchers that public health decisions are based on multiple and complex considerations; perception among users that research evidence is not relevant to local contexts; absence of knowledge translation platforms; sub-optimal collaboration and engagement between industry and research institutions; lack of involvement of civil society organizations; lack of engagement of communities in the research process; failure to engage the media; limited awareness and debate in national and local parliaments on the importance of investing in research and innovation; and dearth of research and innovation parks in the African Region. The actions needed in the Region to increase the uptake of evidence in policy and practice include strengthening NHRS governance; bridging the motivation gap between researchers and health policy-makers; restoring trust between researchers and decision-makers; ensuring close and continuous intellectual intercourse among researchers, ministry of health policy-makers and technocrats during the life course of research projects or programmes; proactive collaboration between academia and industry; regular briefings of civil society, media, relevant parliamentary committees and development partners; development of vibrant knowledge translation platforms; development of

  13. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  14. Duplicated Enhancer Region Increases Expression of CTSB and Segregates with Keratolytic Winter Erythema in South African and Norwegian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcungcu, Thandiswa; Oti, Martin; Sitek, Jan C; Haukanes, Bjørn I; Linghu, Bolan; Bruccoleri, Robert; Stokowy, Tomasz; Oakeley, Edward J; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Jiang; Sultan, Marc; Schalkwijk, Joost; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; von der Lippe, Charlotte; Brunner, Han G; Ersland, Kari M; Grayson, Wayne; Buechmann-Moller, Stine; Sundnes, Olav; Nirmala, Nanguneri; Morgan, Thomas M; van Bokhoven, Hans; Steen, Vidar M; Hull, Peter R; Szustakowski, Joseph; Staedtler, Frank; Zhou, Huiqing; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Ramsay, Michele

    2017-05-04

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE) is a rare autosomal-dominant skin disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of palmoplantar erythema and epidermal peeling. KWE was previously mapped to 8p23.1-p22 (KWE critical region) in South African families. Using targeted resequencing of the KWE critical region in five South African families and SNP array and whole-genome sequencing in two Norwegian families, we identified two overlapping tandem duplications of 7.67 kb (South Africans) and 15.93 kb (Norwegians). The duplications segregated with the disease and were located upstream of CTSB, a gene encoding cathepsin B, a cysteine protease involved in keratinocyte homeostasis. Included in the 2.62 kb overlapping region of these duplications is an enhancer element that is active in epidermal keratinocytes. The activity of this enhancer correlated with CTSB expression in normal differentiating keratinocytes and other cell lines, but not with FDFT1 or NEIL2 expression. Gene expression (qPCR) analysis and immunohistochemistry of the palmar epidermis demonstrated significantly increased expression of CTSB, as well as stronger staining of cathepsin B in the stratum granulosum of affected individuals than in that of control individuals. Analysis of higher-order chromatin structure data and RNA polymerase II ChIA-PET data from MCF-7 cells did not suggest remote effects of the enhancer. In conclusion, KWE in South African and Norwegian families is caused by tandem duplications in a non-coding genomic region containing an active enhancer element for CTSB, resulting in upregulation of this gene in affected individuals. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Mediterranean Solar Plan: Project proposals for renewable energy in the Mediterranean Partner Countries region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, Sophie; Tarhini, Mohamad; Touati, Manaf; Gonzalez Garcia, David; Alario, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the renewable energy projects, proposed by the nine Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) under the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the associated potential economic impacts. As one of the priority projects of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), the MSP's objective which attracted most attention until now is the intention to deploy an additional 20 GW of renewable electrical capacity in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region (covering the MPCs plus Turkey) by 2020. The main findings of this research are: (1) as of February 2010, a total of 10.3 GW of renewable project proposals were identified in the MPCs, corresponding to about half of the 20 GW target; (2) investment needs for the identified projects could amount to EUR 21 billion by 2020, which represents about five times the amount invested by the region in conventional electricity generation in the last decade; and (3) the difference between the cost of renewable electricity generation and the economic cost of its fossil fuel alternatives could amount to EUR 1.2 billion. Insights stemming from the results of this research can generate useful regional messages for energy policy leaders in the MPCs to accelerate the development of renewable energy projects. - Highlights: ► We conducted a systematic survey of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean. ► The identified projects correspond to half the MSP 20 GW target. ► Maturity assessment is used to classify the advancement of the projects. ► We estimated the investment needs and required subsidies in the region by 2020.

  16. Regional energy resource development and energy security under CO{sub 2} emission constraint in the greater Mekong sub-region countries (GMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M. [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    The paper evaluates effects of energy resource development within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) on energy supply mix, energy system cost, energy security and environment during 2000-2035. A MARKAL-based integrated energy system model of the five GMS countries was developed to examine benefits of regional energy resource development for meeting the energy demand of these countries. The study found that an unrestricted energy resource development and trade within the region would reduce the total-regional energy systems cost by 18% and would abate the total CO{sub 2} emission by 5% as compared to the base case. All the five countries except Myanmar would benefit from the expansion of regional energy resource integration in terms of lower energy systems costs and better environmental qualities. An imposition of CO{sub 2} emission reduction constraint by 5% on each of the study countries from that of the corresponding emissions under the unrestricted energy resource development in the GMS is found to improve energy security, reduce energy import and fossil fuels dependences and increase volume of power trade within the region. The total energy system cost under the joint CO{sub 2} emission reduction strategy would be less costly than that under the individual emission targets set for each country. (author)

  17. Regional energy resource development and energy security under CO2 emission constraint in the greater Mekong sub-region countries (GMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper evaluates effects of energy resource development within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) on energy supply mix, energy system cost, energy security and environment during 2000-2035. A MARKAL-based integrated energy system model of the five GMS countries was developed to examine benefits of regional energy resource development for meeting the energy demand of these countries. The study found that an unrestricted energy resource development and trade within the region would reduce the total-regional energy systems cost by 18% and would abate the total CO 2 emission by 5% as compared to the base case. All the five countries except Myanmar would benefit from the expansion of regional energy resource integration in terms of lower energy systems costs and better environmental qualities. An imposition of CO 2 emission reduction constraint by 5% on each of the study countries from that of the corresponding emissions under the unrestricted energy resource development in the GMS is found to improve energy security, reduce energy import and fossil fuels dependences and increase volume of power trade within the region. The total energy system cost under the joint CO 2 emission reduction strategy would be less costly than that under the individual emission targets set for each country.

  18. Association of socioeconomic status with overall and cause specific mortality in the Republic of Seychelles: results from a cohort study in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Rousson, Valentin; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is consistently associated with higher mortality in high income countries. Only few studies have assessed this association in low and middle income countries, mainly because of sparse reliable mortality data. This study explores SES differences in overall and cause-specific mortality in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. All deaths have been medically certified over more than two decades. SES and other lifestyle-related risk factors were assessed in a total of 3246 participants from three independent population-based surveys conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004. Vital status was ascertained using linkage with vital statistics. Occupational position was the indicator of SES used in this study and was assessed with the same questions in the three surveys. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years (range 0-23 years), 523 participants died (overall mortality rate 10.8 per 1000 person-years). The main causes of death were cardiovascular disease (CVD) (219 deaths) and cancer (142 deaths). Participants in the low SES group had a higher mortality risk for overall (HR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.24-2.62), CVD (HR = 1.95; 1.04-3.65) and non-cancer/non-CVD (HR = 2.14; 1.10-4.16) mortality compared to participants in the high SES group. Cancer mortality also tended to be patterned by SES (HR = 1.44; 0.76-2.75). Major lifestyle-related risk factors (smoking, heavy drinking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia) explained a small proportion of the associations between low SES and all-cause, CVD, and non-cancer/non-CVD mortality. In this population-based study assessing social inequalities in mortality in a country of the African region, low SES (as measured by occupational position) was strongly associated with overall, CVD and non-cancer/non-CVD mortality. Our findings support the view that the burden of non-communicable diseases may disproportionally affect people with low SES in low and middle income

  19. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roche

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015 and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030. The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally.The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access. Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution.Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower

  20. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rachel; Bain, Robert; Cumming, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally. The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS) or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access) and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access). Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution. Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower. Rural

  1. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  2. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey; Daniels, Karen; Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Sevene, Esperança; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2009-12-30

    Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO(4 )and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO(4 )than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO(4), and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. Translating research knowledge into

  3. Small businesses performance in West African border regions: Do social networks pay off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuepié, Mathias; Tenikué, Michel; Walther, Olivier

    networks are also the most successful in terms of monthly sales and profit. The paper shows that the overall economic performance of traders is affected by the socio-professional position of the actors with whom they are connected. While social ties with local religious leaders have no effect......This paper studies the link between economic performance and social networks in West Africa. Using first-hand data collected on 358 small-scale traders in five border markets between Niger, Nigeria and Benin, we are particularly interested in testing whether the most well-connected actors of trade...... on their business, support received from civil servants, politicians, and security authorities translates into economic performance. The paper also shows significant differences between countries, regions and marketplaces. Social connections developed with state representatives have a much greater effect...

  4. Phylogeography of the endemic grasshopper genus Betiscoides (Lentulidae) in the South African Cape Floristic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenaar, Daniela; Fingerle, Marcus; Heym, Eva; Wirtz, Sarah; Hochkirch, Axel

    2018-01-01

    Vicariance and dispersal are two important processes shaping biodiversity patterns. The South African Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is known for its high biotic diversity and endemism. However, studies on the phylogeography of endemic invertebrates in this biodiversity hotspot are still scarce. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of the flightless grasshopper genus Betiscoides, which is endemic to the CFR and strongly associated with restio plants (Restionaceae). We hypothesized that the genus originated in the southwestern part of the CFR, that differentiation within the genus is mainly an effect of vicariance and that the three known species only represent a minor fraction of the real genetic diversity of the genus. We inferred the phylogeny based on sequences of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from 99 Betiscoides specimens collected across the CFR. Furthermore, we conducted a SDIVA analysis to detect distributions of ancestral nodes and the possible spatial origin of these lineages. Strong differentiation among genetic lineages was shown. The ancestor of this genus was most likely distributed in the southwestern CFR. Five major lineages were detected, three of which were ancestrally distributed in the southwestern CFR. The ancestors of the two other lineages were distributed in the northern and eastern margins of the CFR. A total of 24 divergent evolutionary lineages were found, reflecting the geographical isolation of restio-dominated fynbos habitats. Dispersal played a more prominent role than expected in differentiation of Betiscoides. While the five main lineages were separated during a first phase via dispersal, differentiation occurred later and on smaller spatial scale, predominantly driven by isolation in montane refugia (i.e. vicariance). Our study also suggests that flightless insect taxa likely show high levels of differentiation in biodiversity hotspots with their taxonomy often being incomplete. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  6. Satellite Gravity Transforms Unmask Tectonic Pattern of Arabian-African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2017-04-01

    Satellite derived geophysical gravity data are the modern powerful tool of regional tectono-geophysical examination of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. It is well known that regional long-term seismological prognosis, strategy of searching economic deposits and many other important geological-geophysical problems are based mainly on constructions derived from the combined tectono-geophysical zonation. Some authors' experience of the tectono-geophysical zonation in the Eastern Mediterranean (both sea and land) with satellite derived gravity field (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2015a, 2015b) indicates a high effectiveness of the data employment for delineation of different tectono-structural units. Therefore, on the basis of the previous successive application, satellite derived gravity field analysis was applied for a giant (covering > 10 mln. km2) and complex Arabian-African region (including Zagros Mts.). The gravity field retracked from the Geosat and ERS-1 altimetry (e.g., Sandwell and Smith, 2009) was processed by the use of different mathematical apparatus employment enabling to underline these or those tectonic (geodynamic) features of the region under study. The main goals of present investigation are following: (1) employment of a new powerful regional geophysical tool - satellite derived gravity data and its transforms for unmasking some buried tectonic and geodynamic peculiarities of the study area, (2) finding definite relationships between the novel tectonic map and the gravity field transformations, (3) development of a novel tectonic map of this area (on the basis of careful examination of and generalization of available geological and geophysical (mostly satellite gravity) data). The compiled gravity map (for the map compiling more than 4 mln. observations were utilized) with the main tectonic features shows the intricate gravity pattern of the investigated area. An initial analysis of the gravity field behavior enabled to separate two main types of

  7. Differences in economic development in rural regions of advanced countries: an overview and critical analysis of theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview and critical analysis of theories on economic development in rural regions in advanced countries. For this purpose, we have consulted literature in regional economics and the multidisciplinary field of rural studies. In order to analyse to which extent these

  8. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease by country, region, and age: statistics from World Health Organisation and United Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Judith A; Asaria, Perviz; Francis, Darrel P

    2013-09-30

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The World Health Organisation (WHO) collects mortality data coded using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) code. We analysed IHD deaths world-wide between 1995 and 2009 and used the UN population database to calculate age-specific and directly and indirectly age-standardised IHD mortality rates by country and region. IHD is the single largest cause of death worldwide, causing 7,249,000 deaths in 2008, 12.7% of total global mortality. There is more than 20-fold variation in IHD mortality rates between countries. Highest IHD mortality rates are in Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries; lowest rates in high income countries. For the working-age population, IHD mortality rates are markedly higher in low-and-middle income countries than in high income countries. Over the last 25 years, age-standardised IHD mortality has fallen by more than half in high income countries, but the trend is flat or increasing in some low-and-middle income countries. Low-and-middle income countries now account for more than 80% of global IHD deaths. The global burden of IHD deaths has shifted to low-and-middle income countries as lifestyles approach those of high income countries. In high income countries, population ageing maintains IHD as the leading cause of death. Nevertheless, the progressive decline in age-standardised IHD mortality in high income countries shows that increasing IHD mortality is not inevitable. The 20-fold mortality difference between countries, and the temporal trends, may hold vital clues for handling IHD epidemic which is migratory, and still burgeoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The European Union and the Caribbean Region: Situating the Caribbean Overseas Countries and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper examines one important dimension of the European Union's (EU 'regional' engagement with the Caribbean: its relations with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT, with a particular focus on the possibility of furthering the policy goals of greater regional integration and cooperation. It does so in three parts. The first sets out the basis for current EU policy to the OCT which has been under discussion between the EU, the OCT and the four EU member states most involved (Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom since 2008. It reports EU proposals for change and the responses to them by the Caribbean OCTs. The second part examines EU policy toward promoting greater regional cooperation among the Caribbean OCTs and between them and some of the other Caribbean regional organizations. Three distinct frameworks for cooperation and integration are discussed: with independent states as established in the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Forum and the Economic Partnership Agreement; with the French departments and collectivities; and with the Caribbean OCT. In each the position of the Caribbean OCT is situated. The final part briefly discusses the creation of a 'new' framework for regional cooperation specific for the Caribbean OCT which will most closely match their interests in the Caribbean.Resumen: La Unión Europea y la Región del Caribe: Situando a los Países y Territorios de Ultramar del CaribeEste ensayo analiza una dimensión importante de la Unión Europea (UE 'regional' y su compromiso con el Caribe: de igual manera sus relaciones con los Países y Territorios de Ultramar (PTU, con un enfoque particular sobre la posibilidad de promover los objetivos de la política con una mayor integración regional y cooperación. Este proceso se desglosa en tres partes. La primera establece la base para la actual política de la UE hacia los PTU, ya que esta ha sido objeto de debate entre los mismos y los cuatro

  10. THE EFFECT OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS ON REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS IN THE NEW EU COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLIGOR DELIA ANCA GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of internationalization and globalization of the world economy, regional competitiveness is thoroughly debated by politicians and policy makers, emphasizing measurable differences between development regions, without any clear political or conceptual framework. The process of European Union integration is a main driving force of change, aiming to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the fragmented European economy in the face of increasing internationalization. This often exposes countries and regions with unequal resources and technology and different economic structures to international competition. Such is the case of Romania and Bulgaria, countries that after joining the European Union in 2007 were given an opportunity to recover in terms of regional competitiveness and economic growth, namely structural funds as a form of nonrefundable European financial help to disadvantaged regions of member states. This research is thus focused on underlining and analyzing the relation between structural funds’ absorption and the degree of regional competitiveness for the development regions of Romania and Bulgaria, during their first programming period, through identifying and analyzing the factors that influence regional competitiveness and the amount of structural funds absorbed. First, two competitiveness country profiles are created based on data provided by relevant international organisms and second, an impact analysis is developed using six regional competitiveness indicators, grouped into three categories (economic, social and technological. Results show that EU funds critically influence the competitiveness of Romanian and Bulgarian regions, providing reliable data for policy decision makers

  11. Livestock Ownership Among Rural Households and Child Morbidity and Mortality: An Analysis of Demographic Health Survey Data from 30 Sub-Saharan African Countries (2005-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maneet; Graham, Jay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2017-03-01

    AbstractChildren living in homes with livestock may have both an increased risk of enteric infections and improved access to food, and therefore improved nutritional status. Few studies, however, have characterized these relationships in tandem. This study investigated the association between child health and household ownership of livestock. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 sub-Saharan African countries with 215,971 rural children under 5 years of age from 2005 to 2015. Logistic regression was performed for each country to estimate the relationship between a log 2 increase in the number of livestock owned by the household and three child-health outcomes: 2-week prevalence of diarrhea, stunting, and all-cause mortality. Results for each country were combined using meta-analyses. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an odds ratio (OR) less than 1 for child stunting associated with livestock (pooled OR = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95, 0.99). The results for diarrhea were more even with 14 countries displaying ORs greater than 1 and 10 displaying ORs less than 1. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an OR greater than 1 for child mortality (pooled OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.06). All meta-analyses displayed significant heterogeneity by country. Our analysis is consistent with the theory that livestock may have a dual role as protective against stunting, an indicator of chronic malnutrition, and a risk factor for all-cause mortality in children, which may be linked to acute infections. The heterogeneity by country, however, indicates more data are needed on specific household livestock management practices.

  12. National nutrition surveys in Europe: a review on the current status in the 53 countries of the WHO European region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippin, Holly L; Hutchinson, Jayne; Evans, Charlotte E L; Jewell, Jo; Breda, Joao J; Cade, Janet E

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the coverage of national nutrition surveys in the 53 countries monitored by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and identify gaps in provision, (2) to describe relevant survey attributes and (3) to check whether energy and nutrients are reported with a view to providing information for evidence-based nutrition policy planning. Dietary survey information was gathered using three methods: (1) direct email to survey authors and other relevant contacts, (2) systematic review of literature databases and (3) general web-based searches. Survey characteristics relating to time frame, sampling and dietary methodology and nutrients reported were tabled from all relevant surveys found since 1990. Fifty-three countries of the WHO Regional Office for Europe, which have need for an overview of dietary surveys across the life course. European individuals (adults and children) in national diet surveys. A total of 109 nationally representative dietary surveys undertaken post-1990 were found across 34 countries. Of these, 78 surveys from 33 countries were found post-2000, and of these, 48 surveys from 27 countries included children and 60 surveys from 30 countries included adults. No nationally representative surveys were found for 19 of 53 countries, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe. Multiple 24hr recall and food diaries were the most common dietary assessment methods. Only 22 countries reported energy and nutrient intakes from post-2000 surveys; macronutrients were more widely reported than micronutrients. Less than two-thirds of WHO Europe countries have nationally representative diet surveys, mainly collected post-2000. The main availability gaps lie in Central and Eastern European countries, where nutrition policies may therefore lack an appropriate evidence base. Dietary methodological differences may limit the scope for inter-country comparisons.

  13. National nutrition surveys in Europe: a review on the current status in the 53 countries of the WHO European region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were (1 to determine the coverage of national nutrition surveys in the 53 countries monitored by the World Health Organization (WHO Regional Office for Europe and identify gaps in provision, (2 to describe relevant survey attributes and (3 to check whether energy and nutrients are reported with a view to providing information for evidence-based nutrition policy planning. Design: Dietary survey information was gathered using three methods: (1 direct email to survey authors and other relevant contacts, (2 systematic review of literature databases and (3 general web-based searches. Survey characteristics relating to time frame, sampling and dietary methodology and nutrients reported were tabled from all relevant surveys found since 1990. Setting: Fifty-three countries of the WHO Regional Office for Europe, which have need for an overview of dietary surveys across the life course. Subjects: European individuals (adults and children in national diet surveys. Results: A total of 109 nationally representative dietary surveys undertaken post-1990 were found across 34 countries. Of these, 78 surveys from 33 countries were found post-2000, and of these, 48 surveys from 27 countries included children and 60 surveys from 30 countries included adults. No nationally representative surveys were found for 19 of 53 countries, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe. Multiple 24hr recall and food diaries were the most common dietary assessment methods. Only 22 countries reported energy and nutrient intakes from post-2000 surveys; macronutrients were more widely reported than micronutrients. Conclusions: Less than two-thirds of WHO Europe countries have nationally representative diet surveys, mainly collected post-2000. The main availability gaps lie in Central and Eastern European countries, where nutrition policies may therefore lack an appropriate evidence base. Dietary methodological differences may limit the scope for

  14. The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage and participation by developing countries: A South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, David B.

    2014-01-01

    This article contends that it is essential that new entrant countries into the nuclear energy industry have comprehensive nuclear legislation; it is less clear, however, whether new entrant countries find it essential to join any of the various international nuclear liability conventions, as some countries have been slow or resistant to the idea. This article will take a closer look at the potential influencing factors driving membership or non-membership in the CSC by a developing country. First, however, is a discussion of the basic principles of international nuclear third party liability, the CSC itself, developing countries' current participation in the various international nuclear liability conventions and the advantages and disadvantages of the CSC. The author's views regarding participation by a developing country in the CSC will also be presented. (author)

  15. African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Zoology, a peer-reviewed research journal, publishes original scientific contributions and critical reviews that focus principally on African fauna in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Research from other regions that advances practical and theoretical aspects of zoology will be considered. Rigorous ...

  16. Farmer–African wild dog (Lycaon pictus relations in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli-Laurente Fraser-Celin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are the most endangered large carnivores in southern Africa. Direct and indirect persecution by farmers causes significant conservation challenges. Farmer– wild dog conflict in Botswana commonly occurs as a result of cattle and stocked game depredation by wild dogs, affecting farmer livelihood and causing economic and emotional distress. Although wild dogs predate livestock at lower levels than other carnivores, they continue to be killed both indiscriminately and in retaliation for incidents of depredation. Investigating farmer–wild dog conflict is a necessary step towards establishing appropriate conflict mitigation strategies. Eighty livestock and game farmers were interviewed in order to examine farmers’ value of, perceptions of and experiences with wild dogs as well as their insights on wild dog impacts and conservation in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana. Interviews were semi-structured and used open-ended questions to capture complexities surrounding farmer–wild dog relations. This research contributes baseline data on wild dogs in understudied tribal land and commercial livestock and game farms in eastern Kalahari. It confirms the presence of wild dogs, livestock and stocked game depredation by wild dogs and negative perspectives amongst farmers towards wild dogs and their conservation. Mean losses were 0.85 livestock per subsistence farmer, 1.25 livestock per commercial livestock farmer, while game farmers lost 95.88 game animals per farmer during January 2012 through June 2013. Proportionally, more subsistence farmers than commercial livestock farmers and game farmers held negative perspectives of wild dogs (χ ² = 9.63, df = 2, p < 0.05. Farmer type, education level, socioeconomic status and land tenure, as well as positive wild dog characteristics should be considered when planning and operationalising conflict mitigation strategies. As such, conservation approaches should focus on

  17. Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Annelien; Jirovsky, Elena; Blacklock, Claire; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Moosa, Shabir; De Maeseneer, Jan; Kutalek, Ruth; Peersman, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the migration intentions of sub-Saharan African medical students and health professionals within the context of a legacy of active international recruitment by receiving countries. However, many health workers migrate outside of this recruitment paradigm. This paper aims to explore the reasons for migration of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa to Belgium and Austria; European countries without a history of active recruitment in sub-Saharan Africa. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Twenty-seven health workers were interviewed about their migration experiences. Included participants were born in sub-Saharan Africa, had trained as health workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and were currently living in Belgium or Austria, though not necessarily currently working as a health professional. Both Austria and Belgium were shown not to be target countries for the health workers, who instead moved there by circumstance, rather than choice. Three principal reasons for migration were reported: 1) educational purposes; 2) political instability or insecurity in their country of origin; and 3) family reunification. In addition, two respondents mentioned medical reasons and, although less explicit, economic factors were also involved in several of the respondents' decision to migrate. These results highlight the importance of the broader economic, social, and political context within which migration decisions are made. Training opportunities proved to be an important factor for migration. A further development and upgrade of primary care might help to counter the common desire to specialize and improve domestic training opportunities.

  18. a decade of african union and european union trans-regional

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    designed to link the African Union and the European Union in a process of trans- ... terrorism, drug and human trafficking and migration.5 The common value ..... have involved policing, rule of law, border assistance and monitoring and security .... Europe as exemplified by Russia and Ukraine (who provided helicopters and ...

  19. Wine prices in the Nordic countries: Are they lower than in the region of origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Bentzen; Valdemar Smith

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the retail prices on wine in different countries. In general, country-specific price differences on identical wines are expected to reflect differences in taxes, import prices, transportation and other costs. Also the competitive conditions on the retail markets in the relevant countries are important. Accordingly, lack of competition at the retail level, high import prices and high duties on wine all contribute to increase wine prices. Next, consumer price...

  20. Focus Studies of Geographically Connected Countries: Analysis of Regionally Oriented Studies in Political Science Publications 1996-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Petković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the focus studies of geographically connected and geographically not connected countries, i.e. regional and comparative regional studies. In the first part of the article, a description of the role and development of this type of studies as a subdiscipline of comparative politics is provided. In the second part, I present the results of quantitative analysis of the content of articles published in the academic journals published or co-published by the Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb. The objects of analysis are regional studies of South-East Europe published in the journals. The main goal of this article is to determine which countries in their regional surroundings are researched the most by Croatian political scientists (and other authors who publish such articles in Croatian or English language in those journals, and which countries Croatia is most often compared to. This research has shown that, with regard to studies of the region, Croatian political scientists mostly focus on the countries of the former Yugoslavia.

  1. HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plans of Sub-Saharan African countries: an analysis for gender equality and sex-disaggregated HIV targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Sharp, Alana; Cooper, Bergen; Roose-Snyder, Beirne; Blumenthal, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract National Strategic Plans (NSPs) for HIV/AIDS are country planning documents that set priorities for programmes and services, including a set of targets to quantify progress toward national and international goals. The inclusion of sex-disaggregated targets and targets to combat gender inequality is important given the high disease burden among young women and adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet no comprehensive gender-focused analysis of NSP targets has been performed. This analysis quantitatively evaluates national HIV targets, included in NSPs from eighteen Sub-Saharan African countries, for sex-disaggregation. Additionally, NSP targets aimed at reducing gender-based inequality in health outcomes are compiled and inductively coded to report common themes. On average, in the eighteen countries included in this analysis, 31% of NSP targets include sex-disaggregation (range 0–92%). Three countries disaggregated a majority (>50%) of their targets by sex. Sex-disaggregation in data reporting was more common for targets related to the early phases of the HIV care continuum: 83% of countries included any sex-disaggregated targets for HIV prevention, 56% for testing and linkage to ca