WorldWideScience

Sample records for african countries including

  1. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  2. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  3. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase. PMID:12347007

  4. Country Presentation. Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No incident related to the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials has been yet reported in the country. However, rumors relating to the orphaned sources exist due to buried radioactive waste and former radiotherapy activities. Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive materials is a new threat for the law enforcement agents.This is contributed by absence of dedicated equipment for radiation detection either at the border or within the country, lack of awareness of agents in charge of enforcement control, porosity of the border, absence of a protocol for exchanging information between Customs, intelligence and Police Service

  5. Social mobility in five African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bossuroy, T.; Cogneau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes intergenerational occupational mobility between the farm and non-farm sectors in five African countries, measures it using nationally representative household survey data, and analyzes its determinants through a comparative method based on pooled logit regressions. We first analyze intergenerational gross mobility. Until the end of the 1980s, intergenerational flows toward the non-farm sector are high in Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea, flows toward the farm sector are more...

  6. Virtual Universities for African and Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram LAASER

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet development in Africa is constrained by poor telephone infrastructure, low international bandwidth and high dials up tariffs levied on internet users. This means in Africa we find actually app. 1% of worldwide internet users whereas population share of world population may be around 13%. Nearly half of the internet users are concentrated in South Africa. Another one percent of world users is located in the Middle East. Therefore it is understandable that Africa and the Arab world are latecomers in developing net based educational systems. However today donor organizations put strong emphasis on creating Virtual Campuses for African States (EC, Word Bank and Mediterranean countries or plan to incorporate selected African States to other institutional arrangements (Commonwealth of Nations, UNESCO. In what follows we will discuss five of these projects differing in scope, structure and funding namely the Virtual African University, the Avicenna Project, the Virtual Arab University, the Syrian Open University and the proposal for a Virtual University for the Small States. From the analysis of the respective projects some tentative conclusions will be derived.

  7. On Cultural and Academic Exchanges Between China and African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Kabwete Mulinda

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between China and African countries has often been portrayed as an economic one. Despite multiple exchanges in the area of culture and knowledge production, not much is written about chinese culture in Africa or knowledge production interaction between both China and African countries. Just to give an example, each African major town has chinese restaurants and Africans like chinese food. But food is seen as an economic asset, not a cultural one. Chinese cuisine is not enough take...

  8. HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Greeff, Minrie; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Kohi, Thecla W.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Makoae, Lucy N.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P.; Uys, Leana R; Holzermer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sa...

  9. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position. PMID:12293724

  10. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries. PMID:19118767

  11. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogeng'o Julius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  12. Agricultural Growth in China and Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOOD H. KHAN; Mohsin S. Khan

    1995-01-01

    Agriculture remains a dominant sector in the economies of most African and several Asian countries. However, the poor performance of agriculture in Africa stands in sharp contrast to the robust agricultural growth in many Asian countries.2 In this regard, the experience of China is perhaps as impressive as it is relevant to many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A general observation is that the productivity of land and labour has to rise through intensive agriculture, given the limited area o...

  13. Inflation persistence in African countries: Does inflation targeting matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Phiri, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates inflation persistence in annual CPI inflation collected between 1994 and 2014 for 46 African countries. We group these countries into panels according to whether they are inflation targeters or not and conduct estimations for pre and post inflation targeting periods. Interestingly enough, we find that inflation persistence was much higher for inflation targeters in periods before adopting their inflation targeting regimes and inflation persistence dropped by 40 percent...

  14. Advertising Media Development Trends in Fifty-One African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lalita A. Manrai; Manrai, Ajay K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an extensive research study investigating the advertising media development trends for 15 print and broadcast media variables in 51 African countries for the 25-year period 1964-1988. Trend analysis was carried out for 5 geographical regions, 3 population size groups and 3 GNP/capita groups. The results support the propositions that both types of advertising media (i.e., print and broadcast) are developing fastest in Northern Region, and in countries with lar...

  15. Coping with HIV/AIDS Stigma in Five African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Makoae, Lucia N; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D.; Uys, Leana R; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Kohi, Thecla W.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Holzemer, William L

    2008-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This paper examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive, qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. Forty-three focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 n...

  16. Knowledge Economy and Financial Sector Competition in African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to assess how knowledge economy (KE) plays out in financial sector competition. It suggests a practicable way to disentangle the effects of different components of KE on various financial sectors. The variables identified under the World Bank’s four knowledge economy index (KEI) are employed. An endogeneity robust panel instrumental variable fixed-effects estimation strategy is employed on data from 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. The following findin...

  17. Government quality determinants of stock market performance in African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    How do government policies and institutions affect stock market performance? As stock markets grow broader and deeper in African countries, the question becomes more critical. Government quality dynamics of corruption-control, government-effectiveness, political-stability or no violence, voice & accountability, regulation quality and rule of law are instrumented with income-levels, religious-dominations, press-freedom degrees and legal-origins to account for stock market performance dynamics ...

  18. Trade and Environmental Quality in African Countries: Do Institutions Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Baliamoune-Lutz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of trade and political institutions on environmental quality in Africa and explores whether political institutions matter to the trade-environment relationship. We use data from a large group of African countries, covering the period 1990-2008 and two indicators of environmental quality: net forest depletion and CO2 emissions. The results from GMM-SYS estimates suggest that political institutions influence the relationship between trade and environmental quality...

  19. The gender wage gap in three African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Appleton; John Hoddinott; Pramila Krishnan

    1996-01-01

    This paper extends the Oaxaca-Ransom (1994) method for decomposing wage gaps to account for sectoral choice by men and women. We apply this method to data from three African countries. We find that differences between actual and gender-neutral returns accounts for much of the gender wage gap in Ethiopia and Uganda, rather less in Cote d'Ivoire. In all three countries, the wage gap is narrowed because women are over-represented in the higher-paying public sector. This result would not have bee...

  20. Wastage in the health workforce: some perspectives from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovlo Delanyo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. Methods This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". Results "Direct" wastage – or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death – is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage – which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision – is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. Conclusion The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.

  1. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  2. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  3. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  4. African Union in the Maintenance of Peace and Security of African Countries: Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The African Union by its declaration is committed to the total integration of all African states and unity of action based on shared values and common, development interests and goals. To this end, the challenges facing the African Union include the problems of infrastructures and inadequate social services. The African states are plagued by political instability, ethnic conflicts, refugees/ internally displaced persons and fragile civil institutions. These problems are compounded by globalization, New World Order and heavy burden of external debts that make life difficult and the future dim and gloomy. These challenges and struggles by the African leaders to face up to them have precipitated the writing of this research paper. In doing so, the study traced the historical concept, evolution and final emergence of the union. The research project carefully looked into the act establishing the AU and compared with the charter of the Organization of African Unity (OAU and appreciated the necessity of its establishment. The study has noted that AU was modelled after the European Union (EU and therefore, efforts have been made to study the two unions so that the AU will benefit from the experience of the EU. In concluding the study, it is recommended inter alia that African Union make peace and security a priority and harmonize general policies and Infrastructural development. The hope that this study will contribute its widow's might to the development of AU is imperative. We cannot afford to fail this time, as the consequences are better imagined than experienced.

  5. Assessing the Impact of ACP/EU Economic Partnership Agreement on West African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Großmann, Harald

    2004-01-01

    The European Union is currently negotiating free trade agreements, called Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), with African countries as part of the Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. The paper empirically assesses the impact of the EPAs on trade flows and government revenue for 14 West African countries. The results indicate that the decline in import duties due to the preferential tariff elimination might be of some cause for concer...

  6. Investments in blood safety improve the availability of blood to underserved areas in a sub-saharan african country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, J.P.; Wilkinson, R.L.; Basavaraju, S.V.; Von Finckenstein, B.G.; Sibinga, C.T.H.; Marfin, A.; Postma, M.J.; Mataranyika, M.N.; Tobias, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 2004, several African countries, including Namibia, have received assistance from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Aims: Gains have been documented in the safety and number of collected units in these countries, but the distribution of blood has not bee

  7. Sero-epidemiology and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Arab and African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim

    2016-09-01

    The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection in pregnancy are scant in many countries, especially where there is lack of political stability. Identified risk factors included eating raw meat, proximity with cats, undercooked food, and increasing maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Arab and African countries is an underestimated health problem. Further research is needed. This report is a foundation for strategies and policies for intervention needed to combat the consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:27605750

  8. Recovering Ex-situ Gemstones in African Countries: The Economic Man Versus the Police Man

    OpenAIRE

    Voxi Heinrich Amavilah

    2003-01-01

    The illicit dealing in gemstones (including diamonds) is a fast growing activity in African countries which produce these minerals. Zaire and Angola are two extreme examples, but by no means exceptions. The preferred policy efforts to controlling the flow of illicit trade in gems have been legislative actions - the police man. However, the police man has invariably failed to do the intended job. As an alternative this analysis argues for an economic approach - the economic man. It suggests ho...

  9. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. N.; Brownfield, M. E.; Bergin, M. J.

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  10. Comparative analysis of family poultry production in twelve African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a survey on family poultry to obtain information on disease prevalence, feeding practices, and the management of poultry housing in twelve African countries. The survey data were collected during both the wet and dry seasons and summarised (average and standard deviation) by country, village/region, season, and survey question. The disease data results show that three (greenish/bloody diarrhoea, swollen head, and coughing) of top four reported symptoms are part of Newcastle disease's presenting signs. Chick mortality was also higher in the wet season, when there is a higher incidence of Newcastle disease. This was also supported by the individual country data in that those countries with high chick mortality data also had low hatchability in the wet season with Egypt being the only exception. The types of housing used for shelter for family poultry was quite variable and presented a challenge to determine the level of cleaning/sanitation to assist in controlling Newcastle disease. On the one hand, a large percentage of households reported never cleaning the poultry house (e.g., Cameroon, Morocco, Mauritius, and Sudan). On the other hand, 34% of the responses to housing type were either trees or other forms of housing that would be difficult to clean i.e., old car, fence, surrounding wall, etc. Obviously, these results should be closely examined when instituting control programs for Newcastle disease. The large variety of available scavenged feed without any data on intake raises the question of how to balance the ration for the flock. Family poultry scientists need to determine a method to estimate intake which could assist in determining what supplementary feed is necessary if any. This challenge may be one of the most important aspects to family poultry management because of the importance of nutrition to poultry production with the added difficulty of providing balanced nutrition in an extensive system. (author)

  11. IAEA to Help West African Countries Diagnose Ebola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will provide specialized diagnostic equipment to help Sierra Leone in its efforts to combat an ongoing Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano announced today. Later, the support is planned to be extended to Liberia and Guinea. The support is in line with a UN Security Council appeal and responds to a request from Sierra Leone. The IAEA assistance will supplement the country's ability to diagnose EVD quickly using a diagnostic technology known as Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The assistance, expected to be delivered in the coming weeks, initiates broader IAEA support to African Member States to strengthen their technological abilities to detect diseases transmitted from animals to humans - zoonotic diseases. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations have been at the forefront of developing RT-PCR, a nuclear-derived technology which allows EVD to be detected within a few hours, while other methods require growing on a cell culture for several days before a diagnosis is determined. Early diagnosis of EVD, if combined with appropriate medical care, increases the victims' chance of survival and helps curtail the spread of the disease by making it possible to isolate and treat the patients earlier. Health authorities in Sierra Leone and other affected countries are already applying RT-PCR, but their diagnostic capability is limited; there is a shortage of the diagnostic kits and other materials needed for the process and backup equipment is needed to avoid diagnostic downtime in case of equipment failure. The IAEA will support the most affected countries' sustained ability to detect the disease in cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response. The IAEA, as part of its ongoing work, has helped 32 African countries and several other Member States develop skills

  12. Language policy and science: Could some African countries learn from some Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main reasons why teaching in ex-colonial languages persists lies in the fact that a large proportion of the general public still believes that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction. By contrast, research studies conducted in Africa, as well as examples from Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia, have shown that children actually learn mathematics and science much better in local and familiar languages. Though the recent World Bank Education Strategy policy paper is entitled Learning for All, it does not specify which language learning should take place in. A claim one often hears in countries of so-called Anglophone Africa is that English is the language of science and technology, and that teaching these subjects through English (instead of teaching English as a subject in its own right as a foreign language) is best. The monolingual island of Zanzibar is in fact about to reintroduce English as the language of instruction in maths and science from grade 5 onwards in primary school. The author of this paper suggests that when it comes to language policy, some African and some Asian countries could learn from each other.

  13. Coping with HIV-related stigma in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoae, Lucia N; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D; Uys, Leana R; Naidoo, Joanne R; Kohi, Thecla W; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Chirwa, Maureen L; Holzemer, William L

    2008-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This report examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. A total of 43 focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 nurses, 111 PLWH, and 26 volunteers). In describing incidents of stigma, respondents reported strategies used or observed to cope with those incidents. Nurse reports of coping strategies that they used as well as observed in HIV-infected patients were coded. Coping strategies used by PLWH in dealing with HIV-related stigma were coded. A total of 17 different self-care strategies were identified: restructuring, seeing oneself as OK, letting go, turning to God, hoping, changing behavior, keeping oneself active, using humor, joining a support or social group, disclosing one's HIV status, speaking to others with same problem, getting counseling, helping others to cope with the illness, educating others, learning from others, acquiring knowledge and understanding about the disease, and getting help from others. Coping appears to be self-taught and only modestly helpful in managing perceived stigma. PMID:18328964

  14. Coping with HIV/AIDS Stigma in Five African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoae, Lucia N.; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D.; Uys, Leana R.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Kohi, Thecla W.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Holzemer, William L.

    2008-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This paper examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive, qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. Forty-three focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 nurses, 111 PLWHs and 26 volunteers). In describing incidents of stigma, respondents reported strategies used or observed to cope with those incidents of stigma. Nurse reports of coping strategies that they used as well as coping strategies they observed as used by HIV-infected patients were coded. Coping strategies used by PLWH in dealing with HIV-related stigma were coded. Seventeen different self-care strategies were identified: restructuring, seeing oneself as OK, letting go, turning to God, hoping, changing behavior, keeping oneself active, using humor, joining a support or social group, disclosing one’s HIV status, speaking to others with same problem, getting counseling, helping others to cope with the illness, educating others, learning from others, acquiring knowledge and understanding about the disease, and getting help from others. Coping appears to be self-taught and only modestly helpful in managing perceived stigma. PMID:18328964

  15. SWOT Analysis of Extension Systems in Southern African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to extension systems in selected southern African countries of Malawi, Zambia, Swaziland, Mozambique, Lesotho and Botswana. This is predicated on the need for improved performance and reinvigoration of extension system for better services. Some of the strengths are development works to improve rural areas, extensive grassroots coverage, and use of committees for research and extension linkages, involvement of NGOs and private sector, and effective setting of extension administration units. On the other hand opportunities that can be explored are donor will fund well designed programme, expansion in the use of ICT, high involvement of farmers in extension planning, and potential for effective programme implementation. The threats to the extension systems are attempts to privatize extension services, weak feedback to research, and donor fatigue. The paper recommends that extension administrators, and policy makers should pay proper attention to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to extension systems with a view of making extension services truly more responsive to local concerns and policy.

  16. Social inequalities, regional disparities and health inequity in North African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decades, North African countries have substantially improved economic, social and health conditions of their populations in average. In all countries, human development in general and life expectancy, literacy and per capita income in particular have increased. However, improvement was not equally shared between groups of different milieu, regions or level of income. Social inequalities and health inequity have persisted or even worsened. Data are generally scarce and few studies were devoted to this topic in North Africa as a region. In this paper, we carry out a comparative study on the achievements of these countries, not only in terms of human development and its components but also in terms of inequalities' reduction and health equity. Method This study is based on data available for comparison between North African countries. The main data sources are provided by reports released by the World Health Organisation (WHO, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF, the World Bank, surveys such as Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS and finally recent papers published on equity in different countries of the region. Results and discussion There is no doubt that education, health and human development in general have improved in North Africa during the last decades. Improvement was, however, uneven and unequally enjoyed by different socioeconomic groups. Indeed, each country included in this study shows large urban-rural disparities, discrepancies between advantaged and disadvantaged regions and cities; and unacceptable differences between rich and poor. Health inequity is particularly seen through access to health services and infant mortality. Conclusion During the last decades, North African decision makers have endeavoured to improve social and economic conditions of their populations. Globally, health, education and living

  17. Cost Effective Ways of Implementing Nuclear Power Programme in African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.1 Energy Poverty Energy Poverty is a term for a lack of access to electricity, heat or other forms of power. This more than often refers to the situation of peoples in the developing world. According to the records of the International Energy Agency (IEA), a detailed country-by-country database estimated that in 2009 the number of people without access to electricity was 1.4 billion or 20% of the world's population. Some 85% of those people live in rural areas. According to, current forecasts suggest the world will see an increase in global energy consumption of over 50% by 2030 with 70% of this growth in demand expected to come from developing countries. There is therefore the need to seek for a way of meeting this need within the time frame and doing so at an affordable price or rather with the most efficient allocation of resources. Nuclear energy can play a role in providing increased access to affordable energy in many parts of the world. There are growing concerns all over the world about energy security. This is partially due to the instability in the price of fossil fuel and to the political instability of most of the oil rich regions of the world. There arises therefore a need for means of meeting the increasingly growing energy demands of the nations while cutting down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. 1.2 The African Situation Presently, the only country on the African continent that has operational nuclear power plants is South Africa. South Africa has two nuclear power plants. Koeberg- 1 and Koeberg-2. Koeberg-1 started operation in 1984 and Koeberg-2 in 1985. Both are 900 MW(e) PWRs. The remaining nations across Africa are dependent largely on either hydro power plants, thermal or gas or a combination of both. However, there has been an increase in interest in nuclear electricity in a number of African countries. The list includes countries like Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Namibia, e.tc. These are countries whose economies are

  18. Adjustment and Long-Run Economic Performance in 18 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between IMF-World Bank adjustment programs and long-run economic performance in 18 sub-Saharan African countries on a country-by-country basis for the period 1960 to 2009. The study reveals that only a handful of countries have shown positive and sustained results....... The traditional (first-generation) Fund-Bank adjustment package has been associated with resurgence of growth in GDP, export, and investment only in two countries (Ghana and Uganda). Most African economies remained on their pre-reform growth paths whereas some others saw their growth rates plummet...

  19. THE VALURISATION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The question that needs to be answered is how the the valorisation of cultural patrimony in Africa is being analysed and understood. In order to respond to this question, it is necessary to ask oneself what exactly is meant by 'African Cultural Patrimony'. How are we going to keep parameters from running into many directions when talking about patrimony? What public cultural politics are we to follow in order to valorize more effectively the concept of patrimony? The areas that need economic analysis are therefore very large ones, as are subsequent propositions which would allow us to arrive at a value for financing the conservation of such patrimony. The valorization of cultural patrimony needs to be put at the disposition of as large a public as possible. In order to do this work, it is necessary to distinguish between: - Historical monuments: comprised of private properties, public castles, historical buildings, and archaeological sites - Museums: By this we mean not only museum buildings and collections, and not only the research work performed by curators. We also mean museums as a country's mark of identity, showcasing the country's collections so that tourists will come, and allowing people worldwide to access the collections on their computers. Faced with these facts, it is obvious that not only does the State need to play an important role in these tasks, but in addition, territorial entities need to define and set standards for the conservation of cultural patrimony in such a way that financing is made available for the continuation of patrimony. Since creating ''cultural patrimony'' is above all a social construct, its valorization and its importance asks public and private actors to join together, because the fundamental thought is that patrimony creates outside interests. In other words, cultural patrimony stimulates other economic activities, and therefore it is necessary to recuperate part of these external gains in order to respond to the

  20. THE MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT - THE CASE FOR 6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMES, N; LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African count

  1. Reflections on Language Policy in African Countries with Portuguese as an Official Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Examines the place of Portuguese in Portugal's former African Colonies. Characterizes the postcolonial position of Portuguese in Africa as a complex relationship between Portuguese as the official language and the other languages of these countries. (Author/VWL)

  2. Analysis and implications of the determinants of healthcare expenditure in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Albert A

    2005-11-01

    The income elasticity of health care spending in the OECD countries tends toward luxury good values. Similar studies, based on more recent data, and capable of informing macroeconomic health policies of the African countries, do not currently exist. How the health care expenditure in Africa responds to changes in the Gross Domestic Products (GDP), Official Development Assistance (ODA), and other determinants, is also relevant for health policy because health care is a necessity in the 'basic needs' theory of economic development. This paper presents econometric model findings of the determinants of per-capita health expenditure (in PPPs) for 26 African countries, using the flexible Box-Cox model regression methods and 1995 cross-sectional data (sources: WRI, UNEP, UNDP, The World Bank). The economic and other determinants, capturing 74 percent of the variations in health expenditures, include per-capita GDP (in PPPs), ODA (US dollar), Gini income inequality index, population dependency ratio, internal conflicts, and the percentage of births attended by trained medical workers. Income inequality dampens, while the ODA and population per health personnel raise health care expenditure. The GDP elasticity of about 0.6 signals the tendency for health care to behave like a technical 'necessity'. Implications for sustainable basic health development policies are discussed. PMID:16379410

  3. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2009-01-01

    Background In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national cou...

  4. Impact of regulatory requirements on medicine registration in African countries – perceptions and experiences of pharmaceutical companies in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of...

  5. Borrowing requirements and external debt sustainability of Sub-Saharan African countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvin, S.; GOLITIN, V.

    2010-01-01

    Despite debt relief under the HIPC Initiative, African countries are still vulnerable to the risk of debt distress. The debt sustainability framework therefore remains an essential tool. The management of this tool must be flexible in order to take account of development goals and allow its adoption by emerging-country lenders.

  6. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in African Countries: Evidence from Semiparametric Estimation with Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhike Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries.

  7. Estimation of Trade Protection in Middle East and North African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Angels Oliva

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the structure and evolution of trade protection in the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries in the 1990s. MENA countries use tariffs and nontariff barriers, and tariff dispersion and nontariff barriers, as substitute protection measures. Tariff levels and tariff dispersion are complements. Excluding Tunisia, the cross-country correlation between tariff and nontariff barriers is -0.46. The correlation between tariff dispersion and nontariff barriers is -0.8. The pa...

  8. Hope in Africa? Social representations of world history and the future in six African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; James H. Liu; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world but sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study one, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the last 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African socio-centrism on colonization and independence. The f...

  9. A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review. PMID:27512409

  10. The relationship between leisure-time physical activity and health parameters in executive employees of selected African countries

    OpenAIRE

    AMUSA, Lateef; Mohlala, Meriam; Monyeki, Makama Andries; Strydom, Gert Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Leisure-time physical inactivity is a global public health concern affecting all people in different walks of life, including employees. This inactivity is associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle as well as low work capacity. The purpose of this study were twofold: to determine leisure-time physical activity- (LTPA), coronary risk-, health- and lifestyle profiles of some executive employees in selected African countries; and to determine the relationship between leisure-time physical ac...

  11. Internet going mobile: Internet access and usage in eleven African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stork, Christoph; Calandro, Enrico; Gillwald, Alison

    2012-01-01

    While the 2007/8 African ICT access and usage survey demonstrated alarmingly little access to the Internet on on the continent together with a large-scale absence of computers and smart phones and compounded by the high cost of connectivity, (Gillwald & Stork 2008), the mobile phone is now the key entry point for Internet usage.1 Internet access has increased significantly across all countries as a result increasing Internet penetration to 15,5% across the ten African countries surveyed on ho...

  12. Are pregnant women prioritized for bed nets? An assessment using survey data from 10 African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily; Koenker, Hannah; Kilian, Albert; Lynch, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health concern, contributing to roughly 11% of neonatal deaths and to 25% of all maternal deaths in some parts of the world. The World Health Organization has recommended priority interventions for malaria during pregnancy, including use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), but net distribution has shifted recently to a universal coverage paradigm rather than one targeting vulnerable populations. Methods: To determine whether and to what extent pregnant women are prioritized within the household for ITN use, we assessed national survey data from 2009–2013 in 10 African countries. Proportion of pregnant women who slept under an ITN the previous night and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared between countries. Within-country logistic regression examined whether pregnancy was significantly associated with ITN use the previous night compared with other risk groups, and the predicted probability of net use for each risk group was calculated holding other covariates constant. Results: A median 58% of households reported owning at least 1 ITN. On average, across all 10 countries, 35% of pregnant women in households with at least 1 ITN used a net. Households with universal coverage (at least 1 ITN per 2 people) had higher levels of net use among all family members; for example, 79% of pregnant women, on average, used a net in such households. In all countries, the predicted probability of ITN use by pregnant women was significantly higher than the probability of net use by most other household members except non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Conclusion: These findings suggest that both pregnant women and non-pregnant women of reproductive age are being prioritized within the household for net use. However, behavior change communication strategies are needed to achieve ITN use goals for pregnant women. PMID:25276574

  13. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  14. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector.Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  15. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910

  16. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wojczewski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom have to their countries of origin. Design: Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66. A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results: Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions: The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.

  17. Social inequalities, regional disparities and health inequity in North African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boutayeb Abdesslam; Helmert Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last decades, North African countries have substantially improved economic, social and health conditions of their populations in average. In all countries, human development in general and life expectancy, literacy and per capita income in particular have increased. However, improvement was not equally shared between groups of different milieu, regions or level of income. Social inequalities and health inequity have persisted or even worsened. Data are generally...

  18. Effects of non-tariff measures on European horticultural and fish imports from African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nimenya, Nicodème

    2010-01-01

    The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries benefit from preferential market access to the European Union (EU) thanks to the EU-ACP Partnership Agreements and their eligibility to the EU’s Generalized System of Preferences and Everything But Arms initiative. Despite these trade preferences, ACP countries have not improved accordingly their trade performance into the EU. There is a growing concern emerging through the literature that non-tariff measures (NTMs) could constitute a seriou...

  19. Migration from Developing Countries: The Case of South African Teachers to the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, Rian

    2007-01-01

    The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…

  20. Optimal public investment, growth, and consumption: Fresh evidence from African countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwasi Fosu, A.; Getachew, Y.Y.; Ziesemer, T.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a model positing a nonlinear relationship between public investment and growth. The model is then applied to a panel of African countries using nonlinear estimating procedures. The growth-maximizing level of public investment is estimated at about 10 percent of GDP based on Syste

  1. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  2. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact of...

  3. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  4. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sauvageot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  5. Estimates of female genital mutilation/cutting in 27 African countries and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, P Stanley; Wang, Shanxiao; Johansen, Elise

    2013-06-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been documented in many countries in Africa and in several countries in Asia and the Middle East, yet producing reliable data concerning its prevalence and the numbers of girls and women affected has proved a major challenge. This study provides estimates of the total number of women aged 15 years and older who have undergone FGM/C in 27 African countries and Yemen. Drawing on national population-based survey data regarding FGM/C prevalence and census data regarding the number of women in each country, we find that almost 87 million girls and women aged 15 and older have been cut in these 28 countries. Producing reliable figures for the number of women affected by FGM/C in these countries allows researchers and program directors to better comprehend the impact of the practice and to mobilize resources for advocacy against it. PMID:23720002

  6. Celiac disease in Middle Eastern and North African countries:A new burden?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kassem; Barada; Abbas; Bitar; Mohamad; Abdul-Razak; Mokadem; Jana; Ghazi; Hashash; Peter; Green

    2010-01-01

    Celiac disease(CD) is now recognized as a common disorder among Middle Eastern(ME) and North African(NA) populations.The aim of this review is to assess the available data regarding CD in the ME and NA and to compare this information with that of Western countries.A literature review was performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Medline(1950-2008) as search engines,and "celiac disease" was used as a Mesh term.The search was limited to ME and NA countries.The prevalence of CD in ME and NA countries...

  7. Towards zero waste in emerging countries - a South African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management [DEAT, 2001. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Government of South Africa. Polokwane Declaration. Drafted by Government, Civil Society and the Business Community. National Waste Summit, Polokwane, 26-28 September 2001], which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa. PMID:17714928

  8. Towards Zero Waste in emerging countries - A South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management , which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa

  9. Fair Trade and its benefits for African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vítková, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the functioning of Fair Trade and define the main opportunities which it offers to the producers from Africa. The first chapter contains the typical features of this concept, its definition, essential principles, methods of certification, a brief historical overview and current development. It also introduces some important international organizations involved in Fair Trade. The second chapter focuses on Fair Trade in Africa. It includes the analysis of Af...

  10. Multinationals, CSR and partnerships in Central African conflict countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAttention has increased for the potential role of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNEs to collaborate with various stakeholders, including non-governmental organisations (NGOs), research on the scope, peculiarities and impact of such cooperation has been limited, particularly in th...

  11. The molecular basis of livestock diseases in developing countries as illustrated by African trypanosomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Viral, bacterial, protozoan and helminthic diseases of domestic livestock continue to be serious impediments to the agricultural economies of most developing countries. Many of these livestock pathogens have evolved sophisticated molecular mechanisms for evading or circumventing the mammalian immune system. These same pathogens frequently acquire resistance to drugs that are initially effective. African trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause the fatal diseases of ngana in cattle, surra in camels and horses and sleeping sickness in humans. They are the paradigm for a livestock pathogen in developing countries for which much is now known, yet little has been achieved in controlling or eliminating the disease. African trypanosomes were identified as the cause of trypanosomosis more than 100 years ago and in many ways are ideal pathogens to study in the laboratory. From the perspective of research on the parasites themselves, excellent laboratory rodent models for their infection exist. They can be readily grown in vitro in culture flasks. Their mechanism of immune evasion is known. The completed DNA sequence of their genome is nearly determined. They can be manipulated genetically in the laboratory - genes can be mutated and deleted from, or inserted into, their genome. They contain unique organelles and metabolic pathways not found in mammals that could potentially be exploited for new drug development. They are pathogens of humans as well as livestock, so they attract the interests and enormous resources of the medical research community. Advantages also exist from the standpoint of experiments on their animal hosts. Breeds of domestic cattle that are either 'trypanotolerant' or trypanosome-sensitive are well known and animals of each type have been cross-bred. The molecular basis of trypanosome-tolerance in at least one indigenous wild animal species (the Cape buffalo) has been elucidated. The reason some African trypanosome species are killed

  12. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.;

    2015-01-01

    from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds that...... governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include...

  13. INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE: AN APERTURE TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DISCOVER : Students' Exchange Experiences from African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Shree Newas

    2015-01-01

    Sapkota, Shree Newas. ‘’International exchange: an aperture to community development and self discover’’: Students’ exchange experiences from African countries. 65 pages. 1 appendix. Language: English. Autumn 2015. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. International exchange is a platform where a student encounters various diversities in order to increase his/her understanding of other culture, religion, communiti...

  14. Corporate governance and company performance across Sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Munisi, Gibson; Randøy, Trond

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which publicly listed companies across Sub-Saharan African countries have adopted “good corporate governance” practices. We investigate the association of these practices with companies’ accounting performance and market valuation. The findings indicate that companies across Sub-Saharan Africa have only partly implemented good corporate governance practices. We find a positive association between our constructed index of good corporate governance practices an...

  15. DEVELOPMENT-RELATED CONFLICTS: A POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Aragbonfoh Abumere

    2015-01-01

    This paper is aimed at proposing a policy framework for the resolution or management of development-related conflicts in Sub-Saharan African countries. In many conflicts in SubSaharan Africa, development issues are contributory factors. In view of the linkage between conflicts and development issues in Sub-Saharan Africa, the paper asks whether there is any one resource, whether security apparatus or development policy, that is at once necessary and sufficient for the resolutio...

  16. Olympic Movement stakeholder collaboration for delivering on sport development in eight African (SADC) countries

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Cora

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual framework is underpinned by network dynamics apparent in an institutional matrix of Olympic Movement partners. This research aims to provide insights on collaboration between multi-sectorial stakeholders in eight Southern African Development Countries (SADC). A Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach ensured that local voices are represented from eight stakeholder cohorts. A total of 156 interviews and four focus group discussions provided 420 typed page transcripts that w...

  17. The Effect Of Globalization On African Countries: An Over View Of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Eze R. C; Nkwede J

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is the effects of globalization on African countries. Globalization is a positive force for development and poverty reduction. It has led to growing inequalities among nation states. This is a problem, which the study seeks to address. Though globalization is a worldwide issue the work shall be united to its economic and political effects. The study aims to examine the concept of globalization and its economic and political effects on Nigeria. The study will make recom...

  18. Tariff equivalents of nontariff measures: The case of European horticultural and fish imports from African countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Nimenya, Nicodème

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the Partnership Agreements between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries, this study estimates ad valorem tariff equivalents of European food safety standards on imports of key horticultural and fish products from Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The study uses an extension of the price-wedge method to account for imperfect substitution and factor endowment in monopolistic competition. The estimated tariff equivalents are 55% and 98% f...

  19. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Neuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC, there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. RESULTS: Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001, the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%, and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78% of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8% were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania; Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4% of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot

  20. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender. PMID:26068218

  1. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wojczewski

    Full Text Available Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa, the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.

  2. Drivers of Environmental Institutional Dynamics in Decentralized African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie; Ferrand, Nils

    2015-12-01

    This paper builds on the assumption that an effective approach to support the sustainability of natural resource management initiatives is institutional "bricolage." We argue that participatory planning processes can foster institutional bricolage by encouraging stakeholders to make their own arrangements based on the hybridization of old and new institutions. This papers aims at identifying how participatory process facilitators can encourage institutional bricolage. Specifically the paper investigates the specific contextual and procedural drivers of institutional dynamics in two case studies: the Rwenzori region in Uganda and the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia. In both cases, participatory planning processes were implemented. This research has three innovative aspects. First, it establishes a clear distinction between six terms which are useful for identifying, describing, and analyzing institutional dynamics: formal and informal; institutions and organizations; and emergence and change. Secondly, it compares the contrasting institutional dynamics in the two case studies. Thirdly, process-tracing is used to identify contextual and procedural drivers to institutional dynamics. We assume that procedural drivers can be used as "levers" by facilitators to trigger institutional bricolage. We found that facilitators need to pay particular attention to the institutional context in which the participatory planning process takes place, and especially at existing institutional gaps or failures. We identified three clusters of procedural levers: the selection and engagement of participants; the legitimacy, knowledge, and ideas of facilitators; and the design of the process, including the scale at which it is developed, the participatory tools used and the management of the diversity of frames.

  3. Drivers of Environmental Institutional Dynamics in Decentralized African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie; Ferrand, Nils

    2015-12-01

    This paper builds on the assumption that an effective approach to support the sustainability of natural resource management initiatives is institutional "bricolage." We argue that participatory planning processes can foster institutional bricolage by encouraging stakeholders to make their own arrangements based on the hybridization of old and new institutions. This papers aims at identifying how participatory process facilitators can encourage institutional bricolage. Specifically the paper investigates the specific contextual and procedural drivers of institutional dynamics in two case studies: the Rwenzori region in Uganda and the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia. In both cases, participatory planning processes were implemented. This research has three innovative aspects. First, it establishes a clear distinction between six terms which are useful for identifying, describing, and analyzing institutional dynamics: formal and informal; institutions and organizations; and emergence and change. Secondly, it compares the contrasting institutional dynamics in the two case studies. Thirdly, process-tracing is used to identify contextual and procedural drivers to institutional dynamics. We assume that procedural drivers can be used as "levers" by facilitators to trigger institutional bricolage. We found that facilitators need to pay particular attention to the institutional context in which the participatory planning process takes place, and especially at existing institutional gaps or failures. We identified three clusters of procedural levers: the selection and engagement of participants; the legitimacy, knowledge, and ideas of facilitators; and the design of the process, including the scale at which it is developed, the participatory tools used and the management of the diversity of frames. PMID:26188407

  4. Vertical Specialisation and Regional Trade Integration. A Study on Italy and Northern African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Cor�; Marco Giansoldati; Mario Volpe

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a multistage approach to investigate the role of Italy in the Northern African countries, both in terms of trade and investment. In particular, we show that Italian import flows for two typically Made in Italy industries, namely textile and clothing on one hand, and leather and footwear on the other hand, are strongly related not only to export flows of the same sector, but also to a set of variables capturing features of the Italian and the foreign country. In this way, we su...

  5. The Output-Inflation Trade-off in African Less Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the short-run output-inflation trade-off and policy effectiveness in African less developed countries. Using a sample of thirteen countries over the period 1960-98, cointegration and error correction modelling suggest that the impacts on inflation and real output growth from a shock to nominal aggregate demand will be of the ratio one-sixth to five-sixths. Furthermore, this study finds that the short-run potency of demand-side policy on inflation (real ou...

  6. English in French-speaking African countries: The case of GABON*

    OpenAIRE

    Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Hugues Steve

    2009-01-01

    A number of historically French-speaking countries have adopted English as second or one of the official languages. This does not only pose a problem of multilingualism at State level as well as at social level, but it also questions the actual status of English as a language at both levels. In fact, English does not only have to compete with French, but also with native African languages. This article gives an insight into the status of English in Gabon – a French-speaking country in western...

  7. An assessment of South African prepaid electricity experiment, lessons learned, and their policy implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reviews the economics, logistics, and technology underlying the South African experiment of prepaid electricity. Although this experiment has resulted into benefiting large masses of small and dispersed consumers, it has also generated a set of new problems that could not be visualized at the inception of the experiment. The success of this program can be largely attributed to a number of factors, including a good marketing campaign, innovative tariff schedules, better planning and management, and so on. Lessons learned from this experiment are useful for policy-making purposes in other developing countries of Africa and Asia

  8. Challenge in environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the challenges in attaining environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries, with main focus on environmentally degrading activities carried out by the poor rural communities as the only way of scaling down poverty. The typical examples include, among others, charcoal burning, firewood gathering and hunting. These activities are practiced by poor rural communities for commercial purposes, with the main market being the urban areas; whose population increase and the inability to afford electricity for domestic purposes have made the demand for charcoal and firewood to increase. While recognising the right for the basic needs for everyone, efforts have been made to reduce the pressure exerted by rural communities on to natural resources, and alternative income generating activities have been adopted. However, successes in these fields are still not observable. The paper also discusses the need for integrated approaches that might reduce the demand on natural forest resources-based energy, which consist of subsidized electricity, fast growing tree plantation, and energy efficiency, among others. (author)

  9. How efficient are African electricity companies? Evidence from the Southern African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a first attempt at documenting efficiency levels in Africa's electricity firms, their evolution and the sources of this evolution. The analysis is based on a sample of 12 operators providing services in the 12 country members of the Southern Africa Power Pool. We focus on the changes in total factor productivity (TFP) of the largest operators in each country between 1998 and 2005. We then rely on a data envelopment analysis (DEA) decomposition to identify the sources of the changes in TFP. The results suggest fairly comparable levels of efficiency in the region and performance levels and evolution quite independent of the degree of vertical integration, the presence of a private actor or the main sources of energy supply. The analysis suggest that although the companies have not made significant improvements during the period of analysis in using their capital and human assets, they have done much better in adopting better technologies and better commercial practices. No clear correlation could be associated with the adoption of reforms during the last decade and data limitations impede a more refined assessment of the impact of reforms on efficiency at this stage

  10. Does perceived HIV stigma contribute to nurses' intent to migrate in five African countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohi, Thecla W; Portillo, Carmen J; Durrheim, Kevin; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Makoae, Lucy N; Greeff, Minrie; Chirwa, Maureen; Naidoo, Joanne; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2010-01-01

    Nurse migration out of low-resource countries has occurred for many years, resulting in workforce shortages, particularly in countries with a high prevalence of HIV. A cross-sectional survey of 1,374 nurses from five African countries (Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania) was conducted. A logistic regression analysis resulted in a profile of odds ratios predicting increased odds of intent to migrate for nurses who were more experienced and working in urban hospitals. These data provide the first support that HIV stigma experienced by nurses through their association as providers for people living with HIV may also be contributing to their intent to migrate. The study contributes to a greater understanding of the complexity of nurse migration in Africa. PMID:20116298

  11. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households. PMID:26364789

  12. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Alam

    Full Text Available To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC, facility based delivery (FBD, and modern contraception (MC in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda had 4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda, ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in countries

  13. Essential surgery at the district hospital: a retrospective descriptive analysis in three African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Galukande

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical conditions contribute significantly to the disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet there is an apparent neglect of surgical care as a public health intervention to counter this burden. There is increasing enthusiasm to reverse this trend, by promoting essential surgical services at the district hospital, the first point of contact for critical conditions for rural populations. This study investigated the scope of surgery conducted at district hospitals in three sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a retrospective descriptive study, field data were collected from eight district hospitals in Uganda, Tanzania, and Mozambique using a standardized form and interviews with key informants. Overall, the scope of surgical procedures performed was narrow and included mainly essential and life-saving emergency procedures. Surgical output varied across hospitals from five to 45 major procedures/10,000 people. Obstetric operations were most common and included cesarean sections and uterine evacuations. Hernia repair and wound care accounted for 65% of general surgical procedures. The number of beds in the studied hospitals ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 per 1,000 population. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study clearly indicate low levels of surgical care provision at the district level for the hospitals studied. The extent to which this translates into unmet need remains unknown although the very low proportions of live births in the catchment areas of these eight hospitals that are born by cesarean section suggest that there is a substantial unmet need for surgical services. The district hospital in the current health system in sub-Saharan Africa lends itself to feasible integration of essential surgery into the spectrum of comprehensive primary care services. It is therefore critical that the surgical capacity of the district hospital is significantly expanded; this will result in sustainable preventable morbidity and

  14. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugi, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  15. Electricity consumption and economic growth: a time series experience for 17 African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the availability of electricity by itself is not a panacea for the economic and social problems facing Africa, the supply of electricity is nevertheless believed to be a necessary requirement for Africa's economic and social development. This paper tests the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for 17 African countries for the period 1971-2001 using a newly developed cointegration test proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and using a modified version of the Granger causality test due to Toda and Yamamoto (1995). The advantage of using these two approaches is that they both avoid the pre-testing bias associated with conventional unit root and cointegration tests. The empirical evidence shows that there was a long-run relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real GDP per capita for only 9 countries and Granger causality for only 12 countries. For 6 countries there was a positive uni-directional causality running from real GDP per capita to electricity consumption per capita; an opposite causality for 3 countries and bi-directional causality for the remaining 3 countries. The result should, however, be interpreted with care as electricity consumption accounts for less than 4% of total energy consumption in Africa and only grid-supplied electricity is taken into account

  16. The real world of western NGOs in sub-saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zipper, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    “What happens when an NGO admits failure ?” is the question asked by David Damberger, a member of Engineers Without Broaders, a canadian NGO. After the failure of his project in Malawi, he began to work on the learning of NGOs from possible failures. This project work will explore this idea of learning from some failures for western NGOs. The problem statement would be : “what and how NGOs can learn from their failure ?” It will focus only on projects in sub-saharan African countries beca...

  17. An Empirical Test of Purchasing Power Parity in Selected African Countries - a Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mkenda, Beatrice Kalinda

    2001-01-01

    The paper tests whether the theory of Purchasing Power Parity holds in a selected sample of twenty African countries. The paper employs a panel unit root test to test whether the real exchange rates in the panel are mean reverting or not. The test employed is the Im et al (1997) test. Results show that the null of a unit root is rejected for the three real exchange rate indices, namely, the import-based and trade-weighted multilateral indices, and the bilateral indices, while for the export-b...

  18. On the Mathematical Analysis of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever: Deathly Infection Disease in West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.

  19. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. PMID:21763362

  20. Understanding client satisfaction with HIV testing and counseling services: a mixed-methods study in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Michelle; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses mixed methods to provide comparative evidence across four African countries and identify those aspects of the testing experience that are the most important components of clients' satisfaction with services. We analyze data from three sources: a survey of clients at health facilities that included closed-ended questions about specific services and interactions around testing; responses to open-ended questions about testing experiences that were part of the same survey; and semi-structured interviews with a subsample of respondents who described their experience of testing and being diagnosed with HIV. High levels of reported satisfaction are found in both the survey and interview. The critical factors contributing to client satisfaction included: the three C's of testing-counseling, consent, and confidentiality, client-provider interactions, convenience of location, "good services", and reliable test results. PMID:26872848

  1. Appropriateness of no-fault compensation for research-related injuries from an African perspective: an appeal for action by African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalo, Patrick Dongosolo; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Rennie, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Compensation for research-related injuries (RRIs) remains a challenge in the current environment of global collaborative biomedical research as exemplified by the continued reluctance of the US government, a major player in international biomedical research, to enact regulation for mandatory compensation for RRIs. This stance is in stark contrast to the mandatory compensation policies adopted by other democracies like the European Union (EU) countries. These positions taken by the USA and the EU create a nexus of confusion when research is exported to low-income and middle-income countries which have no laws guiding compensation for RRIs. In this paper, we begin by exploring the background to policies concerning RRIs, how they reflect on the traditional dispute resolution mechanisms in African societies, and how this compares with the no-fault compensation model. We then explore the underlying African ethical framework of Ubuntu in the sub-Saharan region, guiding traditional practices of dispute resolution and compensation, and how this framework can help to form the moral justification for no-fault compensation as the preferred compensation model for RRIs for African countries. Finally, we call upon countries in the African Union (AU), to adopt a no-fault policy for compensation of RRIs, and enact it into a regulatory requirement for insurance-based no-fault compensation for biomedical research, which will then be enforced by member states of the AU. PMID:27259545

  2. Emerging Issues and Concerns of African Countries in the WTO Negotiations on Agriculture and the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick N. Osakwe

    2006-01-01

    Since the Uruguay Round, African countries have been concerned about the rules and operations of the multilateral trading system and are beginning to realize that they have to be active in the negotiation process to protect their interests. Consequently, several countries in the region have been relatively more active in the Doha Round negotiations and have formed alliances with other developing countries to increase their bargaining power. This paper provides a critical assessment of Africa’...

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-01-01

    During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009)”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widesprea...

  4. Economic Implications of Business Dynamics for KE-Associated Economic Growth and Inclusive Development in African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Amavilah, Voxi; Antonio R. Andrés

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an empirically-relevant framework (a) to examine whether or not the African business environment hinders or promotes the knowledge economy (KE), (b) to determine how the KE which emerges from such an environment affects economic growth, and (c) how growth in turn relates to the ‘inclusive development’ of 53 African countries during the 1996-2010 time period. The framework provides a modest guide to policymaking about, and further research into, such relationships. We impl...

  5. Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358

  6. What is the role of Financial Development and Energy Consumption on Economic Growth? New Evidence from North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohamed Salman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to test the validity of the causality between financial development and economic growth on energy consumption in three of North African countries. The study employs error coreection model and Granger causaility test to analyza a dataset for three North African countries covering a period from 1980 to 2010. The applied model is based on demand function for energy to assess the existing of causal relationship of energy with financial development, and economic growth, in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia.  Empirical results provide a positive significant relating financial development and energy consumption in Algeria, and Tunisia. On the other hand, Egypt’s results show a negative significant relationship relating energy consumption and financial development. The paper is valuable to policy makers in North African countries in their pursuit for achieving economic growth as it clarifies the urge for the financial development reforms to stimulate investment and growth. 

  7. The relationships between leisure-time physical activity and health related parameters in executive employees of selected African countries / M. Mohlala.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohlala, Meriam

    2012-01-01

    Leisure-time physical inactivity is a global public health concern affecting all people in different walks of life, including employees. This inactivity is associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle as well as low work capacity. The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine leisure-time physical activity (LTPAI), coronary risk- (CRI), health status (HSI) and lifestyle (LSI) indexes of some executive employees in selected African countries; and to determine the effect of leisure-time...

  8. Adolescent childbearing and women's attitudes towards wife beating in 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindin, Michelle J

    2014-08-01

    Preventing unwanted adolescent pregnancy is key for keeping girls in school, leading to a more productive and healthier workforce in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender norms are an important indicator of the status of women and more conservative gender norms are associated with experiencing domestic violence, and poorer maternal and reproductive health care. This paper examines the association between adolescent childbearing and norms towards wife beating in sub-Saharan Africa, and the role of education in moderating this association. Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys-nationally representative cross-sectional surveys conducted every 5 years. Country-by-country multivariable logistic regressions were conducted in 25 countries, and country and regional estimates were obtained using meta-analytical techniques. More than half of sub-Saharan African adolescents have a child, with levels ranging from 23% in Rwanda to 69% in Niger. Between 12 and 87% of women believed wife beating is acceptable. In 20 of the 25 countries, women with a birth during adolescence were significantly more likely to believe wife beating is justified [OR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 130-1.39]. After multivariate adjustment, the overall finding remains statistically significant [AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 105-1:13]. Education attenuates the observed association. Overall, the effects are strongest and most consistent in West Africa. Results suggest that women who have an adolescent birth more likely to hold more conservative attitudes. Working with adolescents to improve their attitudes on relationship expectations and the importance of furthering their education even after a pregnancy could be integrated into life skills and sexual education curricula. PMID:24158508

  9. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  10. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo). PMID:22044307

  11. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degboe Arnold N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and

  12. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    . To investigate this we perform a comprehensive study of the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on a set of key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from mid-1960s to 2007. We use a well-specified (Cointegrated) VAR (CVAR) model as our statistical benchmark. It represents a......Studies of aid effectiveness abound in the literature, often with opposing conclusions. Since most time-series studies use data from the exact same publicly available data bases, our claim here is that such differences in results must be due to the use of different econometric models and methods...... much-needed general-to-specific approach which can provide broad confidence intervals within which empirically relevant claims should fall. Based on stringent statistical testing, our results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact of ODA flows on the macroeconomy. For example, we find a...

  13. The Effect Of Globalization On African Countries: An Over View Of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze R C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the effects of globalization on African countries. Globalization is a positive force for development and poverty reduction. It has led to growing inequalities among nation states. This is a problem, which the study seeks to address. Though globalization is a worldwide issue the work shall be united to its economic and political effects. The study aims to examine the concept of globalization and its economic and political effects on Nigeria. The study will make recommendations for the win/ forward. The method used in this research will be secondary source of data collection and the content analysis method, which involves the use of newspapers, bulletins, journals and textbooks.

  14. Infrastructure and other considerations to launch nuclear power programme: The case of sub-sahara African developing countries like Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-Saharan countries are new to launch a nuclear power (NP) programme. If they are interested to consider this technology, they should be highly committed to develop the required basic infrastructure in stages; and should conduct important activities that need to be completed in phases. This include longer than 100 years of maintaining a sustainable national infrastructure throughout its operation, decommissioning and waste disposal. The major challenges to launch a NP programme in these countries are; lack of funding, inadequate technical know-how, lack of information on the available resources, low grid capacity of nations, lack of required organizations and physical component of the infrastructure. However, there are also encouraging aspects such as commitment to expand electric supply to rural areas, strategic shift to diversify energy sources, availability of uranium (thorium) reserves, availability of basic regulatory infrastructure in radiation protection and nuclear safety, and enhanced regional and international economic cooperation. In conclusion, the high level of poverty in Sub-Saharan countries mainly is due to lack of adequate energy and its poor coverage. It is vital to assert here that provision of sustainable and sufficient amount of energy in the region can greatly advance development, alleviate poverty and ensure stability. Besides, to come out of this cyclic challenge; countries based on regional economic cooperation and ideals of African Union, should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and commonly invest to launch NP programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements

  15. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  16. NADf chip, a two-color microarray for simultaneous screening of multigene mutations associated with hearing impairment in North African Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakchouk, Imen; Ben Said, Mariem; Jbeli, Fida; Benmarzoug, Riadh; Loukil, Salma; Smeti, Ibtihel; Chakroun, Amine; Gibriel, Abdullah Ahmed; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Hadjkacem, Hassen; Masmoudi, Saber

    2015-03-01

    Hearing impairment (HI) is the most frequent sensory defect. Genetic causes are involved in two thirds of prelingual cases. Moreover, the autosomal recessive HI frequency is increased in countries where there is a high rate of consanguinity, such as in North African Mediterranean countries. This population shares several features, including history and social behavior, that promote the spread of founder mutations. HI is characterized by tremendous heterogeneity in both the genetic and clinical aspects. The identification of the causal mutation is important for early diagnosis, clinical follow-up, and genetic counseling. Addressing the extreme genetic heterogeneity of HI using classic molecular methods would be expensive and time-consuming. We designed a cost-effective North African Deafness chip for rapid and simultaneous analysis of 58 mutations using multiplex PCR coupled with dual-color arrayed primer extension. These mutations are found in North African HI patients and are distributed over 31 exons and five introns in 21 distinct genes. Assay specificity was initially optimized using 103 archived DNA samples of known genotypes. Blind validation of HI-unrelated patients revealed mutant alleles in 13 samples, and these mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The North African Deafness chip allows for simultaneous genotyping of eight different samples, at a minimal cost and in a single day, and is therefore amenable to large-scale molecular screening of HI in North Africa. PMID:25560255

  17. Empirical Evidence of Target Leverage, Adjustment Costs and Adjustment Speed of Non-Financial Firms in Selected African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Oyebola Fatima Etudaiye-Muhtar; Rubi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The issue of target leverage for corporate firms in developing countries has received little attention in extant literature, especially countries in Africa. Given the imperfection that exists in African financial markets that may limit firms access to external capital, this study investigates dynamic adjustment towards a target debt ratio. In addition, the study used a dynamic panel data estimation technique to determine adjustment costs and speed of adjustment in non-financial firms in selec...

  18. Experience of Consolidation Of Disused Sources In Developing Countries, An African Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of sealed sources in agriculture, medicine and industry was used in many African countries without having any arrangements in place for managing the sources when their useful life was over. In Tanzania a substantial use of such sources was utilized. In the early days source management was not an area that was given the required attention hence a legacy associated with sealed sources became evident in many African countries and Tanzania was one of them. In the 90's Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC), realized the scope of the waste problem and began to participate in an International Atomic Energy Agency Regional (IAEA) project on waste management. Tanzania in cooperation with IAEA initiated activities under the IAEA Technical Cooperation and the Regional projects 'Strengthening Waste Management Infrastructure, RAF/4/015'; and 'Sustaining the Waste Management Infrastructure RAF/3/005' which played a significant role. The first outcome of the project was realized in 1999, as the first 'Temporary Radioactive Waste Storage Facility' began to operate. This particular Storage facility gave the first impact as well as the need to develop this particular infrastructure further. As the project carried on, more and more orphan sources were recovered, collected and safely stored at the facility. As the use of nuclear technology was expanding and the identification of the extent of sealed sources in the countries became more defined, the need to develop a 'Central Radioactive Waste Management Facility' (CRWMF) was becoming more desired. The central radioactive waste storage facility was constructed and commissioned in 2005. The facility was more advanced and could be used for much longer periods of time, as one of the most advanced storage facility in the Region. At present a large number of disused sources from various industries as well as from different activities are being stored at the facility. Tanzanian authorities are also planning to initiate a

  19. PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger J. Chin, MA, MPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.

  20. Ebola impact on African health systems entails a quest for more international and local resilience: the case of African Portuguese speaking countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Silva, Andreia; Pereira, Natália; Vasconcelos, Paula; Conceição, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ebola epidemics have shown to have significant impacts on many aspects of healthcare systems. African countries have been facing many difficulties while addressing Ebola epidemics, moreover due to both lack of resources and fragmented involvement of national and international entities. The participation of multiple organizations has created serious problems of coordination of aid and the operation of that aid on the ground. This paper aims at addressing the impact of Ebola epide...

  1. Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article extends the recent findings of , , and by implementing recent bootstrap panel unit root tests and cointegration techniques to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real GDP for 12 Middle East and North African Countries (MENA) over the period 1981–2005. Our results show that in the long-run energy consumption has a positive significant impact on CO2 emissions. More interestingly, we show that real GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. However, although the estimated long-run coefficients of income and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in most studied countries, the turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. CO2 emission reductions per capita have been achieved in the MENA region, even while the region exhibited economic growth over the period 1981–2005. The econometric relationships derived in this paper suggest that future reductions in CO2 emissions per capita might be achieved at the same time as GDP per capita in the MENA region continues to grow. - Highlights: ► We study the links between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and GDP in MENA region. ► Energy consumption has a positive correlation with CO2 emissions. ► GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. ► However, the turning points are low in some cases and high in other cases. ► Thus, not all countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease CO2 emissions.

  2. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  3. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region

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    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.

  4. Chimpanzee included in the genus Homo? How Biology teachers from three Latin American countries conceive it

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Heslley M.; Carvalho, Graça Simões

    2016-01-01

    This work intended to understand the biology teachers’ conceptions about the humans’ position regarding other animal species. It was carried out in three countries with contrasting secularism conditions: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Teachers were asked to answer, in a Likert-type scale, to the question B7 of the European project BIOHEAD-CITIZEN: “The Chimpanzee should be included in the genus Homo, notably because 98.5% of its DNA is identical to that of Homo sapiens”.. Results were analyze...

  5. Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy N; Greeff, Minrie; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Uys, Yvette R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association. PMID:19936409

  6. An Empirical Analysis of Stock Markets Integration in Selected African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Solarin Sakiru Adebola; Jauhari Dahalan

    2012-01-01

    This study employs cointegration technique to determine the co-movement of ten national stock markets indexes in Africa. Using monthly indexes spanning February, 1997 to October, 2011, results demonstrate less than full cointegrating vectors, which suggest African stock markets are not fully integrated. Further findings indicate that big African stock markets indexes tend to influence fluctuations in small African markets indexes. Generally, these imply limited benefits accrue from portfolio ...

  7. African Otter Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon

    2016-01-01

    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  8. How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ani Wilson; Ugwunta David; Okwo Mary; Eneje Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of telecommunication development on economic growth in five leading ICT developed countries for African region. Following previous studies, teledensity (or the penetration rate) is defined as the number of fixed-lines and mobile phone subscribers per 100 persons as a proxy to measure the development of the telecommunications sector, while economic growth is proxied by Gross domestic product at current prices (US dollars). After ensuring data stationarity, the Gr...

  9. Bank Financing of SMEs in Five Sub-Saharan African Countries : The Role of Competition, Innovation, and the Government

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Gunhild; Fuchs, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of access to bank financing for SMEs in five Sub-Saharan African countries and analyzes the drivers behind banks' involvement with SMEs. The paper builds on data collected through five in-depth studies in Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, and Tanzania between 2010 and 2012. The paper shows that the share of SME lending in the overall loan po...

  10. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Novignon Jacob; Nonvignon Justice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Me...

  11. The Choice Between External and Domestic Debt in Financing Budget Deficits; The Case of Central and West African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Beaugrand; Montfort Mlachila; Boileau Loko

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the principles and practical considerations involved in the choice between foreign and domestic financing of fiscal deficits, and derives a series of recommendations broadly applicable to Central and West African countries. The paper develops a simple analytical framework and shows that highly concessional external debt is usually a superior choice to domestic debt in terms of financial costs and risks, even in the face of a probable devaluation. The paper stresses the impor...

  12. An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeh...

  13. The Growth Effects of Openness to Trade and the Role of Institutions: New Evidence from African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina; Ndikumana, Léonce

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the argument that one of the causes for the limited growth effects of trade openness in Africa may be the weakness of institutions. We also control for several major factors and, in particular, for export diversification, using a newly developed dataset on Africa. Results from Arellano-Bond GMM estimations on panel data from African countries show that institutions play an important role in enhancing the growth effects of trade. Moreover, we find that the joint effec...

  14. Regulations for safety of animal source foods in selected Sub-Saharan African countries: Current statu and their implicationss

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Mohammad A.; Grace, Delia

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the current of safety standards and problems for animal source foods, a study was conducted in six sub-Saharan African countries - Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa and Tanzania. The objective was to review food safety policy and regulations and their implementation, food safety status in terms of a number of criteria e.g. nature of public health problems and regularity of testing such problems, prevalence of food-borne diseases of international and devel...

  15. Air Transport and Destination Performance – A case study of three African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya and South Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Tchouamou Njoya, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Tourism is increasingly being promoted as an important source of economic growth especially in developing countries. While there are many elements that contribute to tourism growth, without an efficient air transport system, it is almost impossible for a number of landlocked and geographically isolated developing nations to expand and sustain domestic and international tourism. From the perspective of an African nation the most important question is whether the benefit of aviation expansion w...

  16. Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2009-12-01

    The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515

  17. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salwa F.; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Klena, John D.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few.Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28]) in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the pr...

  18. Transversal analysis of public policies on user fees exemptions in six West African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridde Valéry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors’ attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors’ attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a

  19. Study on the Development of Museums for Improved Integration of the Cultural Heritage into the Education System in French-Speaking African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essomba, Joseph-Marie

    Objectives for establishing museums in African countries for the purpose of teaching African history, languages, literature, and art are presented. Section 1 of the report focuses on the museum as a basis for creating an awareness of history, developing cultural individuality, laying groundwork for an endogenous form of development, and serving as…

  20. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kuznik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86% and specificity (99% reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2-US$48. Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%-14.0% to 0.038% (range: 0.002%-0.113%. Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32

  1. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  2. Regional modelling of future African climate north of 15S including greenhouse warming and land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeth, H. [Geographical Institute, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Thamm, H.P. [Geographical Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Previous studies have highlighted the crucial role of land degradation in tropical African climate. This effect urgently has to be taken into account when predicting future African climate under enhanced greenhouse conditions. Here, we present time slice experiments of African climate until 2025, using a high-resolution regional climate model. A supposable scenario of future land use changes, involving vegetation loss and soil degradation, is prescribed simultaneously with increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations in order to detect, where the different forcings counterbalance or reinforce each other. This proceeding allows us to define the regions of highest vulnerability with respect to future freshwater availability and food security in tropical and subtropical Africa and may provide a decision basis for political measures. The model simulates a considerable reduction in precipitation amount until 2025 over most of tropical Africa, amounting to partly more than 500 mm (20-40% of the annual sum), particularly in the Congo Basin and the Sahel Zone. The change is strongest in boreal summer and basically reflects the pattern of maximum vegetation cover during the seasonal cycle. The related change in the surface energy fluxes induces a substantial near-surface warming by up to 7C. According to the modified temperature gradients over tropical Africa, the summer monsoon circulation intensifies and transports more humid air masses into the southern part of West Africa. This humidifying effect is overcompensated by a remarkable decrease in surface evaporation, leading to the overall drying tendency over most of Africa. Extreme daily rainfall events become stronger in autumn but less intense in spring. Summer and autumn appear to be characterized by more severe heat waves over Subsaharan West Africa. In addition, the Tropical Easterly Jet is weakening, leading to enhanced drought conditions in the Sahel Zone. All these results suggest that the local impact of land

  3. Simulation of Spread of African Swine Fever, Including the Effects of Residues from Dead Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Bøtner, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    subclinical stage and are fully infectious during the clinical stage. ASF virus (ASFV) infection through residues of dead animals in the slurries was also modeled in an exponentially fading-out pattern. Low and high transmission rates for ASFV were tested in the model. Robustness analysis was carried out in......To study the spread of African swine fever (ASF) within a pig unit and the impact of unit size on ASF spread, a simulation model was created. In the model, an animal can be in one of the following stages: susceptible, latent, subclinical, clinical, or recovered. Animals can be infectious during the...... order to study the impact of uncertain parameters on model predictions. The results showed that the disease may fade out within the pig unit without a major outbreak. Furthermore, they showed that spread of ASFV is dependent on the infectiousness of subclinical animals and the residues of dead animals...

  4. Current problems of North African Countries as Regards to Public Sector Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Brol

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the North African public sector. In this paper the author also points out factors that led to revolution in 2011. Analysis is based on factors such as: corruption, nepotism and economic inefficiency.

  5. Economic globalization, markets and national development : how sensibly do the poor countries (Nigeria included) stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Obadan, Michael Idi

    2008-01-01

    CONTENTS Preamble 1. Concept and Drivers of Globalization 1.0 A Brief Historical Perspective 1.1 Concept of Globalization 1.2 Economic Globalization 1.3 Drivers of Economic Globalization 2. Globalization and Markets 2.1 The Free Market System 2.2 Markets and the Solution of Economic Problems 2.3 African Markets and “Getting the Prices Right”. 2.4 Implications of the Imperfect Market System 2.5 Government’s Inevitable Role 2.6 The International Environment/Markets 3. Globalization and Trade Li...

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  7. On Deng Xiaoping ’ s Diplomatic Thoughts towards African Countries%论邓小平对非洲国家的外交政策思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between China and African countries has been essential ingredient of the Chi -nese foreign relationship .After the reform and opening-up, China has maintained friendship and continuity of policies with and towards African countries , meanwhile there have been some shifts in Chinese foreign policy towards Africa compared with that of the 1950 s to 1970 s.Deng Xiaoping made great contributions to the ad-justment of Chinese foreign policy towards Africa .His main thoughts include the following:China will always stand on the side of the third world , and will never seek hegemony;China will go on to aid Africa;China will undermine the ideology of the relationship of the CCP and the foreign parties; China will seek equality and mu-tual benefit in economy , exchange development experience , and struggle against hegemonism .Practically, the relationship between China and African countries in 1980 s formed a connecting link between the proceeding and the following and continued to forge ahead , which not only emphasized Africa ’ s importance in the world politics in the period of Mao Zedong , but also enhanced the meaning of economical diplomacy , and strength-ened the economical foundation of the economical cooperation between China and African countries .Due to the significance African countries play in the world and China ’ s foreign relations , there is historic and realistic significance in the research on Deng Xiaoping ’ s thoughts towards and impact on African countries .%中国与非洲国家的关系是中国对外关系的重要组成部分。与50-70年代中国对非洲国家外交政策的特点相比,改革开放以后的中国对非洲国家的外交政策在保持友好合作和政策连续性的同时,出现了一些变化。邓小平在中非外交政策调整中作出了重大贡献,主要思想有:中国永远站在第三世界一边,中国永远不称霸;继续援助非洲国家;淡化国家关系和党际关系的

  8. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  9. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne H Eide

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.

  10. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...

  11. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  12. The impact of family planning on primary school enrolment in sub-national areas within 25 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen

    2013-06-01

    We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth. PMID:24069749

  13. GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site

  14. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards. PMID:26061502

  15. The Factor Structure of The HIV Antibody Testing Attitude Scale in Four African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    K. Peltzer; Mpofu, E

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the facture structure of the HIVAntibody Testing Attitude Scale (HTAS) in an Africanpopulation.Method: 760 first-year African university students fromNigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe weresurveyed using the HIV Antibody Testing Attitude Scale.Factor structure was determined by using the principalcomponent analysis with varimax rotation.Results: Five components accounting for 51% of thetotal variance were identified. The first factor(eigenvalue: 5.11) accounted...

  16. Community Influences on Married Men's Uptake of HIV Testing in Eight African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Rob; Elfstrom, K. Miriam; Winter, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15–54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe...

  17. Economic co-operation of African countries and China: the case of Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Vintar Mally

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the main characteristics and the latest trends in China’s economic co-operation with Africa, especially regarding the geographical implications of trade volume and structure, foreign direct investment, and development assistance. The second part of the paper presents key findings of empirical research in Angola, highlighting Angolan perception of economic ties to China as well as attitudes towards Chinese immigrants and their role in African society and economy.

  18. Real interest rate differentials and the real exchange rate: Evidence from four African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen; Asea, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    During the early 1990s much has been written about the return of foreign private capital to many of the larger Asian and Latin American countries. However, until 1992 there was little evidence that countries in sub-Saharan Africa were participating in this phenomenon. In this paper we use variance decompositions and impulse responses from vector autoregressions to shed light on the possible causes and consequences of capital inflows to four countries: Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. We us...

  19. Trade Flows of Agricultural Products with Ireland and the EU : An Analysis for Six African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Chaplin

    2006-01-01

    This paper documents the nature and importance of agricultural trade flows between the six Irish Aid programme countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Ireland and the EU-15 over the period 1995-2003. The six countries are: Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique and Lesotho. Agricultural exports from these countries are highly specialised, with coffee, tea and fish and fish products dominating. There is some evidence that improved market access to the EU under the Everything But Arms initi...

  20. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL PROTECTION IN OECD-COUNTRIES ON SOUTH AFRICAN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Pustovit, Nataliya; Schmitz, P. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural protection in industrialized countries and price distortions in developing countries are accused to hamper economic and agricultural development and are partly responsible for poverty and hunger in the Third World. A multi-commodity multi-country comparative static trade model is used to simulate the impact of different policy scenarios in this typical second best world for the case of South Africa. Special emphasis is given to the disincentive effect of production and to endogen...

  1. Delivery of health care for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases among people living with HIV/AIDS in African countries: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, David A.; Tulloch, Nathaniel L.; Anderson, Molly E.; Barnhart, Scott; Steyn, Krisela; Levitt, Naomi S.

    2016-01-01

    Background People living with HIV (PLHIV) in African countries are living longer due to the rollout of antiretroviral drug therapy programs, but they are at increasing risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, there remain many gaps in detecting and treating NCDs in African health systems, and little is known about how NCDs are being managed among PLHIV. Developing integrated chronic care models that effectively prevent and treat NCDs among PLHIV requires an understanding of the curr...

  2. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  3. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  4. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  5. Putting GM technologies to work: Public research pipelines in selected African countries

    OpenAIRE

    I. Sithole-Niang; Cohen, J; Zambrano, P.

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record This article reports on the progress of public research and development of 21 genetically modified food crops in the countries of Egypt, Kenya, South Africa, and Zimbabwe, and presents policy, institutional, and regulatory suggestions that would facilitate the cultivation of GM crops by smallholder farmers in these countries. Available in SANREM office, ES

  6. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Klena, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28]) in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results We identified 44 isolates (44%) as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae); 27 isolates (27%) as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23%) as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0%) as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer), cytolytic enterotoxin (act), and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast) were detected in 45 (87%), 4 (7.7%), and 9 (17%) of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt) was not detected. Conclusion The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae), and genes coding for toxin production are common among them. PMID:25216211

  7. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28] in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results: We identified 44 isolates (44% as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae; 27 isolates (27% as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23% as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0% as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer, cytolytic enterotoxin (act, and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast were detected in 45 (87%, 4 (7.7%, and 9 (17% of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt was not detected. Conclusion: The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and genes coding for toxin production are common among them.

  8. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  9. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  10. The Dynamics of Social Change: Towards the abandonment of FGM/C in five African countries

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2010-01-01

    This Innocenti Insight examines the social dynamics of the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in five countries - Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal and the Sudan - and seeks to inform policies and programmes aimed at ending the practice. The experiences from the five countries documented in this Innocenti Insight provide evidence that the abandonment of FGM/C is possible when programmes and policies address the complex social dynamics associated with the practice and chall...

  11. Consanguinity Associated with Child and Adult Mortality in 24 Asian and African Countries, an Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Saadat

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (α) and sex specific child and adult mortality rates in 24 countries ...

  12. Scale-up of HIV Viral Load Monitoring--Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Kim, Andrea A; Fonjungo, Peter N; Agolory, Simon; Borget, Marie Yolande; Broyles, Laura; Carmona, Sergio; Chipungu, Geoffrey; De Cock, Kevin M; Deyde, Varough; Downer, Marie; Gupta, Sundeep; Kaplan, Jonathan E; Kiyaga, Charles; Knight, Nancy; MacLeod, William; Makumbi, Boniface; Muttai, Hellen; Mwangi, Christina; Mwangi, Jane W; Mwasekaga, Michael; Ng'Ang'A, Lucy W; Pillay, Yogan; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Singer, Daniel; Stevens, Wendy; Toure, Christiane Adje; Nkengasong, John

    2015-11-27

    To achieve global targets for universal treatment set forth by the Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (UNAIDS), viral load monitoring for HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) must become the standard of care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) (1). CDC and other U.S. government agencies, as part of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, are supporting multiple countries in sub-Saharan Africa to change from the use of CD4 cell counts for monitoring of clinical response to ART to the use of viral load monitoring, which is the standard of care in developed countries. Viral load monitoring is the preferred method for immunologic monitoring because it enables earlier and more accurate detection of treatment failure before immunologic decline. This report highlights the initial successes and challenges of viral load monitoring in seven countries that have chosen to scale up viral load testing as a national monitoring strategy for patients on ART in response to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Countries initiating viral load scale-up in 2014 observed increases in coverage after scale-up, and countries initiating in 2015 are anticipating similar trends. However, in six of the seven countries, viral load testing coverage in 2015 remained below target levels. Inefficient specimen transport, need for training, delays in procurement and distribution, and limited financial resources to support scale-up hindered progress. Country commitment and effective partnerships are essential to address the financial, operational, technical, and policy challenges of the rising demand for viral load monitoring. PMID:26605986

  13. Consanguinity Associated with Child and Adult Mortality in 24 Asian and African Countries, an Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saadat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (α and sex specific child and adult mortality rates in 24 countries from Asia and Africa was analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis showed that countries with relatively higher rates of consanguineous marriages have higher mortality rates than the countries with lower consanguinity rates. Also, countries with relatively higher GDP per capita have lower mortality rates. After controlling the GDP per capita, significant positive correlations between α and child (Female: r=0.4355, df=21, P=0.038; Male: r=0.3991, df=21, P=0.059 mortality rates were observed. There was no significant correlation between α and adult (Female: r=0.2977, df=21, P=0.168; Male: r=0.2207, df=21, P=0.312 mortality rates, after controlling for GDP per capita. Conclusion: It is concluded that consanguinity influences child deaths rate independent of the GDP per capita and that a large proportion of deaths could be attributed to inbreeding in several countries due to high frequencies of consanguinity.

  14. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  15. Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC); Staff Report on Common Policies of Member Countries

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    Regional growth weakened in 2013 due to a fall in oil production in most countries. GDP growth is expected to pick-up in 2014 due to the recovery of oil production and the continuation of the implementation of public investment plans in most of CEMAC countries. Despite large spending of oil wealth during the last years, poverty, income inequality and unemployment remain high. The business climate is one of the most challenging in Africa. The region’s most pressing challenge is to implement ...

  16. Adjustment and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha

    2015-01-01

    trajectories of the introduction of adjustment programs. The analysis reveals that only few countries have shown positive and sustained results. The traditional (first-generation) Fund-Bank adjustment package is linked with sustained increase in Gross Domestic Product, export and investment growth rates only...

  17. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novignon Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc. are accessible and effectively used.

  18. Working Paper 147 - Gold Mining in Africa-Maximizing Economic Returns for Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ousman Gajigo; Emelly Mutambatsere; Guirane Samba Ndiaye

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the maximization of economic returns from mining for African countries. We focus on gold mining, a significant sector in at least 34 African countries. Our point of departure in the paper is the well-documented reality that a large number of resource-rich African countries have benefited little from their resource endowments. This group includes many gold-producing countries. Part of the reason for this state of affairs is the fact that countries have received smaller ...

  19. The Competency-Based Approach to Curriculum Reform in Five African Countries: What Can We Learn from the 2008-2009 Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Roger-François

    2013-01-01

    This is a critical reflection on the results of a study that the French International Center for Pedagogical Studies (CIEP) piloted in 2008-2009 in five sub-Saharan African countries which were implementing curriculum reforms adopting the "competency-based approach". The article refers to a seminar on this process and the ideas expressed…

  20. Introduction and Rollout of a New Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in African Meningitis Belt Countries, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Barry, Rodrigue; Kandolo, Denis; Shirehwa, Florence; Lingani, Clement; Novak, Ryan T.; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Perea, William; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was developed specifically for the African “meningitis belt” and was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. The vaccine was first used widely in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010 with great success. The remaining 23 meningitis belt countries wished to use this new vaccine. Methods. With the help of African countries, WHO developed a prioritization scheme and used or adapted existing immunization guidelines to mount PsA-TT vaccination campaigns. Vaccine requirements were harmonized with the Serum Institute of India, Ltd. Results. Burkina Faso was the first country to fully immunize its 1- to 29-year-old population in December 2010. Over the next 4 years, vaccine coverage was extended to 217 million Africans living in 15 meningitis belt countries. Conclusions. The new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well received, with country coverage rates ranging from 85% to 95%. The rollout proceeded smoothly because countries at highest risk were immunized first while attention was paid to geographic contiguity to maximize herd protection. Community participation was exemplary. PMID:26553672

  1. The Ebola contagion and forecasting virus: evidence from four African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nadhem, Selmi; Nejib, Hachicha D

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on examining the number of deaths’ increases participation in the propagating the Ebola virus during the period ranging from March to October 2014. An application of the MGARCH-DCC model regressions on four countries has led to discover that the finding that human contact play a significant role in transmitting the Ebola virus. Our findings also reveal that Guinea has already suffered from a spread-like virus originating from Sierra Lione and Liberia. Noteworthy also, ot...

  2. Growth Effects of Globalization in the Low Income African Countries: A Systems GMM Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, B. Bhaskara; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between globalization and economic growth in the developing countries remains controversial. Liberals argue that globalization will lead to higher economic growth and prosperity. Skeptics contend the opposite, where globalization processes might lead to increased inequality and lower economic growth. Previous studies have examined this issue with single indicators such as trade openness or foreign direct investment (FDI) or aid etc. In this study we make use of a comprehensiv...

  3. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speizer Ilene S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  4. Tele-ophthalmology: Opportunities for improving diabetes eye care in resource- and specialist-limited Sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matimba, Alice; Woodward, Richmond; Tambo, Ernest; Ramsay, Michele; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Guramatunhu, Solomon

    2016-07-01

    Tele-ophthalmology using portable retinal imaging technology, mobile phone and Internet connectivity offers a solution to improve access to diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening services in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries where the burden of diabetes is increasing and there is limited access to eye care services and specialists. The Zimbabwe Retinopathy Telemedicine Project (ZRTP) established routine DR screening at a hospital-based diabetic clinic in the urban capital city, Harare. A handheld 'point and shoot' digital camera operated by a trained nurse was used to acquire retina images of 203 diabetic patients. A secured 'store-and forward' approach was set up and used for sharing and transfer of images to a retinal specialist at a remote site for reading. This method enabled detection of non-macular DR (11%), diabetic macular oedema (5%), cataract (5%) and glaucoma (6%) among the patients screened. ZRTP demonstrated the utility of tele-ophthalmology for routine retinal screening for diabetic patients in Zimbabwe who have limited access to eye care services. In addition, ZRTP showed how tele-ophthalmology services can provide an empirical framework for providing patient education, and a platform for research in the detection of DR. This approach could be used as a model to address the DR challenges in other countries in SSA. PMID:26407990

  5. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region

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    Mwikisa Chris N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries; 36.8% (7/19 indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19 had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18 indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18 indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18 indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17 affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17 indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. Conclusion A rapid

  6. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

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    Abukari I. Issaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012, Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010, Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012, Guinea (GDHS, 2012, Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013, Niger (NDHS, 2012 and Senegal (SDHS, 2010. The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal, infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin, whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger, were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal, lived in an urban areas (Senegal, or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal. Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality.

  7. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women in three sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Frank Qian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI. RESULTS: Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97. Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00 and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23 were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001, with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84. CONCLUSION: We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.

  8. Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries

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    Mitchell Steven

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves

  9. Energy as a tool for sustainable development for African, Caribbean and Pacific countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy plays a critical role in sustainable human development. It impacts on poverty, population, health, the environment, investment in industrial and agricultural development, foreign exchange and even security; it also has a strong gender implication. Policies aimed at providing energy services in a sustainable manner open doors to the achievement of a wide array of other development goals. However, the manner in which the world currently produces and consumes energy is unsustainable. A key challenge is to incorporate strategies to limit the potential negative impact of human activity on the global climate. Recognising these issues, national governments, bilateral co-operation agencies, and international development institutions have made efforts to promote the provision of energy services in ways which contribute to sustainable development. However, a number of barriers continue to limit the adoption of existing options. Building on the 1997 UNDP publication, Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges, the present report analyses the energy situation of two particular country groupings of global interest, Sub-Saharan Africa and ACP Small Island Developing States. It goes on to identify the actions required by different role-players to increase the adoption of sustainable energy options in these two groups. This publication is the result of a joint EC/UNDP initiative which aims to intensify the global dialogue on sustainable energy issues and to provide a basis for future concrete cooperation activities. It is the intention of the report to support developing countries in implementing more effectively the objectives of Agenda 21, and to contribute to the follow up to the Rio Earth Summit and the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in preparation for its 9th Session in 2001. Coming at a critical time in the work of the European Commission, with the ongoing negotiation of a new framework development agreement to replace Lome IV, the report is an

  10. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of

  11. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardon Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1 the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408 and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC services; 2 semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3 in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4 document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. Results The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90% report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. Conclusion To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously.

  12. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:26635224

  13. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI): a culture-informed instrument for the country's main ethnocultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H; Meiring, Deon; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Hill, Carin

    2015-09-01

    We present the development and the underlying structure of a personality inventory for the main ethnocultural groups of South Africa, using an emic-etic approach. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) was developed based on an extensive qualitative study of the implicit personality conceptions in the country's 11 official languages (Nel et al., 2012). Items were generated and selected (to a final set of 146) with a continuous focus on cultural adequacy and translatability. Students and community adults (671 Blacks, 198 Coloreds, 104 Indians, and 391 Whites) completed the inventory. A 6-dimensional structure (comprising a positive and a negative Social-Relational factor, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness) was equivalent across groups and replicated in an independent sample of 139 Black and 270 White students. The SAPI correlated highly overall with impression-management aspects, but lower with lying aspects of social desirability. The SAPI social-relational factors were distinguishable from the Big Five in a joint factor analysis; the multiple correlations with the Big Five were .64 (positive) and .51 (negative social-relational). Implications and suggestions for emic-etic instrument and model development are discussed. PMID:25602691

  14. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

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    Capucine de Fouchier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective: The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ to this population. Method: The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95. Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83. At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ.

  15. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations. PMID:21555087

  16. An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R A

    2011-04-01

    This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers. PMID:22482033

  17. The East African Training Initiative. A Model Training Program in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine for Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Charles B; Carter, E Jane; Braendli, Otto; Getaneh, Asqual; Schluger, Neil W

    2016-04-01

    Despite an extensive burden of lung disease in East Africa, there are remarkably few pulmonary physicians in the region and no pulmonary subspecialty training programs. We developed a unique training program for pulmonary medicine in Ethiopia. The East African Training Initiative (EATI) is a 2-year fellowship program at Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital, the largest public hospital in Ethiopia and the teaching hospital for the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The first year is devoted to clinical care and procedural skills. Lectures, conferences, daily inpatient and outpatient rounds, and procedure supervision by visiting faculty provide the clinical knowledge foundation. In the second year, training in clinical research is added to ongoing clinical training. Before graduation, fellows must pass rigorous written and oral examinations and achieve high marks on faculty evaluations. Funding derives from several sources. Ethiopian trainees are paid by the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The World Lung Foundation and the Swiss Lung Foundation supply travel and housing costs for visiting faculty, who receive no other stipend. The first two trainees graduated in January 2015, and a second class of three fellows completed training in January 2016. All five presented research abstracts at the annual meetings of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in 2014 and 2015. The EATI has successfully provided pulmonary medicine training in Ethiopia and has capacity for local leadership. We believe that EATI could be a model for other resource-limited countries. PMID:26991950

  18. Social Obstacles to Technology, Technological Change, and the Economic Growth of African Countries: Some Anecdotal Evidence from Economic History

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This paper comments on a number of social obstacles to the economic growth and technological change of African economies from the perspective of economic history. Economic history is full of evidence about what held African economies back for years. Some obstacles are of domestic origin such as excessive consumption and luxury masqueraded as public investment. Other obstacles were imposed from outside such as the destruction and weakening of traditional African religions and religio...

  19. Infrastructure and Other Considerations to Launch Nuclear Power Programme: The Case of Sub-Sahara African Developing Countries like Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends in the world's population and energy use during the past decades show dramatic increases; and the demand for electricity, mainly from developing countries, is expected to increase more rapidly than the demand for other forms of energy. Besides, concern of climate change led to the need for production of significant amount of 'safe and clean' energy which in turn favours to nuclear option. Other alternative renewable sources like solar and wind can assist but currently they are short of supplying the required high energy demand either economically or/and in substantial amount. Nuclear option therefore remains a possible (developed) technology to fill this energy gap; and many countries including developing one show interest to make use of this energy source. In this paper the economic situations and energy production of six East Africa Sub-Saharan developing countries, with total population of 240 million were assessed, and 6.8% and 2.9% average GDP and population growth respectively registered in the last four years; however, their energy production in 2008 (est.) was 17.662 billion kWh, which is the least in the world. The contribution of inadequate energy and its poor coverage in hampering development, increase poverty and unstability were also analyzed. To come out of this cyclic challenge; it is recommended that countries based on regional economic cooperation should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and cooperate to invest commonly or unilaterally to launch Nuclear Power Programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements. It is also noted that the best candidate to start NP programme in these countries would be the worldwide dominant water cooled reactors. However, for countries with low grid capacity and to carry out projects in remote areas which are far-away from national grid systems or to desalinate water, considerations for smaller

  20. The key priority for Mali is ensuring that African forces are ready to take over when French troops leave the country

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmor, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The French military operation in Mali has regained control of much of the country from Islamic militants. Jeff Gilmour provides an overview of the military situation and identifies a number of potential problems which must still be overcome. The crucial issue is likely to be ensuring that the African forces which take over from departing French troops are properly trained and avoid the logistical issues which have plagued other operations, such as the MONUSCO peace-keeping mission in the Demo...

  1. Effect of HIV status on fertility intention and contraceptive use among women in nine sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Mumah, Joyce N.; Ziraba, Abdhalah K.; Sidze, Estelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) means that HIV is no longer a death sentence. This change has implications for reproductive decisions and behaviors of HIV-infected individuals.Design: Using multiple rounds of biomarker data from Demographic and Health Surveys (2004–2012) in nine sub-Saharan African countries, we compare patterns of associations between HIV status and fertility intention and between current use of modern contraception and HIV status in the context ...

  2. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, Daniel J.; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH) interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ec...

  3. HIV stigma and missed medications in HIV-positive people in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, Priscilla S; Wantland, Dean; Makoae, Lucy N; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla W; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Mullan, Joseph; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-05-01

    The availability of antiretroviral medications has transformed living with HIV infection into a manageable chronic illness, and high levels of adherence are necessary. Stigma has been identified as one reason for missing medication doses. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between perceived HIV stigma and self-reported missed doses of antiretroviral medications in a 12-month, repeated measures cohort study conducted in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Data were collected from 1457 HIV-positive individuals at three times between January 2006 and March 2007. Participants completed a series of questionnaires. Of the 1457 participants, 698 were taking ARVs during the study and are included in this analysis. There was a significant relationship between perceived HIV stigma and self-report of missed medications over time (t = 6.04, p

  4. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    adverse events experienced and the proportion reporting drunkenness. Conclusions We find an association between experience of adverse childhood events and drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries. The complex impacts of adverse childhood experiences on young people's development and behavior may have an important bearing on the effectiveness of interventions geared at reducing alcohol dependence among the youth.

  5. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvundura M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercy Mvundura, Neeti Nundy, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Patricia S Coffey Technology Solutions Global Program, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective: We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15–49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman’s Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Results: Programming 100,000 Woman’s Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom, we found that the Woman’s Condom would be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman’s Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman’s Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman’s Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample. Keywords

  6. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  7. Testing the weak-form market efficiency and the day of the week effects of some African countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Batuo Enowbi, Michael; Guidi, Francesco; Mlambo, Kupukile

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this work are twofold. On the one hand, it aims to find evidence supporting the presence of the weak form efficiency of several emerging African stock markets by using both parametric as well as non parametric tests. The results indicate that none of the markets are characterised by random walks with the exception of the South African stock market. On the other hand, this study aims to detect the presence of the day of the week effects of these African stock markets. Results show ...

  8. Women's Identity in a Country in Rapid Social Change: The Case of Educated Black South African Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hilde van Vlaenderen; Mandisa Cakwe

    2003-01-01

    African societies are currently going through a period of accelerated social change, charac terised by increasing population, rapid urbanisation, high regional, national and inter national migration and the assimilation of western values. These changes are increasingly eroding the clear gender role divisions, characteristic of traditional African society, leaving women with a greater personal responsibility to develop their identities. This article focuses on the identity formation of a group...

  9. Regulatory Advances in 11 Sub-Saharan Countries in Year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Michelle; Tison, Laura; Johnson, Carla; Verani, Andre; Zuber, Alexandra; Riley, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa carries the greatest burden of the HIV pandemic. Enhancing the supply and use of human resources through policy and regulatory reform is a key action needed to improve the quality of HIV services in this region. In year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC), a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief initiative, 11 country teams of nursing and midwifery leaders ("Quads") received small grants to carry out regulatory improvement projects. Four countries advanced a full stage on the Regulatory Function Framework (RFF), a staged capability maturity model used to evaluate progress in key regulatory functions. While the remaining countries did not advance a full stage on the RFF, important gains were noted. The year-3 evaluation highlighted limitations of the ARC evaluation strategy to capture nuanced progress and provided insight into how the RFF might be adapted for future use. PMID:27086189

  10. Second Dialogue Between Chinese and African Governors and Mayors Held in Jinan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang; Ruimin

    2013-01-01

    <正>On a sunny day in early summer,about 320 guests including 100from 19 French-speaking African countries gathered in Jinan,Shandong Province for the Second Dialogue between Chinese and African Governors and Mayors.The aim was to explore cooperation between Chinese and African local governments and consider

  11. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith G B

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N = 17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive compared to all other marital spouses groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV-positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouses compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socio-economic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships. PMID:26551532

  12. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  13. Central African Economic and Monetary Community; Staff Report on Common Policies of Member Countries; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the common policies adopted by the members of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The macroeconomic performance was good in 2011 with improved fiscal balances, public investment programs, and higher reserves. However, CEMAC is facing challenges from deep-seated structural problems, including uncoordinated fiscal policy, financial sector weaknesses, and obstacles to growth and competitiveness. The Executive Board recommends monetary policies for fi...

  14. The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage and participation by developing countries: A South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article contends that it is essential that new entrant countries into the nuclear energy industry have comprehensive nuclear legislation; it is less clear, however, whether new entrant countries find it essential to join any of the various international nuclear liability conventions, as some countries have been slow or resistant to the idea. This article will take a closer look at the potential influencing factors driving membership or non-membership in the CSC by a developing country. First, however, is a discussion of the basic principles of international nuclear third party liability, the CSC itself, developing countries' current participation in the various international nuclear liability conventions and the advantages and disadvantages of the CSC. The author's views regarding participation by a developing country in the CSC will also be presented. (author)

  15. The tropical African legume Scorodophloeus clade includes two undescribed Hymenostegia segregate genera and Micklethwaitia, a rare, monospecific genus from Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinder, B. A.; Saslis-Lagoudakis, H.; Wieringa, J. J.; Devey, D.; Forest, F.; Bruneau, A.; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris

    2013-01-01

    Legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae accommodates approximately 2250 species in 171 genera which traditionally are placed in four tribes: Caesalpinieae, Cassieae, Cercideae and Detarieae. The monophyletic tribe Detarieae includes the Amherstieae subclade which contains about 55 genera. Our knowledge...

  16. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Breurec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic.All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent's written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases.A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%.Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus, highlighting the urgent

  17. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  18. Reported physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adult HIV risk behaviour in three African countries: findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR -0.6 (CI: -0.9, -0.4, p < 0.003)-among men, OR -0.7 (CI: -0.9, -0.5, p < 0.001)-among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p < 0.001)-men, OR 1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p < 0.001)-women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p < 0.001)-women) and two forms of partner violence-recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p < 0.001)-men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p < 0.001)-women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p < 0.001)-women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection. PMID:23474641

  19. Let's Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrinan, Hannah; Firth, Sonja; Hipgrave, David; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-09-01

    In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT) has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings. PMID:26340485

  20. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  1. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Snyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.

  2. Health insurance systems in five Sub-Saharan African countries: medicine benefits and data for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapinha, João L; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Desta, Abayneh Tamer; Wagner, Anita K

    2011-03-01

    Medicine benefits through health insurance programs have the potential to improve access to and promote more effective use of affordable, high quality medicines. Information is lacking about medicine benefits provided by health insurance programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the structure of medicine benefits and data routinely available for decision-making in 33 health insurance programs in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda. Most programs surveyed were private, for profit schemes covering voluntary enrollees, mostly in urban areas. Almost all provide both inpatient and outpatient medicine benefits, with members sharing the cost of medicines in all programs. Some programs use strategies that are common in high-income countries to manage the medicine benefits, such as formularies, generics policies, reimbursement limits, or price negotiation. Basic data to monitor performance in delivering medicine benefits are available in most programs, but key data elements and the resources needed to generate useful management information from the available data are typically missing. Many questions remain unanswered about the design, implementation, and effects of specific medicines policies in the emerging and expanding health insurance programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. These include questions about the most effective medicines policy choices, given different corporate and organizational structures and resources; impacts of specific benefit designs on quality and affordability of care and health outcomes; and ways to facilitate use of routine data for monitoring. Technical capacity building, strong government commitment, and international donor support will be needed to realize the benefits of medicines coverage in emerging and expanding health insurance programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21167619

  3. The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on GDP (gross domestic product) growth and the financial development in thirty Sub Saharan African Countries. The panel model was used in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. The results showed that energy consumption had played an important role to increase both economic growth and the financial development in the investigated economies but with the consequence of high po llution. This study recommended that these countries should increase energy productivity by increasing energy efficiency, implementation of energy savings projects, energy conservation, and energy infrastructure outsourcing to achieve its financial development and GDP growth and to increase their investment on energy projects to achieve the full energy potential. -- Highlights: ► The impact of energy consumption, CO2 emission on GDP and the financial development in the SSA countries was investigated. ► The panel model was implied in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. ► The results show energy consumption increased economic growth and the financial development but with higher pollution.

  4. EXPERIENCES OF HIV/AIDS STIGMA OF PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS AND NURSES INVOLVED IN THEIR CARE FROM FIVE AFRICAN COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, Minrie; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucia N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Phetlhu, Rene D

    2008-01-01

    The concept of stigma has received significant attention in recent years in the HIV/AIDS literature. Although there is some change towards the positive, AIDS still remains a significantly stigmatized condition. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to influence people living with and affected by HIV (PLWA), as well as their health-care providers. Unless stigma is conquered, the illness will not be defeated. Due to the burden that HIV/AIDS places on people living in Africa, a five-year project entitled Perceived AIDS Stigma: A Multinational African Study was undertaken. The focus of the first phase of this project was on exploring and describing the meaning and effect of stigma on PLWA from the experiences of PLWA and the nurses involved in their care in five African countries: Lesotho, Swaziland, Malawi, South Africa and Tanzania. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore and describe the experience of stigma through the critical incident method. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilized. Forty-three focus group discussions were held with respondents to relate incidences which they themselves observed, as well as those that they themselves experienced in the community and in families. The transcribed data was analyzed through the technique of open coding using the NVivo 2.0 analysis package. Three types of stigma (received stigma, internal stigma and associated stigma) and several dimensions for each of these types of stigma emerged from the data. Recommendations were made to pursue these findings further. PMID:20052299

  5. Amniotic band syndrome (ABS): can something be done during pregnancy in African poor countries? Three cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, D B; Nguessan, K L P; Aissi, G; Boni, S

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a fetal congenital malformation, affecting mainly the limbs, but also the craniofacial area and internal organs. Two mains pathogenic mechanisms are proposed in its genesis. Firstly the early amnion rupture (exogenous theory) leading to fibrous bands, which wrap up the fetal body; secondly, the endogenous theory privileges vascular origin, mesoblastic strings not being a causal agent. The authors believe that the second theory explain the occurrence of ABS. The outcome of the disease during pregnancy depends on the gravity of the malformations. Interruption of the pregnancy is usually proposed when diagnosis of severe craniofacial and visceral abnormalities is confirmed. Whereas minor limb defects can be repaired with postnatal surgery. In case of an isolated amniotic band with a constricted limb, in utero lysis of the band can be considered to avoid a natural amputation. In an African country, such treatment is not possible as far as the antenatal diagnosis. PMID:24779260

  6. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  7. The significance of context for curriculum development in engineering education: a case study across three African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.; Kumar, Anil; Itika, Ambrose

    2016-05-01

    Curriculum reform is a key topic in the engineering education literature, but much of this discussion proceeds with little engagement with the impact of the local context in which the programme resides. This article thus seeks to understand the influence of local contextual dynamics on curriculum reform in engineering education. The empirical study is a comparative analysis of the context for curriculum reform in three different chemical engineering departments on the African continent, located in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. All three departments are currently engaged in processes of curriculum reform, but the analysis shows how the different contexts in which these efforts are taking place exert strong shaping effects on the processes and outcomes for that reform.

  8. An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times. Objectives This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries. Methods We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries. Results Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs). Conclusion In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector. PMID:27248494

  9. Efficacy and Safety of 'Fixed Dose' versus 'Loose' Drug Regimens for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Two High TB-Burden African Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Aseffa

    Full Text Available There are limited data on the performance of the use of fixed-dose combination (FDC TB drugs when used under programmatic settings in high TB-endemic countries. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of FDC versus loose formulation (LF TB treatment regimens for treatment of pulmonary TB (PTB in the context of actual medical practice in prevailing conditions within programmatic settings in five sites in two high TB-burden African countries.A two-arm, single-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing FDCs with separate LFs involving 1000 adults newly diagnosed with culture positive PTB was conducted at five sites in two African countries between 2007 and 2011. Participants were randomized to receive daily treatment with anti-TB drugs given as either FDC or separate LFs for 24 weeks (intensive phase- 8 weeks of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide; continuation phase- 16 weeks of rifampicin and isoniazid. Primary outcome measures were microbiological cure and safety at the end of six months' treatment; pre-specified non-inferiority margin for difference in cure rate was 4%. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the modified intent to treat (mITT cohort comprising all randomized patients with a positive baseline culture result for TB and who received at least one dose of study treatment. Patients missing end of treatment culture results were considered failures. Further analyses were done in which mITT patients without an end of treatment (EOT culture were excluded in a complete case analysis (mITTcc and a per protocol cohort analysis defined as mITTcc patients who received at least 95% of their intended doses and had an EOT culture result.In the mITT analysis, the cure rate in the FDC group was 86.7% (398/459 and in the LF group 85.2% (396/465 (difference 1.5-% (90% confidence interval (CI (-2.2%- 5.3%. Per Protocol analysis showed similar results: FDC 98.9% (359/363 versus LF 96.9% (345/356, (difference 2.0% (90% CI: 0.1%- 3

  10. 我国对非洲矿业投资的战略%The mining investment is key point of our country to the African investment strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, our country positively realized superiority supplementarily of China and Africa, expanded investment to the African, Chinese and Africa's friendly cooperation already penetrates into each level, each aspect, each domain. China and Africa multiplies gradually in the cooperation of resources development and the minerals trade, and has yielded the very big result. Mineral resource is extremely rich in Africa, and has the very strong complementarity with our country. Chinese and Africa are willing in the resources domain development mutual benefit win-win cooperation, seize the opportunity and communal development. One hand, Economy development of African first needs take raw material as a foundation; On the other hand, our country economy development also needs to solve a problem of bottleneck of the energy and the mineral resource, therefore, our country invests to Africa should place in with emphasis the mining industry and the processing industry.%近年来,我国积极实现中非优势互补,扩大对非投资,中国与非洲的友好合作已经深入到各个层次、各个方面、各个领域.中非在资源开发方面的合作与矿产品贸易的内容逐渐多元化,并取得了很大成果.非洲的矿产资源十分丰富,并且与我国具有很强的互补性.中非两国愿意在资源领域开展互利双赢的合作,把握机遇,共同发展.由于一方面,非洲经济的发展首先需要以原材料为基础;另一方面,我国经济的发展也需要解决能源及矿产资源的瓶颈问题,因此,我国对非洲投资的重点应该放在矿业及其加工业上.

  11. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  12. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status of Legislation and Policies in 27 African Countries and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumbi, Jane; Svanemyr, Joar; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen; Say, Lale

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM; knowledge and awareness of FGM legislation and consequences, and the impact on medicalization. While the majority of countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM, these measures have been ineffective in preventing and/or in accelerating the abandonment of the practice. Anti-FGM laws have had an impact on prevalence in only two countries where strict enforcement of legal measures has been complemented by robust monitoring, coupled with robust advocacy efforts in communities. Owing to poor enforcement and lax penalties, legal measures have had a limited impact on medicalization. Similarly, legal frameworks have had a limited impact on societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM, with evidence suggesting rigid enforcement of FGM laws has in some instances been counterproductive. Although evidence suggests legislation has not influenced the decline in FGM in the majority of countries, legal frameworks are nevertheless key components of a comprehensive response to the elimination and abandonment of the practice, and need to be complemented by measures that address the underlying socio-cultural norms that are the root of this practice. PMID:26897911

  13. Skilled Birth Attendants: who is who? A descriptive study of definitions and roles from nine Sub Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetoro Adegoke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Availability of a Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA during childbirth is a key indicator for MDG5 and a strategy for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in Africa. There is limited information on how SBAs and their functions are defined. The aim of this study was to map the cadres of health providers considered SBAs in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA; to describe which signal functions of Essential Obstetric Care (EmOC they perform and assess whether they are legislated to perform these functions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Key personnel in the Ministries of Health, teaching institutions, referral, regional and district hospitals completed structured questionnaires in nine SSA countries in 2009-2011. A total of 21 different cadres of health care providers (HCP were reported to be SBA. Type and number of EmOC signal functions reported to be provided, varied substantially between cadres and countries. Parenteral antibiotics, uterotonic drugs and anticonvulsants were provided by most SBAs. Removal of retained products of conception and assisted vaginal delivery were the least provided signal functions. Except for the cadres of obstetricians, medical doctors and registered nurse-midwives, there was lack of clarity regarding signal functions reported to be performed and whether they were legislated to perform these. This was particularly for manual removal of placenta, removal of retained products and assisted vaginal delivery. In some countries, cadres not considered SBA performed deliveries and provided EmOC signal functions. In other settings, cadres reported to be SBA were able to but not legislated to perform key EmOC signal functions. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of cadres of HCPs reported to be SBA across countries is difficult because of lack of standardization in names, training, and functions performed. There is a need for countries to develop clear guidelines defining who is a SBA and which EmOC signal functions each cadre of HCP is expected to

  14. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Les

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78 for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62 for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93 for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04 for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00 for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on

  15. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78) for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62) for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93) for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04) for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00) for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on human rights violations in

  16. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  17. The key challenge of corporate governance of firms: Empirical evidence from Sub-Saharan African anglophone (SSAA) countries

    OpenAIRE

    Afolabi, Adeoye Amuda

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Motivation:In the Sub-Saharan Africa countries there are several factors contributing to the collapse of firms. Most firms have failed due to poor corporate governance practices. The recent collapse of some firms in the financial and non-financial sectors in the Sub-region shows that there are challenges hindering effective corporate governance of firms in the Subregion. Consequently, this...

  18. The Impact of SADC Social Protection Instruments on the Setting Up of a Minimum Social Protection Floor in Southern African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nyenti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Development Community (SADC was formed to promote the political, economic and social wellbeing of the region. Some of the social objectives of the SADC are the promotion of social development and the alleviation of poverty, the enhancement of the quality of life of the peoples of Southern Africa, and the provision of support to the socially disadvantaged. In order to achieve these objectives, SADC member states have concluded a Treaty and various social protection-related instruments which aim to ensure that everyone in the region is provided with basic minimum social protection. Although the formation of the SADC (and the conclusion of some of its social protection-related instruments preceded both the minimum social protection floor concept and the Social Protection Floor Initiative, the Treaty and instruments can be seen as complying with the requirements of both the concept and the initiative within the region. This article analyses the extent to which the SADC social protection-related instruments fulfil a minimum social floor function at the SADC regional level. The positive and negative aspects of the SADC Treaty and social protection related instruments in this regard are evaluated. In addition, the article reviews the impact of the SADC social protection-related instruments in the setting up of social protection programmes aimed at ensuring a minimum social protection floor in some of the SADC countries. The successes of such country initiatives and the challenges faced are discussed. This is then followed by some concluding observations.

  19. Multicentric study in five African countries of antibiotic susceptibility for three main pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerouali, Khalid; Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Boye, Cheikh; Hammami, Adnane

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing clinical and epidemiological problem. We report on the antibiotic susceptibility of three pathogens isolated from patients in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Senegal, and Tunisia during 2010-2011. In total, 218 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 428 Staphylococcus aureus, and 414 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were collected. S. pneumoniae resistance was noted against penicillin (30.2%), erythromycin (27.4%), cefpodoxime (19.1%), amoxicillin (12.0%), cefotaxime (7.4%), and levofloxacin (3.2%). All the strains were teicoplanin susceptible. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance differed between countries, from 5.0% in Senegal to 62.7% in Egypt. Levofloxacin resistance was low in all countries, and the highest rate (in Egypt) was still only 13.6% for intermediate and resistant strains combined. Most strains were susceptible to fosfomycin (99.3%) and pristinamycin (94.2%). P. aeruginosa resistance was found against levofloxacin (30.4%), ciprofloxacin (29.9%), tobramycin (19.7%), ceftazidime (19.2%), and imipenem (17.9%), but not colistin. Antibiotic susceptibility varied widely between countries, with resistance typically most prevalent in Egypt. PMID:25363146

  20. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  1. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Corsi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ecological time-series and child-level regression models, we estimated the effect of MNCH interventions (summarized by the percent composite coverage index, or CCI on child mortality with in the first 5 years of life net of temporal trends and covariates at the household, maternal, and child levels. Results: At the ecologic level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with a reduction in under-5 child mortality rate (U5MR of 29.0 per 1,000 (95% CI: −43.2, −14.7 after adjustment for survey period effects and country-level per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP. At the child level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with an odds ratio of 0.86 for child mortality (95% CI: 0.82–0.90 after adjustment for survey period effect, country-level pcGDP, and a set of household-, maternal-, and child-level covariates. Conclusions: MNCH interventions are important in reducing U5MR, while the effects of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa remain weak and inconsistent. Improved coverage of proven life-saving interventions will likely contribute to further reductions in U5MR in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa. PMID:27563347

  3. Measuring coverage in MNCH: population HIV-free survival among children under two years of age in four African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S A Stringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding. We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7% were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9% were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9% were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2% were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6 overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5, South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1, Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8, and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2. In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06. Risk of death was not different for children whose

  4. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Snyman

    2014-01-01

    In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order ...

  5. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients from six African countries enrolled in two randomized anti-malarial clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duparc Stephan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA phase III clinical trial programme. Methods Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ≥ 70 g/L or haematocrit ≥ 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali. G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G, and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C, were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine. Results Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females. G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous, 13.3% (273/2045 of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045 were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045 of patients: 10.2% (134/1319 were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319 intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319 normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99 and 48.0% (12/25 for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154, adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0

  6. 'We are despised in the hospitals': sex workers' experiences of accessing health care in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Fiona; Nakato, Daisy; Harper, Eric; Richter, Marlise; Maseko, Sian; Nare, Prince; Smit, Jenni; Chersich, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Sex workers in east and southern Africa are exposed to multiple occupational health and safety risks. Detailed understanding of barriers to accessing care would optimise design of improved services for this population. In this study, trained sex workers conducted 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with 106 female, 26 male and 4 transgender sex workers across 6 urban sites in Kenya, Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa. Data were analysed thematically, following an interpretive framework. Participants cited numerous unmet health needs, including diagnosis and treatment for sexually transmitted infections and insufficient access to condoms and lubricant. Denial of treatment for injuries following physical assault or rape and general hostility from public-sector providers was common. Resources permitting, many sex workers attended private services, citing higher quality and respect for dignity and confidentiality. Sex workers in southern Africa accessed specialised sex worker clinics, reporting mostly positive experiences. Across sites, participants called for additional targeted services, but also sensitisation and training of public-sector providers. Criminalisation of sex workers and associated stigmatisation, particularly of transgender and male sex workers, hinder HIV-prevention efforts and render access to mainstream healthcare precarious. Alongside law reform, sex worker-led peer outreach work should be strengthened and calls by sex workers for additional targeted services heeded. PMID:23414116

  7. The Problems in the Classification of the African Languages; Methodological and Theoretical Conclusions Concerning the Classification System of Joseph H. Greenberg. Studies on Developing Countries No.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Istvan

    The present work deals with Africanistic problems, raising questions of interest for general linguists, and linguists working in Indo-European, Finno-Ugric, and other special branches. The first two chapters deal with the field and difficulties of African studies and the general characterization of the African languages. Following chapters discuss…

  8. Suicide Ideation and Psychosocial Distress in Sub-Saharan African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if there is an association between psychosocial distress, health-risk behaviors and 12-month suicidal ideation among sub-Saharan African adolescents. Methods: Subjects included a cross-national sample of adolescents (N25,568) representing 7 African countries who completed the Global School-based Student Health Survey…

  9. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  10. Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Buchner

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use.We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437, 9 (n = 23,139 and 6 countries (n = 14,561 respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels.Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (p<0.0001, with season acting as an effect modifier (p = 0.034. During the rainy season, relative to clean fuels, the odds of suffering from ALRI were raised for kerosene (OR 1.64; CI: 0.99, 2.71, coal and charcoal (OR 1.54; CI: 1.21, 1.97, wood (OR 1.20; CI: 0.95, 1.51 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.49; CI: 0.93, 2.35. In contrast, during the dry season the corresponding odds were reduced for kerosene (OR 1.23; CI: 0.77, 1.95, coal and charcoal (OR 1.35; CI: 1.06, 1.72 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.07; CI: 0.69, 1.66 but increased for wood (OR 1.32; CI: 1.04, 1.66. Cooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070 determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50. Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation.We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season.

  11. African refugee migration: a model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayongo-male, D

    1989-01-01

    "This article elaborates upon the problems of the refugee crisis in Africa. With around 4 million refugees, heavily concentrated in particular African nations like Sudan and Somalia, the impacts on the host country can be severe. A model, dealing with the process of refugee migration, with particular reference to impacts on host countries, is developed. Negative impacts include military attacks on communities in the host country. One positive impact is the increase in the number of development-type projects which go beyond the mandate of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees. A tentative research agenda on African refugee migration is put forward." PMID:12316228

  12. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. PMID:26833148

  13. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    gaps exist, much less fill them. All this suggests that, to fulfil obligations under UNSC Resolutions 1540 and 1373, States must enact harmonized criminal prohibitions and authorization for law enforcement cooperation in order to establish a seamless web of security among all nations. Failure to do so implicitly poses a threat to international peace and security. One of the main issues which deserve to be further addressed and which prompts the continuation of the Southeast Europe Counterproliferation, Borger Security and Counterterrorism (CBSC) Working Group is to harmonize national laws and regulations that deal with deterring, detecting and interdicting WMD. Inventory of relevant CBSC subject-related laws of the Southeast Europe countries, including Export Control Laws was created and prepared for further consideration and harmonization by judiciary experts, with the aim to develop model laws. Let me very briefly present you the main features of the SEDM CBSC subject-related laws and regulations. This paper will present that inventory which includes the membership in the international Conventions, Treaties and Arrangements and also the membership in Multilateral Export Control Regimes of Southeast Europe countries. Also, it will be presented the membership in the international legal instruments that play an integral part in the global fight against terrorism. (author)

  14. Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative 'Pre-Review' Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carl H; Ardiot, Chantal; Blesson, Séverine; Bonnin, Yves; Bompart, Francois; Colonna, Pierre; Dhai, Ames; Ecuru, Julius; Edielu, Andrew; Hervé, Christian; Hirsch, François; Kouyaté, Bocar; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Maoundé, Dionko; Martinent, Eric; Ntsiba, Honoré; Pelé, Gérard; Quéva, Gilles; Reinmund, Marie-Christine; Sarr, Samba Cor; Sepou, Abdoulaye; Tarral, Antoine; Tetimian, Djetodjide; Valverde, Olaf; Van Nieuwenhove, Simon; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). The project involved the implementation of a novel 'pre-review' process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process. PMID:25039421

  15. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869

  16. Zār Spirit Possession in Iran and African Countries: Group Distress, Culture-Bound Syndrome or Cultural Concept of Distress?

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Mianji; Yousef Semnani

    2015-01-01

    Zār is the term used to describe a form of spirit possession common in northern African, eastern African, and some Middle-Eastern societies. Although these regions share some cultural similarities arising from their history of slavery, in these places, zār varies in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and social context. Based on a selective review of the literature, this paper looks at the place of zār spirit possession in both DSM-IV and DSM-V; it also examines how zār is manifested in Ir...

  17. InterVA-4 as a public health tool for measuring HIV/AIDS mortality: a validation study from five African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reliable population-based data on HIV infection and AIDS mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are scanty, even though that is the region where most of the world’s AIDS deaths occur. There is therefore a great need for reliable and valid public health tools for assessing AIDS mortality. Objective: The aim of this article is to validate the InterVA-4 verbal autopsy (VA interpretative model within African populations where HIV sero-status is recorded on a prospective basis, and examine the distribution of cause-specific mortality among HIV-positive and HIV-negative people. Design: Data from six sites of the Alpha Network, including HIV sero-status and VA interviews, were pooled. VA data according to the 2012 WHO format were extracted, and processed using the InterVA-4 model into likely causes of death. The model was blinded to the sero-status data. Cases with known pre-mortem HIV infection status were used to determine the specificity with which InterVA-4 could attribute HIV/AIDS as a cause of death. Cause-specific mortality fractions by HIV infection status were calculated, and a person-time model was built to analyse adjusted cause-specific mortality rate ratios. Results: The InterVA-4 model identified HIV/AIDS-related deaths with a specificity of 90.1% (95% CI 88.7–91.4%. Overall sensitivity could not be calculated, because HIV-positive people die from a range of causes. In a person-time model including 1,739 deaths in 1,161,688 HIV-negative person-years observed and 2,890 deaths in 75,110 HIV-positive person-years observed, the mortality ratio HIV-positive:negative was 29.0 (95% CI 27.1–31.0, after adjustment for age, sex, and study site. Cause-specific HIV-positive:negative mortality ratios for acute respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS-related deaths, meningitis, tuberculosis, and malnutrition were higher than the all-cause ratio; all causes had HIV-positive:negative mortality ratios significantly higher than unity. Conclusions

  18. Proceedings: Onderstepoort Centenary Pan-African Veterinary Conference : foreword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1908 a Pan-African Veterinary Conference formed part of the inauguration ceremony of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Laboratory. Attended by 18 delegates from 12 countries in southern Africa, including the four colonies and three protectorates forming British South Africa, Rhodesia, German South West Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Madagascar and the Belgian Congo, discussions focussed on the animal diseases of the region with the emphasis on trypanosomosis (nagana and East Coast fever. The successful meeting was followed by a series of similar conferences held in different African countries during the first half of the 20th Century.

  19. 评析外国直接投资对非洲国家经济发展的影响%Analysis of the Impacts of FDI on the Economic Development in African Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴英姬

    2011-01-01

    2000年以来,基于科学技术突飞猛进的发展和国际产业分工格局的深刻变化,经济全球化趋势加速深化。外国直接投资作为国际资本流动的主要方式已经成为带动新兴发展中国家经济体快速增长的重要手段之一。随着非洲大陆外国直接投资流入规模的不断增加,外资在非洲东道国经济发展中的重要性日益增加。当前外资对于非洲国家的资本形成、制度变迁、对外贸易、技术进步、可持续发展等方面都产生了一定影响。非洲国家应该权衡利弊,提高对外资的吸收能力,更好地通过利用外资实现经济发展。%Since 2000,based on the dramatic achievements of technology and the deep transformation of international industrial division,the trend of globalization has accelerated greatly.FDI as a main source of international capital flows has become an important method to improve economic growth in many emerging developing economies.With the ever-increasing scales of FDI inflows to African continent,the status of FDI in the process of economic development in African host countries has gained increased importance.However,in African host countries,FDI has positive as well as negative effects in many aspects dealing with economic development,such as capital formation,institutional transformation,international trade,technology progress,sustainable development etc.In the future,African countries should weigh the two-sided effects and try to improve absorptive capacity to best utilize FDI in order to achieve economic development in this globalized world.

  20. The impact of SADC social protection instruments on the setting up of a minimum social protection floor in Southern African countries

    OpenAIRE

    M Nyenti; LG Mpedi

    2012-01-01

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) was formed to promote the political, economic and social wellbeing of the region. Some of the social objectives of the SADC are the promotion of social development and the alleviation of poverty, the enhancement of the quality of life of the peoples of Southern Africa, and the provision of support to the socially disadvantaged. In order to achieve these objectives, SADC member states have concluded a Treaty and various social protection-relate...

  1. An expanded analysis of pharmacogenetics determinants of efavirenz response that includes 3'-UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms among Black South African HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize eSwart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Efavirenz (EFV is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor prescribed as part of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Despite administration of fixed doses of EFV, inter-individual variability in EFV plasma concentrations has been reported. Poor treatment outcomes such as the development of adverse drug reactions or treatment failure have been linked to EFV concentrations outside the therapeutic range (1 - 4 µg/mL. The drug metabolising enzyme (DME, CYP2B6, is primarily responsible for EFV metabolism with minor contributions by CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, UGT2B7 and CYP1A2. Genes coding for DMEs have been shown to be regulated by microRNAs through targeting the 3'-untranslated region. Genetic variation in the 3'-UTR, in addition to genetic variation in the coding regions, could potentially be used to explain a larger proportion of the inter-individual variability observed in drug response. Methods: SNPs in CYP1A2, CYP2B6, UGT2B7 and NR1I2 (PXR were selected for genotyping among 222 Bantu-speaking South African HIV-infected patients receiving EFV-containing HAART. This study is a continuation of earlier pharmacogenetics studies emphasizing specifically the role of genetic variation in the 3'-UTR of genes which products are either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic targets of EFV.Results: In addition to CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs, the CYP2B6 c.1355A>G SNP was identified as pharmacogenetics determinant of EFV concentration among CYP2B6 intermediate and extensive metabolisers (carriers of either c.516G/G+c.983T/T or c.516G/G+c.983T/C or c.516G/T+c.983T/T genotypes. NR1I2 c.522C>T and NR1I3 c.239-1089T>C SNPs were predictors of EFV concentration among CYP2B6 poor metabolisers (carriers of either c.516T/T or c.983C/C or both c.516G/T and c.983T/C genotypes.Conclusion: Genotyping results provide support for comprehensive studies of genetic variation in the 3'-UTR of genes coding for DMEs and their

  2. INTER-COUNTRY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION IN INNOVATION ACTIVITY ON THE BASIS OF METHOD FOR DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMY, INCLUDING THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on efficiency evaluation of innovation activity in 63 countries with developed and developing economies while using a method for data envelopment analysis. The following results of innovation activity have been used for calculation of an efficiency factor: export of high-technology products as percentage of industrial product export, export of ICT services as percentage of services export and payments obtained due to realization of intellectual property rights (in US dollars. A model of the data envelopment analysis with a changeable scale-dependent effect and which is directed on maximization of the obtained results (output-oriented VRS model has been used for the analysis. The evaluation has shown that such countries as the USA, Israel, Sweden and some others have maximum efficiency of resource transformation into innovative activity output. The executed analysis has revealed that the Republic of Belarus has a potential for improvement of indices on innovation results.

  3. Frames of Reference in African Proverbs on Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieger, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-five proverbs relating to disability were collected from sub-Saharan African countries and analyzed for larger frames of reference of personhood and cosmogony. Themes include warnings against laughing at a disabled person, personhood, existential insecurity, acceptance of what is, and the function and nature of disability. (DB)

  4. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  5. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  6. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  7. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna L. Bean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  8. An African VLBI network of radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylard, M J; Combrinck, L; Booth, R S; Buchner, S J; Fanaroff, B L; MacLeod, G C; Nicolson, G D; Quick, J F H; Stronkhorst, P; Venkatasubramani, T L

    2014-01-01

    The advent of international wideband communication by optical fibre has produced a revolution in communications and the use of the internet. Many African countries are now connected to undersea fibre linking them to other African countries and to other continents. Previously international communication was by microwave links through geostationary satellites. These are becoming redundant in some countries as optical fibre takes over, as this provides 1000 times the bandwidth of the satellite links. In the 1970's and 1980's some two dozen large (30 m diameter class) antennas were built in various African countries to provide the satellite links. Twenty six are currently known in 19 countries. As these antennas become redundant, the possibility exists to convert them for radio astronomy at a cost of roughly one tenth that of a new antenna of similar size. HartRAO, SKA Africa and the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) have started exploring this possibility with some of the African countries...

  9. The Dual Role of Mobile Payment in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Laetitia Chaix; Dominique Torre

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the capacity of mobile-payment solutions to improve financial inclusion in developing countries. It elaborates from rural East African countries experiences where mobile payment services have developed rapidly. With a simple dynamic model which rationalizes traders' adoption process of distant mobile payment services, we analyze the role of telephonic operators in financial inclusion. We point out the interest of a diversified supply of m-payment services, including simpli...

  10. New data on African health professionals abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries.

  11. Let’s Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Marrinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings.

  12. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strachan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM over the last five years. All key in–country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre–agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This

  13. Transfer of nuclear technology to the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased Agency assistance for transfer of nuclear technology is essential for the developing countries and especially Africa. It would have a beneficial effect on the implementation of training programmes. The introduction of teaching in nuclear physics at universities in Nigeria, Tanzania and Madagascar should be extended to other universities in order further to orientate African students towards nuclear sciences. In the peaceful uses of atomic energy the African States are concentrating their activities in the spheres of agriculture and medicine. The Agency assists these countries in programmes in agriculture and the exploitation of natural resources, including water. The introduction of radioisotope techniques should be accelerated at all existing agricultural research centres. Services of this kind exist in a few countries, including Senegal, Kenya, the Ivory Coast, Morocco and the Sudan. Radioisotopes employed there make it possible, in particular, to trace the movement of fertilizers from soil to plant and to measure soil humidity. Ionizing radiations can be used to produce genetic effects for the purpose of creating hew varieties of important crop plants and selecting varieties requiring less water for their growth. Such activities are naturally of the greatest interest to the African continent which, as a whole, lives basically from agriculture. The guarantee of food supplies during the next decade is a subject of concern for Africa, and the prevention of losses of foodstuffs is one of the main objectives of African policy.Food irradiation projects are being conducted in Ghana (on cocoa beans) and in Nigeria (on sweet potatoes) with the support of Agency research projects. The Agency's project on the radiation preservation of fish, at present being implemented in countries in Asia, could - provided that the results are satisfactory - have important economic repercussions for the African countries.In the medical sphere, the improvement in health

  14. African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Fatimah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes

  15. A first-language-first multilingual model to meet the quality imperative in formal basic education in three `francophone' West African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikièma, Norbert

    2011-12-01

    This paper documents the new trend towards a first-language-first multilingual model in formal education in three former French colonies of West Africa, namely Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. It compares the sociolinguistic situations, the conditions of the development of multilingual education and the achievements of mother-tongue-medium education in all three countries. The evidence is that, contrary to common discourse in francophonie, a strong first-language-first model in formal education is the best guarantee of a good mastery of French and, more generally, of quality education in francophone countries.

  16. Deepening African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese President Hu Jintao has just embarked on his state visits to eight African countries that will take him to both the northern and southern tips of the continent. This is his first trip abroad this year, and also his third visit to Africa

  17. Understanding growth options and challenges in African economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries......This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries...

  18. The Impact of Disability on the Lives of Children; Cross-Sectional Data Including 8,900 Children with Disabilities and 898,834 Children without Disabilities across 30 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Hannah; Monteath-van Dok, Adrienne; Wing, Kevin; Danquah, Lisa; Evans, Jenny; Zuurmond, Maria; Gallinetti, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities are widely believed to be less likely to attend school or access health care, and more vulnerable to poverty. There is currently little large-scale or internationally comparable evidence to support these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of disability on the lives of children sponsored by Plan International across 30 countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey including 907,734 children aged 0–17 participating in the Plan International Sponsorship Programme across 30 countries in 2012. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardised questionnaires including information on: age, sex, health, education, poverty, and water and sanitation facilities. Disability was assessed through a single question and information was collected on type of impairment. The dataset included 8,900 children with reported disabilities across 30 countries. The prevalence of disability ranged from 0.4%–3.0% and was higher in boys than girls in 22 of the 30 countries assessed – generally in the range of 1.3–1.4 fold higher. Children with disabilities were much less likely to attend formal education in comparison to children without disabilities in each of the 30 countries, with age-sex adjusted odds ratios exceeding 10 for nearly half of the countries. This relationship varied by impairment type. Among those attending school, children with disabilities were at a lower level of schooling for their age compared to children without disabilities. Children with disabilities were more likely to report experiencing a serious illness in the last 12 months, except in Niger. There was no clear relationship between disability and poverty. Conclusions Children with disabilities are at risk of not fulfilling their educational potential and are more vulnerable to serious illness. This exclusion is likely to have a long-term deleterious impact on their lives unless services are adapted to promote their

  19. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  20. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  1. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Methods Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two ch...

  2. Creationist Conceptions in 14 Countries. How to Teach Evolution to French Students Coming from Immigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, Pierre; Dramisino, Jean-Pierre; Estèves, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Even in France, where creationist ideas are not widespread, more and more teachers are confronted to some difficulties when teaching the biological evolution, mainly with students coming from families immigrated from North Africa or Sub-Saharan Africa. In a first part, to better realize the conflict between the French culture and their African initial culture, we will present some results analyzing the creationist ideas of teachers in 14 countries (n = 5706), including France and 5 African co...

  3. Use of a standardized form for partial budget analyses to assess the feasibility and efficiency of interventions in family poultry operation in 11 African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic evaluation of interventions in management and health of chicken in a backyard production system depends on strict rules for the data acquisition. Here we describe a form for sampling data for partial budget analysis. Eleven countries supplied sufficient data to calculate the economic benefit of certain interventions. For core interventions like Newcastle vaccination, feed supplementation and improved housing of chicks, the return of investment had a factor of 3 to 6, but reaching 18 when vaccine was administered by the farmer. The research contract holders successfully used the data acquisition form and all economic data in this publication are based on it. (author)

  4. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34 in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results: Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44, but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions: HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.

  5. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  6. TESTING NONLINEAR INFLATION CONVERGENCE FOR THE CENTRAL AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  7. The South African media's (re colonisation of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Tyson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper seeks to reveal the patterns of power, influence and ownership that South African media houses are having over Namibians and Namibian media outlets. The hypothesis is that there has recently been an increased interest in Namibia as a source of further revenue for South African media businesses as well as an opportunity for further strengthening ties of cultural and language issues between the two countries. In addition there might also be increased opportunities for South African political perspectives to be further advanced through linkages with Namibian media outlets.
    The paper further seeks to expand academic discourse to include those countries, such as Namibia, living in South Africa’s cultural and economic shadow, and, in a larger sense, looks at the increasingly regional and even nature of media systems in Africa.
    It tries to move these discussions into everyday discourse, as opposed to the margins, where, as McMillin (2007:68 says:
    we fail to understand the incredible impact of colonialism on the development of their media systems, the regional influence of these systems, and the unique character they take on as they assert their postcolonial identities and meet the challenges of globilization.
    The research refers to the unique position of Namibia, having been, firstly, a German colony, and, later, a South African ‘administered territory’, and makes reference to the implications this had on the shaping and control over the media environment.
    The findings reveal an increase in South African influence and shareholding over Namibian media companies and content. This parallel has strengthened economic ties with South Africa, and in particular the influence of South African retail chains and their stock levels of Namibian versus South African publications.

  8. The African Financial Development Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Franklin; Carletti, Elena; Cull, Robert; Qian, Jun; Senbet, Lemma

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth in Africa has long been disappointing. We document that the financial sectors of most sub-Saharan African countries remain significantly underdeveloped by the standards of other developing countries. We examine the factors that are associated with financial development in Africa and compare them with those in other developing countries. Population density appears to be considerably more important for banking sector development in Africa than elsewhere. Given the high costs of ...

  9. The Good African Society Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi Botha

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a Good Society Index for 45 African countries, termed the Good African Society Index (GASI). The GASI consists of nine main indexes: (i) economic sustainability, (ii) democracy and freedom, (iii) child well-being, (iv) environment and infrastructure, (v) safety and security, (vi) health and health systems, (vii) integrity and justice, (viii) education, and (xi) social sustainability and social cohesion. Each component is split into four sub-components for a total of 36 i...

  10. Training in African aquaculture development

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The article focuses on the types of training needed in African aquaculture development. The author suggested that rather than needing less training, extension agents and others who operate in the idiosyncratic world of the poor African farmer, need a far deeper understanding of fish culture (particularly the basics of pond dynamics and ecology) than do those who can take advantage of industrialized-country infrastructure.

  11. 中国对非洲海外直接投资特点、影响及对策研究%Features,Influences and Strategies of China’ s OFDI in African Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚放

    2014-01-01

    非洲是中国最主要的海外直接投资目的地,本文基于中国和非洲两方面的最新数据,从中国对非投资的行业和区域分布、对非投资的中国企业特征和投资模式选择等角度,对中国关于非洲海外直接投资现状做了系统的梳理和总结,并针对目前国际社会存在的对中国对非投资的争议提出了对策建议。%Africa is the major target region of China ’ s OFDI.This paper analyses the distribution of China ’ s OFDI in Africa,the features of Chinese investing companies ,investing modes and so on ,by using the current data collected from both China and African countries .The paper also proposes strategies of solving the problems of China ’ s OFDI in Africa .

  12. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  13. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurinovic, M.; Witthöft, C.; Tepsic, J.; Ranic, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Porubska, J.; Gohar, A.; Debeljak-Martacic, J.; Petrovic-Oggiano, G.; Novakovic, R.N.; Glibetic, M.; Oshaug, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastruct

  14. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  15. Monitoring fever treatment behaviour and equitable access to effective medicines in the context of initiatives to improve ACT access: baseline results and implications for programming in six African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT remains limited in high malaria-burden countries, and there are concerns that the poorest people are particularly disadvantaged. This paper presents new evidence on household treatment-seeking behaviour in six African countries. These data provide a baseline for monitoring interventions to increase ACT coverage, such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm. Methods Nationally representative household surveys were conducted in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia between 2008 and 2010. Caregivers responded to questions about management of recent fevers in children under five. Treatment indicators were tabulated across countries, and differences in case management provided by the public versus private sector were examined using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to test for association between socioeconomic status and 1 malaria blood testing, and 2 ACT treatment. Results Fever treatment with an ACT is low in Benin (10%, the DRC (5%, Madagascar (3% and Nigeria (5%, but higher in Uganda (21% and Zambia (21%. The wealthiest children are significantly more likely to receive ACT compared to the poorest children in Benin (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.12-6.42; the DRC (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.12-4.24; Madagascar (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.58-18.24; and Nigeria (OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 2.73-15.89. Most caregivers seek treatment outside of the home, and private sector outlets are commonly the sole external source of treatment (except in Zambia. However, children treated in the public sector are significantly more likely to receive ACT treatment than those treated in the private sector (except in Madagascar. Nonetheless, levels of testing and ACT treatment in the public sector are low. Few caregivers name the national first-line drug as most effective for treating malaria in Madagascar (2%, the DRC (2%, Nigeria (4% and Benin (10

  16. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  17. HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Chirwa, Maureen L.; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Makoae, Lucy N.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P.; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The subscale, Personal Satisfaction, was the highest in this ...

  18. Emerging multinationalists: The South African hospital industry overseas

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Jon

    2008-01-01

    The opening of the economy to trade and investment is affecting health systems worldwide - including those dominated by publicly subsidised and provided healthcare as public sector markets are opening-up to private investors and suppliers. Multinational Companies (MNCs) operating in the hospital sector are gaining momentum and, as this paper reveals, they are not only from rich developed countries. Through a case-study of three South African private hospital firms, the focus in this paper is ...

  19. Proceedings: Onderstepoort Centenary Pan-African Veterinary Conference : foreword

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Office

    2009-01-01

    In 1908 a Pan-African Veterinary Conference formed part of the inauguration ceremony of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Laboratory. Attended by 18 delegates from 12 countries in southern Africa, including the four colonies and three protectorates forming British South Africa, Rhodesia, German South West Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Madagascar and the Belgian Congo, discussions focussed on the animal diseases of the region with the emphasis on trypanosomosis (nagana) and East Coast fever...

  20. Development of Disease-specific, Context-specific Surveillance Models: Avian Influenza (H5N1)-Related Risks and Behaviours in African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, F O; Njage, P M K; Ali, A M M; Yilma, J M; Bwala, D G; Rivas, A L; Stegeman, A J

    2016-02-01

    Avian influenza virus (H5N1) is a rapidly disseminating infection that affects poultry and, potentially, humans. Because the avian virus has already adapted to several mammalian species, decreasing the rate of avian-mammalian contacts is critical to diminish the chances of a total adaptation of H5N1 to humans. To prevent the pandemic such adaptation could facilitate, a biology-specific disease surveillance model is needed, which should also consider geographical and socio-cultural factors. Here, we conceptualized a surveillance model meant to capture H5N1-related biological and cultural aspects, which included food processing, trade and cooking-related practices, as well as incentives (or disincentives) for desirable behaviours. This proof of concept was tested with data collected from 378 Egyptian and Nigerian sites (local [backyard] producers/live bird markets/village abattoirs/commercial abattoirs and veterinary agencies). Findings revealed numerous opportunities for pathogens to disseminate, as well as lack of incentives to adopt preventive measures, and factors that promoted epidemic dissemination. Supporting such observations, the estimated risk for H5N1-related human mortality was higher than previously reported. The need for multidimensional disease surveillance models, which may detect risks at higher levels than models that only measure one factor or outcome, was supported. To develop efficient surveillance systems, interactions should be captured, which include but exceed biological factors. This low-cost and easily implementable model, if conducted over time, may identify focal instances where tailored policies may diminish both endemicity and the total adaptation of H5N1 to the human species. PMID:25923926

  1. Life on the edge: Vulnerability and adaptation of African ecosystems to global climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, R; J. Smith; Guill, S.

    2003-01-01

    Donor countries are providing financial and technical support for global climate change country studies to help African nations meet their reporting needs under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Technical assistance to complete vulnerability and adaptation assessments includes training of analysts, sharing of contemporary tools (e.g. simulation models), data and assessment techniques, information-sharing workshops and an international exchange programme for a...

  2. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  3. Tendências e tensões de sociabilidade de estudantes dos Palop em duas universidades brasileiras Tendencies and tensions in the sociability of students from African countries where Portuguese is the official language at two Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute, a partir de uma perspectiva etnográfica, tendências e tensões características da sociabilidade de estudantes africanos - vindos de países de língua oficial portuguesa - na Universidade de Brasília (UnB e na Universidade de São Paulo (USP. Abordamos os modos pelos quais eles experimentam as práticas linguísticas e pedagógicas das universidades, vivenciam as tensões raciais existentes no Brasil, atribuem sentido aos espaços urbanos nos quais são acolhidos; e analisamos seus padrões mais comuns de interação e agregação. Sugerimos que o tempo de participação no fluxo migratório, a nacionalidade de origem dos estudantes e a cidade de acolhida no Brasil são variáveis que condicionam de forma importante a sociabilidade dos estudantes. Residualmente, e de forma ainda incipiente, exploramos algumas dinâmicas de identificação entre os alunos. Alguns se apresentam como sujeitos em diáspora. Outros, contudo, chamam atenção para a necessidade de continuarem a ser reconhecidos como estrangeiros. A maioria demonstra surpresa em se ver percebido como negro ou africano, simplesmente. Os estudantes vêm para o Brasil mediante o Programa Estudante Convênio de Graduação (PEC-G, um acordo diplomático que facilita o deslocamento do aluno ao nosso país a fim de realizar seu curso de nível superior.This article discusses typical tendencies and tensions of the sociability of foreign students from African countries where Portuguese is the official language at 'Universidade de Brasilia' and at 'Universidade de São Paulo'. Our analysis is carried out through an ethnographic approach. We analyze the way students experienced the linguistic and pedagogical practices at the universities, the way they make sense the urban spaces they live as well as the Brazilian typical racial tensions and their most common patterns of integration and aggregation. The time they are involved in the migratory flow, the city they live in

  4. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-01-01

    The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...

  5. Energy demand management in selected African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis contains five empirical papers that contribute to the energy demand management literature on Africa. It investigates the following policy issues – business cycle and energy conservation, government fuel subsidies and energy efficiency, economic growth and environmental quality, structural effects in parameters, the transition between energy efficiency and energy inefficiency, forecast of energy demand, shifts in demand behaviour, and the persistence profile of energy demand to sho...

  6. Attempts at a web presence inventory of African minority languages

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Quintin

    2006-01-01

    Making an inventory of minority languages that have web sites is difficult. We show that, even if we define “minority” as African languages, then this is of little use since the appearance of web sites in any African languages are few. Many African web sites are hosted outside the continent, and few have totally indigenous languages displayed; rather, it contains a mixture of ex-colonial language illustrating documents in the African language concerned. In addition, many countries have more t...

  7. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  8. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graft Aikins Ama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to

  9. A Single-Center 7-Year Experience with End-Stage Renal Disease Care in Nigeria—A Surrogate for the Poor State of ESRD Care in Nigeria and Other Sub-Saharan African Countries: Advocacy for a Global Fund for ESRD Care Program in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datonye Dennis Alasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A single-center ESRD care experience in a Nigerian teaching hospital is presented as a surrogate case to demonstrate the prevailing ESRD care situation in Nigeria and most SSA countries. Methods. The data of 320 consecutive ESRD patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis treatment during a seven-year period were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Over 80% of the subjects funded dialysis treatments from direct out of pocket payment. The mean duration on dialysis before dropout was 5.2±7.6 weeks, with majority 314 (98.1% of the patients unable to sustain dialysis above 12 weeks. Total dialysis sessions during the 7-year period was 1476 giving an average weekly dialysis session of 0.013 (0.05 hour/week per patient per week. One hundred and twenty-eight (40% patients died within 90 days of entry into dialysis care. Conclusions. ESRD care in this single centre was characterized by gross dialysis inadequacy and case fatality due to the inability to access and afford care. The opportunities for kidney transplantation are also very low. Poverty and the absence of government support for ESRD care are responsible for the poor outcomes. A global focus on ESRD care in SSA countries has thus become imperative.

  10. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV, Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Bayer, Angela M; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, are prevalent among adolescents and can have lasting adverse health consequences. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease STI transmission and related risky behaviors among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Three reported declines in STI diagnoses, three reported declines in STI symptoms, six showed declines in risky sexual behavior, seven reported increases in abstinence, 11 found increases in condom use, and five reported increases in health care utilization. There is a wide range of rigorously evaluated high-quality interventions included in this review that can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease the spread of STIs, including HIV. With the recent advent of biomarkers, researchers can use a gold standard measure to assess intervention impact. The diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the context, age range, and gender of the target population. PMID:27562450

  11. An evaluation of training and development for the South African Police Service : a case of Vereeniging cluster / B.N. Mnisi

    OpenAIRE

    Mnisi, Blossom Nomangwane

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the training and development in Vereeniging cluster. The South African Police Service is the principal law enforcement institution and has a crucial role in contributing to the safety and security of South African citizens, including those who visit the country. Based on this it is essential that the organisation has skilled employees who will be able to meet the objectives and future challenges of the organisation. Training and development, therefore, is regarded as an im...

  12. African migrants in South Africa : an interactional perspective / Shingairai Chigeza

    OpenAIRE

    Chigeza, Shingairai

    2012-01-01

    The movement of African migrants from their countries of origin to other countries in search of a better future will continue to increase. However, such movement is accompanied by many challenges. Literature indicates that African migrants in South Africa face challenges such as cultural differences, exploitation and xenophobia. In the context of migration, migrants and citizens constantly interact with one another. The relational patterns between African migrants and citizens accordingly nee...

  13. The Topology of African Exports : emerging patterns on spanning trees

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analyses of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analyses of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodit...

  14. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing...

  15. Tradition, Globalisation and Language Dilemma in Education: African Options for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwantabagu, Hermenegilde

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the dilemma of language in education in African countries with particular reference to Burundi. African languages are still marginalised by colonial languages such as French and English. Looking at other African countries in general and at the case of Burundi in detail, an analysis is made of the adopted policies aimed at…

  16. Agricultural Statistics in Sub-Saharan Africa: Differences in Institutional Arrangements and their Impacts on Agricultural Statistics Systems. A Synthesis of Four Country Case Studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Valerie A.; Donovan, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    A major push supporting improved data collection and analysis is required if African countries are to successfully design and implement results- based Poverty Reduction Strategy Programs (PRSP) and the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) being promoted by the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD). Over the years there have been many initiatives to build statistical capacity in Africa. Many problems have plagued these efforts, including inadequate funding an...

  17. African women, literature, language and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rosamond S. King

    2014-01-01

    This essay will link African women’s writing to culture, including literary culture and the politics of literature. It describes how African women’s literature can act as a mirror, reflecting African cultures to Africans, and how it can serve as a window and a door, revealing African cultures to those outside of them in whole or in part. It ends with a description of “communal agency,” an example of how scholarly writing can act as a door for both those who are and are not a part of a literat...

  18. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  19. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. PMID:25846634

  20. Food irradiation for developing countries in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of post-harvest losses of food is considered to be highest on the African continent. As a result, increasing numbers of countries in Africa are suffering from problems of hunger and malnutrition, which range from chronic to acute. Food irradiation could play an important role in reducing the high rate of food losses especially in the case of food grain, root crops and dried food in this continent provided that proper infrastructure to employ this technique could be identified. Irradiation could contribute positively to the safety of food from microbiological and parasitic infection. A panel of experts participated at the round table discussion to assess the potential application of the technology in Africa. Some of the items for which technical feasibility has been established for food irradiation preservation include yams, onions, potatoes, maize, millet, sorghum, cowpeas and other pulses, cocoa beans, spices (pepper) and condiments, meat and poultry, fish and fishery products, animal feed, etc. In considered the local demand, a suitable choice of the type and size of the facility should be made. The design should allow up-grading in both size and automated operation to meet future expansion of the existing facility, but small commercial scale facilities, of low cost, should be considered to start with. Whatever type of equipment chosen, (whether Gamma or Electron Beam) safety, reliability, maintainability, and simplicity of operation should be of major consideration. It is recognized that for a project to be concluded on a reasonable schedule, technology transfer and training should be incorporated into the complete package. In addition back-up technical infrastructure in the country should be strengthened. The effective procedures demonstrated in a number of countries for performing consumer acceptance studies on irradiated foods, should be adopted in a slightly modified form adapted to the different target populations. Such studies should be

  1. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  2. Natural resources endowment and economic growth: The West African Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jalloh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the nexus between natural resource endowment and economic growth using a sample of West African countries. The study adopted a Barrow-type growth model to analyse the impact of natural resource wealth on economic growth. A dynamic panel estimation technique was employed using relevant data from West African Countries. The results from the panel regressions indicate that natural resource endowments have very minimal impact in terms of promoting economic growth in West Africa, more so in resource rich countries. In terms of relative effects, the results indicate that a 10% increase in natural resource export reduces growth in income per capita by approximately 0.4%. Part of the factors explaining this finding amongst others; include high corruption in the public sector as well as the frequency of civil conflicts in resource rich economies of West Africa. For the natural resources of the region to fully benefit its citizens, these countries require , urgently, to improve management of natural resource export revenues and to apply effective policy measures to eradicate/ mitigate incidences of rampant corruption in the public sector.

  3. The Brain Drain Potential of Students in the African Health and Nonhealth Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Crush

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The departure of health professionals to Europe and North America is placing an intolerable burden on public health systems in many African countries. Various retention, recall, and replacement policies to ameliorate the impact of this brain drain have been suggested, none of which have been particularly successful to date. The key question for the future is whether the brain drain of health sector skills is likely to continue and whether the investment of African countries in training health professionals will continue to be lost through emigration. This paper examines the emigration intentions of trainee health professionals in six Southern African countries. The data was collected by the Southern African Migration Program (SAMP in a survey of final-year students across the region which included 651 students training for the health professions. The data also allows for the comparison of health sector with other students. The analysis presented in this paper shows very high emigration potential amongst all final-year students. Health sector students do show a slightly higher inclination to leave than those training to work in other sectors. These findings present a considerable challenge for policy makers seeking to encourage students to stay at home and work after graduation.

  4. Informed consent comprehension in African research settings

    OpenAIRE

    Afolabi, M.; Okebe, J.; McGrath, N.; Larson, H; Bojang, K.; Chandramohan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous reviews on participants' comprehension of informed consent information have focused on developed countries. Experience has shown that ethical standards developed on Western values may not be appropriate for African settings where research concepts are unfamiliar. We undertook this review to describe how informed consent comprehension is defined and measured in African research settings. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search involving five electronic databa...

  5. Economic Key to Sino-African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Following Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to Africa's Morocco, Nigeria and Kenya in April, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao is currently visiting seven African countries-Egypt, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Angola, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. Haile-Kiros Gessesse, Ethiopia's Ambassador to China, discussed with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo the future of the Sino-African relationship. As special envoy for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, he also expressed his expectations of the forum summit t...

  6. HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Maureen L.; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Makoae, Lucy N.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P.; Uys, Leana R.; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The subscale, Personal Satisfaction, was the highest in this sample as in the other 2. Job Satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression demonstrated that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influences on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These findings provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries. PMID:19118767

  7. The Economics of the African Media

    OpenAIRE

    Cage, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the economics of sub-Saharan African media. Using the history of sub-Saharan African newspapers as well as historical evidence from Europe and the United States, I study the emergence of market-oriented journalism and of an independent and informative press in sub-Saharan Africa. I document the extent to which sub-Saharan African newspapers have followed the same development steps than newspapers in other countries, moving from living off patronage and governme...

  8. African Music: Source of the Blues

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Konrad Sidney

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] African music is the primary source for the blues. Scholars have supplied ample evidence to support this assertion. However, the African retentions still present in the blues are not immediately apparent. African music and the blues share many similarities, including the predominance of rhythm, the uses of music as social commentary and critique, types of instruments, and musical structure. Slaves brought their culture with them to the New World when they were forcibly taken from t...

  9. The Least Developed Countries of Africa - the problems of the economic development and the resolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Smékalová, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    The region of Subsaharan Africa is the most underdeveloped area in the world. There is the highest number of the Least Developed Countries of the world. The backwardness of the African countries takes effect by the poverty and heavy political, economical and social problems. The local governments, foreign investors and international organizations can improve the situation in African The Least Developed Countries.

  10. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of ethnic South African foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa is a multi-cultural country with different eating habits and food preferences. Traditional African foods such as beef and chicken tripe form a part of the diet of black South Africans. These foods are laborious to prepare, not generally available commercially, and have limited shelf life. Other popular ethnic foods in South Africa include meat products such as 'biltong' (intermediate moisture dried meat) and 'boerewors' (spicy sausage) consumed by all population groups. These foods have the potential to cause food poisoning. Very limited information is available on the microbial ecology of these ethnic foods. Moreover, no significant research has been conducted on the use of irradiation to improve the microbiological safety and increase shelf life without adversely affecting sensory quality. The overall objective is to determine the effect of irradiation, alone and in combination with other processing technologies, on the microbiological and sensory quality of selected, refrigerated, ethnic South African foods and/or meals

  11. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2013-01-01

    Asking a bioenergy researcher about the composition of wheat straw, he would know it by heart. But if enquiring about typicalAfrican biomasses – it would be another case. Until now, biomasses common to African countries have not received the samescientific attention as biomasses from Europe, North America or Brazil. For that reason, it is difficult to estimate bioenergypotentials in the African region.As a part of an on‐going research collaboration investigating production of 2g biofuels in G...

  12. Readiness of ethics review systems for a changing public health landscape in the WHO African Region

    OpenAIRE

    Motari, Marion; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing emphasis on research, development and innovation for health in providing solutions to the high burden of diseases in the African Region has warranted a proliferation of studies including clinical trials. This changing public health landscape requires that countries develop adequate ethics review capacities to protect and minimize risks to study participants. Therefore, this study assessed the readiness of national ethics committees to respond to challenges posed by a...

  13. The value of water in the South African economy: Some implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwoudt, W. Lieb; Backeberg, G.R.; du Plessis, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The South African Water Research Commission (WRC) initiated a number of research projects aimed at determining the value of water in different sectors of the economy and in different parts of the country. This research is reviewed. Water values were found to differ significantly between sectors, between geographic areas and within geographic areas. As agriculture is a large consumer of water several studies along different rivers were undertaken, including studies on water quality. Average ra...

  14. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  15. Three essays on political economy of oil revenues in the African states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vision of the role of natural resources in the development process has changed over the last thirty years. The optimistic views of the beginning became more moderate, even pessimistic. This thesis focuses on the role of oil in the political, institutional, and economic performances of African countries, some of which are richly endowed. It revolves around three empirical essays. Chapter 2 focuses on the duration of political regimes in Africa and shows from a duration model that revenues from oil exploitation play an important role. Chapter 3 examines the high indebtedness of oil-producing countries. A collateral effect of oil resources is highlighted, it dominates an instability effect. Chapter 4 includes, in a dynamic computable general equilibrium model, the permanent income hypothesis presented in the literature as the answer to the fiscal management of oil revenues. It concludes that a relevant rule of oil revenues management in African countries should not reduce only the impact of volatility on public finances, but it should also address the development needs of African oil producing countries. (author)

  16. Is Islam really a development blockade? 12 predictors of development, including membership in the Organization of Islamic Conference, and their influence on 14 indicators of development in 109 countries of the world with completely available data

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2005-01-01

    With all the talk in Europe about “Islam” and “Muslim culture” it is surprising how little hard-core empirical evidence exists on the compatibility of “Muslim culture” with positive patterns of political, social, and ecological development in the world system in the 1980s, 1990s, and beyond. This article tries to close this gap by using latest (United Nations and other data) and multivariate techniques, investigating the determination of 14 indicators of development in 109 countries with comp...

  17. Aspects of size and geography of an African cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nwagwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data on web links collected from 15 African countries, three with the highest Internet penetration in each of North, West, Central, East, and South regions were used to study the number and origins of links to Africa. The sample has a ratio of one Internet user per 12 persons. Altogether, all African countries generated a total of 124,047,702 Web pages and 30,546,967 inlinks to the pages, an average of about 0.25 links per page. But the sample constituted which 28% of all the countries in the region generated 98,629,700 pages and 21,272,500 inlinks, an average of about 0.21 inlinks per page. South Africa ranked highest in web pages and web links per population and also received the highest number of inlinks from other African countries and the G8. However, Kenya linked other African countries more than the others did. Population size does not relate to number of web pages, self-inlinks, and inlinks or penetration, but relates positively with number of Internet users. Among others, a major step in boosting use of Internet resources in Africa will be in developing policies that will encourage African countries to use information developed by other African countries.

  18. Racial Disparities in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes and its Subtypes in the African Diaspora: A New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy R; Osei, Kwame

    2016-03-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes has extended to the developing countries including Sub-Sahara Africa. In this context, blacks with type 2 diabetes in the African Diaspora continue to manifest 1.5-2 times higher prevalent rates than in their white counterparts. Previous studies have demonstrated that blacks with and without type 2 diabetes have alterations in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and hepatic insulin clearance as well as hepatic glucose dysregulation when compared to whites. In addition, non-diabetic blacks in the African Diaspora manifest multiple metabolic mediators that predict type 2 diabetes and its subtypes. These pathogenic modifiers include differences in subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress burden, and adipocytokines in blacks in the African Diaspora prior to clinical diagnosis. Consequently, blacks in the African Diaspora manifest subtypes of type 2 diabetes, including ketosis-prone diabetes and J type diabetes. Given the diversity of type 2 diabetes in blacks in the African Diaspora, we hypothesize that blacks manifest multiple early pathogenic defects prior to the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes. These metabolic alterations have strong genetic component, which appears to play pivotal and primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes in blacks in the African Diaspora. However, environmental factors must also be considered as major contributors to the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes in blacks in the African Diaspora. These multiple alterations should be targets for early prevention of type 2 diabetes in blacks in the African Diaspora. PMID:26896111

  19. The African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications 2012 - English subtitles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2012-01-01

    Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices…

  20. Using ICTs (Educationally) for Development in an African Context: Possibilities and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrim, Nazir; Taruvinga, Mandi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the possibilities and limitations of using ICTs for development in an African context from an education perspective. Although we provide an account of the Pan-African Agenda on integrating ICTs, which covers many countries on the African continent, our focus is specifically on using ICTs for development in a South African…

  1. Refugees Connecting with a New Country through Community Food Gardening

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Harris; Fiona Rowe Minniss; Shawn Somerset

    2014-01-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established...

  2. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  3. The African VLBI network project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The AVN is one of the most significant vehicles through which capacity development in Africa for SKA participation will be realized. It is a forerunner to the long baseline Phase 2 component of the mid-frequency SKA. Besides the 26m HartRAO telescope in South Africa, Ghana is expected to be the first to establish a VLBI-capable telescope through conversion of a redundant 32m telecommunications system near Accra. The most widely used receivers in the EVN are L-band and C-band (5 GHz). L-band is divided into a low band around the hydrogen (HI) line frequency of 1420 MHz, and a high band covering the hydroxyl line frequencies of 1612-1720 MHz. The high band is much more commonly used for VLBI as it provides more bandwidth. For the AVN, the methanol maser line at 6668 MHz is a key target for the initial receiver and the related 12178MHz methanol maser line also seen in star-forming regions a potential future Ku-band receiver. In the potential future band around 22GHz(K-band), water masers in star-forming regions and meg-maser galaxies at 22.235 GHz are targets, as are other radio continuum sources such as AGNs. The AVN system will include 5GHz and 6.668GHz receiver systems with recommendation to partner countries that the first upgrade should be L-band receivers. The original satellite telecommunications feed horns cover 3.8 - 6.4 GHz and should work at 5 GHz and operation at 6.668 GHz for the methanol maser is yet to be verified. The first light science will be conducted in the 6.7 GHz methanol maser band. Telescopes developed for the AVN will initially join other global networks for VLBI. When at least four VLBI-capable telescopes are operational on the continent, it will be possible to initiate stand-alone AVN VLBI. Each country where an AVN telescope becomes operational will have its own single-dish observing program. Capacity building to run an observatory includes the establishment of competent core essential observatory staff in partner countries who can train

  4. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  5. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  6. Revenue generation strategies in sub-Saharan African universities

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Fisseha Mamo

    2012-01-01

    Financial sustainability is one of the key challenges for public universities in both developed and developing countries. Using a resource dependence approach, this study explores the issue of revenue generation in Sub-Saharan African universities. It analyses the diversification strategies that four universities in three African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Africa) have implemented in order to improve their universities’ financial situation. Universities in Sub-Saharan Africa are fa...

  7. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  8. Country Profiles, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Thomas E., Jr.

    A profile of Sierra Leone is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  9. Maritime defence and the South African Navy to the cancellation of the Simon's Town agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Potgieter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the maritime defence of South Africa was a colonial responsibility. First performed by the Dutch, the British took over the task after they wrestled the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch. The Cape was of supreme strategic value to Britain as the link with India and a great part of her empire. Therefore for more than a century and a half (from 1806 to the abrogation of the Simon's Town Agreement the Royal Navy had a constant presence in South African territorial waters. Furthermore when the first flickers of an indigenous maritime defence organisation appeared in South Africa it was British in character. The South African Division of the part-time Royal Naval Voluntary Reserve (RNVR came into being long before the country had a navy. The origin of the South African Navy dates back to 1922, when, the South African Naval Service was created with the arrival of three small ships from Britain. Unfortunately, the budget cuts during the Depression meant that these ships and their crews were paid off (in 1933-4 and only a skeleton staff remained. This was still the position at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. The Union of South Africa's declaration of war against Germany on 6 September 1939, meant that the country's utterly neglected Navy had to suddenly prepare for war. Ships had to be found, and as purpose-build warships were out of the question, ships from the country's fishing fleet and trade had to suffice. A small ocean-going navy was created for the defence of the Union's ports and coastline. Following an urgent request from the British Admiralty in November 1940, South Africa sent four anti-submarine vessels to join the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean. As the war progressed, more ships of the South African Naval Forces arrived in the Mediterranean. They were used for a variety of tasks, ranging from minesweeping to salvage work. South African ships and crews earned themselves quite a reputation, participating in most

  10. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  11. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  12. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries in the...... early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  13. Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  15. The Rise of China and the Significance of Sino-African Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Daniel Dang; Hansen, Stefan Elver

    2013-01-01

    China’s recent reinvigorated relations with African countries over the past two decades have been one of the most significant developments in the region. The idea of marginalization appears to be contradicted with the recent upsurge of political and economic investments directed towards Afri-can countries. The Sino-African relationship is part of a recently more active foreign policy and international strategy of China based on the increasingly developing multipolarity. Developments of increa...

  16. Leaving Home: The Challenges of Black-African International Students Prior to Studying Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Elizabeth Frances; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature on international students centres on their experiences once they arrive in their host countries. This study explores the preparations of Black-African students for leaving their home countries to study abroad. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 50 Black-African students studying at one British university. The…

  17. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa (including Madagascar has nearly twice as many species of Commelinaceae as any other continent (approximately 270 species, or about 40% of the total in the family. Of the 17 genera which are native, seven (Anthericopsis, Coleotrype, Palisota, Polyspatha, Pseudoparis, Stanfieldiella and  Triceratella are endemic, the highest percentage generic endemism of any continent. Within Africa gcneric diversity is slightly higher in western than in eastern tropical floras. Species richness, however, is greatest in eastern Africa, mainly due to a high diversity of species of Commelina and Aneilema. Africa shares more genera with Asia (nine than with any other continent. Only one African genus, Buforrestia, is neither endemic nor shared with Asia. Its western African/northeastern South American distribution is unique in the family. Besides Buforrestia, only five other genera of Commelinaceae (out of a total of 50 in the family, occur in both the Old and New Worlds. These genera.  Aneilema, Commelina, Floscopa, Murdannia and  Pollia are all very widespread in the Old World, occurring in Australia and Asia in addition to Africa (both continental and Madagascar. Madagascar is relatively poor in species (31. but these include the endemic Madagascan genus Pseudoparis, the sole African species of Rhopalephora, and the largest number of species of the Afro-Malagasy endemic genus Coleotrype. The high rate of generic endemism of Commelinaceae in Africa probably indicates that Africa was one of the ancient centres of diversity for the family. The high species diversity is more likely due to relatively recent radiations by genera pre-adapted to survival in non-forest habitats. The occurrence of only a small number of genera on both sides of the Atlantic suggests that the Commelinaceae have been evolving independently in the eastern and western hemispheres for a long period.

  18. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  19. [Population policies: evolution of the position of the Sahelian countries since the Bucharest conference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, E B

    1992-07-01

    This work describes the evolution of population policies and attitudes toward them in the Sahel countries since the 1974 World Population Conference. Recommendations of several important international population conferences in which the Sahelian countries participated are then listed. The Bucharest Conference is widely regarded as the 1st serious attempt at coordinated action on population. The divergent approaches of the developed and developing countries toward population phenomena became obvious at the Conference. The developed countries of the north expected the less developed countries of the south to pledge greater efforts at controlling demographic growth, which they viewed as impeding economic development. The countries of the south on the other hand saw the problem as 1 of unequal distribution of wealth. Many African countries also believed their economic growth would be accelerated by the additional workers they would eventually gain through population growth. Reduced population growth in this view would result from rather than contributing to development. Despite these disagreements, Conference participants adopted the World Population Plan of Action which made 5 recommendations including establishment and promotion of family planning education and services. Numerous countries began to pay greater attention to population variables in their development planning after Bucharest. The Sahel countries participated in the Arusha Conference, a July 1984 meeting of African countries preceding the World Population Conference in Mexico City, and in the Mexico City Conference. The Arusha Conference adopted the "Program of Action of Kilimanjaro Concerning African Population and Autonomous Development", which contained 16 recommendations to governments to recognize the interdependence of demographic factors and development. By the 1984 Mexico City Conference, various events such as the drought, chronic economic problems, and rapid population growth combined to bring

  20. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Armas Rodríguez Y.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010.

  1. Body image perception of African immigrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional disorders are now spreading worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Body image ideals and dissatisfaction have been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including nutritional disorders. While previous studies have offered insight into weight status and body image perception of immigrants in North America, very few studies have analysed these aspects in migrants from Africa to Europe. Our review examines the effects of the migration process on beauty ideals and body dissatisfaction in African immigrants in Europe compared to residents in their own countries. The PubMed, PsycINFO and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published from January 2000 till November 2015. Of the 730 titles identified, 26 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Among African residents, the body preferences depend on the country of residence and their socio-cultural status. Ethnic groups living in great isolation or with low incomes still have an ancestral idea of beauty, preferring a shapely body. However ethnic groups living in urban areas are moving toward Westernization of beauty ideals, preferring underweight or normal weight bodies. This review highlights that both residents and migrants are at high risk of nutritional disorders due to the adoption of Western beauty ideals. The results suggest that body dissatisfaction and BMI are increasing from Southern Africa to Europe according to a geographical gradient (described for females by Spearman's coefficient and linear regression, respectively). We emphasize the need for monitoring of the weight and psychological status of immigrants and the development of specific preventive strategies in European countries. PMID:27558365

  2. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  3. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  4. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  5. Applications of Atomic Energy in African economic and social development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes briefly the basic principles of nuclear techniques applied in: raw materials development, including resources inventory; power; food and agriculture, including preservation and conservation; industry; medicine and biology; water resources development; and education and training, including manpower resources. It relates these subjects to situations and problems as they are to be found in individual African countries or sub-regions of the Continent. It suggests relative priorities and reveals that applications of atomic energy can only be beneficial on an inter-sectoral basis. Certain conclusions are put forward which may be relevant to the preparation and implementation of development plans at the national level. (author)

  6. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  7. African widows: anthropological and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, Maria G

    2003-01-01

    Variety characterizes widows' experiences around the world and in Africa south of the Sahara. This article explores the socioeconomic and cultural contexts of African widowhood, using anthropological studies in a number of African societies, including the author's research among Abaluyia of western Kenya. Some features of African widowhood are characteristic of African women's lives regardless of their marital status: their embeddedness in kinship systems and dependence on those systems for claims to productive resources, their economic self-reliance (which does not mean prosperity), strongly gendered divisions of labor, and the pervasiveness of patriarchal gender relations. Other features are specific to widowhood, including remarriage, issues of personal autonomy, and loss of status, access to productive resources and social support. Colonial and postcolonial historical transformations, including Africa's current dire economic situation and the AIDS epidemic, are considered in relation to widows' lives. An interesting question (given the theme of this edited volume) is whether a husband' s death puts African widows "on their own again," and whether, given African systems of kinship and marriage, most African women (and indeed men, too) can ever be said to be "on their own." PMID:14604001

  8. The African Renaissance and its relation to the geosciences: a South African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".

  9. Denmark country note 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    and care policy; recent policy developments; information on take-up of leave; recent publications and current research projects. The review also includes definitions of the main types of leave policies; and cross-country comparisons. These comparative overviews cover: each main type of leave; total...... leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2016 review includes one new country: Korea. Altogether, it covers 39 countries......The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care...

  10. 50 Years of Independence: Reflections on the Role of Publishing and Progressive African Intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bgoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the role of progressive African intellectuals fifty years after independence in the context of African postcolonial, political and socio-economic conditions is examined. African intellectuals have been marginalized by the African state, and progressive intellectuals have been disunited in their struggle for relevance. The possibilities for African intellectual autonomy and international solidarity are shown through a recollection of the flourishing intellectual environment and local publishing output of post-independence Tanzania. The end of that era and the demise of publishing, including in African languages, has negatively impacted African economic and intellectual emancipation and can only be addressed by international solidarity among progressive intellectuals.

  11. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid test...

  12. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Temidayo O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  13. Current Situation of Introduction and Use of African Crop Germplasm Resources and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili; DING; Minghua; YAO; Chunhai; JIAO

    2015-01-01

    Africa is the origin center of many crops. It is rich in original ecological resources,especially special resources which are excellent materials for breeding research. With acceleration of commercial seeds in agriculture of African countries,some original ecological resources are disappearing. Through experience of introduction of African varieties in recent years,it analyzed current situation of introduction and use of African crop germplasm resources. Finally,it came up with recommendations for rescuing and taking full advantage of excellent African resources,solving difficult problem restricting crop breeding,enriching China’s crop germplasm bank,and improving China’s and African crop breeding level and innovation ability.

  14. Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Moore

    Full Text Available Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa.In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates.To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates.

  15. Contemporary Literature in the African Diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Herrero, Olga; Bell, Bernard W.

    1997-01-01

    [ES] El libro es una colección de ensayos divididos entre las tres grandes secciones del libro: Literatura afroamericana, Literatura Afro-caribeña y Afro-latinoamericana y Literatura africana en inglés. [EN] The book is a collection of essays included in the three sections of the book: on African American Literature, Afro-Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Literature and African Literature in English.

  16. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  17. Catching up is hard to do. Science feeds development, and in Africa more countries are looking to beat the odds and gain benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific advancement cannot occur without quality education; to achieve that quality, Africa will require significant investment at all educational levels.Worldwide, competitors have become collaborators and have enhanced their economic, technological, or academic statures by forming alliances and partnerships. For African countries to significantly advance, they must collaborate regionally or internationally. The success of those partnerships will depend on having a well-endowed leading member. Examples of partnerships include the African Materials Research Society, African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Working Group on Space Sciences in Africa, and African Laser Centre. Those initiatives, in which South Africa plays a leading role, carry the hope that expertise will be developed to create a science and technology infrastructure in Africa. The IAEA funds important activities in the fields of radiation protection and safety, nuclear medicine, and maintenance of scientific instruments, all undertaken by a consortium of countries in Africa under the African Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development, and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA). Through regional participation, intellectual and physical resources are coordinated, capabilities in the diversified areas of nuclear technology are enhanced, and the development of expertise is facilitated

  18. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  19. Explaining African Growth Performance: A Production-Frontier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Houssa; Oleg Badunenko; Henderson, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a production frontier approach that allows distinguishing technologic progress from efficiency development. Data on 35 African countries in 1970-2007 show that efficiency losses have constrained growth in Africa while technology progress has played a marginal growth enhancing role in the region. Moreover, physical and human capital accumulation are the main factors that drive productivity growth at the country level. Examining the outcomes of successful countries suggests t...

  20. Relevance of the Nordic model for African development

    OpenAIRE

    Bigsten, Arne

    2001-01-01

    Can African countries learn from the development experiences of other regions? Or are the continent’s development challenges unique? This paper looks at the development experience of the Nordic countries, especially Sweden, from the nineteenth century and discusses the extent to which the observed patterns of development could have relevance for Africa. The paper argues that poverty is not immutable. Nordic countries were for centuries a poor agrarian outpost at the European periphery and yet...

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Vocational Training in Africa (based on the "African Economic Outlook 2008"), OECD Development Centre Policy Insights, No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingombe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on economic growth and poverty reduction in African countries is unknown. Without such knowledge, however, countries and donors cannot formulate appropriate policies. Even the 35 countries surveyed in the 2008 "African Economic Outlook" can only supply approximate data. More and better data are needed to monitor…

  2. Rethinking Christian Identity: African Reflections from Pauline Writings

    OpenAIRE

    Togarasei Lovemore

    2016-01-01

    Despite its existence for over a century in Africa and statistics putting the Christian populations at average 80 percent mostly in sub-Saharan African countries, Christianity has not managed to provide an alternative identity to ethnicity as issues of identity continue dogging the continent. Many African societies remain divided and at war on the basis of identities, be they racial, tribal, creedal, gender, class, language or other identities. Surprisingly, this state of affairs is also foun...

  3. Participation and Research of Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African Descent (1900–2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Urama, Johnson

    The second half of the Twentieth Century witnessed the emergence of the first modern Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African descent. In this paper we enumerate these researchers and briefly describe their activities. We also describe the broader social and political contexts which have impacted their participation and research. We focus primarily on researchers in the United States of America (28) and in Nigeria (19) who have together produced over 90% of the astronomical researchers known to the authors. We briefly mention researchers from other countries including South Africa (3) and in Eurasia (2). We conclude by describing the pioneering researchers and disseminators of the Black African Diaspora's contribution of to the modern astronomical sciences.

  4. Participation and Research of Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African Descent (1900 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Urama, Johnson

    The second half of the Twentieth Century witnessed the emergence of the first modern Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African descent. In this paper we enumerate these researchers and briefly describe their activities. We also describe the broader social and political contexts which have impacted their participation and research. We focus primarily on researchers in the United States of America (28) and in Nigeria (19) who have together produced over 90% of the astronomical researchers known to the authors. We briefly mention researchers from other countries including South Africa (3) and in Eurasia (2). We conclude by describing the pioneering researchers and disseminators of the Black African Diaspora's contribution of to the modern astronomical sciences.

  5. The evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in a developing economy: The South African experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayde R. Pandy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The timeshare industry is one of most under-researched aspects of tourism accommodation. Within existing scholarship most writings pertain to industry development and challenges in the USA and Europe. This paper provides an examination of the evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in South Africa from the 1980s to the present-day. The South African timeshare industry is revealed as one of the most mature in the international timeshare economy. Historically, the industry confronted parallel challenges to those in developed countries in respect of adapting the product to local conditions and confronting a tarnished image from the impact of unscrupulous developers. Currently the South African timeshare sector faces different challenges including service management and consumer dissatisfaction, marginalization within the tourism economy, and the need to address the emerging Black middle class market.

  6. Educational attainment and adult literacy: A descriptive account of 31 Sub-Saharan Africa countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 60 years ago the international community declared literacy a basic human right. Recognition of its intrinsic value and evidence of its social and economic benefits have motivated an expansive international effort to estimate the percentage of adults that can read, especially in low-income countries where educational opportunities are limited. Population data on adults' educational attainment is commonly used to approximate adult literacy rates. Though increasing evidence from school-based studies of pupils confirm literacy achievement is not universal - even at advanced grades - it remains unclear whether adults' educational attainment is reflective of their literacy. Objective This study leverages population-based data that include direct assessments of adults' literacy skills to provide a descriptive account of the proportion of adults that can read at each level of educational attainment. The study focuses on the Sub-Saharan African context, a world region where school participation has expanded rapidly in the last three decades. Because many African adults have discontinued their education at the primary level, the study focuses on basic reading skills at each level of primary school. The study focuses specifically on women, whose literacy has garnered extensive international interest. Results Demographic and Health Survey data from 31 African countries confirm that there are many instances in which women have several years of primary school but cannot read. In fact, in some countries, large proportions of African women who never went to school can read, even as some of their peers who have completed primary school cannot. The weak correlation between educational attainment and literacy is not specific to older cohorts of women, but is also observed among younger women. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that educational attainment is generally a poor proxy for literacy, highlighting the need to measure, theorize, and study literacy as

  7. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    between leave policy and early childhood education and care policy; recent policy developments; information on take-up of leave; recent publications and current research projects. The review also includes definitions of the main types of leave policies; and cross-country comparisons. These comparative...... overviews cover: each main type of leave; total leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2014 review includes one new country......The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004 (for earlier reviews, go to Archive 2005-2013). The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working...

  8. European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP: the path towards a true partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofori-Adjei David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP was founded in 2003 by the European Parliament and Council. It is a partnership of 14 European Union (EU member states, Norway, Switzerland, and Developing Countries, formed to fund acceleration of new clinical trial interventions to fight the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis (TB in the sub-Saharan African region. EDCTP seeks to be synergistic with other funding bodies supporting research on these diseases. Methods EDCTP promotes collaborative research supported by multiple funding agencies and harnesses networking expertise across different African and European countries. EDCTP is different from other similar initiatives. The organisation of EDCTP blends important aspects of partnership that includes ownership, sustainability and responds to demand-driven research. The Developing Countries Coordinating Committee (DCCC; a team of independent scientists and representatives of regional health bodies from sub-Saharan Africa provides advice to the partnership. Thus EDCTP reflects a true partnership and the active involvement and contribution of these African scientists ensures joint ownership of the EDCTP programme with European counterparts. Results The following have been the major achievements of the EDCTP initiative since its formation in 2003; i increase in the number of participating African countries from two to 26 in 2008 ii the cumulative amount of funds spent on EDCTP projects has reached € 150 m, iii the cumulative number of clinical trials approved has reached 40 and iv there has been a significant increase number and diversity in capacity building activities. Conclusion While we recognise that EDCTP faced enormous challenges in its first few years of existence, the strong involvement of African scientists and its new initiatives such as unconditional funding to regional

  9. First results of phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agnandji, Selidji Todagbe; Lell, Bertrand; Soulanoudjingar, Solange Solmeheim;

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing phase 3 study of the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 is being conducted in seven African countries.......An ongoing phase 3 study of the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 is being conducted in seven African countries....

  10. Development of West African Rainy Seasons (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    The development of West African rainy seasons in the observed climatology can be understood in terms of two factors: continentality, i.e., the shape and placement of the African continent, and solar forcing. First, the observed features of the West African spring and summer precipitation climatology that distinguish it from the precipitation climatology of the tropical Atlantic to the east and Central/Eastern Africa to the west are presented. These include a lingering of the precipitation maximum along the Guinean coast in June and the apparent sudden movement of the precipitation maximum into the Sahel in early July. Then, these distinguishing features of the West Africa precipitation climatology are explained in terms of the regional dynamics and, finally, related to continentality and solar forcing through the roles of the African easterly jet, land surface temperature, and seasonally-varying SSTs.

  11. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  12. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  13. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  14. 76 FR 1660 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Reconfiguring an African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Reconfiguring an African Icon: Odes... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Reconfiguring an African Icon:...

  15. Fluconazole in the therapy of multiple osteomyelitis in African histoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Onwuasoigwe, O.

    1999-01-01

     Amphotericin B has been the standard treatment for deep mycoses including African histoplasmosis, but its use is complicated by its toxicity. More recently, Fluconazole, a water-soluble triazole with antimycotic activity and little side effects, has become available. A case of African histoplasmosis from Nigeria, manifesting as multiple osteomyelitis and successfully treated with oral Fluconazole, is presented. Fluconazole may be preferred in the therapy of African histoplasmosis.

  16. A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Candice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate. An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64 increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68. The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of

  17. CDM Country Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country (both

  18. CDM Country Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country

  19. Competing Methods for Teaching and Researching Africa: Interdisciplinarity and the Field of African Studies

    OpenAIRE

    De Ycaza, Carla

    2015-01-01

    African Studies has evolved as an academic initiative dealing with research and scholarship on the cultures and societies of Africa. Many academic programs focusing on African Studies emerged in the 1960s on the heels of the first wave of African independence movements. Over time, African Studies has expanded to include a wide range of approaches to various disciplines, including history, anthropology, political science, sociology, economics, linguistics, religion and law, among others. Much ...

  20. The African filmmaker and content of African films: a study of the perspectives of the Nigerian film audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganivu Olalekan Akashoro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to appraise African filmmaking and the content of African films from a Nigerian film audience perspective. The study specifically explores the disposition of the audience towards contemporary African filmmaking for home video and cinema entertainment as well as the content of African films. The study used a qualitative questionnaire to determine the perspectives of residents in Lagos as members of the Nigerian film audience. The study found the perception of the content of contemporary African films, particularly home videos, to vary among the film audience. Opinion largely favoured a new orientation towards a de-emphasis on obscene scenes, rituals, fetish practices, violent crimes and display of partial or total nudity in the content of African films. The study, therefore, recommends that regulatory bodies set up in most African countries, such as the Nigerian Film and Video Censors Board, should own up to their responsibilities in terms of ensuring strict compliance of African film makers or producers with rules and regulations guiding film production, content of films and exposure guidelines.

  1. Developments and Microbiological applications in African foods: Emphasis on Nigerian Wara cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Raheem, Bamidele

    2006-01-01

    African indigenous foods have received limited research. Most of these indigenous foods are fermented and they form part of the rich nutritional culture of many groups in African countries. The industrialization and commercialisation of these indigenous African fermented foods should be preceded by a thorough scientific knowledge of their processing which can be vital in the elimination of hunger and poverty. This study highlighted emerging developments and the microbiology of cereal-based an...

  2. Factors Influencing Foreign Direct Investment of South African Financial Services Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    John Luiz; Harry Charalambouse

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the key elements that South African financial services firms consider before making foreign direct investments in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) markets. The results show that South African financial services firms are most strongly influenced by the political and economic stability of the country in question as well as the profitability and long-term sustainability of its specific markets. The degree of available infrastructure in terms of Information and Communication ...

  3. The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network:The Ghana Antenna Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Copley, C. J.; Thondikulam, V.; Loots, A.; Bangani, S.; Cloete, K.; Combrinck, L.; Gioio, S.; Ludick, J.; Nicolson, G.; Pollak, A. W.; P. Pretorius; Quick, J. F. H.; Taylor, G.; Ebrahim, F.; Humphreys, C

    2016-01-01

    The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN) is a pan-African project that will develop Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observing capability in several countries across the African continent, either by conversion of existing telecommunications antennas into radio telescopes, or by building new ones. This paper focuses on the conversion of the Nkutunse satellite communication station (near Accra, Ghana), specifically the early mechanical and infrastructure upgrades, tog...

  4. Seminar on Cooperation Between Chinese and African Local Governments Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>On May 15,the Seminar on Cooperation Between the Chinese and African Local Governments,jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China International Friendship Cities Association (CIFCA),was held in Beijing. Representatives of the CPAFFC,the CIFCA,25 provinces and cities that had formed friendship-city ties with African countries,member units of the Council of the Chinese-African People’s Friendship Association,the United Cities and

  5. The Dictionary Unit for South African English. South African Concise Oxford Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Rajend Mesthrie

    2011-01-01

    The South African Concise Oxford Dictionary (henceforth SACOD) is a South Af-rican version of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, the first time that this particular hybrid has been prepared. It is testimony to the enduring success of the work of the Dictionary Unit for South African English at Rhodes University, headed by teams that included Jean and William Branford in the 1970s, Penny Silva in the 1990s and now, Kathryn Kavanagh. The lexicographical work from the unit saw the publication of fou...

  6. Micro-level practices to adapt to climate change for African small-scale farmers:

    OpenAIRE

    Below, Till; ARTNER Astrid; Siebert, Rosemarie; SIEBER STEFAN

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses micro-level practices for adapting to climate change that are available to small-scale farmers in Africa. The analysis is based on a review of 17 studies about practices that boost small-scale farmers¿ resilience or reduce their vulnerability to observed or expected changes in climate; it includes data from more than 16 countries in Africa, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. The review shows that African smallholders are already using a wide variety of creative practices to ...

  7. West African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of five new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.

  8. Paraquat in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, C; van Wendel de Joode, B; Ruepert, C; León, C; Monge, P; Hermosillo, H; Partanen, T J

    2001-01-01

    The herbicide paraquat is considered safe by industry and the bulk of regulators worldwide. However, determinants of exposure from 30 years ago persist in developing countries. Little is known about systemic absorption from occupational exposures. The relationships between exposure determinants, levels of external exposure, biomarkers of exposure, and outcomes are not clear. High rates of severe acute poisonings have been documented. In addition, topical injuries occur in as many as 50% of exposed workers. Non-worker populations are also at risk, particularly children. Long-term and delayed health effects include Parkinson's disease, lung effects, and skin cancer. Regulatory agencies have not fully recognized either the inherent toxicity of paraquat or the particular risks derived from exposures in developing countries. Independent risk assessment in the developing-country context and application of the precautionary principle are necessary to prevent adverse effects of dangerous pesticides in susceptible populations. PMID:11783857

  9. Malaria control in the African Region: perceptions and viewspoints on proceedings of the Africa Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009 a total of 153,408 malaria deaths were reported in Africa. Eleven countries showed a reduction of more than 50% in either confirmed malaria cases or malaria admissions and deaths in recent years. However, many African countries are not on track to achieve the malaria component of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 6. The African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA working session at the 15th African Union Summit discussed the bottlenecks to achieving MDG 6 (specifically halting and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria by 2015, success factors, and what countries needed to do to accelerate achievement of the MDG. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the proceedings of the ALMA working session. Methods Working methods of the session included speeches and statements by invited speakers and high-level panel discussions. Discussion The main bottlenecks identified related to the capacity of the health systems to deliver quality care and accessibility issues; need for strong, decentralized malaria-control programmes with linkages with other health and development sectors, the civil society and private sector entities; benefits of co-implementation of malaria control programmes with child survival or other public health interventions; systematic application of integrated promotive, preventive, diagnostic and case management interventions with full community participation; adapting approaches to local political, socio-cultural and administrative environments. The following prerequisites for success were identified: a clear vision and effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; high level political commitment to ensure adequate capacity in expertise, skill mix and number of managers, technicians and service providers; national ownership, intersectoral collaboration and accountability, as well as strong civil society and private sector involvement; functional epidemiological surveillance systems

  10. The Political Economy of Local Content in African Extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Buur, Lars; Therkildsen, Ole;

    Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. But extractive FDI has a record of producing enclaves in host countries with few linkages to the local economy. Only if it creates local content will extractive FDI become a catalyst of development....... This paper analyses the trajectories of local content policies and practices in three African countries – Tanzania, Uganda and Mozambique. We argue that we cannot understand the dynamics and outcomes of local content policies in African extractives without understanding how local content has become ingrained...

  11. Neutron activation analysis of ivory of African elephants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to 80 samples from various African countries and 81 samples from the Kruger National Park in the Republic of South Africa. Twelve elements such as Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, Sr, and Zn, were determined in all samples. The factor scores of each sample were calculated from those elemental concentrations for the first and second factors to clarify the differences of samples from various African countries with those from Kruger Park. The results were compared with those by stable isotope analysis (13C and 15N). (author)

  12. The political economy of local content in African extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Hansen, Michael; Kjær, Mette;

    Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. But extractive FDI has a record of producing enclaves in host countries with few linkages to the local economy. Only if it creates local content will extractive FDI become a catalyst of development....... This paper analyses the trajectories of local content policies and practices in three African countries – Tanzania, Uganda and Mozambique. We argue that we cannot understand the dynamics and outcomes of local content policies in African extractives without understanding how local content has become...

  13. The Economics and Politics of Local Content in African Extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Buur, Lars; Therkildsen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. A key precondition for FDI’s contribution, however, is that foreign investors create ‘local content’ by linking up to the local economy. Consequently, African host governments are contemplating ways...... in which they can promote local content. This paper examines local content policies and practices in three African countries – Tanzania, Uganda and Mozambique – all countries with huge expectations for extractive based economic development. It is found that in spite of high ambitions and strong...

  14. Need for improving quality of operating structures and processes for better ARV adherence for patients with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania and other African countries:an experi-ence from Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irunde H; Nsimba SED; Comoro CJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The study was carried out in order to determine the following objectives:(1)To determine the pro-portion of patients who state achieving or not achieving optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART)in selected Care and Treatment Sites in Arusha and Dares Salaam regions in Tanzania.(2)To identify factors such as structural,cultural or disease related contributing to sub-optimal adherence to antiretroviral (ARVs). (3)To assess quality of operating structures and processes for provision of antiretroviral (ARVs)in the select-ed healthcare facilities.(4)To document suggestions and proposals for improving ART adherence among ARV users.Methods:Data from 7 studied facilities (3 public and 4 private /or faith based)includes 207 interviews from ARV users,28 staff interview staff,26 observations during consultations,8 focus group discussions,10 key informant interviews,and stock checks in 6 facilities.The study design was a cross-sectional using both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques.Quantitative data were collected by using an adherence tool check list,while qualitative data were obtained using a consultation observation checklist,semi-structured interviews,focus group discussions (FGDs)and key informant interviews.Results:There were slight varia-tions in the quality of operating structures and processes in the two studied regions.However results indicate that ARV adherence in Arusha region was comparatively similar to that of Dares Salaam.The composite adher-ence for one month in seven facilities was 90 % and only 21 % of ARV users achieved optimal adherence. Conclusion:The overall mean composite adherence rate of 90 % in the two areas surveyed is encouraging. More efforts to improve the quality and processes of operating structures in our study facilities and others in Tanzania are needed to ensure optimal adherence among the larger group (79 %)of ARV users who are cur-rently taking less than the critical 95 % of their medications.

  15. Factors Influencing African Postgraduate International Students' Choice of South Africa as a Study Destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpinganjira, Mercy

    2012-01-01

    Many African countries are concerned with the targeting of international postgraduate students by developed countries for skilled migration. Increased provision of postgraduate studies within the continent would go a long way in dealing with the problem. Success will however depend on the ability of countries in the continent to attract…

  16. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjoung Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries have been recommended. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design: We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results: To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions: In order to achieve the component of the SDGs

  17. The biggest fish in the sea? Dynamic Kenyan labour migration in the East African community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong'ayo, A.O.O.; Oucho, J.O.; Oucho, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the Kenyan policy and institutional framework concerning South–South labour migration with particular focus on the East African Community (EAC) countries. It focuses mainly on one particular policy instrument, the East African Community Common Market framework. The research furth

  18. Cultural Evening Hosted in Honor of African Diplomatic Envoys in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiShengxian; WangFeng

    2003-01-01

    The Ministry of Culture hosted a cultural evening and reception in honor of African diplomatic envoys in Beijing in the auditorium of the Chinese People’s Polltical Consultative Conference on August 1.Ambassadors and cultural attaches from 32 African countries attended the event,In her welcoming remarks,vice minister of culture Madame

  19. 中国与海上丝绸之路非洲沿线国家的贸易发展态势、问题与共建思路%An Analysis of Trade Development Trend, Problems and Suggestions for Co-Building between China and African Countries along the Maritime Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙江

    2014-01-01

    提升中国与海上丝绸之路非洲沿线国家的经贸合作水平,打造中非经贸合作升级版,是中国共建“21世纪海上丝绸之路”中的重要环节。中国与这一区域9国的贸易属于互补性贸易,近几年快速增长,但双方贸易规模偏小而且不平衡,仍有相当大的提升空间,同时贸易结构有待优化。因此,要在共建“21世纪海上丝绸之路”和打造“中非合作升级版”的战略下,提升双方经贸合作关系。建议双方共建“21世纪海上丝绸之路”沿“基础设施互联互通、贸易自由化投资便利化、发展援助与政治互信、海上安全合作”四大战略方向,分“非洲内部、外部和海上驿站”三大空间路径和“近、中、远期”三层时间路径展开,构建“论坛、博览会、融资”三大保障平台。%To enhance the level of economic and trade cooperation between China and African countries along the Mar-itime Silk Road, and to create an upgraded version of the Sino-African economic and trade cooperation, are an important part of China’s“21st Century Maritime Silk Road”. The trade between China and nine countries in this region belongs to com-plementary trade, and it has increased rapidly in recent years. However, the trade scale between the two sides is small and there is still considerable room for improvement. Meanwhile, the trade structure should be optimized as well. It is suggested that the two sides can upgrade the level of economic and trade cooperation along the following strategic directions:“infrastructure in-terconnection, the liberalization of trade and investment facilitation, development assistance and mutual political trust, maritime security cooperation”, with three approaches in space“Africa internal, external and offshore station” and three approaches in time“short-term, medium-term and long-term”, and construction of three security platforms“forum, exhibition, and

  20. Need for cooperation among IRPA associate societies in African

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is an inescapable part of the natural environment, and it is also produced artificially for a variety of unique applications in health, environmental studies, industry, etc. Our present and future lifestyles are unsustainable without peaceful applications of radiation technologies. Events around the world continue to indicate an increasing need for nuclear energy. Africa: A high level African Regional Conference on the contribution of Nuclear Energy to Peace and Sustainable Development (January 2007, Algiers), recommended that African countries should promote the acquisition of scientific know-how and the necessary infrastructure for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. This recommendation was adopted by the Executive council of Ministers during the 8th African Union (AU) summit of January 2007. 6 Many countries in Africa have established nuclear energy and radiation facilities for research and applications in many fields, including Agriculture, Medicine, Security, Industry, etc. There is now a new Nuclear power renaissance in Africa. However, in order to derive the full benefits of nuclear energy and radiation technologies, certain protective measures must be established and used correctly Radiation Protection. Radiation Protection in Africa .. At various stages of development, but generally: While the use of ionizing radiation is advancing in many countries in Africa, this is not accompanied by a corresponding effort to ensure radiation protection Constraints: Inadequacies in government support e.g. legislation, training and education; radiation protection infrastructures; Lack of radiation protection professionalism e.g. network and cooperation among RP Professionals and between them and other stakeholders; etc. Some of the pressing needs Strengthening RP infrastructures in Africa; Establishing effective and sustainable cooperation and networks among RP professionals (flow of RP information); Interacting with other stakeholders (governmental

  1. The Dictionary Unit for South African English. South African Concise Oxford Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajend Mesthrie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The South African Concise Oxford Dictionary (henceforth SACOD is a South Af-rican version of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, the first time that this particular hybrid has been prepared. It is testimony to the enduring success of the work of the Dictionary Unit for South African English at Rhodes University, headed by teams that included Jean and William Branford in the 1970s, Penny Silva in the 1990s and now, Kathryn Kavanagh. The lexicographical work from the unit saw the publication of four editions of the Dictionary of Southern African English (1978, 1980, 1987, 1991, a South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary (SAPOD and the Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles (DOSAEHP (1995. SACOD differs from the rest in several ways. It is larger in scope than SAPOD, smaller than DOSAEHP, and unlike DOSAE and DOSAEHP, does not deal with South African words alone. Based on the 10th edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary SACOD has excised some words from the parent, whilst adding many new words of general English as well as of South Africa.

  2. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  3. Reading the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  4. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  5. Pedagogy of the Dispersed: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the African Diaspora Phenomenon through the Human and Social Capital Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles; Shizha, Edward

    2015-01-01

    With its origin in Greek where "diaspora" as a noun means "a dispersion" or as a verb means to "scatter about", the term is used in this paper to refer to the dispersion or scattering of Africans from their original African homeland and now live in countries other than their own. Indeed some Africans have dispersed…

  6. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital’s potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. Discussion The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Summary Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social

  7. Asian and African Development Trajectories Revisiting Facts and Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dominant discourse, the development trajectory of many East Asian countries is pictured as a success, whereas that of many sub-Saharan African countries is considered a failure. The Asian success stories often refer to the developmental state model, which highlights the pivotal role played by Asian political elites in catalyzing economic growth and broad-based development. The model includes economic liberalization and outward-oriented policies, with targeted support to – and protection of – strategic sectors and infant industries.How far is this underlying assumption supported by empirical evidence? This working paper examines a wide range of economic, social, institutional and governance indicators for a sample of six sub-Saharan and five South East Asian countries. Contrary to our research hypothesis, we did not find any significant difference in the level of government involvement in the domestic economy between the countries of the two regions, nor in the quality of institutions and governance indicators, nor in the share of imports and exports in GDP.Even if there are important gaps between the two regions, for instance with regard to the demographic transition, the agricultural sector or tertiary education, the picture is much more nuanced than portrayed by the dominant discourse. Our review of economic and socio-political indicators tells a rather different story, but not the whole story. Nevertheless, the indicators fail to take into account all the historical, institutional and structural factors that matter a great deal for development. Hence our analysis should be complemented by detailed country case studies to uncover the specific dynamics underlying different development trajectories and outcomes.

  8. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought. PMID:12292424

  9. Input subsidies to improve smallholder maize productivity in Malawi: toward an african green revolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Denning; Patrick Kabambe; Pedro Sanchez; Alia Malik; Rafael Flor; Rebbie Harawa; Phelire Nkhoma; Colleen Zamba; Clement Banda; Chrispin Magombo; Michael Keating; Justine Wangila; Jeffrey Sachs

    2009-01-01

    Recent hikes in food prices have created economic and social turmoil in many African countries. But in Malawi, fertilizer and seed subsidies have enabled small-scale farmers to improve maize productivity and achieve food security.

  10. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  11. The South African energy sector: issues and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Describes aspects of the South African energy sector including: energy policy; energy supply and demand; the role of coal in the South African economy; electricity consumption and the electrification programme; liquid fuels; natural gas; uranium; renewable energy; and the environmental implications. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. South African national bibliography on radioanalytical chemistry to December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography covers publications on radioanalytical chemistry authored or co-authored by South Africans while affiliated to South African institutions even if the work was carried out at foreign laboratories. Author and subject indexes are included, the latter dividing the material into activation analysis, both delayed and prompt, and radioanalytical methods. The bibliography covers work published to the end of 1977

  13. The Principles and Content of African Traditional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Michael B.; Adeyinka, Augustus A.

    2003-01-01

    The type of education prevalent in Africa before the coming of Western civilisation was generally known as African traditional education or indigenous education of the various communities. Most recent works on new perspectives in African education, vis-a-vis the role and impact of Christian missions from the West include those of Coetzee and Roux…

  14. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African America...

  15. The Determinants of Financial Development : A Focus on African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Benyah, Francella Ewurama Ketsina

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to establish what determines financial development in Africa by making use of cross sectional and panel data techniques. Financial development, the dependent variable, is measured using the banking sector indicator liquid liabilities (M3) while trade openness, financial openness and the GDP growth rates are used as independent variables. The data used in this research ranges from 1975-200, though for the cross sectional analysis particular years (1975, 1985, 1995, and 200...

  16. Taxation and Output Growth: Evidence from African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Jonathan S.

    1987-01-01

    There is considerable debate over the appropriate role for tax policy in developing economies. In one view, tax hikes reduce deficits and ease budgetary pressures, thereby encouraging long-term growth. An alternative view emphasizes the distortionary effects associated with increased taxation and the positive benefits of a carefully designed tax system. This paper tests these propositions by measuring the impact of government taxation and expenditure on aggregate output growth. A theoretical ...

  17. Democracy and Stock Market Performance in African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper assesses the incidence of political institutions on stock market performance dynamics in Africa. Design/methodology/approach – The estimation technique used is a Two-Stage-Least Squares Instrumental Variable methodology. Channels of democracy, polity and autocracy are instrumented with legal-origins, religious-legacies, income-levels and press-freedom qualities to account for stock market performance dynamics of capitalization, value traded, turnover and number of lis...

  18. ChinAfrica : How can the Sino-African cooperation be beneficial for Africa ?

    OpenAIRE

    Marchiori, Luca

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, different scenarios of increased cooperation between China and African countries are simulated. Recent intensifications of political and economic ties between China and Sub-Saharan African countries may give hope that an economic improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is possible. Three channels may lead to a catching-up of Africa with China : a reduction in Africa's investment ristk, an increase in its total factor productivity (TFP) and an improvement of its worker skills. A...

  19. Climate Change in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.A.; Lasage, R.; Dorlands, C. (eds.) [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    This book presents an overview of the studies conducted by the Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance programme. The programme was set up in recognition of the need for developing countries, in particular, to face the challenges confronting all countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The book presents an overview of the main results in 13 countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Mali, Mongolia, Senegal, Surinam, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe. It provides a critical evaluation of the methodologies and approaches used, a cross-country synthesis and recommendations for further studies. Subjects dealt with include not only impact studies, but also vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation and climate related policy.

  20. The Clean Development Mechanism. An African Delusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokona, Y; Nanasta, D. [ENDA-TM, Dakar (Senegal)

    2000-11-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the three flexible mechanisms introduced in the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, as a co-operative instrument to promote sustainable development in the developing countries along with cost-effective greenhouse gas mitigation. It has emerged as one of the most attractive instruments for the African countries, which view this new mechanism as an opportunity to ensure long-term, sustainable and equitable development. The modalities and processes of the CDM have yet to be decided. However, it is predicted that there will be competition between countries at the launch of the mechanism. Considering the circumstances of African countries and the status of climate change-related activities implemented on the continent, it is questionable whether Africa is well enough prepared to benefit from the expected large investments from CDM projects. This paper attempts to highlight some of the key issues related to the prospects of CDM in Africa.

  1. Disarmament: the African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament

  2. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  3. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  4. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Carey F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and

  5. Establishment of a South African nuclear science exhibition centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekwe, K.G.; Stander, G.; Faanhof, A. [South African Nuclear Energy Cooperation, P O Box 582, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    After an initial survey undertaken by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), one of the findings was that nuclear knowledge is virtually non-existent amongst the general public, including school children, throughout the country. The Department of Education (DoE) is currently in the process of introducing Nuclear as part of the school curriculum, which would require a collective effort between the schools and all the Nuclear Institutions in the country. Necsa as well as other nuclear industries have the responsibility to promote public awareness, appreciation and understanding of science and nuclear science in particular. Necsa is leading the national initiative to establish the nuclear science centre which would amongst others guide a person from the very basics of nuclear science to present and future applications thereof. The nuclear science centre will include information on the SAFARI-1 reactor, the Koeberg power reactor, the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), particle accelerators, food preservation, medical applications, etc. This paper will give the overview of the centre as well as its objectives thereof. (authors)

  6. Establishment of a South African nuclear science exhibition centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an initial survey undertaken by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), one of the findings was that nuclear knowledge is virtually non-existent amongst the general public, including school children, throughout the country. The Department of Education (DoE) is currently in the process of introducing Nuclear as part of the school curriculum, which would require a collective effort between the schools and all the Nuclear Institutions in the country. Necsa as well as other nuclear industries have the responsibility to promote public awareness, appreciation and understanding of science and nuclear science in particular. Necsa is leading the national initiative to establish the nuclear science centre which would amongst others guide a person from the very basics of nuclear science to present and future applications thereof. The nuclear science centre will include information on the SAFARI-1 reactor, the Koeberg power reactor, the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), particle accelerators, food preservation, medical applications, etc. This paper will give the overview of the centre as well as its objectives thereof. (authors)

  7. Issues in African land policy: Experiences from Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Julian F.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an overview of current land policy issues in the southern African region, drawn from assessments of six individual country experiences. It sets out the issues surrounding land policy development and land reform in Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, and of wider relevance in the region as a whole. The first chapter offers an overview of major land policy issues facing the countries of the region. Chapter Two provides a brief review of recent literature which assesses the rel...

  8. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  9. Population genetics of African ungulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline

    Molecular genetic techniques were used to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that have shaped the present day diversity of African savannah ungu-lates, which constitute the most species-rich mega faunal assemblage on earth. The studies included in this thesis represent individual species......-specific data sets, which are used to elucidate evolutionary processes of importance to the savannah ungulate community. Patterns of DNA variation were analyzed to assess the genetic signatures of Pleistocene refugia and investigate aspects of speciation, intraspecific structuring, hybridization, and historic...

  10. Culturally sensitive instructional practices for African-American learners with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M E

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and educational needs of African-American learners with disabilities. Six theoretical assumptions establish some basic suppositions about culturally and linguistically diverse learners and effective instructional practices. A review of the literature describes African-American cultural practices, interests, and cognitive styles; highlights the attitudes, perceptions, and instructional practices of effective teachers of African-American students; and includes patterns of teacher-student and peer-group interactions that promote high academic achievement among African-American learners. Recommendations include organizing teaching, learning, and performance in ways that are compatible with the social structure of African-American students with disabilities. PMID:1425853

  11. Revenue generation strategies in sub-Saharan African universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreyes, Fisseha Mamo

    2015-01-01

    Financial sustainability is one of the key challenges for public universities in both developed and developing countries. Using a resource dependence approach, this study explores the issue of revenue generation in Sub-Saharan African universities. It analyses the diversification strategies that fou

  12. Refugees connecting with a new country through community food gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Neil; Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-09-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing. PMID:25198684

  13. Refugees Connecting with a New Country through Community Food Gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Harris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing.

  14. The African cancer advocacy consortium: shaping the path for advocacy in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odedina, Folakemi T; Asante-Shongwe, Kwanele; Kandusi, Emmanuel J; Segal, Richard; Pressey, Shannon; Reams, R Renee; Simons, Virgil H

    2013-07-15

    Although there is significant evidence of a cancer epidemic in Africa, there is limited awareness about cancer in most African countries. By partnering with international organizations and institutions such as the University of Florida and the Prostate Net, the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) is committed to improving cancer advocacy in Africa. This paper presents some of the recent efforts on cancer advocacy in Africa, including the results of a SWOT analysis conducted for the cancer advocacy workshop and the guidelines developed by cancer advocates on best practices for cancer advocacy in Africa. One of the outcomes of these efforts is the African Cancer Advocates Consortium (ACAC) founded by cancer advocates in Africa to, "Make Cancer a Top Priority in Africa". While we have started the work to strengthen cancer advocacy in Africa, we still have a long way to go. Our goal of making cancer a priority in Africa can mainly be achieved by: (1) increasing the manpower for cancer advocacy through education and training; and (2) strengthening the network of cancer advocates across the continent. PMID:23902674

  15. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  16. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  17. Marketing and African Economic Development: An Overview and Agenda for Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ishmael P. Akaah; Kofi Q. Dadzie

    1996-01-01

    As African countries strive toward economic development, they have had the need to borrow marketing knowhow from the developed countries as part of their tool-bag of development techniques. Although this is commendable, debate persists in the literature as to the applicability/relevance of marketing knowhow in developing countries. To enhance knowledge in the topic area, the authors provide an overview of the role of marketing in developing countries and a conceptual model for empirical resea...

  18. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  19. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  20. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  1. Climate Change Adaptation Options for the Congo Basin Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Garderen, van, K.J.; Ludwig, F

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, the importance and seriousness of climate change and it’s impacts have become more and more understood. The climate is already changing and therefor adaptation to these changes need to be made. Central Africa needs to adapt to climate change just as much as the rest of the world. This report is focused on the COMIFAC countries, or the Congo River Basin countries: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, ...

  2. Organization and training in radiotherapy for developing countries in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Seminar was arranged to help identify and solve problems likely to be encountered by developing countries, especially in Africa, interested in developing radiotherapy facilities. The Proceedings contain status reports of medical facilities in a number of African countries as well as several more general papers dealing with the epidemiology of cancer in Africa, the attitudes of patients and the importance of different radiotherapeutical techniques in cancer treatment. The individual papers are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Institutional determinants of financial development in MENA countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cherif, Mondher; Dreger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Developed and well regulated financial markets are usually seen as a precondition for an efficient allocation of resources and can foster long term economic growth. This paper explores the institutional determinants for financial development in the countries of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Institutional conditions are from the International Country Risk Guide. Paneleconometric techniques are applied to assess the development in the banking sector and the stock market. As a...

  4. Viral Hepatitis A to E in South Mediterranean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaa M. Kamal; Mahmoud, Sara; Hafez, Tamer; EL-Fouly, Runia

    2010-01-01

    Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in healt...

  5. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  6. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness. PMID:23767462

  7. African voices on climate change. Policy concerns and potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the result of a process of building an understanding and facilitating a dialogue on the issues related to climate change, on the implications that climate change have to Africa, and on the relevance of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for the continent. Research work was carried out over a year and twelve African countries were directly engaged in this projects, contributing with the work and expertise of their specialists. A whole process of discussions was started aiming not only at identifying questions concerning the countries directly involved but at illustrating the diversity of Africa's economies and societies, and attempting to raise common issues of interest for the whole of the continent. The objective of this publication is to provide a starting point for the discussions to take place during the African Conference on Policy Options and Responses to Climate Change, 5-8 December 1994, in Nairobi. This conference is not only the culmination of 'Climate and Africa' but, most of all, it opens a forum for discussions on climate issues among African policy makers and for building African positions in relation to the Climate Convention. The ideas expressed here are drawn from the material produced in the Climate and Africa Project. Therefore, this publication does not necessarily represent the positions of the Stockholm Environment Institute or the African Center for Technology Studies in relation to Africa and the Climate Convention

  8. WARTIME CHRISTMASES IN FIVE COUNTRIES IN WORLD WAR II

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Rose-Innes

    2012-01-01

    This article is a first-person account of six wartime Christmases spent in no less than five countries: Kenya, Libya, Italy, Germany and, finally, South Africa. The writer, a gunner with the Second South African Division, was captured at Tobruk and spent the remaining three years of the war, with the exception of short periods of escape, as a prisoner of war.

  9. Planning the Social Studies Programme for the Contemporary African Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaohwo, J. Okpako

    1989-01-01

    Identifies characteristics of a viable social studies program for African nations, urging multidisciplinary and integrated approaches. Offers a cyclical framework for planning a curriculum which includes defining the problem, setting objectives, identifying methods of implementation, evaluation, and regeneration. (LS)

  10. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  11. Prevalence of asthma in Rhodesian Africans.

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, J B; Makoni, G

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma in a small African town has been assessed using two questionnaires. The first was put to 9768 subjects aged 5 years and older and the second, more detailed, questionnaire to random selections of these subjects grouped according to their replies. The overall prevalence of asthma was 1.40%. In those under 20 years of age it was 1.20% and in adults, 1.57%. This adult rate is similar to those in developed countries but that in children is lower. The relative paucity of ch...

  12. A South African perspective on global imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, G.

    2011-01-01

    Financial inflows into South African financial markets have resumed in 2009 and gained momentum in 2010, largely as a result of low interest rates and an oversupply of liquidity in advanced economies. As an emerging-market country with a current-account defi cit, South Africa is to some extent reliant on these inflows to fund its own external imbalance. However, fi nancial infl ows have exerted significant upward pressure on the exchange rate of the rand, with negative effects on the exportin...

  13. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent ...

  14. Tabish Khair, Martin Leer, Justin Edwards & Hanna Ziadeh, eds. Other Routes - 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence D’SOUZA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This anthology of extracts from non-European travel texts, by Asians and Africans, in English translation, spans from the 5th century AD to the 19th century AD. It is edited by four contemporary scholars, one of Indian origin, two Danish, and one of Egyptian origin, all attached to Danish academic institutions. Six other contemporary scholars from a variety of countries have also contributed extracts and introductory presentations among the book's thirty-three sections, that include the writi...

  15. Managing FDI country risks in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Komlan Akoli; Elie Chrysostome; Hamadoun Sidibé

    2005-01-01

    Foreign direct investment has always been an important concern for international organizations and for governments as well. Despite the failure of various structural adjustment and development aid programs, foreign capital is still a key element in the success of several development programs. Unfortunately, during the last decade, the level of foreign direct investments has not increased that much in several developing countries due to, among others, country risks. The concept of country risk...

  16. Impact of Globalization on Traditional African Religion and Cultural Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Alphonse Kasongo

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the impact of the paradigm of global culture on African tradition particularly on the role of African traditional women in conflict prevention and resolution. Global culture, a part of globalization, has not only transported the good side of the economic and social development across the globe but has also changed in the culture of host communities. Some changes include the mode of production and the way things are done, whileothers include the symbolic interaction ...

  17. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  18. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  19. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  20. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  1. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  2. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  3. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  4. Mapping the state of the field of social psychology in Africa and patterns of collaboration between African and international social psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Michael; Greer, Megan

    2014-12-01

    Patterns of collaboration in social psychology from 2000 to 2010 were mapped to analyse the position of African authors in the international co-authorship network using bibliographic records from the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. There are very few social psychologists working in Africa, with the majority of these located in South Africa. Indeed, some small European countries boast more social psychologists than the entire continent of Africa. African authors published less than their non-African collaborators, but had comparable status on joint publications. Co-authorship relationships between African researchers from different African countries were generally mediated by partners from other continents, and direct collaboration between non-compatriot African authors was very rare. The small size, and extremely sparse connection of the African co-authorship network, is likely to be an obstacle both in the development of social psychology as a universally relevant discipline and in the penetration of social psychological knowledge in Africa. PMID:25355672

  5. Socialisation Strategies of African refugees in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu HACK-POLAY

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an account of socialisation strategies among two African communities, the Congolese and Somali, in Britain. It looks at the ways in which the refugees attempt to may sense of new social realities in the host country and rebuild lives.This involves a process of psychological healing which leads the African refugees to adopt various strategies with varying degree of success. Among such strategies, involvement in educational, community and religious activities as well as marrying and founding a familywill take unprecedented importance.

  6. Measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Sameeksha

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulties associated with measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries. Three important dichotomies in the research on entrepreneurship are discussed: formal-informal, legal-illegal, and necessity-opportunity. Several common measures of entrepreneurship are outlined along with their relevance to developing countries, including self-employment, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey data and OECD data. The implications o...

  7. Health Behavior in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pascaline Dupas

    2011-01-01

    The disease burden in low-income countries is extremely high. Malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhea, AIDS, and other diseases are estimated to kill more than 15 million people each year, most of them children. Yet the great majority of these diseases can be prevented or treated. This article reviews microeconomic studies of health-seeking behavior in low-income countries. Factors examined include information, peers, liquidity constraints, and nonrational preferences, such as present bias....

  8. Not Merely a Matter of Academics: Student Experiences of a South African University as Study-Abroad Destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, R. J.; Lemmer, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programmes attract considerable numbers of American college students; however, very few select an African country as their study-abroad destination. This article explores the experiences of American undergraduates who made the uncommon choice of a South African university as destination for a mid-length immersion type programme. The…

  9. African swine fever virus serodiagnosis: a general review with a focus on the analyses of African serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Carolina; Gómez-Sebastian, Silvia; Moreno, Noelia; Nuñez, María C; Mulumba-Mfumu, Leopold K; Quembo, Carlos J; Heath, Livio; Etter, Eric M C; Jori, Ferran; Escribano, Jose M; Blanco, Esther

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease that causes heavy mortality in domestic pigs. At present there is no vaccine against ASF, and eradication in countries where the disease is endemic is based only on competent diagnosis programs and the sacrifice of infected animals. Due to the presence of natural attenuated strains, certain infection conditions may result in reduced mortality. In these situations, the disease can be diagnosed by detection of specific antibodies. The use of classical and validated diagnosis assays, such as ELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescence or Immunoblotting, allowed the eradication of ASF in the Iberian Peninsula in the 1990s. However, given that conventional tests include the use of antigens obtained from ASF virus (ASFV)-infected cells, they have several disadvantages, such as difficulties to achieve standardization and also the risks associated with the manipulation of live virus. Such drawbacks have led to the development of alternative and more robust systems for the production of ASFV antigens for use in anti-ASFV antibody detection systems. In the present review, we provide an update on current knowledge about antigen targets for ASFV serodiagnosis, the significant progress made in recombinant antigen production, and the refinement of ASF serological diagnostic assays. Moreover, we describe the accuracy of an ELISA developed for the serodiagnosis of ASFV in Africa. This assay is based on a novel p30 recombinant protein (p30r) obtained from an Eastern African viral isolate (Morara strain), which shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with the Georgia virus isolate. That study included the analyses of 587 field sera collected from domestic pigs and warthogs in Senegal (West Africa), the Democratic Republic of Congo (Central Africa), Mozambique (South-East Africa), and South Africa. The results revealed that the novel p30r-based ELISA allows the accurate detection of antibodies against ASFV, independently of the

  10. RHD allele distribution in Africans of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulds Joann M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant and non-functional RHD alleles are much more frequent in Africans than in Europeans. The DAU cluster of RHD alleles exemplifies that the alleles frequent in Africans have evaded recognition until recently. A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in any African population was lacking. Results We surveyed the molecular structure and frequency of RHD alleles in Mali (West Africa by evaluating 116 haplotypes. Only 69% could be attributed to standard RHD (55% or the RHD deletion (14%. The aberrant RHD allele DAU-0 was predicted for 19%, RHDΨ for 7% and Ccdes for 4% of all haplotypes. DAU-3 and the new RHD allele RHD(L207F, dubbed DMA, were found in one haplotype each. A PCR-RFLP for the detection of the hybrid Rhesus box diagnostic for the RHD deletion in Europeans was false positive in 9 individuals, including all carriers of RHDΨ . Including two silent mutations and the RHD deletion, a total of 9 alleles could be differentiated. Conclusion Besides standard RHD and the RHD deletion, DAU-0, RHDΨ and Ccdes are major alleles in Mali. Our survey proved that the most frequent alleles of West Africans have been recognized allowing to devise reliable genotyping and phenotyping strategies.

  11. Reliability and validity of instruments for assessing perinatal depression in African settings: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    Full Text Available A major barrier to improving perinatal mental health in Africa is the lack of locally validated tools for identifying probable cases of perinatal depression or for measuring changes in depression symptom severity. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the reliability and validity of instruments to assess perinatal depression in African settings.Of 1,027 records identified through searching 7 electronic databases, we reviewed 126 full-text reports. We included 25 unique studies, which were disseminated in 26 journal articles and 1 doctoral dissertation. These enrolled 12,544 women living in nine different North and sub-Saharan African countries. Only three studies (12% used instruments developed specifically for use in a given cultural setting. Most studies provided evidence of criterion-related validity (20 [80%] or reliability (15 [60%], while fewer studies provided evidence of construct validity, content validity, or internal structure. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS, assessed in 16 studies (64%, was the most frequently used instrument in our sample. Ten studies estimated the internal consistency of the EPDS (median estimated coefficient alpha, 0.84; interquartile range, 0.71-0.87. For the 14 studies that estimated sensitivity and specificity for the EPDS, we constructed 2 x 2 tables for each cut-off score. Using a bivariate random-effects model, we estimated a pooled sensitivity of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.99 and a pooled specificity of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88 at a cut-off score of ≥ 9, with higher cut-off scores yielding greater specificity at the cost of lower sensitivity.The EPDS can reliably and validly measure perinatal depression symptom severity or screen for probable postnatal depression in African countries, but more validation studies on other instruments are needed. In addition, more qualitative research is needed to adequately characterize local understandings of perinatal depression

  12. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wahbie

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness. PMID:23421936

  13. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nunn

    Full Text Available In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after

  14. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services and in

  15. 31 CFR 515.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 515.301 Section 515... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a)...

  16. 31 CFR 500.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 500.301 Section 500... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 500.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a)...

  17. 3 CFR 8345 - Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National African American History Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... classic literature. This legacy has only added luster to the brand of the United States, which has drawn...,” is a chance to examine the evolution of our country and how African Americans helped draw us ever... citizenship with all of the rights and privileges afforded others in this country is also the story of...

  18. Increasing the Confidence of African Carbon Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Scarcity of in situ measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes hamper calibration and validation of assessments of carbon budgets in Africa. It limits essential studies of ecosystem function and ecosystem processes. The wide range reported net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP) for continental African is partly a function of the uncertainty originating from this data scarcity. GPP estimates, based on vegetation models and remote sensing based models, range from ~17 to ~40 Pg C yr‑1 and NPP estimates roughly range from ~7 to ~20 Pg C yr‑1 for continental Africa. According to the MOD17 product does Africa contribute about 23 % of the global GPP and about 25 % of the global NPP. These percentages have recently increased slightly. Differences in modeled carbon use efficiency (i.e. the NPP/GPP ratio) further enhance the uncertainty caused by low spatial resolution driver data sets when deriving NPP from GPP. Current substantial uncertainty in vegetation productivity estimates for Africa (both magnitudes and carbon use efficiency) may be reduced by increased abundance and availability of in situ collected field data including meteorology, radiation, spectral properties, GHG fluxes as well as long term ecological field experiments. Current measurements of GHGs fluxes in Africa are sparse and lacking impressive coordination. The European Fluxes Database Cluster includes ~24 African sites with carbon flux data, most of them with a small amount of data in short time series. Large and diverse biomes such as the evergreen broad leafed forest are under-represented whereas savannas are slightly better represented. USA for example, with 171 flux site listed in FLUXNET has a flux site density of 17 sites per million km2, whereas Africa has density of 0.8 sites per million km2. Increased and coordinated collection of data on fluxes of GHGs, ecosystem properties and processes, both through advanced micro meteorological measurements and through cost

  19. 76 FR 46209 - Importation of Tomatoes From the Economic Community of West African States Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) amend the regulations to allow fresh tomatoes (Solanum..., titled ``Importation of Tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum, from the Economic Community of West African... certain countries. * * * * * (h) Tomatoes (fruit) (Solanum lycopersicum) from member States of...

  20. Determinants of Adherence to Treatment in Hypertensive Patients of African Descent and the Role of Culturally Appropriate Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, Jennita G.; van Dijk, Nynke; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western countries, better knowledge about patient-related determinants of treatment adherence (medication and lifestyle) is needed to improve treatment adherence and outcomes among hypertensive ethnic minority patients of African descent. Objective To identify patient-related determina